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Internet Terminology

Internet Terminology

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Published by: farhanasathath on Sep 30, 2011
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Internet and Web Glossary
A color system used in monitor display that provides 8 bits of information for eachof the colors of the RGB system, allowing a total of 16,777,216 possible colors.
A response code or error transmitted by aWeb server to a client when a requestedWeb  pageor file is not present on the server.
A URL(Uniform Resource Locator) that contains the Internet domain name of the server hosting the item to which the URL refers. For example, an absolute URL would be of thesame form as http://www.webliminal.com/search-web.html. The Internet domain name of thisserver is www.webliminal.com.
Within the context of theInternet, a policy that states the proper or acceptable uses of a computer network.
The pane in the browser window of Internet Explorer that holds the currentdocument'sURL. You can type a URL in this box and press Enter to access a Web page. See alsolocation field.
The address to use to join anemail discussion groupor  interest group  and to send requests for services.
agent/ intelligent agent :
A program that gathers information or accomplishes tasks without your immediate presence. Agents are usually given very small and well-defined tasks. They are alsocalled intelligent agents, personal agents, or bots.
A tool that providessearch formsfor severalsearch enginesand directories all in one site. The tool also provideshyperlinksthat allow you to go to the services directly.
A description of ahyperlink or image, put in by the author of aWeb page, that  pops up when you move the mouse pointer over the hyperlink or image.
AnHTML element that declares content to be ahyperlink  to aURLthat is specified as the value of the HREF attribute.
A means of usingFTPto make files readily available to the public. When youstart an FTP session with a remote host, you give the login or user name "anonymous" and enter your email address as the password. When you use aURLthat starts with ftp:// and adomain namewith a Web browser , an anonymous FTP session begins, and you don't have to enter a user  name or password.
A message or file that is part of a Usenet newsgroup.
ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
A code for representingcharacters in a numeric form. An ASCII file is one that contains characters that can be displayedon a screen or printed without formatting or using another program.
Communication where the sender and receiver don't participate atthe same time, for example, email or voicemail.
A file that is sent as part of an email message but that is not in the body of themessage. Images, programs, and word-processing files are usually sent as attachments, becausemost email programs allow only plain text in the body of the message.
Specifies a property of anHTML element. Attributes are found in the starttagof an HTML element and often take values.
An icon, image, or figure that you can use to represent yourself in achatroom.
A file containing information such as a compressed archive, an image, a program, aspreadsheet, or a word-processing document. The items in the file usually cannot be displayed ona screen or printed without using some program.
An encoding scheme that converts binary data intoASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) characters.
AnHTMLelement that declares its contents of a document that is displayed by a browser.
A list of links to items on theWorld Wide Web. Bookmark lists are usuallycreated by individuals as they use Netscape. A good way to keep track of favorite or importantsites, since they are saved and can be used at any time. See alsofavorites list.
Searching that uses Boolean operators (AND, OR, and NOT) in thesearchexpression. Especially helpful in multifaceted or specific topics, Boolean operators help expand or narrow the scope of your search. A search for rivers OR lakes returns documents with either wordin them. A search for rivers AND lakes returns documents with both words in them. A search for rivers AND lakes NOT swamps returns documents that mention both rivers and lakes but omitsthose that also mention swamps.
The compiled format for Javaprograms. Once a Java program has been converted to bytecode, it can be transferred across a network and executed by Java Virtual Machine. Bytecodefiles generally have the extension "class," as in marquee.class.
A portion of memory (either in RAM or on a disk) set aside to hold the items retrievedmost recently. For aWeb browser , this refers to recentWeb pagesand images. The cache is used so that items may be retrieved more quickly without going back to theInternet. A browser can beset so that, in case an item hasn't changed, it will retrieve the item from the cache.
The ability of a search tool to distinguish between uppercase and lowercaseletters. Some search tools aren't case sensitive; no matter what you type, the tool picks up onlylowercase matches. Search engines that are case sensitive strictly follow a search request; they'llreturn documents containing the words in the case in which they were entered in thesearchexpression.
