(blue curve), and or MIMOsystems (red curve). As shown,the capacity o the phased arraysystem grows logarithmicallywith increasing antenna arraysize, whereas the capacity o theMIMO system grows linearly.With our antennas, the phasearray system provides a capacityo 8 bps/Hz, whereas the MIMOsystem provides a capacity o 19bps/Hz. It is also worth noting thatin a phased array system, the arraycoecients must be calculated topoint the beam in the “best direc-tion.” This is quite dicult to dowhen the transmitter is insidethe hull o an aircrat where thesignal undergoes many refectionsbeore it emerges rom the aircratand lands at the receiver. MIMOsystems do not suer rom thisproblem as the geometry o the environmentand position o the refectors are automati-cally taken into account during the decodingo the MIMO signal.The beneits o MIMO will now beconsidered in a dierent light. Assume thatthere is a xed capacity that is desired, say1 bps/Hz, and ask the question, “How muchtotal transmit power is needed to achieve a95-percentile capacity o 1 bps/Hz?” Theresults are summarized in Table 1. As is seenrom the table, as the number o antennasincrease in a MIMO system, less and lessreceive power is needed to achieve the samedata throughput rate. This is an importantnding as it is the key property that is reliedupon to combat the attenuation associatedwith getting the signal out o the aircrat hull.So i a conventional single antenna systemrequired 1 Watt o transmit power to achievea certain throughput, then an 8 x 8 MIMOsystem would require only 6 mW o powerto achieve the same perormance.
A multiplicity of MIMO modes
The appeal o spatial multiplexingMIMO systems has captured many people’sattention. This has been taken to the ex-treme whereby spatial multiplexing MIMOschemes have been suggested to solve anyand all wireless communication issues. Inact, there are our unique multi-antennaMIMO techniques available to the systemdesigner as ollows:
• Spatial multiplexing (SM-MIMO). Mul
-tiple antennas are used to create spatiallyindependent links along the eigen-modeso the wireless channel. In SM systems,throughput is increased by sending dier-ent data on the dierent transmit antennas.As such SM-MIMO can result in muchimproved throughput without increasingbandwidth. The downside to SM is theneed or highly complex matrix inversionoperations in the receiver, and the addedsensitivity to impairments when the systemis driven into “ull-multiplexing” (numbero spatial streams is equal to the number o transmit antennas which in turn is equal tothe number o receive antennas) mode o operation.
• Space-time coding (STC-MIMO). Space-
time coding systems look to providecoding gain by introducing redundancyalong the three signaling axes dened astime, requency and space. They can alsobe used to provide transmit diversity gain.
Compared to spatial multiplexing systems,STC-MIMO systems provide robustness of
communications without providing signi-cant throughput gains. Moreover, they arewell suited to asymmetric situations wherethe transmitter may have more antennas atits disposal than the receiver.
• Diversity systems (DIV-MIMO). Diversity
is a traditional orm o multi-antenna pro-cessing that looks to counteract ast adingeects by creating independent channelsbetween the TX and RX, transmitting thesame signal on all independent channelsand optimally combining the receivedsignals.
• Smart antenna (SA-MIMO) systems are
best described as adaptive phased arrayantenna systems that can adap-tively beamorm or beam-null ina particular direction.
Leveraging MIMO forthe military
The true benet o MIMO isnot simply its ability to increasethroughput or reliability, rather,when properly married withthe other elements o the radio,MIMO enables a truly mode-richradio--one that is ideal or opera-tion in non-line-o-sight (NLOS)environments ound in urban can-yons and orested regions. Thisallows a MIMO-enabled radioto exhibit elasticity beyond thato conventional single-antennaradios, and to better adapt to theneeds o the war ghter and theoperational environment.
Examples o use in military-grade com-munications are:
• For communication centers (i.e., ground-
based command posts, ship-to-shore orship-to-ship communication), a highthroughput mode can be used to transerdata at speeds greater than 100 Mbps.
• In a NLOS environment, the radio can use
a physical mode, which lowers the datarate to 10 Mbps in exchange or higherquality o service (QoS). A platoon o tanks proceeding down separate streets inan urban environment can continue cross-communications.
• In an environment where jammers are used
in an attempt to disrupt communication, amode sending redundant packets acrossmultiple paths can be used to ensure thatuncorrupted data reaches the receiver.Integrity and consistency saves lives andcontributes to Mission Success.
• In a mobile environment (i.e., tanks or Hum
-vees advancing across open terrain, surveil-
lance UAVs scouring an area of interest), yet
another mode can be used to enable high datarates between ast-moving vehicles.
• For covert applications, some solutions
can exploit MIMO modes to transmit ata reduced rate while using an ultra lowtransmit power mode to conceal its elec-tronic signature.
• For real-time video surveillance applica
-tions (i.e., border or perimeter monitoring,real-time battleeld monitoring), a highthroughput, high QoS mode can be used.
• For mesh networks, some solutions take
advantage o all o the refections (i.e.,signals bouncing o hundreds o armoredvehicles) to improve perormance, as op-posed to current single antenna systems,which cannot unction in high-demand,high-intererence environments.
Table 1. Receive SNR required to achieve a95-percentile capacity of 1bps/Hz.
Antenna Confguration MIMO
SISO (1x1)12.8 dB2x21.2 dB4x4–4.9 dB8x8–9.3 dB
Figure 2. MIMO capacity increases with array size, whereas phased ar-ray smart antenna systems only improve logarithmically.
C a p a c i t y ( b p s / H z )
Number of receive antennas12103456789