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453 Light Emitting Polymers

453 Light Emitting Polymers

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Published by: rameshchowdarapally on Apr 06, 2012
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06/03/2012

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1
ABSTRACT
The paper is about polymers that can emit light when a voltage is applied to it. Thestructure comprises of a thin film of semi conducting polymer sandwiched between twoelectrodes (cathode and anode). When electrons and holes are injected from the electrodes, therecombination of these charge carriers takes place, which leads to emission of light .The bandgap, ie. The energy difference between valence band and conduction band determines thewavelength (colour) of the emitted light.They are usually made by ink jet printing process. In this method red green and bluepolymer solutions are jetted into well-defined areas on the substrate. This is because, PLEDs aresoluble in common organic solvents like toluene and xylene .The film thickness uniformity isobtained by multi-passing (slow) is by heads with drive per nozzle technology .The pixels arecontrolled by using active or passive matrix.The advantages include low cost, small size, no viewing angle restrictions, low powerrequirement, biodegradability etc. They are poised to replace LCDs used in laptops and CRTsused in desktop computers today. Their future applications include flexible displays which canbe folded, wearable displays with interactive features, camouflage etc. Imagine these scenarios.After watching the breakfast news on TV, you roll up the set like a large handkerchief, and stuff it into your briefcase. On the bus or train journey to your office, you can pull it out and catch upwith the latest stock market quotes on CNBC.Somewhere in the Kargil sector, a platoon commander of the Indian Army readies forthe regular satellite updates that will give him the latest terrain pictures of the border in hissector. He unrolls a plastic-like map and hooks it to the unit's satellite telephone. In seconds,the map is refreshed with the latest high resolution camera images grabbed by an Indian
satellite which passed over the region just minutes ago. Don’t imagine these scenarios at least
not for too long.The current 40 billion-dollar display market, dominated by LCDs (standardin laptops) and cathode ray tubes (CRTs, standard in televisions), is seeing the introductionof full-color LEP-driven displays that are more efficient, brighter, and easier to manufacture.It is possible that organic light-emitting materials will
 
replace older display technologiesmuch like compact discs have relegated cassette tapes to storage bins.
 
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INDEX
CONTENTS PAGE NO
1.
 
Introduction. - 032.
 
Concepts of LEP. - 042.1
 
Polymers. - 042.2
 
What is LEP? - 042.3
 
Chemistry behind LEP. - 053.
 
Subject Detailing. - 063.1
 
Light Emitting Polymers. - 063.2
 
Construction. - 063.3
 
Ink Jet Printing. - 073.4
 
Active and Passive Matrix. - 084.
 
Basic Principle and Technology. - 104.1
 
Light Emission. - 105.
 
Advantages. - 156.
 
Applications. - 167.
 
Future Developments. - 197.1
 
Few more developments. - 208.
 
Conclusion. - 229.
 
References. - 23
 
3
1.
 
INTRODUCTION
Light emitting polymers or polymer based light emitting diodes discovered by Friend etal in 1990 has been found superior than other displays like, liquid crystal displays (LCDs)vacuum fluorescence displays and electro luminescence displays. Though not commercializedyet, these have proved to be a mile stone in the filed of flat panel displays. Research in LEP isunderway in Cambridge Display Technology Ltd (CDT), the UK. In the last decade, severalother display contenders such as plasma and field emission displays were hailed as the solutionto the pervasive display. Like LCD they suited certain niche applications, but failed to meetbroad demands of the computer industry.Today the trend is towards the non_crt flat panel displays. As LEDs are inexpensivedevices these can be extremely handy in constructing flat panel displays. The idea was tocombine the characteristics of a CRT with the performance of an LCD and added design benefitsof formability and low power.Cambridge Light-Emitting Polymers Display Technology Ltd is developing a displaymedium with exactly these characteristics. The technology uses a light-emitting polymer (LEP)that costs much less to manufacture and run than CRTs because the active material used isplastic.

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