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Polish Atrocities in Ukraine-John Elliott-NY Herald Tribune-Oct. 1930

Polish Atrocities in Ukraine-John Elliott-NY Herald Tribune-Oct. 1930

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BERLIN, Oct. 15, 1930. — A reign of terror unparalleled in Europe
since the Lloyd George government sent the notorious "Black and
Tans" into Ireland is now prevailing in the Province of East
Galicia, where a Polish military expedition is punishing the
Ukrainian peasantry because of recent destruction by lire of many
farms owned by Poles.
BERLIN, Oct. 15, 1930. — A reign of terror unparalleled in Europe
since the Lloyd George government sent the notorious "Black and
Tans" into Ireland is now prevailing in the Province of East
Galicia, where a Polish military expedition is punishing the
Ukrainian peasantry because of recent destruction by lire of many
farms owned by Poles.

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Published by: Толік Триниті on Jan 10, 2012
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05/31/2014

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THE REPORT OF MR. JOHN ELLIOTT, OF THE NEW YORKHERALD TRIBUNE.POLISH RAIDERS SCOURGE EAST GALICIA FOR PLOTTO FORM UKRAINIAN EMPIRE.Armed Force Loots, Flogs and Taxes the Peasantry as Incendiarism Is Laid toNationalist Scheme.BARBARITY KINDLING SEDITION AND SPITE.By JOHN ELLIOTT.From the Herald Tribune Bureau Copyright, 1930.New York Tribune Inc.BERLIN, Oct. 15, 1930. — A reign of terror unparalleled in Europesince the Lloyd George government sent the notorious "Black andTans" into Ireland is now prevailing in the Province of EastGalicia, where a Polish military expedition is punishing theUkrainian peasantry because of recent destruction by lire of manyfarms owned by Poles.The wave of incendiarism has been ascribed to a terroristicorganization which hopes to tear East Galicia from Polish ruleand unite its 3,000,000 Ukrainian inhabitants with the UkraineSoviet Republic in a Ukrainian empire.Peasants Brutally Flogged.In the Ukrainian villages of the district, priests and peasantsare being brutally flogged with the knout (a lash consisting ofa tapering bundle of leather thongs twisted with wire and hardened so as to manglethe body) and women shamefully mishandled, the thatched cottages of the peasantsunroofed, schoolsclosed, co-operative stores looted, libraries demolished and ruinousrequisitions for foodstuffs levied on the villages by the Polishcavalry and police sent into the country-side on a so-called "mission ofpacification."The object of the military is to put down a terroristic cam-paign begun by a secret Ukrainian organization which is instigating high schoolyouths to burn crops and barns of Polish land-owners. Unfortunately, in the discharge of their duty of restoring order, thePolish troops are punishing indiscriminately theinnocent with the guilty and so kindling a spirit of sedition andrevenge , among the Ukrainians living in East Galicia, who lookback with regret upon the easy-going pre-war Austrian rule.Stories of Barbarism Recounted.This correspondent has just returned from a trip to Lemberg,the capital of the afflicted provinces, where he listened to detailsof cruelties and barbarism of the Polish troops that would beincredible if they did, not come from sources whose trustworthiness is beyondquestion. The correspondent had the opportunity to discuss the situation with Andre
 
