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Heater Selection Matrix

Heater Selection Matrix

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Published by Elias
Watlows Heater Selection Matrix
Heating: Solids
Watlows Heater Selection Matrix
Heating: Solids

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Elias on Nov 12, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/27/2011

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5
 C  u s t   o m e s si   s t   an c e
Heater SelectionMatrix
Heating: Solids
Band
Clamped to cylindrical surfaces, i.e. extrusion barrels Aluminized Steeland nozzles. mica insulation*20–55
x
(3–8.5) 900 (480)
23
Stainless Steel withmica insulation*20–55
x
(3–8.5) 1000 (540)
23
Stainless Steel withmineral insulation*30–200
x
(4.6–31) 1400 (760)
13
Zinc Steel withmica insulation*20–55
x
(3–8.5) 900 (480)
23Cable
Can be formed to heat flat or curved surfaces, or wound Inconel
 ® 
oraround the object being heated. Typical applications Stainless Steel 30 (4.6) 1200 (650)
57
include platen heating and plastic injection moldingnozzles.
Cartridge
Inserted into a close fit hole, i.e. platens, dies and molds. Incoloy
 ® 
**up to 600
(93) 1600 (870)
75
Stainless Steel**up to 600
(93) 1000 (540)
75Cast-in
Integrating a tubular or cable heating element into a Aluminum 60 (9.3) 700 (370)
135
casting to form a heated part. Commonly used to reducethe total number of equipment parts.
Ceramic
Form the heaters into an oversized chamber to surround Molded Ceramic Fiber 30 (4.6) 2200 (1205)
141Fiber
the object being heated. Using radiant and convectionheat transfer, ceramic fiber heaters are used as ovensand furnaces.
Flexible
Bonded or otherwise fastened to the part. Commonly Kapton
 ® 
20 (3.1) 390 (200)
189
used to heat irregular surfaces and shapes, or applica- Mica 50 (7.8) 1100 (595)
193
tions requiring distributed wattage or limited space. Neoprene 2 (0.3) 250 (120)
191
Silicone Rubber 10 (1.6) 500 (260)
169Multicell
Loosely inserted into a platen hole for radiant heating. Inconel
 ® 
**60
(9.3) 2250 (1230)
195
Can also be used in any static or dynamic non-contact Incoloy
 ® 
application as a radiant heat source. Commonly used Stainless Steelfor extreme high temperature applications, i.e. glass bend-ing and tempering or super plastic forming and diffusionbonding of titanium and other exotic aerospace alloys.
Radiant
Used in any static or dynamic, non-contact application Incoloy
 ® 
Tubular 40 (6.2) 1500 (815)
217
where conduction or convection heating isn’t practical. Molded CeramicCommonly used in laminating processes, thermoforming Fiber 30 (4.6) 2000 (1095)
211
and paint drying. Note: quartz tubes supply quick heat Quartz Tube 45 (7) 1600 (870)
225
up and cool down.Stainless SteelEmitter Strip 30 (4.6) 1300 (700)
224Strip
Bolted or clamped to surface of, i.e. dies, molds, ovens. Aluminized Steel withOften used for freeze and moisture protection. refractory insulation+50
(7.7) 1200 (650)
241
Stainless Steel withmica insulation+35
(5.4) 1000 (540)
233
Stainless Steel withmineral insulation+100
(15.5) 1400 (760)
229
Zinc-coated Steelwith mica insulation+25
(3.8) 900 (480)
233Tubular
Clamped to the object to be heated, usually exterior Flat: Incoloy
 ® 
40 (6.2) 1400 (760)
299
surfaces of tanks or other process vessels or fitted into Stainless Steel 40 (6.2) 1200 (650)
299
milled grooves in a platen. Round: Incoloy
 ® 
40 (6.2) 1600 (870)
273
Stainless Steel 40 (6.2) 1200 (650)
273TypicalHeater Application Description Sheath Maximum Watt Maximum Operating CatalogType Materials Densities Temperatures Page
W/in
2
(W/cm
2
)°F (°C)
x
Figures shown are typical watt density ranges. Band size and thermal characteristics of the material heated will determine recommended watt density.
Applications and heater constructions differ. Consult the application section in this catalog for more detailed application information.
These are typical maximum watt densities. Heater clamping, environmental conditions and material being heated will determine recommended watt densities.Kapton
 ® 
is a registered trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Incoloy
 ® 
and Inconel
 ® 
are registered trademarks of the Special Metals Corporation.
 
