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Chapter Six - Geometrical Tolerances

# Chapter Six - Geometrical Tolerances

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# Chapter six

GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES
6.1 Introduction Geometrical tolerances are applied over and above normal dimensional tolerances when it is necessary to control more precisely the form or shape of some feature of a manufactured part, because of the particular duty that the part has to perform. In the past, the desired qualities would have been obtained by adding to drawings such expressions as “surface to be true with one another”, “surfaces to be square with one another”, “surfaces to be flat and parallel”, etc., and leaving it to workshop tradition to provide a satisfactory interpretation of the requirements. Geometrical tolerances are used to transmit in a brief and precise manner complete geometrical requirements on engineering drawings. They should always be considered for surfaces which come into contact with other parts, especially when close tolerances are applied to the features concerned. Caution. It must be emphasized that geometrical tolerances should be applied only when real advantages result, when normal methods of dimensioning are considered inadequate to ensure that the design function is kept, especially where repeatability must be guaranteed. Indiscriminate use of geometrical tolerances could increase costs in manufacture and inspection. Tolerances should be as wide as possible, as the satisfactory design function permits. The use of geometrical tolerances does not involve or imply any particular method of manufacture or inspection.

6.2 Relationship between tolerances of size, form and position

According to current standards there are two possibilities of making indications on technical drawings in accordance with: a) the principle of independence according to DIN ISO 8015 where tolerances of size, form and position must be adhered to independent of each other, i.e. there is no direct relation between them. b) the envelope requirements according to DIN 7167, according to which the tolerances of size, form and parallelism are in direct relation with each other, i.e. that the size tolerances limit the form and parallelism tolerances. 1

6.3 Application; general explanations

Feature is a general term applied to a physical portion of a part, such as a surface, hole, or slot. A geometrical tolerance applied to a feature defines the tolerance zone within which the feature is to be contained. According to the characteristic which is to be tolerated and the manner in which it is dimensioned, the tolerance zone is one of the following: - the area within a circle; - the area between two concentric circles; - the area between two equidistant lines or two parallel straight lines; - the space within a cylinder; - the space between two coaxial cylinders; - the space between two parallel planes; - the space within a parallelepiped. The toleranced feature may be of any form orientation within this tolerance zone, unless a more restrictive indication is given. Unless otherwise specified, the tolerance applies to the whole length or surface of the considered feature. A datum is a theoretically, perfect geometric shape or form from which a dimensional measurement is made. A perfect point, line, flat plane, circle, or cylinders are all examples of possible datums. The datum feature is a part feature that contacts a datum.

6.4 Tolerance frame

The tolerance requirements are shown in a rectangular frame which is divided into two or more compartments. These compartments contain, from left to right, in the following order (Fig.6.1): the symbol for the characteristic to be toleranced; the tolerance value in the unit used for linear dimensions. This value

is preceded by the sign Ø if the tolerance zone is circular or cylindrical; Fig.6.1 Tolerance frame.

if appropriate, the capital letter or letters identifying the datum

feature or features.

2

Table 1. Geometric characteristic symbols.

∗ Arrowheads may be filled or not filled.

3

6.2a).3 a and b). on the axis or the median plane when the tolerance refers to the common axis or median plane of two features (Fig. the dimension line and frame leader line are drawn in line. Note: Whether a tolerance should be applied to the contour of a cylindrical or symmetrical feature or to its axis or median plane depends on the functional requirements.3 Toleranced features.Remarks referred to the tolerance. a) b) Fig.6.6. If it is necessary to specify more than one tolerance characteristic for a feature.3 e). - as an extension of a dimension line when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane defined by c) d) the feature so dimensioned (Fig.6. for example ‘6 holes”.2 Other tolerance frames. 6.3 c and d). 4 . ‘4 surfaces”. the tolerance specifications are given in tolerance frames one below the other (Fig.5 Toleranced features The tolerance frame is connected to the toleranced feature by a leader line terminating with an arrow in the following way: - on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line) when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself a) b) (Fig.6. or ‘6 x” shall be written above the frame (Fig.2b). e) Fig.6.6.

