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Anatomy of the Head and Neck and Embryology

Anatomy of the Head and Neck and Embryology

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Published by Hairul Anuar

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Published by: Hairul Anuar on Nov 27, 2011
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12/09/2012

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1
 
ANATOMY OF THE HEAD AND NECK AND EMBRYOLOGY
CRANIAL CAVITY 
The dura mater lines the inner aspect of the skull cap and the cranialcavity. It protects the brain from shock and friction with the hard skull.The dura is composed of 2 layers:
1.
 
Outer layer.
2.
 
Inner layer
 
The 2 layers are closely adherent to each other. They are separatedto form the venous dural sinuses.
 
Dural venous sinuses are:-Valveless veins-Receive venous blood from the orbit, brain and adjacent bones- Present between the two layers of the dura
 
The inner layer of the dura forms 4 folds inside the cranial cavity.
The folds of dura mater are:
1. Falx cerebri
A sickle-shaped fold, lies between the 2 cerebral hemispheres.
 Attachments:
Anterior: crista galli.Posterior: upper surface of tentorium cerebelli.Superior: to the lips of the sagittal sulcus on the inner aspect of theskull cap.
Venous sinuses related to it:
1.
 
Superior sagittal sinus in its upper attached border.
2.
 
Inferior sagittal sinus in its free concave lower border.
3.
 
Straight sinus in the attachment of the falx cerebri with thetentorium cerebelli.
 
 
Folds of the dura mater and the dural svenous sinuses2. Tentorium cerebelli
A tent-like fold over the cerebellum.
 Attachment:
 
The attached margin (peripheral) is attached to the posterior clinoidprocess, upper border of petrous temporal bone and to the margin of thegroove for transverse sinus.
 
The free margin: forms the tentorial notch around the midbrain andis attached anteriorly to the anterior clinoid process. This margin crossesthe attached one at the petrous apex. The trochlear nerve pierces the duraat the point of crossing, while the oculomotor nerve pierces the dura infront of crossing point. The upper surface gives attachment to the falxcerebri.
Venous sinuses related to tentorium:
 
Straight sinus (between the attachment of the falx cerebri and thesupper surface of tentorium).
 
Superior petrosal sinus in the attached margin.
 
Transverse sinus in the attached margin.
 
 
3
 
3. Falx cerebelli
A small crescentic fold between the 2 cerebellar hemispheres.
 Attachment:
To the internal occipital crest.
Venous sinuses related:
Occipital sinus.
4. Diaphragma sellae
It is a dural fold covering the pituitary gland located in thehypophyseal fossa. It is pierced by the pituitary stalk. It is attached to theanterior and posterior clinoid processes.
Venous sinuses related:
Anterior:
Intercavernous sinus.
Posterior:
Intercavernous sinus.
Cranial Venous sinusesA- Single B- Paired1.
 
Superior sagittal.
2.
 
Inferior sagittal.
3.
 
Straight sinus.
4.
 
intercavernous.
5.
 
Occipital.
6.
 
Basilar plexus of sinuses.
1.
 
Spheno-parietal.
2.
 
Cavernous.
3.
 
Superior petrosal.
4.
 
Inferior petrosal.
5.
 
Transverse sinus.
6.
 
Sigmoid sinus
Superior Sagittal Sinus
It begins at the apex of falx cerebri
 
above the crista galli and ends alittle to the right of the internal occipital protuberance by turning to theright side and becoming the right transverse sinus. It may open into adilatation called confluence of sinuses at the internal occipitalprotuberance.
 Inferior Sagittal Sinus
It runs along the posterior half or two-thirds of the free margin of the falxcerebri.It is of a cylindrical form, increases in size as it passes backward, andends at the free margin of tentorium by uniting with the great cerebralvein to form the straight sinus.

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