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data_analysis_and_interpretation_lab

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05/09/2014

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION LAB
SPSS TUTORIAL
PART I: DESCRIBING DATA, CONFIDENCE INTERVALS, CORRELATION (WEEK
8)
There is a data set posted on the BlackBoard site that you can use to follow along
FIRST OFF: HOW TO FIND/USE SPSS

On DePaul lab computers, go to PROGRAMS, then STATISTICAL SOFTWARE and
click on SPSS
Alternatively, you can open a pre-existing data set (like the one used for this lab) and it

should open up SPSS.
In SPSS, you can enter your data and calculate descriptive and inferential statistics using
fairly simplesteps.
When entering data, I would advise entering as follows:
Participant
ID
Variable 1 (e.g.,
year)
Variable 2 (e.g.,
GPA)
plans)
Participant 1 3
3.2
0
Participant 2 2
2.5
1
Participant 3 4
2.8
1

List each participant (give them ID numbers\u2014PROTECT CONFIDENTIALITY)
descending in the first column.
Each of the following columns represents one of your variables. In SPSS, make sure to
CODE all variables into NUMERIC values. You can use SPSS to compute statistics for
numbers (not written variables). For example, Year (1= Freshmen, 2= Sophomore, 3=
Junior, 4= Senior). You can also DICHOTOMIZE variables (assigning them a score of 0
or 1, depending on presence or absence\u2014good for things like gender, presence/absence
of a behavior [observational research]). For example, Graduate School Plans... 0= no
school, 1= planning on going to grad school.

STEP 1: GETTING TO KNOW THE DATA
EXAMINE GENERAL FEATURES OF DATA, LOOK FOR OUTLIERS,
ANOMALIES, IMPOSSIBLE NUMBERS IN YOUR DATA

Go to ANALYZE, then DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS in the dropdown menu, and then
FREQUENCIES.
Move variables of interest over into the column on the right. Click the box for DISPLAY
FREQUENCY TABLES. Next hit CHARTS. From here you can click whatever chart
type you are comfortable with. I generally recommend choosing HISTOGRAM, and I
would also click on checkbox for WITH NORMAL CURVE. Then hit OK.
You will see a print out like this:

Frequencies
Statistics
IQ
N
Valid
88
Missing
0

(theVal id lets you know how many pieces of data were entered for this variable [also see
theN\u2014Sample Size],Missing lets you know how many data points in this variable are

IQ
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
75
1
1.1
1.1
1.1
79
1
1.1
1.1
2.3
81
2
2.3
2.3
4.5
82
3
3.4
3.4
8.0
83
2
2.3
2.3
10.2
84
2
2.3
2.3
12.5
85
3
3.4
3.4
15.9
86
2
2.3
2.3
18.2
88
3
3.4
3.4
21.6
89
2
2.3
2.3
23.9
90
1
1.1
1.1
25.0
91
3
3.4
3.4
28.4
92
2
2.3
2.3
30.7
93
2
2.3
2.3
33.0
94
1
1.1
1.1
34.1
95
6
6.8
6.8
40.9
96
2
2.3
2.3
43.2
97
1
1.1
1.1
44.3
98
2
2.3
2.3
46.6
99
1
1.1
1.1
47.7
100
3
3.4
3.4
51.1
101
2
2.3
2.3
53.4
102
3
3.4
3.4
56.8
103
2
2.3
2.3
59.1
104
1
1.1
1.1
60.2
105
3
3.4
3.4
63.6
106
4
4.5
4.5
68.2
107
3
3.4
3.4
71.6
108
3
3.4
3.4
75.0
109
3
3.4
3.4
78.4
110
1
1.1
1.1
79.5
111
4
4.5
4.5
84.1
112
1
1.1
1.1
85.2
114
1
1.1
1.1
86.4
115
2
2.3
2.3
88.6
118
3
3.4
3.4
92.0
120
2
2.3
2.3
94.3
121
1
1.1
1.1
95.5
127
1
1.1
1.1
96.6
128
1
1.1
1.1
97.7
131
1
1.1
1.1
98.9
137
1
1.1
1.1
100.0
Total
88
100.0
100.0
(this table lets you know how many people scored/responded with a certain score
[Frequency] and the percentage of total participants answered that same way)
IQ
1 35.0
1 30.0
1 25.0
1 20.0
115.0
1 10.0
1 05.0
1 00.0
9 5.0
9 0.0
8 5.0
8 0.0
7 5.0
IQ
Frequency

14 12 10

86420
Std. Dev = 12.98
Mean = 100.3
N = 88.0 0

(this is a histogram of the chart\u2014it gives you a visual view of what your data
distribution/variability of the data, as well as the central tendencies, including how
NORMAL the data is\u2014again, NORMAL data will look somewhat like a bell-curve)

OUTLIERS/ANOMALIES/IMPOSSIBLE NUMBERS
So what happens when we find an outlier or \u201codd\u201d numbers?
Try doing the above steps with the \u201cvar00001\u201d variable.