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TB Info From the CDC

TB Info From the CDC

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Published by: webteam2410 on Apr 16, 2012
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National Center or HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB PreventionDivision o Tuberculosis Elimination
TB Elimination
Tuberculosis: General Information
What is TB?
 Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germsthat are spread rom person to person throughthe air. TB usually aects the lungs, but it can alsoaect other parts o the body, such as the brain,the kidneys, or the spine. A person with TB candie i they do not get treatment.
What are the Symptoms o TB?
 The general symptoms o TB disease includeeelings o sickness or weakness, weight loss,ever, and night sweats. The symptoms o TBdisease o the lungs also include coughing, chestpain, and the coughing up o blood. Symptomso TB disease in other parts o the body dependon the area aected.
How is TB Spread?
 TB germs are put into the air when a person with TB disease o the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes,speaks, or sings. These germs can stay in the airor several hours, depending on the environment.Persons who breathe in the air containing these TB germs can become inected; this is calledlatent TB inection.
What is the Diference BetweenLatent TB Inection and TB Disease?
People with latent TB inection have TB germs intheir bodies, but they are not sick because thegerms are not active. These people do not havesymptoms o TB disease, and they cannot spreadthe germs to others. However, they may develop TB disease in the uture. They are oten prescribedtreatment to prevent them rom developing TB disease.People with TB disease are sick rom TB germs thatare active, meaning that they are multiplying anddestroying tissue in their body. They usually havesymptoms o TB disease. People with TB diseaseo the lungs or throat are capable o spreadinggerms to others. They are prescribed drugs thatcan treat TB disease.
What Should I Do I I Have SpentTime with Someone with Latent TBInection?
A person with latent TB inection cannot spreadgerms to other people. You do not need to betested i you have spent time with someone withlatent TB inection. However, i you have spenttime with someone with TB disease or someonewith symptoms o TB, you should be tested.
What Should I Do i I Have BeenExposed to Someone with TBDisease?
People with TB disease are most likely to spreadthe germs to people they spend time with everyday, such as amily members or coworkers. I youhave been around someone who has TB disease,you should go to your doctor or your local healthdepartment or tests.
How Do You Get Tested or TB?
 There are tests that can be used to help detect TB inection: a skin test or TB blood tests. TheMantoux tuberculin skin test is perormedby injecting a small amount o uid (calledtuberculin) into the skin in the lower part o thearm. A person given the tuberculin skin test mustreturn within 48 to 72 hours to have a trainedhealth care worker look or a reaction on the arm. The TB blood tests measures how the patient’simmune system reacts to the germs that cause TB.
(Page 1 of 2)
What Does a Positive Test or TBInection Mean?
A positive test or TB inection only tells thata person has been inected with TB germs. Itdoes not tell whether or not the person hasprogressed to TB disease. Other tests, such as achest x-ray and a sample o sputum, are neededto see whether the person has TB disease.
What is Bacille Calmette–Guèrin(BCG)?
BCG is a vaccine or TB disease. BCG is usedin many countries, but it is not generallyrecommended in the United States. BCGvaccination does not completely prevent peoplerom getting TB. It may also cause a alse positivetuberculin skin test. However, persons whohave been vaccinated with BCG can be given atuberculin skin test or TB blood test.
Why is Latent TB InectionTreated?
I you have latent TB inection but not TB disease,your doctor may want you to take a drug to killthe TB germs and prevent you rom developing TB disease. The decision about taking treatmentor latent inection will be based on your chanceso developing TB disease. Some people are morelikely than others to develop TB disease oncethey have TB inection. This includes people withHIV inection, people who were recently exposedto someone with TB disease, and people withcertain medical conditions.
How is TB Disease Treated?
 TB disease can be treated by taking severaldrugs or 6 to 12 months. It is very importantthat people who have TB disease fnish themedicine, and take the drugs exactly asprescribed. I they stop taking the drugs toosoon, they can become sick again; i they donot take the drugs correctly, the germs that arestill alive may become resistant to those drugs. TB that is resistant to drugs is harder and moreexpensive to treat. In some situations, sta o the local health department meet regularlywith patients who have TB to watch themtake their medications. This is called directlyobserved therapy (DOT). DOT helps the patientcomplete treatment in the least amount o time.
Additional Inormation
October 2011
What You Need toKnow About the
Skin Test
I was told I needed a TB skintest, so I went to the healthclinic. It was quick and didn’thurt. In two days, I went back to the clinic so the nurse couldsee the results. It’s importantto go back in 2 or 3 days to getyour results or you will have toget the test again.
A TB skin test will tell you if youhave ever had TB germs in yourbody.
skin on the inside of your arm. A very small needle is used, so you will only feel a light pinch.
Make sure you don’t put a bandage orlotion on the test spot. Also—don’tscratch the spot. If the area itches, putan ice cube or cold cloth on it. It isokay for the test spot to get wet, butdo not wipe or scrub the area.
Return to the clinic or doctor’s of-
provider can look at the test spot onyour arm. He or she will look at thetest spot and measure any bump thatappears there. Your healthcareprovider will let you know if your testis negative or positive.
Write the time and date you will needto return here: ______________________________.
Remember—only a healthcareprovider can read your TB skin testresults the right way.When your skin test is positive:
You have TB germs in your body.
You may need to get an x-ray of your chest orgive a phlegm sample. These extra tests will helpshow if you have TB disease or TB infection.
Your doctor or healthcare provider may ask if you have HIV. TB infection and HIV togethercan make you very sick very quickly. If you don’tknow if you have HIV, your doctor or healthcareprovider may suggest you take an HIV test.
The good news:
 TB can be CURED if you follow the medicine planyou and your doctor set up.

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