Space between the content of anHTMLtable cell and its border, specified in pixels.
Space between cells in anHTMLtable, specified in pixels.
A company that guarantees the identity of the holder of adigital certificate.  A certificate is attached to a message or Web pageand can be used to guarantee the authenticityof information.
A specification for transferring information between programs that execute on a Web server  and the server software itself. A typical situation is for a so-called CGI program to take input from the server software, process it, and write the output inthe form of aWeb pagethat is then passed to a client by the server.
A conference or forum that allows two or more people to converse with each other atthe same time by taking turns typing messages.
A program or Internet service that sends commands to and receives information from a corresponding program, often at a remote site, called a server. Most Internet services runas client/server programs.Telnet, for example, works this way. A user starts a client program onhis computer that contacts a Telnet server.
The part of aWeb browser  window that contains the currentWeb page; it contains images, text, or  hyperlinks.
A database that requires you to pay a subscription cost before accessing it.It is also referred to as a proprietary database.
Legislation approved by Congress that made it a criminaloffense to include potentially indecent or offensive material on theInternet. The U.S. Supreme
Court ruled in June of 1997 that this act abridged the freedom of speech that is protected by theFirst Amendment, and the act was ruled unconstitutional.
A program that translates asource filewritten in a programming language (that presumably a human can understand) into some form of machine language that can be dealt with by a computer.
A file that has been processed by a program that applied an algorithm or schemeto compress or shrink it. A compressed file must first be uncompressed or transformed before itcan be read, displayed, or used. Files available throughanonymous FTPare often stored incompressed form.
A feature enabling asearch engine to find synonyms in its database. When you type in a word or phrase, the engine automatically searches for the word or phrase you want, plus words or phrases that may mean the same thing. For example, if the word teenage is in your search expression, the search engine also looks for the word adolescent.
A conferencing system generally uses text, audio, and video for holding groupmeetings and uses protocolsthat allow for these means of synchronouscommunication on the Internet.
A relatively small piece of information that is initially placed on a client’s computer by aWeb server . Once a cookie is present, the same Web server may read or rewrite the cookie. AWeb server requests or writes a cookie to your computer only if you access aWeb pagethatcontains the commands to do that. Cookies are used to store information such as your login nameand password or information about what portions of a Web site were visited on your computer.Sometimes viewed as an invasion of privacy, cookies are useful to you in some cases. Cookiescan be used to keep track of your password or keep track of some preferences you’ve set for everyvisit to that site. You can set preferences in your browser to accept or reject cookies.
The right to copy or duplicate material such as images, music, and written works. Onlythe owners of the information can grant this right. Regardless of whether information on theInternetor aWeb page is accompanied by a statement asserting copyright, it is still protected by the copyright laws of the United States, the Universal Copyright Convention, and the BerneUnion.
Posting anarticleto more than oneUsenet newsgroup.
The speed at which a circuit or communications line can transfer information,usually measured in bits per second (bps).
Describes a file recreated in binary format that has been encoded or translated from binary to ASCIIor text format. Binary filesthat are sent asattachmentsto email have to be encoded(translated from binary to ASCII) before they are sent and decoded (translated fromASCII to binary) when they are received before they can be used.
The configuration asearch engineuses unless you override the setting byspecifying another configuration. For example, in some search engines, the Booleanoperator OR  is the assumed relationship between two words unless you type AND between the words.
A format often used to store tables of data. The datafields are separated bycommas, tabs, semicolons, or some other delimiter. Spreadsheet programs usually include thefacilities to import data that is in delimited format.
A device that is used to encrypt and decrypt information, and to guarantee theidentity of the sender and the authenticity of the information.
A topical list of Internet resources, arranged hierarchically. Directories are meant to be  browsed, but they can also be searched. Directories differ fromsearch enginesin one major way -the human element involved in collecting and updating the information.

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