|Views: 7
|Likes: 0

Published by Pomac232

See more

See less

M. Gleiser and J. Thorarinson (2007),

Phase transition in U(1) configuration space:Oscillons as remnants of vortex-antivortex annihilation

. Physical Review D, 76 (4).Art. No. 041701.Copyright ©2007 The American Physical Society.Link to article on publisher's website:http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.76.041701

Phase transition in U(1) conﬁguration space: Oscillons as remnants of vortex-antivortexannihilation

M. Gleiser*and J. Thorarinson

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA

(Received 31 January 2007; published 15 August 2007)We show that the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs can lead to very long-lived oscillon states in 2dAbelian Higgs models. The emergence of oscillons is controlled by the ratio of scalar and vector ﬁeldmasses,

m

s

=m

v

2

and can be described as a phase transition in ﬁeld conﬁguration space with criticalvalue

c

’

0

:

13

6

2

: only models with

<

c

lead to oscillonlike remnants. The critical behavior of the system obeys a power law

O

j

ÿ

c

j

o

, where

O

is an order parameter indicating the presenceof oscillons and

o

0

:

2

2

2

is the critical exponent.

I. INTRODUCTION

In relativistic and nonrelativistic ﬁeld theories, modelsthat exhibit spontaneous symmetry breaking support aplethora of topologically stable ﬁeld conﬁgurations ordefects [1], static solutions of the nonlinear equations of motion with properties determined by the topology of thevacuum manifold. One of the simplest examples is the kink in 1d

4

models, the result of a discrete symmetry break-ing: the vacuum has two disconnected points and the kink interpolates between them. Once formed, kinks cannot bedestroyed. Unless, of course, they meet an antikink. Low-momentum kink-antikink scattering leads to the formationof breathers, long-lived time-dependent bound states char-acterized by large-amplitude oscillations of the scalar ﬁeld[2]. At larger velocities, breathers havebeen shownto formonly at certain windows or resonances [3]. Although

4

breathers have not been seen to decay in numerical studies[3], they may decay via nonperturbative effects [4], radiat-
ing their energy to spatial inﬁnity.In 2d, the simplest stable topological defect with local-ized energy is the Nielsen-Olesen vortex found in AbelianHiggs models (AHMs) [1]. These vortices are of greatinterest in many areas of physics, e.g., as prototypes forstudying nonperturbative effects in the standard model andits extensions, or, in the nonrelativistic limit, as Abrikosovvortices in the Landau-Ginzburg theory of superconduc-tivity [5]. Vortex-like solutions may also have a variety of cosmological roles, being formed during a phase transitionat the grand uniﬁed theory (GUT) scale or thereafter [1,6]
or during reheating after inﬂation [7].Inspired by the existence of long-lived breathers in 1d

4

models, in this work we investigate the annihilation of boundconﬁgurationsofvortices andantivortices inAHMs.Vortices and antivortices carry equal and opposite topo-logical charge. This allows for their annihilation. The onlyadjustable parameter in the model is

=

2

g

2

, the ratioof squared masses of the scalar and vector ﬁelds. We willshow that for

smaller than a critical value

c

, vortex-antivortex (henceforth vav) annihilation does give rise tohigher-dimensional breatherlike conﬁgurations known asoscillons [8], also characterized by long-lived oscillationsofthe Higgsﬁeld magnitude. Theywere foundin 2d[9],3d[10], and higher-dimensional real scalar ﬁeld models [11].
Their properties have been studied in great detail [12].Long-lived oscillatory solutions have also been found inthe decay of sphalerons in the 1d AHM [13]. Recently,oscillons were found in 3d gauged SU(2) models [14] andgauged

SU

2

U

1

W

boson mass.In the above references, the procedure was to solve therelevant equations of motion assuming or not sphericalsymmetry and using an initial proﬁle that approximatesthe oscillon solution. So long as certain conditions aresatisﬁed [11], the system relaxes into oscillons as it evolvesin time. Here, we show that oscillons may also emergedynamically, as remnants of vav annihilation. (Previousattempts to ﬁnd oscillons in vortex-vortex scattering wereunsuccessful [16].) Our ﬁnding complements recent resultswhere oscillons were shown to form after a rapid quench inreal scalar ﬁeld models with symmetric [17] and asymmet-ric [18] potentials. The fact that oscillons may emergedynamically raises their stakes considerably: they canplay a crucial role during spontaneous symmetry breakingin a variety of physical systems and situations, from theearly universe to high energy collisions, and possibly insuperﬂuids and superconductors.

II. THE MODEL

The Abelian Higgs Lagrangian density is

L

D

y

D

ÿ

14

F

F

ÿ

4

y

ÿ

2

2

;

(1)where

D

@

ÿ

igA

. The scalar and vector massesare, respectively,

m

s

p

and

m

v

2

p

g

. Their ratiodeﬁnes the parameter

m

s

=m

v

2

=

2

g

2

. In the non-relativistic limit,

1

deﬁnes the boundary between

*gleiser@dartmouth.edu

thorvaldur@dartmouth.eduPHYSICAL REVIEW D

76,

041701(R) (2007)

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

1550-7998

=

2007

=

76(4)

=

041701(5) 041701-1

©

2007 The American Physical Society

Type I (

<

1

) and Type II (

>

1

) superconductors. Withthe scaling

A

!