6
Heater SelectionMatrix
Band
Clamped to cylindrical surfaces, most commonly used to Aluminized Steelheat liquids flowing through pipes as freeze protection. mica insulation*20–55
a
 (3–8.5) 900 (480)
23
Stainless Steel withmica insulation*20–55
(3–8.5) 1000 (540)
23
Stainless Steel withmineral insulation*30–200
(4.6–31) 1400 (760)
13
Zinc Steel withmica insulation*20–55
(3–8.5) 900 (480)
23Cable
Wrapped or wound around pipe or vessel containing a Inconel
 ® 
orliquid, or used directly as an immersion heater. Often used Stainless Steel 30 (4.6) 1200 (650)
57
in applications with space limitations, i.e. photo process-ing equipment, scientific instruments and heat tracing.
Cartridge
Used as an immersion heater placed either directly in the Incoloy
 ® 
up to 300 (46.5) 212 (100)
111
liquid, or in a protective well. Recommeded for immersion in waterin waterin water or 90+ percent water soluble solutions.
Cast-in
Cast with passages through which liquids pass and are Aluminum 60 (9.3) 700 (370)
135
heated, functioning as a circulation heater or clampedaround a barrel or pipe. Most often used where long life,resistance to contamination and reliability are critical.
Ceramic
Assemble heaters into a chamber which surrounds the Molded Ceramic Fiber 30 (4.6) 2200 (1205)
141Fiber
tank, vessel, crucible or bath. Radiant and convectionheat transfer heat the load.
Flexible
Applied to the surface of a pipe or vessel containing Kapton
 ® 
20 (3.1) 390 (200)
189
a liquid. Well suited for curved surfaces and irregular Neoprene 2 (0.3) 250 (120)
191
shaped objects. Frequently used for freeze protection. Silicone Rubber 10 (1.6) 500 (260)
169Strip
Bolted or clamped to the wall of a tank or vessel. Used Aluminized Steel within food warming and other applications offering a flat refractory insulation+50
(7.7) 1200 (650)
241
mounting surface.Stainless Steel withmica insulation+30
(4.6) 1000 (540)
233
Stainless Steel withmineral insulation+100
(15.5) 1400 (760)
229
Zinc Steel withmica insulation+25
(3.8) 900 (480)
233Tubular
Immersed directly in the liquid being heated. Most Flat: Incoloy
 ® 
60 (9.3) 1400 (760)
299
commonly used when high kilowatts are required. Stainless Steel 60 (9.3) 1200 (650)
299
Multiple style mounting adaptors, such as flanges and Round: Copper 60 (9.3) 350 (180)
273
NPT fittings, provide excellent pressure boundaries. Incoloy
 ® 
60 (9.3) 1600 (870)
273
Stainless Steel 60 (9.3) 1200 (650)
273
Steel 60 (9.3) 750 (400)
273TypicalHeater Application Description Sheath Maximum Watt Maximum Operating CatalogType Materials Densities Temperatures Page
W/in
2
(W/cm
2
)°F (°C)
Heating: Gases
TypicalHeater Application Description Sheath Maximum Watt Maximum Operating CatalogType Materials Densities Temperatures Page
W/in
2
(W/cm
2
)°F (°C)
Cable
Cable heaters are sinuated or wound into coils which can Inconel
 ® 
orbe inserted into a pipe or vessel to heat flowing air or Stainless Steel 30 (4.6) 1200 (650)
57
gases. Cable heaters readily lend themselves to appli-cations where space is restricted.
Cartridge
Mounted in pipes or vessels through which gases pass. Incoloy
 ® 
orConsultCan be placed in protection tubes, making access and Stainless Steel 400 (62) Watlow
75
wiring easier.
CONTINUED 
Heating: Liquids/Surface Heating and Immersion
These are typical maximum watt densities. Heater clamping, environmental conditions and material being heated will determine recommended watt densities.
Per application
 
