UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS

Universidad del Perú, DECANA DE AMÉRICA
FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN
Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin
Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera
Fonética y Fonología del
idioma inglés ii
Yony Cárdenas Cornelio


FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN
DECANO
Dr. Carlos Barriga Hernández
DIRECTORA ACADÉMICA
Dra. Elsa Barrientos Jiménez
DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATIVO
Prof. Enrique Pérez Zevallos
PROGRAMA DE LICENCIATURA PARA PROFESORES SIN
TÍTULO PEDAGÓGICO EN LENGUA EXTRANJERA
DIRECTORA
Mg. María Emperatriz Escalante López
COMITÉ DIRECTIVO
Dra. Edith Reyes de Rojas
Lic. Walter Gutiérrez Gutiérrez
Yoni Cárdenas Cornelio
Fonética y Fonología del Inglés II
Serie: Textos para el Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera
Primera edición
Lima, febrero de 2009
© Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera Facultad de Educación,
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
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piso, ofcina 203
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Ilustración de carátula: David A. Villanueva
Diseño, diagramación e impresión: Centro de Producción Editorial e Imprenta de la UNMSM
Este libro es propiedad del Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera de la
Facultad de Educación de La Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Ninguna parte de este libro puede ser reproducida
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Table of contents
INTRODUCTION. 7

Acknowledgments. 8
English vowels and consonants (Review). 9
UNIT I
Phonological processes
1.1. Assimilation. 15
1.2. Elision. 19
1.3. Dissimilation. 23
1.4. Insertion or epenphesis. 23
1.5. Neutralization. 24
1.6. Gemination. 24
ACTIVITY. 28
UNIT II
Stress, word stress, stressed syllable, sentence stress and English rhythm
2.1. Word stress. 33
2.2. Types of stress. 33
2.3. Word stress in English. 34
2.4. Importance of word stress. 35
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2.5. Rules of word stress in English. 36
2.6. Syllable stress. 45
2.7. Sentence stress. 47
2.8. Sentence rhythm. 52
ACTIVITY. 57
UNIT III
Connected speech
3.1. Assimilation. 61
3.2. Compounds and phrases. 67
3.3. Double consonant sounds. 68
3.4. Double consonants letters. 67
3.5. Elision. 69
3.6. R Liaison. 71
3.7. Stress shift. 71
3.8. T-voicing. 72
3.9. Weak forms. 73
3.10. Weak vowels. 75
3.11. Word linking. 76
ACTIVITY. 80
UNIT IV
Suprasegmental Phonology
4.1. Prosodic features: intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length 85
4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby 94
4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh-question). 94
4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern (Yes / No question, request
for repetition, greetings). 97
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4.2.3. Intonation 3: Combined patterns (pausing in the middle, lists, doubt,
apology, etc). 100
4.2.4. Intonation 4: Tag questions. 103
4.2.5. Weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1). 106
4.2.6. Weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and
rhythm (Review 2). 108
4.2.7. Stress, consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak
forms (Review 3). 111
4.2.8. Rhythm and jingles. American light verse: A contemporary selection. 114
ACTIvITy. 130
UNIT V
The english syllable
5.1. Definition. 135
5.2. Kinds of syllable in the process of syllabification. 135
5.3. The structure of the syllabe (by Turncer Cam). 136
5.4. Kinds of syllabes according to its structure. 137
5.5. Syllabification. 137
5.6. Rules for phonetic syllabification. 138
5.7. Rules for ortographic syllabification. 142
5.8. Diphthongs. 142
5.9. Crescendo diphthongs. 147
5.10. Syllabic consonants. 147
5.11. Articulation. 148
5.12. Co articulation. 149
5.13. Breaking. 149
ACTIVITY. 151
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UNIT VI
Selected reading
6.1. Global english and the teaching of pronunciation. 155
6.2. Rhythm. 158
6.3. Developing pronunciation through songs. 162
6.4. Teaching the schwa. 168
6.5. Intonation. 171
6.6. Word stress. 175
6.7. Connected speech (1 and 2). 180
6.8. English sentence stress. 188
6.9. Integrating pronunciation into classroom activities. 191
6.10. Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols. 195
6.11. Pronunciation chart activities. 199
6.12. Practicing pronunciation through proverbs. 204
KEY. 207
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 225
Introduction
This book aims at deepening the study of English Phonetics and Phonology
focusing on suprasegmental aspects of the language, phonological processes
and application of the theory in the classroom, in order to help teachers to speak
with appropriate stress and intonation and avoid being misunderstood..
