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Calculating Intersection of Spherical Caps_part2-JR

Calculating Intersection of Spherical Caps_part2-JR

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09/20/2014

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3. Calculating the angle of the great arc of a spherical cap3.1 OverviewFor each of the reader antennas, the power received by the tag can be obtained from the Friisequation:
22222
ˆˆ)1)(1( )4(),(),(
R R  R R R  R
p pGG P  P
Γ Γ =
π λ φ θ φ θ
If the orientation and the position of the reader antenna plus along withthe position of the tagantenna are known, it is easy to obtain the threshold value of the tag antenna gain below whichthat the specifictag will not be activated. To simplify the formula, weutilize makethe same assumptionsas madein Chapter 4, i.e. the reflection coefficient
Γ
and
R
Γ
are 0 andthe polarization loss factor is 0.5. Then the threshold tag antenna gain can be represented as
22min _
),()4(2 ),(
λ φ θ π φ θ
Rthreshold  R R R
G P  P G
=
,
where
min _
R
P
is the minimum power required to activate the tag.The antenna gain for ahalf-wave dipole antenna isonlya function of only
R
θ
,and whichcan be represented as
2
sincos2cos641.1),(


    =
R R R R R
G
θ θ π φ θ
Therefore, a threshold value of
R
θ
can be obtained for each reader antenna, each of whichcorresponds correspondingto the angle of the greatest arc of the spherical capcreated bythat antenna. To differentiate between different reader antennas,
i
θ
is used to representthe angle of spherical cap cast by reader antenna
i
. The bigger the value of
i
θ
is, the

larger the spherical capis,andthe morethe number of unreadable orientations of the tag  pointthere arewith respect tothe specific reader antenna
i
. ) It is important to notice that
i
θ
in the antenna gain function is the maximum angle between anytwo points on aspherical cap and the reader axis; in other words, it isonlyhalf of the value of the greatarc angle of the spherical cap in Table 1.
3.2 MethodologyA closedform formula to calculate
i
θ
given the threshold value of the dipole antenna gainhas not been found in this research. The difficulty lies in the fact that
    
i
θ π
cos2cosis nota typical trigonometric function. Although based on the plot of the antenna gain in Figure6 below, it doesappear totake asine-likesinusoidalshape, it cannot be approximated  byintoa simple trigonometric function. Figure 7 plots two functions. The first one is
2
sincos2cos


   
ii
θ θ π
,which is the transformed antenna gain functionobtained by dropping the coefficient. The second one is5.02/)2/2sin(
+
π θ
i
, which is constructed in such away that it has the same period,andmaximumand minimumvalues of asthe first one. It can be seen clearly that the second trigonometric function showsadifferent curvaturefrom the antenna gain function.

0 50 100 150 20000.20.40.60.811.21.41.61.8
Figure 6 Dipole antenna gain against
i
θ
00.20.40.60.811.20 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Transformed dipoleantenna gainsin(2θ-π/2)/2+0.5
Figure 7 Comparison between transformed antenna gain and a trigonometric functionTherefore, Iinsteadof attempting a functional approximation, anoff-line look-up table is used in this research to map the value of
i
θ
and that of the corresponding
R
G
.
It isimportant to realize that the threshold value of
i
θ
is unique only for the period of [0,
π/2
)