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Advances Concrete Pour ROCK FILLED CONCRETE

Advances Concrete Pour ROCK FILLED CONCRETE

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Published by Arangamar Kumaran

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Published by: Arangamar Kumaran on Aug 31, 2011
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SBEIDCO 1
st
International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment Infrastructures in Developing CountriesENSET Oran(Algeria) -October 12-14, 2009
Advances in concreting methods, H.S. Abdelgader,M. F. najjar 
315
ADVANCES IN CONCRETING METHODS
H.S. Abdelgader 
1
,M. F. NAJJAR 
2
ABSTRACT
During the last decades, the concrete industry has been widely developing in many ways such as themethods of pouring concrete in order to achieve high quality concrete and low cost. Some newconcretes have been produced which is completely defer from the conventional concrete in the methodof mixing, pouring and no need for the normal compaction methods that require more labors, tools andcost more.This paper presents two special types of concrete; Two-Stage Concrete and Rock Filled Concreteand presents the advantagesand special requirements for each of the two special types of concrete andtheir uses.The cost of two stage concrete is less than the cost of normal concrete and there is no need for compaction or vibrating of concrete.Also, Avoiding the risk of segregation of the aggregate becauseof the separated statue of the coarse aggregates and fine aggregates, and also especially for heavyweight aggregate.Theuse of Rock Filled Concrete gives many advantages that related to quality, cost and environmentconsiderations.The RFC gives low heat of hydration because the use of low cement content whichmakes it more easier to ensure temperature control and allows continuous pouring of SCC and reducethe construction time
KEYWORDS
Two-Stage Concrete, Rock Filled Concrete, Self Compacting Concrete, Massconcrete construction.
 
1
Alfateh University, Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli, Libya,hakimsa@poczta.onet.pl
2
Alfateh University, Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli, Libya,engmnajjar@yahoo.com
 
SBEIDCO 1
st
International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment Infrastructures in Developing CountriesENSET Oran(Algeria) -October 12-14, 2009
Advances in concreting methods, H.S. Abdelgader,M. F. Najjar 
316
1. INTRODUCTION
During the last decades, the concrete industry has been widely developing in many ways such as themethods of pouring concrete in order to achieve high quality concrete and low cost. Some newconcretes have been produced which is completely defer from the conventional concrete in the methodof mixing, pouring and no need for the normal compaction methods that require more labors, tools andcost more. This paper presents two special types of concrete; Two-Stage Concrete and Rock FilledConcrete.In the Two-Stage Concrete or Pre-Placed Aggregate method, as the name implies, the coarse aggregateis placed first then the cement grout is poured by pumping tubes which are extended to the bottom of the formwork. The grout fills the voids between the aggregate particles. The Two-Stage Concretediffers from conventionally placed concrete in that it contains a higher percentage of coarse aggregate;consequently, the properties of the coarse aggregate appear to have a greater effect on the properties of the concrete.The second type is special concrete known as Rock Filled Concrete, RFC, which is combination of consolidation Self CompactingConcrete, SCC, and large block or rock with the minimum size of 300mm. In general , RFC is produced by filling the working space with large-scale blocks of rock toform a rock-block mass first, then, either pump SCC into the working space or pour it directly on tothe surface of rock-block mass.The advantage and special requirements for each of the two special types of concrete and their uses areto be presented in this paper.
2.TWO-STAG CONCRETE
Two-stage concrete (TSC) is considered as one of modern techniques in the concreting industry. Thetwo-stage concrete or pre-placed aggregate method, as the name implies, placing the coarse aggregatein the place of destination then grouting the cavities (voids) of the coarse aggregate with a specialmixture (grout) under pumping tubes extended to the bottom of the form, to fill the voids betweenaggregate particlesFig (1). The technology of concretes made by the two-stage method is quitedifferent fromnormal traditional concrete, not only in the method of placement but also in that itcontains a higher proportion of stone aggregate; consequently, the properties of the coarse aggregateappear to have a greater effect on the properties of the concrete than on the cement mortar..
Figure 1
: Two Stage Concrete
 
SBEIDCO 1
st
International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment Infrastructures in Developing CountriesENSET Oran(Algeria) -October 12-14, 2009
Advances in concreting methods, H.S. Abdelgader,M. F. Najjar 
317
2.1 Properties of coarse aggregate
The choice of stone aggregate is of great importance with respect to the two-stage concrete method;the aggregate that is used in (TSC) should bewashed, free of surface dust and fines. The void contentof the aggregate should be as low as possible and is usually attained when the coarse aggregate isgraded uniformly from the smallest allowable particle size to the largest size [ACI 304R-05, 2005].Itis typically 40mm or larger; if aggregates smaller than 20 mm are used then the injected grout tends to bridge the interstices, thereby impeding grout flow. The mechanics the two-stage concrete dependedon mechanical properties of coarse aggregate, because of the point-to-point contact of the stoneaggregate, the stresses are properties of The characteristic mechanical properties of transferred first tothe stone aggregate and then, after deformations of grains, to the hardened grout.
2.2 Properties ofgrout
The grout that is used in (TSC) normally consists of ordinary Portland cement and well graded sand.The flow of the grout around the aggregate is essential, therefore some admixtures are normallyrecommended to improve the flow of the grout, improve penetrability, and control the potential for  both shrinkage and bleeding.
2.3 Propagation of mixture in coarse aggregate
The problem of flow and curve of mixture propagation in coarse aggregate is a special importanteconomic question. Mathematically the description of propagation is very difficult. The shape of thecurve (Fig2) depends on many factors such as: mixture density, intensity of mixing, hydraulic pressure, shape and size of grains and pores………..etc.
y= f(x)
X(m)
     Y     (      m     )  
(0,0)
Figure 2
: Propgation Curve of mixture in stoneGeneral empirical equation of propagation curve has been derived [5], and described in Eq.(1) asfollows:
11)1(
2
      
 x y
(1)Where:
α
= thickness of stone layer (m).
β
= (a×b×f)
a
= parameter dependent of mixture fluidity.
b
= parameter dependent of stone : shape, size, kind of grain, surface , number and relationof fraction.
= Environment of construction.
γ
= (c×d×e)
c
=parameter dependent of efficiency of flushing pipe(m
3
/min.).
d
=parameter dependent of perforation.
e
= parameter dependent on the kind of excavation bottom.
t
= time (min.)

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