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Deem-2011 Proceedings

Deem-2011 Proceedings

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Published by: Surender Reddy on Dec 02, 2011
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International Conference on Deregulated Environment and Energy Markets, July22-23, 2011
1
Congestion Management based on Power FlowContribution Factors
1
Vinod Kumar Pal,
2
Ashwani Kumar
1,2
NIT Kurukshetra
1
fvinod.k.pal@rediffmail.com
2
ashwa_ks@yahoo.co.in
 Abstract
 — 
In this paper, an application of proportionalsharing principle and power flow comparison method havebeen presented for congestion management decidingrescheduling of generators for congestion management.Contribution formulae based approach has beenimplemented and Power flow comparison method andcontribution formulae have been presented for congestionmanagement studies. The comparison of PFC and CFmethods has been tested on IEEE-57 bus test system forcongestion management. The comparison of PFC and CFbased approaches has been implemented for 6-bus testsystem, IEEE-57 bus test system and 25-bus test system forcongestion management.
 Keywords
 — 
Congestion management, contribution formulae,proportional sharing principle, power flow comparisonmethod.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Restructuring of the power industry aims at abolishingthe monopoly in the generation and trading sectors,thereby, introducing competition at various levelswherever it is possible. Generating companies may enterinto contracts to supply the generated power to the powerdealers/distributors or bulk consumers or sell the power ina pool in which the power brokers and customers alsoparticipate. In a power-exchange, the buyers can bid fortheir demands along with their willingness to pay. Powergeneration and trading will, thus, become free from theconventional regulations and become competitive.
According to Phillipson and Willis [1], ―
Deregulation is arestructuring of the rules and economic incentives thatgoverning authority sets up to control and drive theelectric power industry
.In a restructured electricity market environment, whenthe producers and consumers of electric energy desire toproduce and consume in amounts that would cause thetransmission network to operate at or beyond one or moretransfer limits, the system is said to be congested [2]. Thecongestion in the system can not be allowed to persist for along time, as it can cause sudden rise in the electricity priceand threaten system security and reliability. Congestionmanagement is one of the most challenging tasks of the SOin the deregulated environment.In different types of market, the method of tackling thetransmission congestion differs. There are three differentways to tackle the network congestion:
 
Price Area Congestion Management
 
Available Transfer Capability (ATC) based CongestionManagement
 
Optimal Power Flow (OPF) based CongestionManagementThe first method is used in Nordic pool; the second onein US and the third is employed in UK. In Nordic pool,which consists of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland,when congestion is predicted, the system operator declaresthat the system is split into price areas at the predictedcongestion bottlenecks. Spot market bidders must submitseparate bids for each price area in which they havegeneration or loads. In case of no congestion, the marketwill settle at one price and in case of congestion, the priceareas are separated settled at prices that satisfytransmission constraints. Area with excess generation willhave lower prices, and those with excess load will havehigher prices.The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission(FERC),[3] established a system, where each SO would beresponsible for monitoring its own regional transmissionsystem and calculating its ATC for potentially congestedpaths entering, leaving, and inside its network. The ATCvalues for next hour and for each hour in the future areplaced on OASIS, operated by SO. Anyone wishing to dotransaction would access OASIS web pages and use ATCinformation available there to determine if system couldaccommodate transaction. Details of the regionalcongestion management methodologies applied inEuropian electricity market is presented in final report [21].The report summarizes the congestion managementmethods and procedures adopted in Europian region. Areport on congestion management in Nordic region detailsout the rules for congestion management and nodal andzonal pricing based methods [22].In an optimal power flow, (OPF) is performed to
minimize generators‘ operating cost subject to s
et of constraints that represent a model of the transmissionsystem within which the generator operate. The generatorsends a cost function and those customers willing topurchase power send a bid function to the SO. The SO hasa complete transmission model and performs OPFcalculation. OPF solution gives cost/MW at each node of the system. In some countries zonal pricing method isfollowed in which the system is divided into various zones
 
International Conference on Deregulated Environment and Energy Markets, July22-23, 2011
2
on geographical basis. The zone prices obtained from OPFare used in the following manner:
 
