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Special Relativity

Special Relativity

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Published by Bernard SCHAEFFER
The theory of relativity with all derivations.
Lorentz transformation from first principles. Application to coordinates, velocity, acceleration, differential operators, wave equation, Minkowski space-time, relativistic lagrangian, Doppler effect, star aberration.
Relativistic mass, generalized Newton's second law, kinetic and potential energy, acceleration of electrons, relativistic lagrangian "à la Landau", E=mc2, antimatter.
Bernard Schaeffer
The theory of relativity with all derivations.
Lorentz transformation from first principles. Application to coordinates, velocity, acceleration, differential operators, wave equation, Minkowski space-time, relativistic lagrangian, Doppler effect, star aberration.
Relativistic mass, generalized Newton's second law, kinetic and potential energy, acceleration of electrons, relativistic lagrangian "à la Landau", E=mc2, antimatter.
Bernard Schaeffer

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Bernard SCHAEFFER on Oct 04, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/18/2012

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Special Relativiy
1
Special Relativity
(Translated from Relativités et quantaclarifiés)Bernard Schaeffer PhD
 
Special Relativiy
2
1. INTRODUCTION
Special relativity originated one century ago from unsolved problems andvarious observations incompatible with the ideas of that epoch. Maxwell predicted the existence of radiation pressure, already imagined by Newton andobservable with the Crookes radiometer. The Maxwell equations have beencriticized because they were not conserved in the Galilean transformation. Withthe newtonian absolute movement, speed and time one predicted that lightshould be dragged by the Earth’s movement. Michelson-Morley experiment hadto prove the existence of the Ether. The negative result of the experiment led tolight speed invariance.Special relativity is special because it is limited to uniform translation, withoutany acceleration. Its fundamental postulate is the invariance of light speed in achange of Galilean reference frame.The Galilean transformation had to be replaced by the Lorentz transformation inorder to take into account this experimental result, already known from theMaxwell equations. Einstein deduced directly the Lorentz transformationwithout using the Maxwell equations. From the Lorentz transformation onededuce various transformations : time, length, speed, acceleration, mass…Acceleration ought to be incompatible with Galilean frames but Einstein took the precaution of saying that special relativity should be applied to the "slowlyaccelerated electron". Using time as a fourth spatial dimension, one obtains the pseudo-euclidean space of Minkowski, euclidean by using an imaginary fourthdimension.Completed by Newton’s laws, special relativity became the relativistic dynamicswhose principal application is the formula giving the energy contained in a massat rest or in movement. The diagram below shows the logical process from theLorentz transformation to E = mc
2
.
 
Special Relativiy
3
Relativité restreinte
Linéaritéc = csteRéciprocitéTransformation de Lorentz
=11 -v
2
c
2
t' =
t -vxc
2
x =
x' + vt'
t =
t' +vx'c
2
x' =
x - vt
DirecteRéciproque
Dynamique relativiste
E
c
= m - m
0
c
2
Energie cinétiqueEnergie proportionnelleà la masse
x =x'
Dilatation du temps:Immobilité de la règle dans leréférentiel R' en mouvementx' = 0Contraction des longueurs:Instantané depuis le référentiel Rde l'observateurt = 0t =
t'Accélération
d
vdt=dv'dt'
Vitesse limite = c
v
x
=v'
x
+ v1 +v v'
x
c
2
Loi de Newtonrelativiste
F =d mvdt
E = m c
2
Equations deMaxwellThéorême de Pythagoredans l'espace à quatredimensions deMinkowskis
2
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ ict
2
ds
2
= dr
2
+ r
2
d
 
2
+ sin
2
 
d
2
+ d ict
2
Masse relativistem =
m
0
 Flow chart of special relativity

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