7. To identify the datum. a) b) c) Fig.6 Tolerance zones The tolerance zone is the zone within which all the points of a geometric feature (point.1 Datum When a toleranced feature is referred to a datum.4 c).6. the requirement is indicated by the words “common zone” above the toleranced frame (Fig. 6. this is generally shown by datum letters.6. unless the tolerance value is preceded by the sign Ø (Fig.6.6. 6.5). surface.6. median plane) must lie.5 Datum.6. 5 . The same letter which defines the datum is repeated in the tolerance frame.4 Tolerance zone. a capital letter enclosed in a Fig. line.7 Datums and datum systems Datum features are features according to which a workpiece is aligned for recording the tolerated deviations. Where a common tolerance zone is applied to several separate features. frame is connected to a solid datum triangle (Fig. The width of the tolerance zone is in the direction of the arrow of the leader line joining the tolerance frame to the feature which is toleranced. b).4 a.

a) b) c) Fig.7 Datum features.6 c). If the tolerance frame can be directly connected with the datum feature by a leader line.8 Datum features.7 a).8 b.6 b and c ).8 a). when the datum feature is the line or surface itself (Fig. A single datum is identified by a capital letter (Fig. on the axis or median plane when the datum is: a) b) c) Fig.6.6.6. 6 .6.7 b and c). one of them may be replaced by the datum triangle (Fig.6. b) the common axis or median plane formed by two features (Fig. a) the axis or median plane of a single feature (for example a cylinder).6. A common datum formed by two datum features is identified by two datum letters separated by a hyphen (Fig.6 Different ways to show the datum of a feature.6.6. - on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line). Note: If there is not enough space for two arrows.6. the datum letter may be omitted (Fig.6. c).6 a). - as an extension of the dimension line when the datum feature is the axis or median plane (Fig.The datum triangle with the datum letter is placed: a) b) c) Fig.

2 Datum system A datum system is a group of two or more datums to which one toleranced feature refers in common.9 a. a) b) Fig.7. The corresponding actual dimensions of the part are subject only to the position tolerance or angular tolerance specified within the tolerance frame (Fig. .8 Theoretically exact dimensions If tolerances of position or angularity are prescribed for a feature. where the sequence from left to right shows the order of priority. 6. .6. c) 6.If a datum system the sequence of two or more datum features is important. A datum system is frequently required because the direction of a short axis cannot be determined alone.9 c). (Fig.datum system formed by two datums (short axis “A” and directional datum “B” (Fig.9 Datum features.6.9 b). 7 .6.6. for example (a) .10 Theoretically exact position. the axis being at right angles with datum “A” (Fig.datum system formed by one plane and one perpendicular axis of a cylinder: datum “A” is the plane formed by the plane contact surface. The datum letters are to be placed in different compartments.6. .8 c). datum “B” is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder.6.datum formed by two features (common datum) (Fig. These dimensions are enclosed.10a and b).6. b) Fig. and the datum letter placed first should refer to the directional datum feature. the dimensions determining the theoretically exact position or angle shall not be toleranced. b and c).

6.15 The tolerance zone is limited by a The axis of the cylinder to which the tolerance is cylinder of diameter t if the connected shall be contained in a cylindrical zone tolerance value is preceded by the of diameter 0. sign Ø.11 Fig.17 8 .13 The tolerance zone is limited by a The axis of the bar shall be contained within a parallelepiped of section t1. directions perpendicular to each other. Fig.6.9 Detailed definitions of tolerances Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.12 Any portion of length 200 of any generator of the cylindrical surface indicated by the arrow shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.16 Fig. Fig.6.6.9. Fig.1 apart in a plane containing the axis.1 apart.1 in the vertical tolerance is specified in two and 0.6. shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.14 Fig.t2 if the parallelepipedic zone of width 0.6.2 in the horizontal direction.1 Straightness tolerance The tolerance zone when projected Any line on the upper surface parallel to the plane in a plane is limited by two parallel of projection in which the indication is shown straight lines a distance t apart. Fig.6.6.08.

parallel planes 0.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.21 Fig. Fig.22 6.19 6.3 Circularity tolerance (roundness) The tolerance zone in the considered The circumference of each cross-section of the plane is limited by two concentric outside diameter shall be contained between two circles a distance t apart.6.03 apart.9. Fig.01 apart.6. Fig.18 Fig.4 Cylindricity tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by The considered surface area shall be contained two coaxial cylinders a distance t between two coaxial cylinders 0.23 Fig. co-planar concentric circles 0. Fig.6.2 Flatness tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two The surface shall be contained between two parallel planes a distance t apart.6.6.9.08 apart.6.24 9 .1 apart. apart.6.9.20 The circumference of each cross-section shall be contained between two co-planar concentric circles 0.