In this anthology we have selected burning and attractive articles written by
different authors, all of them, well known all over the world. Among these
articles, we have included phonological processes such as assimilation,
elision, epenthesis or insertion, neutralization, germination and other important
processes considered in language learning.
Word stress, types of stress, importance of word stress, sentence stress and
rules for stressing correctly were considered in the second unit.
Different aspects such as elision, linking, assimilation, R liaison, stress shift,
T voicing and weak forms, all of them connected with spoken language were
considered in the third unit.
In the fourth unit we have considered basic information about suprasegmental
phonology (intonation, stress, tone pitch and length), then we concentrated
on kinds of intonation with lots of exercises, following mainly ideas found the
book “How now, Brown cow?, Written by Mimi Ponsonby.
In the fifth unit we have considered the study of the English syllable, its structure
and some rules for syllabification. We have also developed important aspects
related diphthongs, syllabic consonants, articulation and co articulation among
others.
Finally, in the sixth unit, we have considered basic and interesting reading
materials for deepening what we have been doing in the earlier chapters.
Most of these articles in chapter sixth are owned by the British Council BBC
and they were first published on the http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/tink/
articles website. Global English, Intonation, connected speech and rhythm
are some of these interesting materials that are used free of charge. Other
important websites were also used to prepare this anthology and they are at
the end of each unit and in the bibliography at the end of the book.
YonY Cárdenas Cornelio
Acknowledgements
First and foremost our thanks to our dear students from the specialty of English
who took the course of English Phonetics and Phonology at Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, classes of 96, 97 and 98, 99 regular and
upgrading courses. They were the ones who in a way made us think that
something else was needed in the course and this book is the result of it,
completing the practical aspect of the course. At the same time I would like
to give my deepest recognition to Peter Roach, Mimi Ponsonby, Anne Baker,
Joanne Kenworthy, Scott Thornbury, Michael Vaughan-Rees, Adrian Underhill,
Daniel Jones (“English Pronunciation Dictionary”, 91), J C Wells (“Longman
Pronunciation Dictionary”, 90), among others, for providing us clear theory on
this matter, and that allowed us to complete with the practical aspect of the
course, making it comprehensible and easy to be understood.
We would also like to thank our friends Carmen Caceda Cordoba, a colleague
of mine from whom I have learned to become a dedicated professional in
ELT, to the seniorest of all, Rosalyn Hurst, my English trainer, who is always
clarifying our doubts, to David Villanueva for always being ready to solve our
computer illiteracy, as well as for being in charge of the correction. To our
families, especially my husband Mr. Alfredo Villanueva for not complaining
and understanding the work even during holidays, to our friends who can not
be mentioned individually but who are always with us being sources of ideas.
Last but not least, to our university for supporting us in the developing of this
book as a way to improve the professional development of the ELT in Peru.
We also want to thank University of San Marcos professors Dr. Gustavo Solís
Fonseca, Dr. Félix Quesada and Dr. Aída Mendoza Cuba, and professors
Ricardo Floyd P., Angélika Marsch and Andrés Easthouse from Universidad
de Lima from whom we have learned a lot in the summer courses.
Special thanks to Mrs. Maria Escalante López, Director of the Foreign
Language School for giving us the chance of organising, reviewing, designing
and redesigning this specialised book, which is going to help English Teachers
in the Program of Lisenced of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Education, and
National University of San Marcos.
