DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
brates, etc., are very important for effective self-puriﬁ-cation of water. On the other hand, the functional activ-ity and state of hydrobiont populations are substantiallyaffected by pollutants. These effects were observed inour studies on cyanobacteria , green algae [5, 6],diatomic algae , ﬂagellata , vascular plants [9–11], and invertebrates [12, 13] exposed to synthetic sur-factants. Similar effects were observed by other authorsin
treated with pesticides .Various effects of contaminants on the aquaticorganisms involved in water self-puriﬁcation are shownin Table 2.Many groups of hydrobionts contributing to thefunctional systems of water self-puriﬁcation are them-selves vulnerable to water pollution (Table 3).An important concept inferred from the literatureand our experimental ﬁndings assumes that an aggre-gate of aquatic organisms (aquatic biota) is a labile andpotentially vulnerable component of the water self-puriﬁcation system in aquatic ecosystems. This inter-pretation of the role of aquatic biota is consistent withthe data on the anthropogenic impact on the water self-puriﬁcation system studied by other researchers .This concept leads to substantial changes in the hierar-chy of priorities underlying the principles of protectionof biodiversity and environment, including the princi-ples of environmental regulation.The principles of environmental regulation arebased on such important quantitative characteristics asmaximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of variouspollutants in ﬁsh farming water bodies; sources of industrial, drinking, and household water; etc. Accord-ing to the concept suggested in this work, the MACs forspeciﬁc substances should be established after a morethorough study taking into account the possible effectson the water self-puriﬁcation system. In addition to thepotential hazard to the microbial component of thewater self-puriﬁcation system, a possible effect onother organisms (e.g., benthos ﬁler feeders) should betaken into consideration. It should be emphasized thatboth inhibiting and stimulating effects of sublethal con-centrations of pollutants are dangerous, because eitherof them may cause an imbalance in the complicatedsystem of water self-puriﬁcation (Tables 1, 2).The concept suggested in this work heightens thelevel of priority of the sublethal effects of pollutants.The sublethal effects associated with changes in thelevels of the functional activity of hydrobiont popula-tions may cause an imbalance in the system of waterself-puriﬁcation.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI am grateful to V.D. Fedorov and other researchersof the Department of Hydrobiology, (Faculty of Biol-ogy, Moscow State University), as well as V.V. Mala-khov, V.N. Maksimov, A.O. Kasumyan, S.V. Kotelevtsevand other colleagues for their stimulating discussion.This study was supported by the MacArthur Founda-tion (the program for individual research grants).REFERENCES
1.Alimov, A.F. and Finogenova, N.P.,
Gidrobiologicheskieosnovy samoochishcheniya vod
(Hydrobiological Basicsof Water Self-Puriﬁcation), Leningrad, 1976, pp. 5–14.2.Telitchenko, M.M. and Ostroumov, S.A.,
Vvedenie v problemy biokhimicheskoi ekologii
(An Introduction tothe Problems of Biochemical Ecology), Moscow:Nauka, 1991.3.Ostroumov, S.A.,
, 1998, vol. 91, pp. 221–232.4.Uoterberi, Dzh. and Ostroumov, S.A.,
,1994, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 258–262.
Components of water self-puriﬁcation system vulnerable to contaminants (certain examples) [3–13] (new experi-mental ﬁndings obtained in collaboration with P. Donkin and R. Weiner are shown)
Organisms as components of water self-puriﬁcation systemTypes of water self-puriﬁca-tion processes sensitiveto these organisms (num-bers as in Tables 1, 2)Examples of pollutant-induced effects onrepresentatives of these groups of organisms1Bacteria (heterotrophic)3.2, 3.3TX-100 (1–50 mg/l) inhibited growth of Hyphomonas MHS-3 and VP-62Cyanobacteria2.4, 2.6, 3.2[4, 5]3Green algae2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 3.1[5, 6]4Diatomic algae2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 3.15Flagellata (Euglena)2.6, 3.1, 3.26Vascular plants2.5,2.6, 3.1, 3.6[5, 9–11]7Invertebrates1.5, 2.2, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6SDS (1–4 mg/l) and TX-100 (0.5–4 mg/l) inhibitedwater ﬁltration and phytoplankton uptake by
; TDTMA (0.5 mg/l) inhibited water ﬁltrationby
Note:(SDS) sodium dodecylsulfate; (TX-100) Triton X-100; (TDTMA) tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide.