In some cases, the adducts obtained from the Aldol Addition can easily be converted (in situ) to α,β
-unsaturatedcarbonyl compounds, either thermally or under acidic or basic catalysis. The formation of the conjugated systemis the driving force for this spontaneous dehydration. Under a variety of protocols, the condensation product canbe obtained directly without isolation of the aldol.The aldol condensation is the second step of theRobinson Annulation.
Mechanism of the Aldol CondensationAzo Coupling
Azo coupling is the most widely used industrial reaction in the production of dyes, lakes and pigments. Aromaticdiazonium ions acts as electrophiles in coupling reactions with activated aromatics such as anilines or phenols.The substitution normally occurs at the para position, except when this position is already occupied, in whichcase
position is favoured. The pH of solution is quite important; it must be mildly acidic or neutral, since noreaction takes place if the pH is too low.
Mechanism of Azo Coupling