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growth. The American Diabetes Association estimated that the US economy lost $58 billion,approximately half of the direct healthcare expenditure ondiabetesin 2007, because of lostearningsdue to lost work days, restricted activity days, lower productivity at work, mortality andpermanent disability caused by diabetes.
The main goals of diabetes treatments are to keepblood glucoselevels under control and toprevent long-term complications. Diet and exercise, oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and GLP-1 (glucagon like peptides) agonists are the major options available for the treatment of type 2diabetes. The treatment options are chosen either individually or in combination depending onstage and severity. Diet and exercise are also critically important as 95% of patients with type 2diabetes are obese, a major risk factor for the disease. Obese peoples are at five times more risk of diabetes than those who are a normal weight. For this reason, major pharmaceuticalcompanies focus their biomedical research on the monitoring, control, and treatment of diabetesmellitusand its complications. There has been a significant increase in number of playersinvolved indiabetes researchover the last five years. Drug makers are also more focused onmetabolic disease as it represents one of the largest areas of unmet need in medicine with hugemarket opportunities and is increasing with the obesity epidemic.
The American Diabetes Association estimated that the USeconomy lost $58 billion, approximately half of the directhealthcare expenditure on diabetes
Currently available treatment options meet desired efficacy levels but the market has unmetneeds in terms of safety and patient compliance. This implies that the market is moderatelyserved by the current treatment options and that significant potential exists for new entrants.Glitazones, a type of oral anti-diabetic drug, were found to lead to cardiovascular risks indiabetespatients. In 2000, Rezulin (troglitazone), which treated more than 2 million diabetespatients, was found to cause severe side effects such as liver damage and heart problems. Thedrug was pulled from the market on March 21, 2000, following a request from the US FDA.In 2007, Avandia (rosiglitazone), marketed by GlaxoSmithKline, treated more than 6 milliondiabetic patients and brought in more than $1.8 billion in revenue. However, sales declinedsharply after studies discovered that Avandia had been associated with a 40% increase in severeheart risks, congestive heart failure and osteoporosis. According to Sen. Charles Grassley (R-Iowa), approximately 100,000 heart attacks may have been linked to Avandia. Following areview of the data, in September 2010 the European Medicines Agency asked GlaxoSmithklineto withdraw Avandia from the European market and the US FDA asked for it to be used in arestricted class of patients with a new warning.