ÿ

1

A

,

!

ÿ

1

and

x

!

gx

, theenergy is

E

2

R

M

d

2

x

H

, where the Hamiltonian den-sity in the temporal gauge

A

0

0

is

H

12

E

2

B

2

@

t

y

@

t

D

i

y

D

i

2

y

ÿ

1

2

:

D

D

ÿ

2

j

j

2

ÿ

2

;

@

F

j

2

g

Im

f

y

D

g

:

(3)Nielsen-Olesen vortices are solutions satisfying

r

e

in

f

r

and

A

r

ÿ

n=gr

r

, with boundary condi-tions at spatial inﬁnity [

r

x

2

y

2

1

=

2

!1

]

f

r

;

r

!

1

.

n

is the winding number. At the vortexcenter,

f

0

0

0

. Vortices have a quantized mag-netic ﬂux

B

2

n=g

. For a vav pair, the net ﬂux is zero.Quantities are measured in units of

1

.

III. LATTICE IMPLEMENTATION

We work on the temporal gauge

A

0

0

and follow theHamiltonian implementation for lattice gauge theories de-scribed in Refs. [16,19]. The discrete Hamiltonian is

H

X

x

H

x

;

x

x

2

;

(4)where the density is

H

y

x

x

~

D

y

x

~

D

x

12

~ E

x

~ E

x

12

x

2

X

i

Þ

j

A

i x

j

ÿ

A

i x

ÿ

A

j x

i

A

j x

2

V

y

x

x

;

(5)and the lattice covariant derivative is

D

e

ÿ

igxA

x

x

ÿ

x

x

ÿ

1

. The Hamiltonian density isinvariant under that lattice gauge transformations

x

!

e

i

x

x

;

x

!

e

i

x

x

;

A

x

!

A

x

x

ÿ

x

=

gx

;

E

x

!

E

x

:

(6)The equations of motion are then

@

t

x

ÿ

@

x

X

x

H

x

;

x

;

@

t

x

@

x

X

x

H

x

;

x

(7)for each of the ﬁelds

f

;E

i

g

and

f

;A

i

g

. Thetemporal evolution follows a second-order leapfrogscheme with

t <x=

2

p

. Provided that the initial condi-tions satisfy the lattice Gauss’s law constraint,

1

x

X

i

E

i x

ÿ

i

ÿ

E

i x

i

x

y

x

ÿ

y

x

x

;

(8)it will remain satisﬁed during the evolution. This can beimplemented by, e.g., setting all temporal derivatives tozero as the simulation starts. Energy is conserved to

O

t

2

. We used

t

0

:

02

and

x

0

:

2

and checkedthat the results are consistent for

x

f

0

:

1

$

0

:

3

g

.Larger values compromise the accuracy of the results.Since we use periodic boundary conditions, to preventenergy from the initial condition to come back to theconﬁguration we use a lattice much larger then the regionoccupied by the vav pair. However, as oscillons are verylong-lived, we also use an adiabatic absorbing wall [9]implemented by adding gauge invariant

x;y

termsto the evolution equations, where

x;y

has support onlyon a band near the lattice boundary and slowly increasesfrom

0

!

0

:

1

.

IV. VORTEX-ANTIVORTEX ANNIHILATION:RESULTS

We set the initial conditions by using an

ansatz

thatapproximates a vav pair separated by an initial distance

0

. This is then allowed to evolve in time under theequations of motion, Eq. (3), at high viscosity [we set

x;y

1

] until it settles into the vav conﬁguration. Atlarge

0

and for

1

(the case of interest to us) wecomputed numerically the total energy of a vortex, ﬁndinga good ﬁt for

E

v

2

1

=

5

;

(9)which agrees near the region

1

E

g

E

2

B

2

=

2

, can be ﬁtted as

E

g

6

p

1

=

4

:

(10)After the initial

ansatz

settles into a vav pair, we let themapproach until their centers reach the distance

i

4

m

ÿ

1

s

,large enough to avoid any tail overlap [20]. At this point,we set the viscosity to zero and let the pair attract andscatter. We then repeat the experiment for different valuesof

0

:

08

, where an oscillon is formed.We plot both the amplitude

j

j

2

and the magnetic ﬁeld

B

z

.One can see the outgoing wave front of radiation (center)as the vortices coalesce into the oscillon and its oscillatingdipole magnetic ﬁeld (right).In Fig.2we plot the associated energy (

H

) and Chern-Simons (

n

CS

) densities, where

n

CS

4

ÿ

1

"

A

F

.Note that oscillons have a distinctive signature (localizedoscillations of

n

cs

, top right) and thus could have aninteresting role in theories with current anomalies of theform

@

J

B

/

F

~

F

leading to baryogenesis, including dur-

M. GLEISER AND J. THORARINSON PHYSICAL REVIEW D

76,

041701(R) (2007)

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

041701-2

scribd