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Ostroumov S.A. The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, p. 286–289. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/; [Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, p. 279–282]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991

Ostroumov S.A. The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, p. 286–289. http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/; [Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, p. 279–282]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991

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Published by Sergei Ostroumov
2000DBS.372.the.concept.of.Aquatic.biota.as.Labile(Danbio3 372#2
http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991; DBS 2000; the.concept.of.Aquatic.biota.as.Labile... component...self-purification
**

The concept of aquatic biota as a labile and vulnerable component of the water self-purification system.
SA Ostroumov, 2000.
DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 372, 286-289;
Full text free:
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http://cdn.scipeople.com/materials/4389/Danbio3_00v372n2.E.biota%20vulnerable%20component.pdf
**
It is the first paper in which it was clearly shown that aquatic biota (the sum of organisms) is the core part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification in healthy aquatic ecosystems. The important attributes of this core part of the mechanism are: 1) lability; 2) vulnerability to anthropogenic impact.
**
Another draft of the comment:
The author formulated a new fundamental concept of the complex of organisms of aquatic ecosystem. According to the concept, the biota is a central, labile and vulnerable (to pollutants) part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification and upgrade of water quality.
Key words: Geoscience, water quality, assessment of biological activity of surfactants, chemical pollution, self-purification of water, aquatic organisms, contaminants, aquatic ecosystems:
Ostroumov S.A. The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289.
http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/;
Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, pp. 279–282. Original Russian Text Copyright © 2000 by Ostroumov.
Self-purification of water is a complex process including physical, chemical, and biological components [1–3]. The vulnerability of different components of the water self-purification system to anthropogenic factors is as yet insufficiently understood.The goal of this work was to review the literature and our own unpublished experimental findings concerning potential vulnerability of the biotic component of the water self-purification system to chemical pollutants.
A new role of biota as a core, labile, vulnerable part of ecosystem and upgrade of water quality
www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;
2000DBS.372.the.concept.of.Aquatic.biota.as.Labile(Danbio3 372#2
http://www.scribd.com/doc/49069991; DBS 2000; the.concept.of.Aquatic.biota.as.Labile... component...self-purification
**

The concept of aquatic biota as a labile and vulnerable component of the water self-purification system.
SA Ostroumov, 2000.
DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 372, 286-289;
Full text free:
**
http://cdn.scipeople.com/materials/4389/Danbio3_00v372n2.E.biota%20vulnerable%20component.pdf
**
It is the first paper in which it was clearly shown that aquatic biota (the sum of organisms) is the core part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification in healthy aquatic ecosystems. The important attributes of this core part of the mechanism are: 1) lability; 2) vulnerability to anthropogenic impact.
**
Another draft of the comment:
The author formulated a new fundamental concept of the complex of organisms of aquatic ecosystem. According to the concept, the biota is a central, labile and vulnerable (to pollutants) part of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification and upgrade of water quality.
Key words: Geoscience, water quality, assessment of biological activity of surfactants, chemical pollution, self-purification of water, aquatic organisms, contaminants, aquatic ecosystems:
Ostroumov S.A. The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labile and Vulnerable Component of the Water Self-Purification System. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289.
http://sites.google.com/site/2000dbs372p286biotalabil/;
Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, pp. 279–282. Original Russian Text Copyright © 2000 by Ostroumov.
Self-purification of water is a complex process including physical, chemical, and biological components [1–3]. The vulnerability of different components of the water self-purification system to anthropogenic factors is as yet insufficiently understood.The goal of this work was to review the literature and our own unpublished experimental findings concerning potential vulnerability of the biotic component of the water self-purification system to chemical pollutants.
A new role of biota as a core, labile, vulnerable part of ecosystem and upgrade of water quality
www.scribd.com/doc/49069991;

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0012-4966/00/0506-$25.00 © 2000 MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica”0286
 Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 372, 2000, pp. 286–289. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 372, No. 2, 2000, pp. 279–282.Original Russian Text Copyright © 2000 by Ostroumov.
Self-purification of water is a complex processincluding physical, chemical, and biological compo-nents [1–3]. The vulnerability of different componentsof the water self-purification system to anthropogenicfactors is as yet insufficiently understood.The goal of this work was to review the literatureand our own unpublished experimental findings con-cerning potential vulnerability of the biotic componentof the water self-purification system to chemical pollut-ants.
GENERAL BIOLOGY
The Concept of Aquatic Biota as a Labileand Vulnerable Componentof the Water Self-Purification System
S. A. Ostroumov
Presented by Academician V.N. Bol’shakov June 1, 1999Received June 24, 1999
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University,Vorob’evy gory, Moscow, 119899 Russia
Table 1.
Some factors and processes involved in water self-purification (after [2, 3, 9] and other publications)No. of factorFactors and processes involved in water self-purification1Physical1.1Solution and dilution1.2Drift over coast1.3Migration to nearby waters1.4Sorption by suspended particles and subsequent sedimentation1.5Sorption by bottom deposits1.6Evaporation2Chemical2.1Hydrolysis2.2Photochemical conversion2.3Catalytic redox conversion2.4Free radical reactions2.5Decrease in contaminant toxicity as a result of binding to dissolved organic compounds (DOCs)2.6Chemical oxidation of contaminants by oxygen3Biological3.1Sorption and accumulation of contaminants and biogenic agents by hydrobionts3.2Biotransformation: redox reactions, destruction, and conjugation3.3Extracellular enzymatic transformation of contaminants3.4Removal of suspended particles and contaminants from bulk water as a result of water filtration by hydrobionts3.5Removal of contaminants from bulk water as a result of sorption by pellets excreted by hydrobionts3.6Prevention or delay of the process of escape of contaminants and biogenic agents from bottom deposits to water3.7Biotransformation and sorption of soil contaminants formed as a result of watering with contaminated water
Note:Many factors are interdependent and overlap with each other; in many cases it is impossible to isolate individual factors, and theyare considered as individual factors only to illustrate the conceptual analysis.
 
DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
 
Vol. 372
 
2000
THE CONCEPT OF AQUATIC BIOTA AS A LABILE AND VULNERABLE COMPONENT287
The data summarized in Table 1 illustrate a signifi-cant role of biological processes in the water self-puri-fication system. The efficiency of many abiotic pro-cesses shown in Table 1 (e.g., oxidation of various com-pounds by oxygen, photochemical reactions, etc.)depends on the parameters of water medium, which arethemselves largely determined by the aquatic biotaactivity. For example, the rate of O
2
evolution and pro-duction of organic substances by photosynthesizingorganisms, rate of water filtration by aquatic inverte-
Table 2.
Examples of possible effects of contaminants on the factors and processes involved in water self-purification (in-cluding data obtained by S.A. Ostroumov)
No.
Parameters of surrounding medium, ecosys-tem, and its components important for im-plementing the functions listed in Table 1(see numbers of corresponding items)The influence of medium contamination by various agents, includingsurfactant, on water self-purification and relevant ecosystem parameters1.1MixingContaminants can reduce the rate of water mixing by ltrators, becausesurfactant inhibits biofiltration ([3, 12] and unpublished data)1.3Hydrological characteristics; hydrody-namic processes (water exchange etc.)Contaminants can be transported by being absorbed or accumulated byplankton, biogenic particles, and biogenic sediments. Surfactant can exerteffects on plankton [4–7]1.5Organic carbon (C
org
) content in deposits;mixing rateContaminants, including surfactant, inhibit biofiltration [3], thereby de-creasing the pellet formation rate and C
org
accumulation in bottom deposits2.1pHContamination may change pH both directly and as a result ophotosynthesis modification2.2Permeation of visible light and UV radiationContaminants inhibit biofiltration [3, 12, 13], thereby increasing mediumturbidity2.3Concentration of ions, metal complexes,and suspended particlesContamination changes metal concentration and speciation; biofiltrationdisorders [3, 12] change the content of suspended particles2.4Content of OH-radicalsContaminants affect plankton, thereby changing the content of OH-radicals;surfactant can either inhibit or stimulate algae and cyanobacteria [4–7]Content of hydrogen peroxideContaminants affect both count and composition of plankton cells, therebychanging the rates of H
2
O
2
evolution and decayRedox state of mediumDepends on the rate of exometabolite production by hydrobionts;contaminants may affect hydrobiontsContent of Cu ionsContaminants can reduce the rate of water mixing by ltrators, becausesurfactant inhibits biofiltration ([3, 12] and unpublished data)2.5Content and composition of DOCDOC are formed mainly from organic substances excreted by hydrobionts;hydrobiont functions are sensitive to contaminants2.6Content of oxygen dissolved in waterContaminants, including surfactant, exert effects on phytoplankton(photosynthesis and oxygen evolution)3.1Count and composition of hydrobionts,surface properties of hydrobionts, contentof DOCs and suspended particles boundcompetitively to contaminantsDepend on various parameters of aquatic medium, including its pollution,presence of biogenic agents, oxygen concentration, rates of mixing and bio-filtration. Surfactant affects green algae [5, 6] and cyanobacteria [4, 5]3.2Microbial cell count The same3.3Count and composition of hydrobiontscapable of excreting enzymes into thesurrounding medium 
"
 3.4Count and composition of filtratinghydrobiontsContaminants inhibit activity of biofiltrators; surfactant may inhibitfiltration by mollusks [12]3.5Count and composition of hydrobiontscapable of excreting pellets; rate of theirfeeding; rate of water filtrationContaminants may change the ecosystem parameters and hydrobiontactivity. Surfactant may inhibit filtration by hydrobionts [12]3.6Phytobenthos, bacteriobenthosBy inhibiting water biofiltration, contaminants can cause a decrease in the rateof plankton and DOC uptake from water and an increase in the water turbidity,thereby decreasing the level of bottom illumination and phytobenthos growth3.7 Composition and activity of soil organ-isms; function of root system of plantsContaminants, including surfactant, can inhibit soil algae and microorgan-isms [5] and suppress development of plant root systems [9–11]
 