Scheptycky, Metropolitan of the Greek Catholic Church in East Galicia, just afterthqi prelate returned from Warsaw, where he protested to Polishauthorities regarding the deplorable effect the tactics of the troopsare having upon the Ukrainian, population living in Poland.This, so-called "pacification" the Metropolitan declared, "hasresulted in outrages connived at by police and military officers inthe Villages where they are supposed to keep order. The troopssystematically destroy public and private property of the Ukrainian ruralpopulation. I endeavored to draw the attention ofthe authorities to the fact that the whole peaceful population can-not collectively take responsibility for single cases of incendiarismwhich are accomplished without their knowledge. Tactics ofthe .military do not, in the least, prevent perpetrators of freshincendiarism from getting off unpunished, despite the inhumanpersecutions of the innocent population."In this campaign of repression at least 200,000 Ukrainianshave been arrested and thrown in jail*), including sixteen oftwenty-six representatives of the Ukrainian national party in thelast Sejm, as the lower house of the Polish Parliament is called.One of the priests flogged by Polish soldiers, Eugen Mandziy, living at Bohatkivtsi — has died from the effect of the blows given him.The "pacificatory" system of the Polish soldiers consists ofraiding a village suspected of being implicated in the destructionof the farm of a neighboring Polish landowner. The principalmen of the village — the mayor, priest, heads of co-operativesocieties and leaders of sports and reading clubs — are summonedbefore the commander of the Polish detachment. The Ukrainiansare required to give information regarding acts of incendiarismand to hand over all arms. If their answers are consideredunsatisfactory,- this is generally the case — they get sixtyor ninety blows from the knout, which used to be employed inPoland only by emissaries of the Russian Czar. If the victimsfaint under the blows, they are sometimes revived by throwingcold water over them, and then flogging begins anew.The Polish soldiers have been no respecters of sex, and inmany villages women have been subjected to these mercilesswhippings. Sometimes in their search for arms the soldiersremove the thatched roofs from the cottages and then depart,leaving the hapless occupants exposed to the less brutal treatmentof the elements.Signs of Nationality Destroyed.The native Ukrainian garb and Ukrainian needlework is destroyed wherever seen inhomes of the peasants, for the objective of the Polish military commanders isruthlessly to eradicate all Vestiges of Ukrainian nationality. For this reason theUkrainian co-operative stores and creameries, reading rooms andlibraries have been destroyed. Priests are forced to cry outloud "Long live Pilsudski!" (Marshal Joseph Pilsudski, Premierand virtual dictator of Poland) or "Hurrah for the Polish Republic" under threat ofbeing flogged until they are made unconscious if they refrain from so doing.When the troops enter a village they requisition grain, milk,bread, eggs and vegetables, of course without payment. The
 
community so visited must pay not only for food and drink forsoldiers, but even for "smokes." Some unfortunate villages havebeen raided three and even four times by troops. Ukrainianstold me that the horrors they have undergone in the last fortnight — it was only atthe end of September that the Polish troops commenced their primitive expeditions — exceeded the miseries they experienced in the World War or in the Russo-Polish Warin 1920.The Polish military action was a reprisal for a systematiccampaign of terror instituted by Ukrainian conspirators againstPolish private property. This campaign began last June, butreached its height in August and September. In many respectsit bears a marked resemblance to the acts of English landownersin Ireland during the '80s of the last century.In the three districts into which East Galicia is divided — Lemberg, Ternopol and Stanislavov — nearly 200 cases of in-cendiarism have been perpetrated against the Polish landownersin the last three months. This conspiracy is engineered by aterrorism society known as the Ukrainian Military Organization,whose directors aspire to liberate East Galicia from Polish ruleand link it up with the Soviet Ukraine in a Ukrainian empire.They dream of a great state extending from the Caspian Sea tothe frontiers of Hungary.The head of this secret society is Eugene Konovalec, whodirects its operation from Geneva, the city which once gave shelterto Lenin and Trotzky. This Ukrainian leader was born inLemberg, the son of a state official who today draws a pensionfrom the Polish government. Konovalec, like Pilsudski, servedin the World War as an Austrian officer and later a corps commander under GeneralSimon Petlura when that ill-fated Ukrainian leader tried to effect the independenceof his country from Soviet Russia.In 1920 Konovalec helped to form the Ukrainian MilitaryOrganization, after the Ukrainian forces in East Galicia had beensubdued by the Poles. Two years later he was forced to fleefrom Lemberg because of his illegal activities. He went firstto Berlin, but lately has moved to Geneva. It is reported thathis organization is largely supported by subsidies sent to himfront the large Ukrainian colony living in Canada.According to one version, it was the insistence of the Ukrainian Canadians, whodemanded something to show for their money, which brought about inauguration of theterrorist campaign in East Galicia in June. The acts of incendiarism aregenerally committed by youths in secondary schools. The Ukrainians assert that inmany cases the Poles themselves have burned their barns and silos, in order tocollect insurance. With grain drawing such low prices these days owing to theworld-wide overproduction, it is often more profitable to destroy the cropsthan to sell them.Careful Planning Indicated.The Ukrainians also claim that in a number of instancesCommunists have perpetrated crimes against the Polish farmers.Authorities point out, however, that after nearly every fire abottle containing the same chemical is found in the neighborhood,indicating that the outrages are not sporadic, but carefullyplanned by the same organization.

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