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Prithvi Raj Chauhan

Prithvi Raj Chauhan



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Published by prasgreat
Doc deals with Life of Emperor Prithviraj Chauhan
Doc deals with Life of Emperor Prithviraj Chauhan

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Published by: prasgreat on Oct 24, 2008
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Prithvi Raj Chauhan (1168-1192 CE; pronounced: [pr 
ˈ ː
.han]) Prithvi Raj
ˈ ː
 Chauhan was a king of the Hindu Rajput Chauhan (Chauhamana) dynasty, who ruled akingdom in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century.Prithvi Raj Chauhan was the second last Hindu king to sit upon the throne of Delhi (thelast Hindu king being Hemu). He succeeded to the throne in 1179 CE at the age of 11,and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi. He controlled much of Rajasthanand Haryana, and unified the Rajputs against Muslim invasions. His elopement withSamyukta (Sanyogita), the daughter of Jai Chandra, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Prithviraj's court poet and friend, Chand Bardai.Prithvi Raj fought and defeated the Afghan ruler Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 CE but was then immediately defeated at the Second Battle of Tarain in1192 CE. After his defeat, India was open to invasion by the Mahmud Ghori, and Delhicame under the control of him. Qila Rai Pithora in Delhi, also known as Pithoragarh, isnamed after him.Contents [hide]1 Childhood2 Ancestors3 Conquests4 Elopement with Sanyogita5 Entry of Mohammad Shahab ud-din Ghori and his conquests6 References7 See also[edit]ChildhoodPrithvi Raj Chauhan was born on the 12th of Jyestha in Gujrata, the son of Someswaraand Karpuradevi. As per the planetary positions, his birth was in V. 1223 (or -57 for CE,hence 1166). In V. 1234, Someswara died and Karpuradevi became regent. Prithvirajassumed the reins of administration from circa V.1237/1180 CE and soon found himself engaged in a number of wars.When Someswara ascended the throne of Ajmer and Sakambhari around V. 1226 hisfamily accompanied him there. Coin of Prithiviraja of Chauhans or Chahamanas of Ajmer/Delhi, circa 1179 AD -1192AD.Obv: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.Devnagari Legends : SriPrithvi raja deva'. Rev: Recumbent bull facing left ,trishula on bulls rump,DevnagariLegends : Asavari / Sri Samanta deva.[edit]Ancestors
Vigraharaj, Prithviraj III’s uncle, killed his father to usurp the throne of Ajmer. The parricide did not rule long. His brother Vigraharaj IV appears to have led an uprising andslain him in a battle. As per Prithvirajvijaya, he was the only king of Sakambari clan whodidn’t attain heaven.Vigraharaj is accredited to the capture of Delhi and Hansi from the Tomaras. Theconquest of Delhi turned the Chauhans into an Indian empire. His first fight against themlecchas was in self-defense. The Moslem ruler Hammira invited Vigraharaj intosubmitting his authority. His Prime Minister Sridhara thought it better to buy the invader, but the Chauhan considered it disgraceful. He had decided to protect his friends, theBrahamanas, and sacred places. He not only defeated the attacker but also recovered lostterritory from other Ghaznavites (Mohammad from Ghazni had raided Gujarat half acentury earlier and plundered the Somnath temple).Vigraharaj IV was succeeded by his son Amaragangeya, but he didn’t rule long. He wasslain by Prthvibhata or Prithviraj Chauhan II. Prthvibhata died before the end of theVikrama year V.1226., probably without leaving any issue. The ministers offered thethrone to Someswara, the only surviving son of Arnoraja, who was at that time in Gujarat.[edit]ConquestsKaimbhasa was the chief minister during the regency. As per Raso, he was slain byChauhan upon his return from hunting he found Kaimbhasa in the room of his favouriteconcumbine. As per Prabhandha, he was killed by Chauhan because Chauhan’s ears had been poisoned to believe that Kaimbhasa was responsible for repeated attacks byMuslims in India. Nagarjuna, one of the enemies of Prithviraj II (Prithviraj III’s cousin) decided to takeadvantage of the king’s tenderness and inexperience. He captured the town of Godapura.Prithviraj II marched against him with a large army and laid siege of Godapura. Nagarjuna managed to escape the fort but his wife, mother and followers fell into thehands of the victor with a large amount of booty. Devabhata, an officer of Nagarjuna, andthe remaining soldiers under him, were soon killed and their heads were hung across thegate of the fort of Ajmer.Prithviraj III captured the city of Mahoba, the capital of Chandel monarch Paramala, after a stiff fight with Alha and Udal who were also aided by army from Kannauj.On one of his many wars, Chauhan led a night attack on Dharavarsa Paramara of Abu.The attack is said to be a failure as he was defeated by the warrior brothers Alha-Udal.Legends of Mahoba, a small town in modern Uttar Pradesh even say that Alha was given boon of immortality by goddess Sharada.
[edit]Elopement with SanyogitaThe story as given by Chandra Bardai, Abdul Fazl and Chandrashekhara, the author of Surjanacharita, states that Prithviraj, who loved the beautiful daughter of Jayachandra of Kanauj and had his passion fully reciprocated, succeeded in carrying her off from aswayamvara to which he had deliberately not been invited on account of his rivalry for the overlordship of India. His samantas covered the eloping pair’s flight, engaged theforces pursuing them and fell fighting to the last for their beloved master. Not many werethe heroes who returned to the Chauhan capital where Prithviraj duly married the princessand spent most of his time in the company of the new Queen. ... leaders of units or regiments of Prithviraj’s cavalry swooped almost unexpectedly on the Gahadwala capitalwhile Jayachandra was engaged in certain religious rites and carried off the princess asdesired by Prithviraj III.[edit]Entry of Mohammad Shahab ud-din Ghori and his conquestsGhori was appointed as the governor of Ghazni 1173 CE by elder brother Ghiyas-ud-dinMuhammad and led his first expedition to India in 1175, nearly two years after Prithviraj's accession. He captured Multan from the Karamitah and took Uchcha from theRajput ruler after having him poisoned by his queen. He advanced against Gujarat in1178. By V. 1235, he reached Nadol and captured it. Due to the impending danger to theIndian states, upon arrival of Ghori's messenger suggesting that Chauhan pay homage or tribute to Ghori, Prithviraj saw it as a good time to prepare for a war.The Gujaratis needed help, but they had none from Prithviraj because of the advice of hisChief Minister Kadamvasa. Taking both the Gujaratis and Moslems alike as their enemies, the Chauhans of Ajmer were rather glad to see they were fighting anddestroying each other. Due to a serious reverse sustained by Ghori at the hands of theGujaratis in the battle of Kasahadra, the Chauhans would not taste immediately the fruitof their policy. Chauhan’s failure to help the Gujaratis proved in subsequent yearsdetrimental not merely to the cause of Chauhans but also that of the Hindu nation as awhole.In 1181, Ghori marched to Sialkot and built a fort there. Five years later, he made himself the master of Punjab by treacherously seizing Khusrao Malik, the last Ghaznavite ruler of Lahore. From this new base, he proceeded to the conquest of further Indian territory andnaturally soon came into conflict with Chauhan.The campaign leading to Ghori’s first great battle with Chauhan began in the winter of 1190-91. Advancing from either Ghazni or his new base at Lahore, Ghori capturedTabarhindah in the dominions of Chauhan and put it in the charge of Qazi Ziya-ud-din of Tulak and a garrison of 1200 horsemen, asking them to hold it until he returned thereafter a period of eight months. Before he could leave the fortress, he received thealarming news that Prithviraj and Govindaraj Chauhan were marching towards the fort.

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