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Data Warehouse Material Concepts

Data Warehouse Material Concepts

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ABCDatawarehouse Modeling and Design
Unit 1.An Introduction to Data Warehousing
What is Data warehousing? 
According to Bill Inmon, known as the father of Data Warehousing, a data warehouse is asubject oriented, integrated, time-variant, nonvolatile collection of data in support of management decisions.
Subject-oriented
means that all relevant data about a subject is gathered and stored asa single set in a useful format;
Integrated
refers to data being stored in a globally accepted fashion with consistentnaming conventions, measurements, encoding structures, and physical attributes, evenwhen the underlying operational systems store the data differently;
Non-volatile
means the data warehouse is read-only: data is loaded into the datawarehouse and accessed there;
Time-variant data
. The relevance of time-variant is in the sense of data getting addedon as time goes on. Time being the most important dimension, etc.Data warehousing is a concept. It is a set of hardware and software components that can be usedto better analyze the massive amounts of data that companies are accumulating to make better  business decisions. Data Warehousing is not just data in the data warehouse, but also thearchitecture and tools to collect, query, analyze and present information.
Unit 1.1Data warehousing concepts
Operational
vs.
informational data:
Operational data is the data you use to run your business. This data is what is typically stored,retrieved, and updated by your Online Transactional Processing (OLTP) system. An OLTPsystem may be, for example, a reservations system, an accounting application, or an order entryapplication.Informational data is created from the wealth of operational data that exists in your business andsome external data useful to analyze your business. Informational data is what makes up a datawarehouse. Informational data is typically:
Summarized operational data
De-normalized and replicated data
Infrequently updated from the operational systems
Optimized for decision support applications
Possibly "read only" (no updates allowed)
Stored on separate systems to lessen impact on operational systemsABC Ver 1.10Page 1
 
ABCDatawarehouse Modeling and DesignA
data
 
warehouse
is a “subject-oriented, integrated, non-volatile, time variant collection of datain support of management decisions [Inm].” The end-users of a data warehouse are usually business analysts, as distinct from field personnel or call takers.
Question
: What do you think is the skill profile of the data warehouse end-user?
OperationalDecision supportData Content
Current valuesArchival, summarized, calculated data
Data Organization
Application by applicationSubject areas across enterprise
Nature of Data
DynamicStatic until refreshed
Data Structure &Format
Complex; suitable for operationalcomputationSimple; suitable for business analysis
Access Probability
HighModerate to low
Data Update
Updated on a field-by-field basisAccessed and manipulated; no directupdate
Usage
Highly structured repetitive processingHighly unstructured analytical processing
Response Time
Sub-second to 2-3 secondsSeconds to minutesSource: [STG]
Question
: Do the descriptions under “Data structure & format” fit in with the skill profiles of therespective end-users?A
data
 
mart 
is a scaled down deployment of a data warehouse that contains data focusing on adepartmental user’s analytical requirements. For example, the Ohio-based Huntington Bank Corporation set up a data mart for its general ledger system, to get the ledger system's functionalinformation to the bank's financial analysts and budget coordinators quickly.
 Data mining 
is the process of examining data for trends and patterns that might have evadedhuman analysis. For example, Shoko’s Sunday circulars contained coupons advertising healthand beauty aids, consumables, and household chemicals, which were are all located on the left-hand side of the stores. Shoko’s data mining exercise revealed that people who were coming into shop gravitated to the left-hand side of the store for the promotional items and were notnecessarily shopping the whole store. Consequently, it added apparel promotions to the Sundaycirculars.An
on-line Analytical Processing (OLAP)
application is intended to provide end-users an abilityto perform any business logic and statistical analysis that is relevant. This analysis must happenfast, i.e., it must deliver most responses to users within about five seconds, with the simplestanalyses taking no more than one second and very few taking more than 20 seconds.
 Multidimensional databases
are non-relational DBMS products that are specialized for use for the kinds of queries in data warehouses. This is in contrast to using specialized analysis toolsthat run on top of a traditional RDBMS.What is the ROI for a data warehouse? A recent study [Fis] of 45 major companies by theInternational Data Corporation found an
average
three-year return on investment in datawarehouse systems of 401%. More instructive is the very wide range of returns reported by thecompanies, from 16,000 percent to
minus
1,857 percent. Moral: data warehousing is not a silver  bullet; use with care!Multi-dimensional data structures can be implemented with multidimensional databases or extended RDBMSs. Relational databases can support this structure through specific databasedesigns (schema), such as "star-schema", intended for multi-dimensional analysis and highlyindexed or summarized designs. These structures are sometimes referred to as relational OLAP(ROLAP)-based structures.ABC Ver 1.10Page 2
 
ABCDatawarehouse Modeling and Design
Metadata/Information Catalogue:
Metadata describes the data that is contained in the data warehouse (e.g. Data elements and business-oriented description) as well as the source of that data and the transformations or derivations that may have been performed to create the data element.
Unit 1.2Benefits of Data Warehousin
A well designed and implemented data warehouse can be used to:
Understand business trends and make better forecasting decisions
Bring better products to market in a more timely manner 
Analyze daily sales information and make quick decisions that can significantly affectyour company's performanceData warehousing can be a key differentiator in many different industries. At present, some of the most popular Data warehouse applications include:
sales and marketing analysis across all industries
inventory turn and product tracking in manufacturing
category management, vendor analysis, and marketing program effectiveness analysisin retail
 profitable lane or driver risk analysis in transportation
Unit 1.3Datawarehousin  Application Class: How 
it has beenevolved.
Throughout the history of systems development, the primary emphasis had been given to theoperational systems and the data they process. But there is a difference in the fundamentalrequirements of the operational and analysis systems are different: the operational systems need performance, whereas the analysis systems need flexibility and broad scope. It has rarely beenacceptable to have business analysis interfere with and degrade performance of the operationalsystems.Data warehousing has quickly evolved into a unique and popular business application class.Early builders of data warehouses already consider their systems to be key components of their IT strategy and architecture.In building a Datawarehouse application the source inputs are listed below.1.Data from legacy systems.In the 1970’s virtually all business system development was done on the IBM mainframecomputers using tools such as Cobol, CICS, IMS, DB2, etc. The 1980’s brought in the newmini-computer platforms such as AS/400 and VAX/VMS. The late eighties and early ninetiesmade UNIX a popular server platform with the introduction of client/server architecture. Bysome estimates, more than 70 percent of business data for large corporations still resides in themainframe environment.2.Extracted data from micro desktop databases.In recent times advanced users will frequently use desktop database programs that allow them tostore and work with the information extracted from the legacy sources. Many desktop reportingand analysis tools are increasingly targeted towards end users and have gained considerable popularity on the desktop.ABC Ver 1.10Page 3

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