288
DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
 
Vol. 372
 
2000
OSTROUMOV
brates, etc., are very important for effective self-purifi-cation of water. On the other hand, the functional activ-ity and state of hydrobiont populations are substantiallyaffected by pollutants. These effects were observed inour studies on cyanobacteria [4], green algae [5, 6],diatomic algae [7], flagellata [8], vascular plants [9–11], and invertebrates [12, 13] exposed to synthetic sur-factants. Similar effects were observed by other authorsin
 Mytilus edulis
 treated with pesticides [14].Various effects of contaminants on the aquaticorganisms involved in water self-purification are shownin Table 2.Many groups of hydrobionts contributing to thefunctional systems of water self-purification are them-selves vulnerable to water pollution (Table 3).An important concept inferred from the literatureand our experimental findings assumes that an aggre-gate of aquatic organisms (aquatic biota) is a labile andpotentially vulnerable component of the water self-purification system in aquatic ecosystems. This inter-pretation of the role of aquatic biota is consistent withthe data on the anthropogenic impact on the water self-purification system studied by other researchers [9].This concept leads to substantial changes in the hierar-chy of priorities underlying the principles of protectionof biodiversity and environment, including the princi-ples of environmental regulation.The principles of environmental regulation arebased on such important quantitative characteristics asmaximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of variouspollutants in fish farming water bodies; sources of industrial, drinking, and household water; etc. Accord-ing to the concept suggested in this work, the MACs forspecific substances should be established after a morethorough study taking into account the possible effectson the water self-purification system. In addition to thepotential hazard to the microbial component of thewater self-purification system, a possible effect onother organisms (e.g., benthos filer feeders) should betaken into consideration. It should be emphasized thatboth inhibiting and stimulating effects of sublethal con-centrations of pollutants are dangerous, because eitherof them may cause an imbalance in the complicatedsystem of water self-purification (Tables 1, 2).The concept suggested in this work heightens thelevel of priority of the sublethal effects of pollutants.The sublethal effects associated with changes in thelevels of the functional activity of hydrobiont popula-tions may cause an imbalance in the system of waterself-purification.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI am grateful to V.D. Fedorov and other researchersof the Department of Hydrobiology, (Faculty of Biol-ogy, Moscow State University), as well as V.V. Mala-khov, V.N. Maksimov, A.O. Kasumyan, S.V. Kotelevtsevand other colleagues for their stimulating discussion.This study was supported by the MacArthur Founda-tion (the program for individual research grants).REFERENCES
1.Alimov, A.F. and Finogenova, N.P.,
Gidrobiologicheskieosnovy samoochishcheniya vod 
 (Hydrobiological Basicsof Water Self-Purification), Leningrad, 1976, pp. 5–14.2.Telitchenko, M.M. and Ostroumov, S.A.,
Vvedenie v problemy biokhimicheskoi ekologii
 (An Introduction tothe Problems of Biochemical Ecology), Moscow:Nauka, 1991.3.Ostroumov, S.A.,
 Riv. Biol.
, 1998, vol. 91, pp. 221–232.4.Uoterberi, Dzh. and Ostroumov, S.A.,
 Mikrobiologiya
,1994, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 258–262.
Table 3.
Components of water self-purification system vulnerable to contaminants (certain examples) [3–13] (new experi-mental findings obtained in collaboration with P. Donkin and R. Weiner are shown)
No.
Organisms as components of water self-purification systemTypes of water self-purifica-tion processes sensitiveto these organisms (num-bers as in Tables 1, 2)Examples of pollutant-induced effects onrepresentatives of these groups of organisms1Bacteria (heterotrophic)3.2, 3.3TX-100 (150 mg/l) inhibited growth oHyphomonas MHS-3 and VP-62Cyanobacteria2.4, 2.6, 3.2[4, 5]3Green algae2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 3.1[5, 6]4Diatomic algae2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 3.1[7]5Flagellata (Euglena)2.6, 3.1, 3.2[8]6Vascular plants2.5,2.6, 3.1, 3.6[5, 911]7Invertebrates1.5, 2.2, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6SDS (14 mg/l) and TX-100 (0.54 mg/l) inhibitedwater filtration and phytoplankton uptake by
 Mytilusedulis
; TDTMA (0.5 mg/l) inhibited water filtrationby
 Brachionus angularis
[12, 13]
Note:(SDS) sodium dodecylsulfate; (TX-100) Triton X-100; (TDTMA) tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide.

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