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
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ENglISh VowElS aNd CoNSoNaNTS (REVIEw)
The vowels
long vowels Short vowels
i:
a:
u:
o:
s:
sheep
far
fool
horse
bird
I
æ
o
b
t
ship
hat
foot
sock (UK)
cup
e
e
a
s
head
above
mother (US)
worm (US)
The consonants
Voiced Voiceless
b
d
g
v
ð
z
¿
g
l
r
j
w
m
n
ŋ
book
day
give
very
the
zoo
vision
jump
look
run
yes
we
moon
name
sing
p
t
k
f
0
s
[
ç
pen
town
cat
fish
think
say
she
cheese
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diphthongs
eI
day
aI
eye
oI boy
ao
mouth
eo nose (UK)
oo
nose (US)
Ie ear (UK)
ee hair (UK)
oe pure (UK)
other symbols
h
/’hænd/
hand

~
b
/’kwæs.b/
croissant (UK)
i
/’hæp.’i/
happy
ţ
/’btţ.a/
butter (US)
u
/,In.flu’en.ze/
influenza
!
/’lIt.!/
little
e
l,
e
m,
e
n can be pronounced either: el or !, etc.:
r
<>
/’leI.b
e
l/ = /’leI.bel/ or /’leI.b!/
linking r is pronounced only before a vowel in British English:
fo:
r
: fo:ræp.!z
four : four apples

Main stress /,ek.spek’teI[
e
n/ expectation
,
secondary stress /,ri:’tel/ retell
.
syllable division /’sIs.tem/ system
Source: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/help/phonetics.ht
~
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Before we star with our course, it is necessary to review the basic consonant and vowel
charts.
Table 1
Manner of
articulation
Point of articulation
Bilabial labiodental Interdental alveolar alveopalatal Velar
Stops
Voiceless
Voiced
/p/
/b/
. .
/t/
/d/
.
/k/
/g/
Fricatives
Voiceless
Voiced
.
/f/
/v/
/q/
/ð/
/s/
/z/
/[/
/¿/
/h/
affricates
Voiceless
Voiced
. . . .
/ç/
/g/
Nasals /m/ . . /n/ . /ŋ/
lateral . . . /l/ . .
Semivowels /w/ . . /r/ /j/ .
Table 2. Modern English Vowels.
Vowels diphthongs
Front Central Back /Ie/ ear /aI/ fly
high
/i:/
/i/ /o/
/u:/

/ee/
/oe/
air
insure
/oI/
/eo/
boy
go
Mid /e/ /e/ /s:/ /o:/ /eI/ way /ao/ now
low
/æ/
/t/ /a:/ /b/
(Rogers, 2000)
oBjECTIVES
1. Be aware of the principal phonological processes of assimilation and
elision.
2. Understand the processes of dissimilation, epenthesis or insertion
behind the connected speech.
3. Understand the process of neutralization and germination.
4. Have an overview about other phonological processes.
5. apply these rules into the exercises to understand the processes.
UNIT I
PhoNoLogICAL ProCEssEs
PhoNologICal PRoCESSES
There are different kinds of processes in all languages, but the most relevant in English and
for language teachers are:
assimilation /e,sIm.I’leI.[en/
Colleen Richey establishes (97) that assimilation is a phonological process where a phone
becomes similar to a nearby phone. It is found in all languages which cause speech sounds
to be modified in a way which makes them more similar to their neighbours. A well-known
example is that of English alveolar consonants such as /t, d, n/ which, when they are followed
by a consonant which does not have alveolar place of articulation, tend to adopt the place of
articulation of the following consonant.