28 10 .6.6. the centres of which are situated on a line having the theoretically exact geometrical form.5 Profile tolerance 6.25 Fig. one line being the theoretically exact profile.1 Profile tolerance of any line (a) Bilateral The tolerance zone is limited by two lines enveloping circles of a diameter t.26 (b) Unilateral The tolerance zone is limited by two lines enveloping circles of diameter t.9. Fig. the actual profile is to lie between the theoretical profile and a line which envelops a series of circles 0.1 diameter. Fig.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.6.6.27 Fig.04 the centres of which are situated on a line of theoretically exact geometrical profile.5. In each section parallel to the plane of projection the considered profile is to be contained between two lines enveloping circles of diameter 0. In any section parallel to the plane of projection of the drawing.9.

The considered surface is to be contained between two surfaces enveloping spheres of diameter 0. diameter t.29 Fig.9. 0. one surface being theoretically exact.6.02 the centres of which are situated on a surface of theoretically exact geometrical form.6.5. Fig.2 Profile tolerance of any surface a) Bilateral The tolerance zone is limited by two surfaces enveloping spheres of diameter t.02 surfaces enveloping spheres of diameter. the centres of which are situated on a surface having the theoretically exact geometrical form. one being the theoretically exact profile.30 b) Unilateral The considered surfaces is to lie between two The tolerance zone is limited by two surfaces which envelop a series of spheres.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.6. Fig.31 Fig.32 11 .6.

9.35 Fig.1 apart.40 12 .36 The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0.6.1 apart.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.39 and 6. Fig.38 Fig.6. if the tolerance zone is only specified in one direction.6.37 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1. Fig.6.9.6.t2 and parallel to the datum line if the tolerance is specified in two planes perpendicular to each other.6.1 in the vertical direction and which is parallel to the datum axis A (Fig.36).6.6.33 Fig.1 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and parallel to the datum line. The toleranced axis shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone having a width of 0. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the vertical direction (Fig.6. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the horizontal direction.39 Fig.2 in the horizontal and 0.40).6 Parallelism tolerance 6.34 Fig.35 and 6. Fig. The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0.6.6.

03 parallel to the the datum line if the tolerance datum axis A (datum line). Fig.46 13 .6. line.9.45 Fig.44 Fig. value is preceded by the sign Ø.3 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by The toleranced axis of the hole shall be contained two parallel planes a distance t between two planes 0.01 apart and parallel to the apart and parallel to the datum datum surface B surface Fig.6.6.42 Fig.9.2 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line (continued) The tolerance zone is limited by a The toleranced axis shall be contained in a cylinder of diameter t parallel to cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Fig.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.9.43 6.6.6.6.4 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by The toleranced surface shall be contained between two parallel planes a distance t two planes 0.1 apart and parallel to the datum axis apart and parallel to the datum C of the hole.6.6.41 6.6.

48).06 apart straight lines a distance t apart and and perpendicular to the axis of the horizontal hole perpendicular to the datum line.6. Fig.48 Fig.6. placed anywhere on this surface. perpendicular to the datum plane if perpendicular to the datum surface.6.01 apart and parallel to the datum surface A (Fig.6. to which the in a plane is limited by two parallel tolerance frame is connected.7.53 Fig. Fig.47 All the points of the toleranced surface in a length of 100.9.5 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced surface shall be contained between parallel planes a distance t apart and two parallel planes 0.6.49 Fig. shall be contained straight lines a distance t apart and between two parallel planes 0.6.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.01 apart and parallel to the parallel to the datum surface.9. 6. the tolerance is specified only in one direction.50 Fig. Fig.6. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.9.51 6. A (datum line).6.9.6.49).2 Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone when projected The toleranced axis of the cylinder.6. datum surface D (Fig.7 Perpendicularity tolerance (squareness) 6.1 Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected The toleranced axis of the inclined hole shall be in a plane is limited by two parallel contained between two parallel planes 0.7.52 14 .1 apart.

6.7.4 Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced surface shall be contained between parallel planes a distance t apart and two parallel planes 0.54 Fig.6.2 which is perpendicular to the datum the tolerance is specified in two surface. The toleranced axis of the cylinder to which the tolerance frame is connected shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.6. Fig.1 ⋅ 0. directions perpendicular to each other.55 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of a diameter t perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance value is preceded by the sign Ø.08 apart and perpendicular to perpendicular to the datum surface. Fig.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.58 Fig.6.7.56 Fig.t2 and contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone of perpendicular to the datum surface if 0.59 15 .9.6. the horizontal datum surface A.01 perpendicular to the datum surface A.57 6. Fig.6.3 Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface (continued) The tolerance zone is limited by a The toleranced axis of the cylinder shall be parallelepiped of section t1.9.