Generators are paid zone price of energy
 
The loads must pay the zone price of energyIn case of no congestion, the zone price will be same andthe generators are paid the same price for their energy asthe loads pay. When there is congestion, the zone priceswill differ, each generator is paid its zone price and theloads also pay its zone price for the energy. Thus, the OPF,through different zonal pricing, performs the function of controlling the transmission flows and thus maintaining thetransmission security. The goal of deregulation is toencourage lower electric utility rates by structuring anorderly transition to competitive bulk power markets. Thekey is to open up transmission services, the vital linkbetween sellers and buyers. To achieve the benefits of robust, competitive bulk power markets, all wholesalebuyers and sellers must have equal access to thetransmission grid. Otherwise efficient trades cannot takeplace, and ratepayers will bear unnecessary costs. Problemsarise because all transactions have to share the sametransmission network simultaneously. What portion of thecapacity of a particular transmission system is used by acertain transaction? How can a fair charge be calculatedbased on the capacity usage? Can some transactions beadjusted, or even canceled, when transmission congestionoccurs? Which generator or transaction should beconsidered first for adjustment in congestion management,based on transmission capacity usage?To answer these questions, an algorithm was developedwhich can calculate the contribution from individualgenerator units to the flows and losses trough thetransmission network and at the load centers. This is bothan essential and challenging task. Scholars from Englandwere the first to propose the Flow Based ProportionalSharing Method (PS), based on a strong proportionalsharing assumption, which has not been proven eithercorrect or incorrect at this time [4-8]. Among them, D.Kirschen proposed the famous Topological TraceAlgorithm; J. Bialek proposed the Upstream-Looking andDownstream-Looking algorithms. R. Shoults, whoproposed the Circuits Based Method to challenge thecurrently very popular Flow Based Proportional SharingMethod, believed that the correct method should befou
nded upon established circuits‘ theories. The Circuits
Based Method is comprised of two sub-methods:1.
 
Current Division method2.
 
Voltage Division method.
A new method named the ―Power Flow ComparisonMethod‖ (PFC) which makes an effort to conform to the
physical concepts commonly understood and accepted bypower system engineers. These methods are applied to anexample of 6-bus power system, and the results arepresented, compared and discussed to verify theircorrectness. Further applications in transmission charges[9-11] and transmission congestion management [12, 13]show the great practical value of tracing the flow of powerfrom source to load. The impact of corrective actions onone group of lines to other heavily loaded lines is alsoshown.II.P
OWER
F
LOW
C
ONTRIBUTION
F
ACTORS
M
ETHOD
 The Power Flow Comparison Method (PFC) iscomprised of the following procedure to find thecontribution of each generator to the line flows, losses andloads:i)
 
Calculate the base case power flow.ii)
 
For the generator of interest, remove generation and acorresponding load from the power system in evenquantities.iii)
 
Make this generator bus the swing bus and calculatethe power flow againiv)
 
Find the line flow difference on each transmissionline by comparing the two power flow results above.An example 3-bus power system, shown in Fig 1, isprovided to illustrate this algorithm. Line resistance isignored, and distributed capacitance is considered. Part Iof Fig 1 is the base case power flow result. Part II of theFig 1 is obtained by removing the generation at bus A(150 MW) and its corresponding loads at bus C (150MW)from the base case power system. The contribution of generator A to the line flows can be found by subtractingthe line flow results in Part II from those in Part I. Part IIIof the Figis obtained by removing the generation at bus B(50MW) and its corresponding loads at bus C (50MW)from the base case power system. The contribution of generator B to the line flows can be obtained bysubtracting the line flow results in Part IV from those inPart I. The final results are listed in Part IV. From thisillustration, the reader may be reminded of the distributionfactors method, which shows the sensitivity of the lineflows to changes in generation. It is always easy to removea generator (in a simulation.) It is rather difficult to findthe corresponding loads of this generator, which are
different from the ―contract loads‖. The term―corresponding loads‖ is used to mean the load served by
this particular generator. How they are calculated issummarized in the following paragraphs. It is assumedthat the voltage at each network node will not changemuch when a quantity of generation and its corresponding
loads are ―evenly‖ removed from the network. This is t
he
―constant voltage‘‘ assumption used in the paper.
 
