polemics. All of a sudden, a whole bunch of Fascist men of letters and journalists realized theywere 'racists', and started using the word 'race' at every turn, to describe the most varied and lesspertinent things. People also started talking of the 'Italian race', an utterly meaningless idea,given that no modem nation corresponds to one race - Italy least of all. The various Europeanraces described in racial studies rather feature as the single components of a whole in almost allWestern nations.In 1937, the publisher from Hoepli entrusted me with the writing of a history of racism. Thebook was entitled
The Myth of Blood (II milo del sangue),
and a second edition of the work waspublished during the war. In this volume, I discussed the antecedents of racism in the ancientworld (where 'race' was seen not as a myth, but as a living reality), and in the centuries leadingup to the present day. I then outlined the modern variants of racial ideology by describing thebasic ideas of de Gobineau, Woltmann, de Lapouge, Chamberlain and various other authors. Ialso examined racist views of anthropology, genetics, heredity and typology, and discussed theracist view of history and the foundations of anti-Semitism. Finally, I provided an outline of thevarious forms of political racism in Hitler's day. The book, with its descriptive character, allowedme to clarify a number of points.The research I had conducted in order to write
The Myth of Blood
Ied me to develop a racialdoctrine of my own. I outlined such a doctrine in a book entitled
Synthesis of the Doctrine of Race (Sintesi di dottrina della razza),
which was published by Hoepli in 1941 (a slightly revisededition was published in German by Runge Verlag of Berlin). The appendix of the volumeincluded 52 photos.One's idea of race depends on one's idea of man: the nature of each racial doctrine is determinedby its conceptualization of the human being. All distortions in the field of racism derive from amaterialist view of man, a view informed by science and naturalism. By contrast, at the verybasis of my racial doctrine I placed the traditional idea of man as a being comprised of threeelements: body, character and spirit. I argued that an exhaustive racial theory has to take all threeelements into account by examining race in its threefold manifestation: as race of the body, raceof the character, and race of the spirit. Racial 'purity' is found when these three races stand inharmonious balance with one another, each race shining through the other two. This, however,has long been only a rare occurrence. The most unwelcome consequence of the various cases of miscegenation which have occurred during the historical development of human society is notthe alteration of the physical race and psychosomatic type - what ordinary racism is chieflyconcerned with - but, rather, the divide and contrast between the three kinds of races within thesame individual. As a consequence of such miscegenation, one finds men whose body no longerreflects their character, and whose emotional, moral and volitional dispositions no longer agreewith their spiritual inclinations. 'Spirit' should here be distinguished from 'character' as thatcomponent of man in touch with higher values that transcend life. In this sense, the 'race of thespirit' manifests itself in the different approaches to the sacred, to destiny and to the question of life and death, as well as in world-views, religions, etc. I here argued, therefore, that three levelsof racism ought to be distinguished in order to reflect the three kinds of races: the first level of racism pertaining to the race of the body, the second to the race of the character, and the third tothe race of the spirit.