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Performance Issues in Mobile Computing and Communications- Flash Memories

Performance Issues in Mobile Computing and Communications- Flash Memories

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PIMC2 2007 - Flash Memories
24.9.2007
@ Kimmo Raatikainen
1

Performance Issues in Mobile
Computing and Communications:
Flash Memories

Kimmo Raatikainen
Department of Computer Science
24.9.2007
\u00a9 2007 Kimmo Raatikainen: PIMC2 \u2013 Flash Memories
2
Preliminaries \u2026
\ue000Flash memory is a type of electrically-erasable
programmable read-only memory (EEPROM).
\ue000Because flash memories are non-volatile and

relatively dense, they are now used to store files
and other persistent objects in handheld
computers, mobile phones, digital cameras,
portable music players, and many other
computer systems in which magnetic disks are
inappropriate.

PIMC2 2007 - Flash Memories
24.9.2007
@ Kimmo Raatikainen
2
24.9.2007
\u00a9 2007 Kimmo Raatikainen: PIMC2 \u2013 Flash Memories
3
\u2026 Preliminaries
\ue000Flash, like earlier EEPROM devices, suffers
from two limitations.
\ue000First, bits can only be cleared by erasing a large block
of memory.
\ue000Second, each block can only sustain a limited number
of erasures, after which it can no longer reliably store
data.
\ue000Due to these limitations, sophisticated data
structures and algorithms are required to
effectively use flash memories.
\ue000These algorithms and data structures support

efficient not-in-place updates of data, reduce the
number of erasures, and level the wear of the
blocks in the device.

24.9.2007
\u00a9 2007 Kimmo Raatikainen: PIMC2 \u2013 Flash Memories
4
Lecture Outline

\ue000Basic Facts
\ue000Block-Mapping Techniques
\ue000Flash-Specific File Systems
\ue000Additional Classes of Flash Data Structures

\ue000application-specific data structures (mainly search trees),
\ue000data structures for storing machine code, and
\ue000a mechanism to use flash as a main memory replacement.

\ue000Eran Gal and Sivan Toledo: \u201dAlgorithms and Data
Structures for Flash Memories,\u201d ACM Computing Surveys,
Vol. 37, No. 2, June 2005, pp. 138-163.
PIMC2 2007 - Flash Memories
24.9.2007
@ Kimmo Raatikainen
3
24.9.2007
\u00a9 2007 Kimmo Raatikainen: PIMC2 \u2013 Flash Memories
5
Basic Facts \u2026
\ue000The read/write/erase behaviours of flash memory is
radically different than that of other programmable
memories such as volatile RAM and magnetic disks.
\ue000Perhaps more importantly, memory cells in a flash device

(as well as in other types of EEPROM memory) can be
written to only a limited number of times, between 10,000
and 1,000,000, after which they wear out and become
unreliable.

24.9.2007
\u00a9 2007 Kimmo Raatikainen: PIMC2 \u2013 Flash Memories
6
\u2026 Basic Facts \u2026

\ue000Flash memories come in two flavours NOR and NAND.
\ue000They are quite different.
\ue000In both types, write operations can only clear bits (change

their value from 1 to 0).
\ue000The only way to set bits (change their value from 0 to 1) is
to erase an entire region memory.
\ue000These regions have fixed size in a given device, typically
ranging from several kilobytes to hundreds of kilobytes
and are called erase units.

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