Fig.1 (a): Base case power flow
CB50MW150MWA200MW
 
International Conference on Deregulated Environment and Energy Markets, July22-23, 2011
3
Fig1 (b): Remove generator A and its load from base case power flowFig1(c): Remove generator B and its load from base case power flow.Fig1 (d): Power flow comparison methods
III.
 
A
PPLICATION IN
C
ONGESTION
M
ANAGEMENT
 With the open access of transmission networks and thecompetitive bulk power market, transmission congestionhas become a more and more serious problem in thederegulated world. However, based on the calculatedcontribution of line flows from each generator, the PFCMethod and the Proportional Sharing (PS) Method canprovide guidance to relieve these congestion problems.Test cases on the IEEE 57-bus system [17] are presentedto show the details.Results of two test cases on the IEEE 57-bus systemshow the capability of the Power Flow Comparison (PFC)Method over the Proportional Sharing Method (PS) forsolving the transmission congestion managementproblems. Key output data are given in the [18], whichincludes:
 
Bus output of the load-flow study;
 
Line flows of the load-flow study;
 
Generator contributions to MW line flows based on thePFC Method;
 
Generator contributions to MW line flows based on thePS Method.Case #1: Line 8 is heavily loaded with a total line flowof 174.0983 MW. Based on the MW contribution of eachgenerator to the line flow, transmission congestionmanagement methods are suggested by both the PSMethod and the PFC Method as shown in Table 1. The PSMethod predicts that decreasing G3 is the only way tolower the line flow. The PFC Method, on the other hand,predicts that the line flow can be decreased with moreflexibility. In tests 1, 2, and 6, the line flow is decreasedwithout changing G3. The TESTS portion of Table 2.1shows the sensitivities of lineflow changes vs. the generation changes. Because line 15is also heavily loaded, the sensitivities of line 15 are listedin the TESTS table as well so that a management method,with a minimum impact online 15, can be found. Tests 1to 6 apply 1 MW to each generation change. Test 6 is ableto lower the line flows at both lines 8 and 15. Test 5 isable to drop the line flow at line 8 dramatically whilekeeping the line flow increase at line 15 to a minimum.Case #2: Line 69 is loaded with a total line flow of 5.8089 MW. Based on the MW contribution of eachgenerator to the line flow, the transmission congestionmanagement suggested by the PS Method and the PFC 403.Method are quite different, as shown in the Table 2.ThePS Method predicts that decreasing G3 is the only way tolower the line flow. Conversely, the PFC Method predictsthat the line flow will be decreased, by increasing G3 anddecreasing the power output of the other generators, orwithout changing G3. The TESTS table shows thesensitivities of line flow changes v/s the generationchanges. Tests 1 to 8 apply 1 MW to each generationchange. Tests 1 to 3 show that the PS Method leads to achange in the wrong direction because the line flow at line69 is increased when G3 is decreased. Tests 4 to 8 showthat the PFC Method provides more usable guides andmore alternatives for transmission congestionmanagement.IV.
 
R
EAL AND
R
EACTIVE
P
OWER
C
ONTRIBUTION
F
ACTORS
Algorithm for calculating the contribution factors of eachgenerator to the line flows, losses and loads as proposed in[16] is given below:(a)
 
Perform the base case Newton-Raphson power flow.(b)
 
Compute the sensitivity
Sij
of the real and reactivepower flow
P
ij
and
Q
ij
of a line connected betweenbus-
i
and bus
-j
to real and reactive power output
P
G
 and Q
Gk
of generator-
. The fast-forward/fast-backward substitution method allows an efficientcomputation of the sensitivity[15]:
GijGijGijijp
PggPPPdPdPS
 
1
(1)
CB50MW0.0MWA50MW
CB0.0MW150MWA
150MW
CB50MW150MWA
A: 50.42MWB:
 
16.56MW
 A:99.58MWA: 50.42MW200MW

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