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Why Stainless Steel

Why Stainless Steel

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Published by: aladinsane on Jul 04, 2012
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07/04/2012

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he
rrumy
unique
values
provided
by
stainless steel
nud<e
it
t1
powerful ettndidate in
mtJteritdsselection.Engineers,specifiers
tJnd
designers
oftenunderestimrJte
or
overlook
these
1)(1/ues
because
of'whtJt
is
viewed
as
the higher initial
cost
of'
str1inless
steel
However,
over
the total
fiji.:
of'a
project;
stainless
is
often the
!Jest 1)(1lue
option.
WHAT
IS
STAINLESS
STEEL?
Stainless steel
is
essentially a low carbon steel which contains
chromium
at
lO'Yc'
or
more by weight.
1t
is
this addition
of
chromium
that
gives the steel its
unique
stainless, corrosion
resisting properties.
The
chromium
content
of
the steel allows the formation
of
a
tough, adherent, invisible, corrosion-resisting chrotniwn oxide
film
on
the steel surface.
lf
damaged mechanically or chemically,this film
is
sdf~healing,
provided
that
oxygen, even in very small
amounts,
is
present.
The
corrosion resistance and other useful
properties
of
the steel arc enhanced by increased
chromium
content
and
the addition
of
other
dements
such
as
molybdenum,
nickel and nitrogen.
There
arc more
than
60
grades
of
stainless steel. However, theentire group can be divided into five classes. Each
is
idemificd bythe alloying clements which affect their microstructure and forwhich each
is
named.
BENEFITS
OF
STAINLESS
STEEL
Corrosion resistance
-lower
alloyed grades
resist corrosion
in
atmospheric
and
pure
water
environments, while
high-alloyed
grades
can
resistcorrosion
in
most
acids,
alkaline
solutions,and
chlorine
bear
ing
environments,
properties which
are
utilized
in
process
plants.
Fire
&
heat resistance
-special
high chromium and
nickel-alloyed
grades
resistscaling
and
retain strength
at
high temperatures.
Hygiene
-the
easy
cleaning
ability of stainless
makes
it
the
first
choice
for strict
hygiene
conditions,
such
as
hospitals,kitchens,
abattoirs
and
other
food
processing
plants.
Aesthetic appearance
-
the
bright,
easily
maintained surface
of stainless steel
pro
vides
a
modern and
attractive
appearance.
GRADES/APPLICATIONS
OF
STAINLESS
STEEL
400
Series
Martensitic-
Typical grade: 410
Straight
chromium
(12-1
R'Yc,),
magnetic and can be hardened byheat
treatmem. 'lypicaluse:
Fasteners,
pump
shafts
400
Series
Ferritic
-
Typical grade:
430
Straight
chromium
(12-1 R%), "low" carbon, magnetic,
but
norheat treatable.
'lypicaluse:
Appliance trim, cooking utensils
200/300
Series
Austenitic-
Typical grade:
304
Chromium (17-25%)/Nickd
(8-25%), non-magnetic,
not
heartreatable.
Can
develop high strength by cold work. Additions
of
molybdenum
(up to
7%)
can
inCI'case
the corrosion resistance.
'lypicaluse:
~nod
equipment,
chemical
equipment,
architecturalapplications
Precipitation
Hardening-
'(ypical grade:
17-4
C:hrornium ( 12-28%)/Nickcl (3-9%), martensitic
or
austenitic.Develop strength by precipitation hardening reaction
during
heat
treatment. 'l);picaluse:
Valves, gears, pcr:·u
chemica!
l.:quipmcnt
Duplex-
'fjpical grade:
2205
Chromium
(18-25°/t,)/Nickcl (IJ-7%) and
up
to
4%
tnolyhdc
nurn.
More
resistant to stress corrosion cracking than austenitic,
yet tougher than htlly fcrritic alloys.
'lypicaluse:
Pipelines, pressure vessels, shafting
Strength-to-weight advantage
-the
work·hardening property of austenitic
grades,
thatresults
in
a significant strengthening of
the
material
from
coldworking
alone, and
the
high strength
duplexgrades,
allow
reduced
material
thickness over
conventional
grades,
there
fore
cost
savings.
Ease
of
abrication
-modem
steel-making techniques
mean
that
stainless
can
be
cut,
welded,
formed,
machined, and
fabricated
as
readily
as
traditional
steels.
Impact resistance
-
the
austenitic microstructure of
the
300
series provides
high toughness,from
elevatedtemperatures
to
far below
freezing, making
these
steels
particularly suited
to
cryogenicapplications.
Long term value
-when
the
total life
cycle costs
are
considered,
stainless
is
often
the
least
expensive
material
option.
SPECIALTY STEEL INDUSTRYOF NORTH AMERICA
3050 K Street, N.W.Washington, D.C. 20007TEL: (202) 342-8630
or
(BOO)
982-0355
FAX: (202) 338-5534

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