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Etymology

Etymology

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Published by Jordan Aguilar

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Published by: Jordan Aguilar on Jan 29, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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 EtymologyThe term global warming was probably first used in its modern sense on 8 August 1975 in a science paper by Wally Broecker  in the journal Science called "Are we on the brink of a pronounced global
 
warming?". Broecker's choice of words was new and represented a significant recognition that theclimate was warming; previously the phrasing used by scientists was "inadvertent climatemodification," because while it was recognized humans could change the climate, no one was surewhich direction it was going. The National Academy of Sciences first used global warming in a1979 paper called the Charney Report, it said: "if carbon dioxide continues to increase, [we find]no reason to doubt that climate changes will result and no reason to believe that these changes willbe negligible." The report made a distinction between referring to surface temperature changesas global warming, while referring to other changes caused by increased CO
2
as climate change.Global warming became more widely popular after 1988 when NASA climate scientist   James Hansen used the term in a testimony to Congress He said: "global warming has reached a levelsuch that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship betweenthe greenhouse effect and the observed warming." His testimony was widely reported and afterwardglobal warming was commonly used by the press and in public discourse. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and   pattern of   precipitation
 
 ,and a probable expansion of  subtropical deserts.Warming is expected to
 
be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of 
 
 ,  permafrost  and  sea ice.Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent 
 
occurrence of  extreme weather  events including heat waves ,droughts and heavy rainfall events ,species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. 
 
Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the natureof these regional changes is uncertain. In a 4 °C world, the limits for human adaptation are likely tobe exceeded in many parts of the world, while the limits for adaptation for natural systems would largely be exceeded throughout the world. Hence, the ecosystem services upon which humanlivelihoods depend would not be preserved.
 soot
 
 ,a gradual reduction in the amount of global direct  irradiance at the Earth's surface, has partially counteracted global warming from 1960 to the present. The main cause of thisdimming is particulates produced by volcanoes and human made  pollutants
 
 ,which exerts a coolingeffect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. The effects of the products of fossil fuelcombustion
 — 
CO
2
and aerosols
 — 
have largely offset one another in recent decades, so that net warming has been due to the increase in non-CO
2
greenhouse gases such as methane. Radiative forcing due to particulates is temporally limited due to wet deposition which causes them to have
 
an atmospheric lifetime of one week. Carbon dioxide has a lifetime of a century or more, and as
 
such, changes in particulate concentrations will only delay climate changes due to carbon dioxide. In addition to their direct effect by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, particulates haveindirect effects on the radiation budget. Sulfates act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead to clouds that have more and smaller cloud droplets. These clouds reflect solar radiation moreefficiently than clouds with fewer and larger droplets, known as the Twomey effect .-This effect also
 
causes droplets to be of more uniform size, which reduces growth of raindrops and makes the cloud 
 
more reflective to incoming sunlight, known as the  Albrecht effect .Indirect effects are most 
 
noticeable in marine stratiform clouds, and have very little radiative effect on convective clouds. Indirect effects of particulates represent the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing.

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