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Bosch Motronic ME7 Description

Bosch Motronic ME7 Description

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98P-178 (49)
A New Approach to Functional and Software Structurefor Engine Management Systems - BOSCH ME7
J. Gerhardt, H. Hönninger, and H. Bischof
Robert Bosch GmbH
Copyright © 1998 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
ABSTRACT
This paper describes the new Engine ManagementSystem (EMS) ME7.Torque and A/F demands for modern EMS result fromboth, internal functions (i.e. engine start, idle speedcontrol, catalyst heating) and external systems (i.e.driver’s request, transmission or vehicle dynamiccontrol). With ME7 these demands are processed tothe optimized actions of the actuators by a centrallycoordinated torque and A/F management. The designof the functions is physically based to provide optimumportability and minimum calibration time. Examples aregiven for the physical manifold pressure model and thecylinder charge control of ME7 with electronic throttlecontrol.The real time operating system „ERCOS“ and a layerbased software architecture enable the implementationof these functions in a flexible family of products forcurrent and future systems.Topics, such as warm-up strategies for catalysts inconventional port injection systems, gasoline directinjection systems (with their switch-over strategiesbetween stoichiometric and stratified operation), NOxcatalyst control, and the requirements of futureintegrated drive train management systems, all requiremaximum flexibility and expandability.The introduction of the ME7 is an important steptowards this future. The design represents a goodbasis for development sharing with customers and isalso an important prerequisite for the vehiclemanagement system CARTRONIC
.
1. INTRODUCTION
The functional structure of engine managementsystems has evolved over several years
[
Ref. 1
]
.Starting with a simple injection system with a separateignition unit in the early 70’s, injection and ignition wereintegrated into one single electronic control unit duringthe 80’s. A modern EMS is comprised of a largenumber of subsystems, and not only controls basicEMS-functions such as injection and ignition timing oremission control (i.e. Lambda closed loop control orcatalyst heating) but also manages additional functions,such as continuous camshaft control, resonance flapactuation or engine fan control. A modern EMS mustalso be equipped with a complete on-board diagnosticand monitoring system.The introduction of electronic throttle control (ETC) as adrive-by-wire system with it’s adjustable relationshipbetween the pedal position and throttle positionenables the EMS to now control all torque-influencingoutputs over the entire operating range of the engine.With stand alone ETC systems, mutual functionalimpacts have to be considered, such as idle speedcontrol which must be divided into the two subsystems.The fully integrated system with control of injection,ignition and cylinder charge can eliminate thisdrawback but then a complete redesign of the entiresystem is required.The new functional architecture of the ME7 system ischaracterized by the following main features:
Centrally coordinated torque management: The engine torque represents the central systemvariable. All torque requirements derived from EMSinternal functions or external systems (i.e. drivetrain or vehicle dynamic control) result in a variationof torque or efficiency and are defined on thisbasis.
Centrally coordinated A/F management:Similarly, all mixture demands are coordinated inone central manager. Based on the operatingconditions, a set of basic functions controls the A/Fratio within the physical limits defined by theflammability of the mixture.
Subsystems based on physical models withphysically defined interfaces:The use of physically based functions improves thetransparency of the system’s architecture.Computed values can be directly compared withphysically measurable values.Using physically based functions in combination with acentrally coordinated torque and A/F managementallows for an improved handling of function variants.Due to their relationship to the physical structure, singlefunctions as well as functionally linked groups offunctions (subsystems) could be easily compared withcustomer’s requests using physically measured values.Therefore a set of basic platform functions was realizedand applied over the entire EMS family.The realization of an appropriate Software structureguarantees the system’s modularity which allowsdifferent customer’s requests to be met as well as
 
future challenges. By means of the torque basedfunctional structure the software implementation isindependent of demands generated by externalsystems. The real time operating system „ERCOS“ anda layer based software architecture enable a systemevolution with optimum portability at a high level forfuture microcontrollers. Most of the functions arerealized in the programming language ANSI C, toprovide good modularity and integration of customerspecific functions.
2. A NEW FUNCTIONAL AND SOFTWARESTRUCTURE FOR ENGINE MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS
2.1 ME7 SYSTEM OVERVIEW2.1.1 System ConfigurationFigure 1
 
shows an ME7 system overview with the mainsensors and actuators. In addition to the componentsof a conventional EMS, the system is comprised of theETC related elements, which include the acceleratorpedal module to interpret the driver’s request, thethrottle actuator for cylinder charge control and thecruise control lever.2.1.2 Brief Functional OverviewThe ME7 contains all functions to control a modern SI-engine. In this section only a brief functional overview isgiven. Due to the system’s modularity very differentsystem configurations can be realized. For examplesystems with different sensors for cylinder chargedetermination (air mass or speed density), naturallyaspirated or turbocharged engines, engines with orwithout EGR and engines with variable camshaftactuation are possible. The main system features areas follows:
The engine torque management which controls alltorque influencing actuators (see also section‘Functional Structure’).
A/F ratio control with a central A/F manager,
λ 
-pilotcontrol,
λ 
-closed loop control, or alternatively with aNernst or universal
λ 
-sensor and trim control(details see section ‘Functional Structure’).
Sequential, cylinder individual fuel injection.
Ignition timing, including control of dwell angle andignition angle.
 Cylinder individual knock control.
 Emission control functions for optimized emissionsduring cranking, start and after start which enablethe realization of different catalyst warm-upstrategies, using a lean mixture or a rich mixtureFigure 1: Engine Management System ME7
 
including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) andsecondary air injection (SAI) control if necessary
[
Ref. 2
]
,
[
Ref. 3
]
.
Canister purge control based on canister charge.
Idle speed control.
Diagnostic and monitoring functions:
The system is comprised of the complete OBD IIfunctionality to meet both MY ‘98 and future EOBDrequirements. A torque-based monitoring systemssupervises the throttle control under all operatingconditions and reacts with the appropriate limp-home functionality in case of a failure.
 To communicate with external systems, such as atransmission control system or a vehicle dynamiccontrol system, torque demands can be receivedvia a torque interface, realized via CAN. Thereforethe EMS is able to process external torquedemands within the torque manager. (see alsosection ‘Functional Structure’).
 Conventional or continuous camshaft control.
 Resonance flap actuation.
 Engine fan control.
 Control of air-conditioner (A/C).
 Cruise control.
 The system contains the necessary interfaces toapplication tools, end of line programming tools,service and SCAN-tools.
Immobilizer.
Additional customer defined functions as required.2.2 FUNCTIONAL STRUCTUREEssential functional features of the ME7 structure arethe central torque and A/F management and the use ofphysically-based functions.2.2.1 Torque-based system structure2.2.1.1 Structural approachChoosing a torque-based system architecture wasinitiated by the followings concerns when the previoussituation was analyzed
[
Ref. 4
]
, (Figure 2)Figure 2: Influences on Engine Torque- previous situationIn the case of several torque or efficiency demands,derived simultaneously from different subsystems,there was no central torque coordination. This meant,that subsystems inside the EMS as well as externalsystems directly required, for example, a reduction ofthe throttle or an ignition retard to obtain a certaintorque reduction. The priority of each demand had tobe defined independently in each subsystem. This lackof a central coordination caused interactions of differentdemands (due to shifts of operation points) resulting ina strong interdependence of calibration data of thedifferent subsystems (i.e. calibration of ignition timinginfluenced idle speed pilot control).On the contrary the functional structure of the ME7system is characterized by two coordination steps(Figure 3).
Torque demand manager:Input values for the torque demand manager are allinternal and external requirements which can bedefined as a torque or efficiency value. Internaldemands are for example generated by the startfunction, idle speed control, engine speedlimitation, as well as engine protection functions orcatalyst heating. External torque demands aredefined by the driver, cruise control, or vehicledynamic control. The major task of the torquedemand manager is the priority handling which isprocessed by a minimum/maximum selection.
 In the next step the resulting torque demands areprocessed in driveability functions (mostly filteringor slope limiting functions), dashpot function (tolimit the minimal intake manifold pressure) and theanti-jerking function. The driveability functions, dueto customer’s requests, allow calibrations over awide range of applications. The calibration can varybetween a comfortable and a sportivecharacteristic.Figure 3:Influencing Engine Torque -Situation with Torque-Based System StructureThe output value of this management block is aresulting torque demand, taking the requiredefficiency into consideration, which is equal to 1.0during normal operation and which can be reducedfor example during catalyst heating.
Torque converter:
 
DriverCruise controlIdle speed controlCatalyst heatingAnti-jerking functionLimitation of engine speed& vehicle speedProtection ofengine componentsTransmission controlVehicle dynamic controlWaste-gatecontrolBoostcontrolCalculationof sparkadvanceCalculationof inj. timeCalculationof desiredthrottleangleThrottle angleCylinder individufuel cut-offInjection timeIgnition timing
External TorqueDemands
• Driver• Cruise control• Limitation of vehicle speed• Vehicle dynamiccontrol• DriveabilityEngine start-up,Catalyst heating,Idle speed controlEfficiency demand
Torque demandmanager
 
Engine
 
start-up
 
Idle speed control
 
Engine speed limitation
 
Protection of engineThrottle angleIgnition timingIndividual fuelcut-offInjection timeWaste gatecontrolCoordinationof torque andefficiency demandsRealizationof desiredtorque
Torqueconversion
TorquedemandsTorquedemand

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