7
 C  u s t   o m e s si   s t   an c e
Heater SelectionMatrix
Heating: Gases
Continued
TypicalHeater Application Description Sheath Maximum Watt Maximum Operating CatalogType Materials Densities Temperatures Page
W/in
2
(W/cm
2
)°F (°C)
Ceramic
Used to construct chambers and furnaces through which Molded Ceramic Fiber 30 (4.6) 2200 (1205)
141Fiber
gases are passed. Heaters function as high temperatureradiant heaters surrounding transfer pipes or otherspecial vessels.
Flexible
Applied to the surface of a pipe or vessel containing gases. Kapton
 ® 
5 (0.8) 390 (200)
189
Well suited for curved surfaces and irregular shaped Neoprene 2 (0.3) 250 (120)
191
objects. Excellent for use in enclosures. Silicone Rubber 5 (0.8) 500 (260)
169Multicell
Multiple elements placed in a duct or vessel through Inconel
 ® 
*60
d
 (9.3) 2100 (1150)
195
which gases pass. Designs also available to heat pass Incoloy
 ® 
tube externally to isolate gas from the element. Excellentfor use in high temperature/high pressure applications.
Strip
Generally modified with the addition of fins to increase Aluminized Steel withsurface area. Commonly used for air heating, drying refractory insulation
^
60
e
 (9.3) 1200 (650)
241
ovens and space heaters.Stainless Steel withmica insulation
^
20
e
 (3) 1000 (540)
233
Stainless Steel withmineral insulation
^
100
c
 (15.5) 1400 (760)
229
Zinc-coated Steelwith mica insulation
^
20
e
 (3) 900 (480)
233Tubular
Multiple elements mounted in an array and placed in a Flat: Incoloy
 ® 
30 (4.6) 1400 (760)
299
duct or vessel through which gases pass. Flat tubular Stainless Steel 30 (4.6) 1200 (650)
299
elements can be modified with the addition of fins to Round: Incoloy
 ® 
30 (4.6) 1600 (870)
273
increase surface area.Inconel
 ® 
30(4.6)1800(980)
Per application
These are typical maximum watt densities. Ambient temperature and flow will determine recommended watt density.
Band
Clamped to cylindrical surfaces. Sealed heaterStainless Steel withconstruction with special lead end seal. mineral insulation 30-100 (4.6-15.5)
a
 1400 (760)
23Cable
Wound into a coil or sinuated and mounted in a vacuum Inconel
 ® 
orvessel for radiant energy transfer. Stainless Steel 30 (4.6) 1200 (650)
57Cartridge
Mounted in a vacuum vessel for radiant energy transfer. Incoloy
 ® 
*up to 35
(5.4) 1600 (870)
75
Stainless Steel*up to 35
(5.4) 1000 (540)
75Cast-in
Construction of a vacuum vessel with cast-in heaters so Aluminum 60 (9.3) 700 (370)
135
that interior surface acts as a radiant heater. Possiblezoned interior surface.
Ceramic
Surround the exterior of a vacuum vessel, using radiant Molded Ceramic Fiber 30 (4.6) 2200 (1205)
141Fiber
energy for heat transfer.
Flexible
Applied to the exterior surface of a pipe or vessel. Kapton
 ® 
7 (1.1) 390 (200)
189
Well suited for curved surfaces and irregular shaped Neoprene 2 (0.3) 250 (120)
191
objects. Note: Kapton is the only flexible heater type Silicone Rubber 10 (1.6) 500 (260)
169
recommended for use inthe vacuum.
Multicell
Mounted in a vacuum vessel for radiant energy transfer. Inconel
 ® 
*60
(9.3) 2250 (1230)
195
Stainless Steel
Radiant
Mounted in a vacuum vessel for radiant energy transfer. Stainless Steel 30 (4.6) 1300 (700)
215Tubular
Mounted in a vacuum vessel for radiant energy transfer. Flat: Incoloy
 ® 
30 (4.6) 1400 (760)
299
Stainless Steel 30 (4.6) 1200 (650)
299
Round: Incoloy
 ® 
30 (4.6) 1600 (870)
299
Inconel
 ® 
30(4.6)1800(980)
Heating: Vacuums
TypicalHeater Application Description Sheath Maximum Watt Maximum Operating CatalogType Materials Densities Temperatures Page
W/in
2
(W/cm
2
)°F (°C)
Per application
Non-magnetic stainless steel available.

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