Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Fact Sheet_Raw Materials2011

Fact Sheet_Raw Materials2011

Ratings: (0)|Views: 4|Likes:
Published by Nesa Priya
project
project

More info:

Published by: Nesa Priya on Jun 18, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/18/2012

pdf

text

original

 
 worldsteel.org
Fact sheet
Raw materials
Steel is indispensable to our modern way o lie and critical to economic growth. Te intrinsic benets o steel make it a sustainable choice in a growing number o applications. Almost everything that we use is either made rom, or manuactured with, steel. It is a uniquely versatile material and is widely regarded as a high perormance, contemporary engineering material continuously being improved to meet new market demands.In 2010, world crude steel production was 1,414 million metrictons (mmt). Tis was an increase o 15% compared to 2009, a new record or global crude steel production.
1
Raw materials in steelmaking 
Key raw materials needed in steelmaking include iron ore, coal,limestone and recycled steel. Te two main steel production routesand their related inputs are:
•
 Te integrated steelmaking route, based on the blast urnace(BF) and basic oxygen urnace (BOF), uses raw materialsincluding iron ore, coal, limestone and recycled steel. Onaverage, this route uses 1,400 kg o iron ore, 770 kg o coal,150 kg o limestone, and 120 kg o recycled steel to produce atonne o crude steel.
1
•
 Te electric arc urnace (EAF) route, based on the EAF, usesprimarily recycled steels and/or direct reduced iron (DRI) andelectricity. On average, the recycled steel-EAF route uses880 kg o recycled steel, 150 kg o coal and 43 kg o limestoneto produce a tonne o crude steel.
1
Iron ore
Steel is an alloy consisting mostly o iron and less than 2% carbon.Iron ore is, thereore, essential or the production o steel, whichin turn is essential in maintaining a strong industrial base. 98%o mined iron ore is used to make steel. Iron is one o the mostabundant metallic elements. Its oxides, or ores, compose about 5%o the earth’s crust. Average iron content or ores is 60% to 65%,ater taking into account other naturally-occurring impurities.
2
•
Iron ore is mined in about 50 countries. Te majority o ironore is mined in Brazil, Australia, China, India, the US andRussia. Australia and Brazil together dominate the world’siron ore exports, each having about one-third o total exports.
•
 Worldwide iron ore resources are estimated to exceed 800billion tonnes o crude ore, containing more than 230 billiontonnes o iron.
3
•
Current reserves (extractable using available technology)o iron ore are estimated at 180 billion tonnes. I potentialreserves are included, this increases to 370 billion tonnes.
3
Coal and coke
As iron occurs only as iron oxides in the earth’s crust, the ores mustbe converted, or ‘reduced’, using carbon. Te primary source o thiscarbon is coking coal. Coal is a key raw material in steel production.Coal is primarily used as a solid uel to produce electricity and heatthrough combustion. Coke, made by carburising coal (i.e. heating inthe absence o oxygen at high temperatures), is the primary reducingagent o iron ore. Coke reduces iron ore to molten iron saturated withcarbon, called hot metal.
•
About 30% o coal can be saved by injecting ne coalparticles into the blast urnace, a technology calledPulverised Coal Injection (PCI).
4
One tonne o PCI coalused or steel production displaces about 1.4 tonnes o cokingcoal. Coals used or pulverised coal injection into blasturnaces have more narrowly dened qualities than steamcoal used in electricity generation.
•
Global steel production is dependent on coal – around 68% o total production relies directly on the input o coal. 761Mt o coking coal and Pulverised Coal Injection (PCI) coals are usedin global steel production, which is around 12% o total hardcoal consumption worldwide.
5
•
Coal reserves are available in almost every country  worldwide, with recoverable reserves in around 70 countries.At current production levels, proven coal reserves areestimated to last 119 years.
5
F
igure
1: S
teel
 
production
 
routeS
Steel and raw materials
Ecient use o natural resources is critical to sustainability. Steel’s great advantage is that it is 100%recyclable and can be reused innitely. Te industry uses advanced technologies and techniques to increaseproduction yield rates and to acilitate the reuse o by-products. As a result o the intrinsic recycability o steel and the industrys sustainability eforts, the value o the raw materials invested in steel production lastsar beyond the end o a steel product’s lie.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->