International Conference on Deregulated Environment and Energy Markets, July22-23, 2011
on geographical basis. The zone prices obtained from OPFare used in the following manner:
Generators are paid zone price of energy
The loads must pay the zone price of energyIn case of no congestion, the zone price will be same andthe generators are paid the same price for their energy asthe loads pay. When there is congestion, the zone priceswill differ, each generator is paid its zone price and theloads also pay its zone price for the energy. Thus, the OPF,through different zonal pricing, performs the function of controlling the transmission flows and thus maintaining thetransmission security. The goal of deregulation is toencourage lower electric utility rates by structuring anorderly transition to competitive bulk power markets. Thekey is to open up transmission services, the vital linkbetween sellers and buyers. To achieve the benefits of robust, competitive bulk power markets, all wholesalebuyers and sellers must have equal access to thetransmission grid. Otherwise efficient trades cannot takeplace, and ratepayers will bear unnecessary costs. Problemsarise because all transactions have to share the sametransmission network simultaneously. What portion of thecapacity of a particular transmission system is used by acertain transaction? How can a fair charge be calculatedbased on the capacity usage? Can some transactions beadjusted, or even canceled, when transmission congestionoccurs? Which generator or transaction should beconsidered first for adjustment in congestion management,based on transmission capacity usage?To answer these questions, an algorithm was developedwhich can calculate the contribution from individualgenerator units to the flows and losses trough thetransmission network and at the load centers. This is bothan essential and challenging task. Scholars from Englandwere the first to propose the Flow Based ProportionalSharing Method (PS), based on a strong proportionalsharing assumption, which has not been proven eithercorrect or incorrect at this time [4-8]. Among them, D.Kirschen proposed the famous Topological TraceAlgorithm; J. Bialek proposed the Upstream-Looking andDownstream-Looking algorithms. R. Shoults, whoproposed the Circuits Based Method to challenge thecurrently very popular Flow Based Proportional SharingMethod, believed that the correct method should befou
nded upon established circuits‘ theories. The Circuits
Based Method is comprised of two sub-methods:1.
Current Division method2.
Voltage Division method.
A new method named the ―Power Flow ComparisonMethod‖ (PFC) which makes an effort to conform to the
physical concepts commonly understood and accepted bypower system engineers. These methods are applied to anexample of 6-bus power system, and the results arepresented, compared and discussed to verify theircorrectness. Further applications in transmission charges[9-11] and transmission congestion management [12, 13]show the great practical value of tracing the flow of powerfrom source to load. The impact of corrective actions onone group of lines to other heavily loaded lines is alsoshown.II.P
The Power Flow Comparison Method (PFC) iscomprised of the following procedure to find thecontribution of each generator to the line flows, losses andloads:i)
Calculate the base case power flow.ii)
For the generator of interest, remove generation and acorresponding load from the power system in evenquantities.iii)
Make this generator bus the swing bus and calculatethe power flow againiv)
Find the line flow difference on each transmissionline by comparing the two power flow results above.An example 3-bus power system, shown in Fig 1, isprovided to illustrate this algorithm. Line resistance isignored, and distributed capacitance is considered. Part Iof Fig 1 is the base case power flow result. Part II of theFig 1 is obtained by removing the generation at bus A(150 MW) and its corresponding loads at bus C (150MW)from the base case power system. The contribution of generator A to the line flows can be found by subtractingthe line flow results in Part II from those in Part I. Part IIIof the Figis obtained by removing the generation at bus B(50MW) and its corresponding loads at bus C (50MW)from the base case power system. The contribution of generator B to the line flows can be obtained bysubtracting the line flow results in Part IV from those inPart I. The final results are listed in Part IV. From thisillustration, the reader may be reminded of the distributionfactors method, which shows the sensitivity of the lineflows to changes in generation. It is always easy to removea generator (in a simulation.) It is rather difficult to findthe corresponding loads of this generator, which are
different from the ―contract loads‖. The term―corresponding loads‖ is used to mean the load served by
this particular generator. How they are calculated issummarized in the following paragraphs. It is assumedthat the voltage at each network node will not changemuch when a quantity of generation and its corresponding
loads are ―evenly‖ removed from the network. This is t
―constant voltage‘‘ assumption used in the paper.
Fig.1 (a): Base case power flow