warming?". Broecker's choice of words was new and represented a significant recognition that theclimate was warming; previously the phrasing used by scientists was "inadvertent climatemodification," because while it was recognized humans could change the climate, no one was surewhich direction it was going. The National Academy of Sciences first used global warming in a1979 paper called the Charney Report, it said: "if carbon dioxide continues to increase, [we find]no reason to doubt that climate changes will result and no reason to believe that these changes willbe negligible." The report made a distinction between referring to surface temperature changesas global warming, while referring to other changes caused by increased CO
as climate change.Global warming became more widely popular after 1988 when NASA climate scientist James Hansen used the term in a testimony to Congress He said: "global warming has reached a levelsuch that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship betweenthe greenhouse effect and the observed warming." His testimony was widely reported and afterwardglobal warming was commonly used by the press and in public discourse. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and
pattern of precipitation
Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the natureof these regional changes is uncertain. In a 4 °C world, the limits for human adaptation are likely tobe exceeded in many parts of the world, while the limits for adaptation for natural systems would largely be exceeded throughout the world. Hence, the ecosystem services upon which humanlivelihoods depend would not be preserved.
,which exerts a coolingeffect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. The effects of the products of fossil fuelcombustion
have largely offset one another in recent decades, so that net warming has been due to the increase in non-CO
greenhouse gases such as methane. Radiative forcing due to particulates is temporally limited due to wet deposition which causes them to have
noticeable in marine stratiform clouds, and have very little radiative effect on convective clouds. Indirect effects of particulates represent the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing.