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Published by: api-3705339 on Oct 18, 2008
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Chapter 1

This manual provides guidelines and instructions for performing and documenting field work. The manual is a ready reference for anyone engaged in field-oriented engineering geology or geotechnical engineering. The manual is written for general engineering geology use as well as to meet Reclamation needs. The application of geology to solving engineering problems is emphasized, rather than academic or other aspects of geology. The manual provides guidance for:

\u2022 Geologic classification and description of rock and
rock discontinuities
\u2022 Engineering classification and description of soil
and surficial deposits
\u2022 Application of standard indexes, descriptors, and
\u2022 Geologic mapping, sampling, testing, and
performing discontinuity surveys
\u2022 Exploratory drilling
\u2022 Soil and rock logging
\u2022 Acquisition of groundwater data
\u2022 Core logging
\u2022 Soil logging
\u2022 Investigation of hazardous waste sites
2Although the methods described in this manual are

appropriate for most situations, complex sites, conditions, or design needs may require modification or expansion of the suggestions, criteria, and indices to fit specific requirements.

Many of the chapters in this manual will always need revision because they cover material that changes as technology changes. Critical comments, especially sug- gestions for improvement, are welcome from all users, not just the Bureau of Reclamation.

The appendix contains abbreviations and acronyms
commonly used in engineering geology.
1Brackets refer to bibliography entries at end of each chapter.
Chapter 2


Established References for Geological

Adaptations or refinements of the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) standards presented in this and subse- quent chapters may be established to meet specific design requirements or site-specific geologic complexity when justified.

TheGlossary of Geology, Fourth Edition [1]1, published by the American Geological Institute (AGI), 1997, is accepted by Reclamation as the standard for definitions of geologic words and terms except for the nomenclature, definitions, or usage established in this chapter and chapters 3, 4, and 5.

The North American Stratigraphic Code (NASC) [2] is the accepted system for classifying and naming stratigraphic units. However, Reclamation's engineering geology pro- grams are focused primarily on the engineering prop- erties of geologic units, not on the details of formal stratigraphic classification. Stratigraphic names are not always consistent within the literature, often change from one locality to another, and do not necessarily convey engineering properties or rock types. Use of stratigraphic names in Reclamation documents normally will be informal (lower case) (see NASC for discussion of formal versus informal usage). Exceptions to informal usage are for names previously used formally in the area in discus- sions of geologic setting or regional geology. Normally,

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