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Table Of Contents

CHAPTER1 How to Reason Logically
Facing a Decision as a Critical Thinker
Advice for Logical Reasoners
Examples of Good Reasoning
Review of Major Points
Glossary
Exercises
CHAPTER2 Claims, Issues, and Arguments
What is a Claim?
What is an Argument?
What is the Issue?
What is a Proof?
Indicators
Premise Indicators
Conclusion Indicators
Discount Indicators
Rewriting Arguments in Standard Form
Conditionals and the Word If
Deductively Valid and Inductively Strong
Uncovering Implicit Premises
Locating Unstated Conclusions
Detecting Obscure Argumentation
Diagramming Multiple Arguments
Descriptions and Explanations
Context and Background Knowledge
Disambiguation by Machine
Semantic Disagreements
Equivocation
Being Too Vague
Being Too General
Giving Too Many Details
Being Pseudoprecise
Improper Operationalization
Creating Helpful Definitions
Different Definitions for Different Purposes
How to Avoid Errors when Creating Definitions
CHAPTER4 How to Evaluate Information and Judge Credibility
The Principles of Charity and Fidelity
When Should You Accept Unusual Statements?
Assessing a Source's Credibility
Seeking a Second Opinion
Trust Me, I Know It on Good Authority
Suspending Belief
Getting Solid Information about Whom to Vote For
CHAPTER5 Obstacles to Better Communication
Not Realizing What You Are Saying
Abusing Rules of Grammar
Using and Over-Using Euphemisms
Unintended Innuendo
Disobeying Rules of Discourse
Not Sticking to the Issue and Not Treating It Fairly
Not Accepting the Burden of Proof
Diverting Attention from the Issue
Re-defining the Issue
Covering Up the Reasons That Favor Your Opponent
CHAPTER6 Writing to Convince Others
Writing with Precision and to Your Audience
The Introduction
The Middle
The Ending
Digressions
Improving Your Writing Style
Proving Your Conclusion
Creating Counterarguments
CHAPTER7 Defending Against Deception
Deception Is All Around Us
Exaggeration and Lying
Telling Only Half the Truth
Telling the Truth, While Still Misleading
Saying Little with Lots of Words
Persuading Without Using Reasons
Deceiving with Loaded Language
Using Rhetorical Devices
CHAPTER8 Detecting Fallacies
Ad Hominem Fallacy
Straw Man Fallacy
The False Dilemma Fallacy
The Fallacy of Faulty Comparison
Fallacious Appeal to Authority
More about Assessing Credibility
Spotting an Authority's Bias
The Genetic Fallacy
Non Sequitur
CHAPTER9 Consistency and Inconsistency
Recognizing Inconsistency and Contradiction
Identifying Self-Contradictions and Oxymorons
Inconsistency with Presuppositions
Refuting General Statements by Finding Counterexamples
Resolving Inconsistencies
CHAPTER10 Deductive Reasoning
Implying with Certainty vs. with Probability
Distinguishing Deduction from Induction
CHAPTER11 Logical Form and Sentential Logic
Logical Equivalence
Logical Forms of Statements and Arguments
The Logic of Not
The Logic of And
The Logic of Or
The Logic of If-Then
Sentential Logic
CHAPTER12 Aristotelian Logic and Venn- Euler Diagrams
Aristotle's Logic of Classes
Using Venn-Euler Diagrams to Test for Invalidity
The Logic of Only in Class Logic
CHAPTER13 Inductive Reasoning
Generalizing from a Sample
Random Sample
Sample Size
Sample Diversity
Stratified Samples
Statistical Significance
Designing a Paired Comparison Test
Obstacles to Collecting Reliable Data
Varieties of Inductive Arguments
Argument from Authority
Argument from Analogy
Induction from Past to Future (Prediction)
Appeal to a Typical Example
Argument Based on Signs
Causal Inference
Inference to the Best Explanation
How New Information Affects the Strength of the Argument
CHAPTER14 Reasoning about Causes and Their Effects
Correlations
Significant Correlations
Causal Claims
Inferring from Correlation to Causation
Diagramming Causal Relationships
Criteria for a Causal Relationship
Criteria for Creating Good Explanations
Assessing Alternative Explanations
The Scientific Method
Some Case Studies
CHAPTER15 Scientific Reasoning
What is Science?
Reviewing the Principles of Scientific Reasoning
Testability, Accuracy, and Precision
Reliability of Scientific Reporting
Causal Explanations vs. Causal Arguments
Good Evidence
A Cautious Approach with an Open Mind
Discovering Causes, Creating Explanations, and Solving Problems
Three Conditions for a Well-Designed Test
Deducing Predictions for Testing
Detecting Pseudoscience
Paradigms and Possible Causes
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Logical Reasoning

Logical Reasoning

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Published by: graciefantasy on Oct 14, 2011
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