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Physical Agents of Control – Electromagnetic Radiation

Physical Agents of Control – Electromagnetic Radiation

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Published by Mahathir Mohmed
Certain forms of electromagnetic radiation are capable of producing a lethal effect on cells and therefore can be used for microbial control.
Certain forms of electromagnetic radiation are capable of producing a lethal effect on cells and therefore can be used for microbial control.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Mahathir Mohmed on Dec 11, 2008
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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12/06/2012

 
Industrial Microbiology
LAB
Physical Agents of Control – Electromagnetic Radiation
Objectives
To study the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on microorganism
Introduction
Certain forms of electromagnetic radiation are capable of producing a lethal effect on cellsand therefore can be used for microbial control. Electromagnetic radiations that possesssufficient energy to be microbicidal are the short-wavelength radiation, that is, below300nm. These include UV, gamma rays, and x-rays. The high wavelength radiations, thoseabove 300nm, have insufficient energy to destroy cells.
Materials, Culture, and Media
24 to 48 hours nutrient broth cultures of 
E. coli 
; inoculating loop, ultraviolet radiationsource, parafilm, 6 nutrient agar plates for each group.
Methodology
1.
All plates were inoculated in a sterile manner, by means of streak inoculation.2.Cover of each inoculated plate was labeled according to the exposure time toultraviolet radiation: 0 (control), 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 3 minutes, 5minutes, and 5 minutes (irradiated covered control)
3.
All inoculated plates were irradiated for the designated period of time by placed at12 inches below the ultraviolet light sources. All petri dish covers was removedexcept that of the 5-minutes irradiated control plate.
4.
All plates were incubated in an inverted position for 4 to 5 days at 30°C.
Result
1.All nutrient agar plate cultures were observed for the amount of growth of microbe.
2.
Observation was recorded as: 0 = no growth; 1+ = slight growth; 2+ = moderategrowth; 3+ = abundant growth.
 
MicrobialSpeciesTime of IrradiationSecondsMinutes015301355*
E. coli.
3+3+3+2+2+00* irradiated, covered plate
Discussion
Control of microbial growth is accomplished through chemical, physical andchemotherapeutic agents.Physical agents of control include heat, freeze-drying, ultraviolet radiation and filtration.Except for photosynthetic bacteria, most bacteria are harmed by ultraviolet radiation.Although sunlight contains the complete spectrum of short to long wavelengths of light, it isonly the short invisible ultraviolet wavelengths that are injurious to these bacteria.Ultraviolet radiation is strongly absorbed by proteins and nucleic acids in cells; hence, theindications are that cellular damage involves changes in DNA. Depending on the dosage,ultraviolet radiation may cause enzyme inactivation, genetic mutation or death of the cell.The longer the exposure, the more microbes will kill.
1
 
Industrial Microbiology
Examples: when microbes were treated with ultraviolet radiation, the radiation affects DNAin their cell.
(a)
A normal DNA was converted into
(b)
an abnormal DNA molecule as the UVlight binds adjacent thymine molecules within the DNA to form
(c)
a thymine dimer. With itsthymine molecules bound in dimers, the DNA molecules cannot function properly andcannot replicate. The microbe quickly dies.Other kinds of radiation, includes gamma rays and X-rays which are highly penetrating tocells and tissues and have potent antimicrobial effects (they are 10000 times more energeticthan UV light). After colliding with a target, ionizing radiation generates ions and otherreactive species from molecules including hydroxyl (free) OH- radicals. These free radicalscan cause irreversible breaks in DNA, proteins and enzymes.
Conclusion
Through this experiment, I am understood and aware of the effect of ultraviolet (UV)radiation on microorganism.
References
Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual Seventh Edition (International Edition)
. Cappucino andSherman. Pearson. Benjamin Cummingshttp://scienceprofonline.googlepages.com/LabExerciseandReport5.doc. (251008)
Microbes and Society: An Introduction to Microbiology 
. I. Edward Alcamo. Jones & BartlettPublishers, 2002. Boston, Massachusetts.
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