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Kirchhoff’s Laws

# Kirchhoff’s Laws

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05/12/2014

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INTRODUCTION:-
In 1845, German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff described two laws. In
fieldsthese laws are generalizations of Ohm's law. These Kirchhoff's circuit law are very useful insolving circuit problems. Kirchhoff's circuit laws are twoequalitiesthat deal withtheconservation of chargeand energy inelectrical circuits, and it widely used in
, they are also called Kirchhoff's
rules
or simply Kirchhoff's
laws
.
The two Kirchhoff’s Laws tell us about the relationships between voltages and currents in circuits.
Both circuit rules can be directly derived fromMaxwell's equations, but Kirchhoff  precededMaxwelland instead generalized work byGeorg Ohm.

The current entering any junction is equal to the current leaving that junction.
i
1
+
i
4
=
i
2
+
i
3
The first law is Kirchhoff's current law. Kirchhoff's current law is also known as Kirchhoff'sfirst law and Kirchhoff's junction law. This law states that 'The sum of current into a junctionequals the sum of current out of the junction'. This is the same as Kirchhoff's junction law. Ina junction, theelectric charge's sum preservation law is applied. If the entering value of the current is i2 and i3, this current splits into the current of i1 and i4. Then the equation (i1 + i4= i2 + i3) is satisfied. The right picture gives an example. This Kirchhoff's first law is thatcharge is not destroyed or created in a junction point. This is based by an electric charge preservation law.
The sum of all the voltages around the loop is equal to zero. v
1
+ v
2
+ v
3
+ v
4
= 0

Another is Kirchhoff's voltage law. Kirchhoff's voltage law is also known as Kirchhoff'ssecond law, a closed circuit law, and Kirchhoff's loop law. The algebraic sum of the voltage(potential) differences in any loop must equal zero.(This circuit is a closed circuit) Anycomplex circuit can be divided into many closed circuits. This law means that in the circuitthere is an electric cell and electric resistance. The electric cell gives the charge aelectromotiveforce, and then the electric resistance dissipates this force. But in electricresistance if the direction is opposite of the current's direction, this electric resistance adds tothe electromotive force. This Kirchhoff's second law is based on potential energy preservation law.
Contents:-
SOME BASIC POINTS FOR KCL LAW
o
o
o
Positive and Negative Signs in Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
o
o
ApplicationApplication of Kirchoff's Circuit Laws
Limitations
Conclusion
SOME BASIC POINTS FOR KCL LAW:-
When analysing either DC circuits or AC circuits using
Kirchoff's Circuit Laws
a number of definitions and terminologies are used to describe the parts of the circuit being analysedsuch as: node, paths, branches, loops and meshes. These terms are used frequently in circuitanalysis so it is important to understand them.
Circuit
- a circuit is a closed loop conducting path in which an electrical currentflows.
Path
- a line of connecting elements or sources with no elements or sources includedmore than once.
Node
- a node is a junction, connection or terminal within a circuit were two or morecircuit elements are connected or joined together giving a connection point between two or more branches. A node is indicated by a dot.

Branch
- a branch is a single or group of components such as resistors or a sourcewhich are connected between two nodes.
Loop
- a loop is a simple closed path in a circuit in which no circuit element or nodeis encountered more than once.
Mesh
- a mesh is a single open loop that does not have a closed path. No componentsare inside a mesh.
Components are connected in series if they carry the same current.
Components are connected in parallel if the same voltage is across them.
(1)-Kirchhoff's current law (KCL)
This law is also called
Kirchhoff's point rule
,
Kirchhoff's junction rule
(or nodal rule),and
Kirchhoff's first rule
.The principle of conservation of  electric chargeimplies that: At any node (junction) in anelectrical circuit,the sum of currentsflowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node.or The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero.(Assuming that current entering the junction is taken as positive and current leaving the junction is taken as negative).

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