The tolerance zone when B (datum line). The axis of the hole. is to be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.6.8 Angularity tolerance 6. Fig. projected on a plane containing the datum axis.9.08 apart Line and datum line in the same which are inclined at 600 to the horizontal axis Aplane.08 apart which are inclined at 600 to the horizontal datum axis A-B.9.1 Angularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line a) Line and datum line in the same The toleranced axis of the hole shall be contained plane between two parallel straight lines 0.63 16 .62 Fig.6. projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and inclined at the specified angle to the datum line.6.8.61 b) Line and datum line in different planes The tolerance zone is applied to the projection of the considered line on the plane containing the datum line and parallel to the considered line. Fig.60 Fig.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.6.

Fig.6. angle to the datum surface.08 apart which are inclined at straight lines a distance t apart and 600 to datum surface A.3 Angularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by The inclined surface is to be contained between two parallel planes a distance t two parallel planes 0.2 Angularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone. Fig.67 6. angle to the datum line.8.66 Fig.65 6.4 Angularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by The toleranced surface shall be contained between two parallel planes a distance t two parallel planes 0.64 Fig. inclined at the specified angle to the datum surface.6.68 17 . is limited by two parallel two parallel planes 0.9.6.6. Fig.9. when projected The axis of the hole is to be contained between on a plane.8.1 apart which are inclined at apart and inclined at the specified 750 to datum axis A.9.8.69 Fig.6.6.08 apart which are inclined at apart and inclined at the specified 400 to the datum surface A.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.

6. Each of the toleranced lines shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.6.9.9.3 diameter. the centre of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered point. the centre of which coincides with the theoretically exact position of the considered point of intersection.73 18 .9.2 Positional tolerance of a line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered line if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.72 Fig. Fig.9 Positional tolerance 6.9.71 6.05 apart which are symmetrically disposed about the theoretically exact position of the considered line.6. The actual point of intersection is to be contained within a circular zone of 0. with reference to the surface A (datum surface).Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.6.1 Positional tolerance of a point The tolerance zone is limited by a circle of diameter t.70 Fig.9. Fig.

t2 the centre line of theoretically exact position of the considered hole which is in the theoretically exact axis.1 the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered hole axis.76 Fig. position of the considered line.75 When the tolerance value is preceded by the diameter symbol the tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered line. The axis of the hole is to be contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.9.6.2 in the vertical limited by a parallelepiped of direction the centre line of which is in the section t1.74 Fig.6.9.6.05 in the horizontal and 0. Fig.3 Positional tolerance of a line (continued) When the tolerance is specified in Each of the axes of the eight holes is to be two directions perpendicular to contained within a parallelepipedic zone of each other the tolerance zone is width0.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.08 the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered line.6. Fig. Fig.6. with reference to the datum surfaces A and B.78 19 .77 Each of the axes of the eight holes is to be contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.

shall be contained in a circle of diameter 0.6.10 Concentricity and coaxiality tolerance 6.9.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.79 Fig.01 concentric with the centre of the datum circle A.9. The centre of the circle.81 Fig. Fig.6.80 6.82 20 .4 Positional tolerance of a flat surface or a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by The inclined surface shall be contained between two parallel planes a distance t two parallel planes which are 0.1 Concentricity tolerance of a point The tolerance zone is limited by a circle of diameter t the centre of which coincides with the datum point. Fig.9. to which the tolerance frame is connected.05 apart and apart and disposed symmetrically which are symmetrically disposed with respect to with respect to the theoretically the theoretically exact position of the considered exact position of the considered surface with reference to the datum surface A surface. and the axis of the datum cylinder B (datum line).6.6.10.9.

6. The median plane of the slot shall be contained between two parallel planes.6. to which the tolerance cylinder of diameter t.6.11 Symmetry tolerance 6.9.85 21 . Fig.86 Fig.08 apart and symmetrically disposed about the median plane with respect to the datum feature A.10.6.84 Fig.2 Coaxiality tolerance of an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a The axis of the cylinder. the sign Ø.83 6.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6. Fig. shall be contained in a which coincides with the datum axis cylindrical zone of diameter 0. the axis of frame is connected.9.11. which are 0.08 coaxial with the if the tolerance value is preceded by datum axis A-B.1 Symmetry tolerance of a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically to the median plane with respect to the datum axis or datum plane.9.

6. The axis of the hole shall be contained in a parallelepipedic zone of width 0.88 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1.6.2 Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the datum axis. The axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0. Fig.1 in the horizontal and 0.87 Fig.08 apart and symmetrically disposed with respect to the actual common median plane of the datum slots a and B.90 22 .11.6.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.89 Fig.9.6. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other.05 in the vertical direction and the axis of which coincides with the datum axis formed by the intersection of the two median planes of the datum slots A-B and C-D. Fig.t. if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.

Fig.91 Note: Run-out normally applies to complete revolutions about the axis but could be limited to apply to a part of a revolution.6.6.9.92 The radial run-out shall not be greater than 0.93 Fig.1 Circular run-out tolerance .2 in any plane of measurement when measuring the toleranced part of a revolution about the axis of the datum hole A.6.6.1 in any plane of measurement any plane of measurement during one revolution perpendicular to the axis by two about the datum axis A-B.radial The tolerance zone is limited within The radial run-out shall not be greater than 0.9. Fig.12. concentric circles a distance t apart.12 Circular run-out tolerance 6.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6. Fig.94 23 . the centre of which coincides with the datum axis.

95 6.99 24 .6. Fig.12.axial The tolerance zone is limited at any The axial runout shall not be greater than 0.96 Fig.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.97 Fig.12.2 Circular run-out tolerance. Fig.3 Circular run-out tolerance in any direction Within any cone of measurement the tolerance zone is limited by two circles a diameter t apart.6.9.6. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis. measurement.6.9. The run-out in the direction indicated by the arrow is to be not greater than 0.98 The run-out in the direction perpendicular to the tangent of the curved surface is to be not greater than 0. Unless otherwise specified the direction of measurement is perpendicular to the surface.1 at radial position by two circles a any position of measurement during one distance t apart lying in a circular of revolution about the datum axis D.6. Fig. The axis of the cone of measurement coincides with the datum axis.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.

of measurement coincides with the datum axis.102 Fig.9. The axis of the cone during one revolution about the datum axis C.5 Total radial run-out tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two coaxial cylinders a distance t apart.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.103 25 .6.12. Fig.9. With relative movement the measuring instrument or the workpiece is to be guided along a line having the theoretically exact form of the contour and being in its correct position relative to the datum axis. and with relative axial movement between workpiece and measuring instrument.4 Circular run-out tolerance in a specified direction Within any cone of measurement of The run-out in the specified direction is to be not the specified angle the tolerance greater than 0.6.100 Fig.12.1 in any cone of measurement zone is limited by two circles a distance t apart. Fig.6. the axes of which coincide with the datum axis.6.101 6. The total radial run-out is to be not greater than 0.1 at any point on the specified surface whilst revolving about the datum axis A-B.

6. Fig.104 Fig.12.1 at any point on the specified surface whilst revolving about the datum axis D and with relative radial movement between the measuring instrument and the workpiece. The total run-out is to be not greater than 0.6 Total axial run-out tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum axis.105 26 .9. With relative movement the measuring instrument or the workpiece is to be guided along a line having the theoretically exact form of the contour and being in its correct position relative to the datum axis.Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation 6.6.

Cylindricity.6.108 Diametral measurement.107 illustrates cylindricity. Fig. and total runout.110).107 Cylindricity. As shown in Fig. It is a common misconception that circularity and cylindricity can be checked by taking diametral measurements –Fig.108 (as with a micrometer) or by using an indicator and Vee block (Fig.6. it measures Fig. the diameter. circularity applies to individual circular cross sections of a surface of revolution or of a sphere.6. The surface must lie between the two cylindrical surface which bound the tolerance zone and are determined by a best-fit nominal cylinder. Fig. cylindricity. A diametral measurement does just what the words imply. applies to all cross-sections of a cylindrical surface simultaneously. 27 .10 Additional explanations One common area of confusion within Geometrical Tolerances is the differences between the various ways of specifying how true a cylindrical surface or surface of revolution is: circularity (roundness).6.106. Fig.106 Circularity (Roundness).6. on the other hand. It does not check the shape of the surface which is what circularity and cylindricity control.6.6. concentricity.6. circular runout.

