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dessertation

dessertation

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Published by: api-3781079 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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1.INTRODUCTION
Proteases produced by enzymatic method were moreenvironment friendly when compared with the chemical process and it hastremendous potential in the leather industry and in other several industries.However optimization of protease could involve several variables such astemperature, pH and incubation period. In this regard the
 Bacillus
 
specieswere exploited for their ability to produce these enzymes.
 
In the animal kingdom, fishes are a large group consisting of 24000 species showing wide morphological and habitat variations. Theyoccupy marine and fresh water environments, while a few are able to survivein both. Besides this, some undertake anadromous and catadromousmigrations for spawning. These diverse conditions of habitat and feeding preferences have influenced the biochemical composition of fish species.Even within in the species variations can occur depending on physiologicalcondition, season etc.Unlike the seafood processing sector, fresh water fish or theinland fisheries sector is un-organized and hence poses a different level of waste disposal problems. These by-products are rich in protein and fat whichmake them more perishable. As per one estimate, visceral waste alonecontributes to the total of 3, 00, 000 tones (Mahendrakar, 2000). Further,viscera have been reported to be a good source of proteins including enzymesand fats. Also, the visceral waste harbors a microbial population that can
1
 
 produce proteolytic/lipolytic enzymes which, if identified, can be used for further applications like lipid hydrolysis and for producing proteinhydrolysates sector. 
S
ince fish is harvested from natural water bodies includingfarms, it harbors a number of microorganisms found in the environment fromwhere it is caught. These native microorganisms may include fish spoilage bacteria as well as pathogens. In addition to these inherent microorganisms,the fish can be contaminated with other microorganisms during handling,transportation and processing, right from the point of catch to the end product.These microorganisms can be hazardous to the health of the consumer. Themost important pathogens which gain entry into fish during handling,transportation, and  processing are
Salmonella, Vibrio cholera, Staphyloccousaureus,
and
 Listeria monocytogenes
. In the addition,
 Entropathogenic Escherichia coli (EREC), Clostridium perfringes
and
 Bacillus cereu
s mayalso gain entry into fish.Bacillus species are aerobic, sporulating, rod-shaped bacteriathat are ubiquitous in nature. Bacillus species are used in many medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial processes that take advantage of their wide range of physiologic characteristics and their ability to produce ahost of enzymes, antibiotics, and other metabolites. Early in 1977,Priest et al.,it was, reported that the gram-positive, spore forming bacterium Bacillussubtilis produces and secretes proteases, esterases, and other kinds of exoenzymes at the end of the exponential phase of growth. Bacitracin and polymyxin are two well-known antibiotics obtained from Bacillus species.Several species are used as standards in medical and pharmaceutical assays.Certain Bacillus species are important in the natural or artificial degradation
2
 
of waste products. Some Bacillus insect pathogens are used as the activeingredients of insecticides. On the other hand many Bacillus species are beingresistant to heat, radiation, disinfectants, and desiccation, they are difficult toeliminate from medical and pharmaceutical materials and can be a cause of contamination. In addition, Bacillus species are well known in the foodindustries as troublesome spoilage organisms. Hence, techniques learnt andused in this study can also be applied in quality assurance and quality controldepartments of medical and pharmaceutical industries as well as in food processingThe family Bacillaceae, consisting of rod-shaped bacteria thatform endospores, has two principal subdivisions: the anaerobic spore-forming bacteria of the genus Clostridium, and the aerobic or facultatively anaerobicspore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus frequently known as ASB(aerobic spore-bearers). Bacterial cells of Bacillus cultures are Gram positivewhen young, but in some species become Gram negative as they age andhence, it is to be ensured that enzyme production be done when the culturesare in exponential phase.
 
Proteolytic enzymes are ubiquitous in occurrence, being found inall living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Theextracellular proteases are commercial value and find multiple applications invarious industrial sectors. Although there are many microbial sourcesavailable for producing proteases, only a few are recognized as commercial producers (Gupta, et al., 2002b). Of these, strains of Bacillus sp. dominate theindustrial sector (Gupta et al., 2002a). In addition to that, several workersinvestigated the production of protease and alkaline protease from Bacillus
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