part is then rolled underneath. 28 .6.112). The part is then rolled underneath. The Vee support reduces the effect of a readings (Fig. when in fact that it would be greater than the actual error this is not true (Fig.111 Fig. value. single datum point (Fig.6. The peak The peak height can then be compared to other height can then be compared to other readings.6.111).6. When using the Vee block. 110 Measuring with Vee block.6. the diameters can be additional calculations are required to find the diameter directly obtained. When using (Fig. A dial indicator is positioned over A dial indicator is positioned over the surface to a the surface to a reference height. only suitable for regular odd lobed figures. some the Flat Plane. The Vee block method has particular disadvantages: a number of angles are required (the standard angle is 900).6. Fig.6.109 Measuring over the flat surface.109). Fig.6.110). 112 With this test the two readings shown This test would exaggerate the circularity error such would indicate circularity.Fig. The reference height.

the part must be rotated about the ultra-precision spindle of a specialized circularity measuring machine.6.6. There are two common ways of measuring circularity.the part may be bowed. Fig. Fig.the centres themselves can also readings. which technically is a check of another geometric tolerance called runout. or warped. has . Since the circularity or cylindricity tolerance is a radial distance between concentric boundaries. . The profile is then checked against a clear overlay of concentric circles to determine if it falls within the allowable tolerance zone.6. Circularity is usually assessed by rotational techniques by measuring radial deviations from a rotating datum axis.off centre or degraded centre holes will decrease reading quality. a radial method of checking the surface is necessary.6. 113 Measuring a part between centers. To truly check for the circularity or cylindricity of a surface without regard to the axis of the part.114 the component is rotated on a highly accurate spindle that provides the reference for the circular datum. affect However.114 Component rotation. One method involves rotation of the part while keeping the measuring transducer fixed and the other involves keeping the component fixed while rotating the measuring transducer. rotating a part between centers (Fig. this axis remains fixed and becomes the main reference for all measurements.113) is not an acceptable method since it relates the part surface to an axis. A probe contacts the surface and transcribes an enlarged profile of the surface onto a polar graph. 29 . In fig.The centre support method also disadvantages: .

and then these can be compared to determine concentricity. using a centering and leveling table. A transducer is then used to measure radial variations of the component with respect to the spindle axis. it is easier to inspect for cylindricity or runout. 30 . Concentricity is the condition in which the axes of all cross-sectional elements of a surface of revolution are common to the axis of a datum feature (Fig.115 Rotating stylus.6. Fig.6. Because the location of the datum axis is difficult to find.6.6. 117 The stylus measures the profile for both the inside and outside. A simple example is a bearing race shown below (Fig.115. Eccenticity –the Talyrond can also be used to detect concentricity.6. Fig.6.In Fig. Fig.116). the axis of the component is aligned with the axis of the spindle.118 A trace from Talyrond.116 Concentricity. Fig.6.117).

31 . and rotating the part about its central axis while measuring with a dial indicator its surface deviation from perfect circularity.Avoid specifying concentricity. the dial indicator is not moved along the direction of the axis of the part. 120 ). A better geometric control is usually circular runout.120 Circular runout.6.119). Circular runout is therefore applied independently at each station along Fig. concentricity. designs require that a feature be round as well as concentric like example A. the length of the part as the part is rotated through 360 degrees (Fig. With circular runout. Usually. All of the features shown below are concentric (Fig.6.119 Runout vs.6.6. Concentricity requires deriving the median line of a feature. Circular runout controls circularity (roundness) as well as concentricity. Runout refers to the result of placing a solid of revolution on a spindle such as a lathe. Fig.

straightness.122). cylindricity. several slices along the part could be inspected (Fig. 32 . coaxiality.6.6.Total runout involves moving the dial indicator along the length of the part while the part is rotated.6. total runout. and profile (Fig.122 Circular runout vs. angularity. Confusion continues to exist over the difference between circular runout (one arrow) and total runout (two arrows).121 Total runout applies to all cross sections simultaneously.6. To inspect the two runouts illustrated below. so that it controls the cumulative variations of circularity. an inspector could set up the inspection as illustrated. While rotating the part on the pin. Fig. Fig.121). taper.

Total runout is the difference between the highest and lowest readings found over the entire feature (Fig.02 and -0.02 and the lowest reading was -0. the difference between +0.09.11.09. The highest reading was +0. the total runout for the feature is 0.6. In this case two slices vary a total of 0. 33 . Fig.The worst circular runout error occurs at the slice with the greatest variation.123).6.123 In this case the part would pass both runout checks. Therefore.03.

124 a) Circular runout as is given.a) b) b) a) b) a) Fig. 34 . b) Interpretation.6.

b) interpretation. 35 .6.125 Total runout: on drawing.Example: a) b) Fig.

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