Let’s take a look at the English prefix {–in}
[Im] [In] [Iŋ]
I[m]potent i[n]direct i[ŋ]conclusive
I[m]partial i[n]dependent i[ŋ]considerate
I[m]possible i[n]tolerance i[ŋ]correct
I[m]practical i[n]sufferable i[ŋ]complete
I[m]mature i[n]sufficient i[n]convenient
The nasal in the prefix in- has the same place of articulation as the following consonant:
[ m ] before [p, b, m] (bilabials)
[ n ] before [t, d, s] (alveolars)
[ ŋ ] before [k, g] (velars)
We say: the nasal assimilates in place of articulation to the following consonant.
Consider the following data:
I[ n ] advisable i[ n ]take
I[ n ]animate i[ n ]direct
I[ n ]ordinate i[ n ]secure
Based on these data, [in] occurs in the most environments: before vowels, t, d, and s.
Therefore, we want to say that the underlying form of the prefix is /In/
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/In/ → [Im] / ___ bilabial consonants
→ [Iŋ] / ___ velar consonants
→ [In] elsewhere
1.1.1. direction of assimilation
Assimilation is type of co articulation. It is the alteration of a speech sound to make it
more similar to its neighbours. Assimilation, then, is concerned with one sound becoming
phonetically similar to an adjacent sound.
a. There are two kinds of assimilation
Regressive assimilation. When the assimilation is backward, then the phone assimilates
to a preceding phone, this is, one segment influences another that precedes it.
The sound that changes is called the assimilated sound or the target.
The sound that causes the change is called the conditioning sound or trigger. Two
sounds that have the same place or articulation are called homorganic.
Assimilated sound ← Conditioning sound
/p/ /b/
‘football’ /fot.bo:l/ → /fop.bo:l/
1. Thus the /t/ at the end of the ‘foot’ /fot/ change to /p/ when followed by /b/ in the word
‘football’, giving the pronunciation /fop.bo:l/ .
‘football’ /fot.bo:l/ → /fop. bo:l/
/t/ → /p/ / - bilabial sounds
/t/ assimilates to /p/ before bilabial sounds.
Let’s see some regressive assimilation processes:
2. A similar case is the assimilation of /s/ to a following /[/ or /j/, resulting in the
pronunciation of ‘this ship’ as / ðI[’[Ip/ and this year as / ðI[’’jIer/. This assimilation
can be considered to be optional and is called regressive assimilation, this is, and
the fricative alveopalatal /[/ is passing its characteristics to the preceding sound
phoneme /s/, the same as the continuant alveopalatal /j/.
‘this ship’ /ðIs[Ip/ → /ðI[’[Ip/ and
‘this year’ /ðIs’jIer/ → /ðI[’’jIer/.
/s/ → / [ [ ] / - [
/s/ → / [ [ ] / - j
The /s/ is assimilated to / [ / before / [ / or / j /
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3. The assimilation of /n/ is a rather special case: many English words begin with the
prefixes ‘in-‘ and ‘un-‘, and in a number of cases the /n/ of these prefixes is followed
by a consonant which is not alveolar. In some cases it seems to be normal that the
/n/ is regularly assimilated to the place of articulation of the following consonants
(e.g. ‘inquest’ / iŋ. kwest/), while in others this assimilation is optional (for example:
’incautious’ may be /in’ko:.[es/ or /iŋ’ko:.[es/. Where it is clear that the prefix is
attached to a word that exists independently, so that prefix and stem are easily
separable, the assimilation is normally treated as optional. When it seems more like
an integral part of the word, the assimilation is shown as obligatory. See the rules:
A) ‘incautious’ can be transcribed as /in’ko:.[es/ or /iŋ’ko:.[es/, being the assimilation
optional because the prefix and the stem are easily separable.
n → [ŋ or n] - k (optional)
- g
B) ‘inquest’ / /iŋ. kwest/. The prefix In is an integral part of the word.
n → [ŋ] / - k (obligatory)
In B the assimilation is obligatory because ‘in’ is an integral part of the word “Inquest”
/’iŋ.kwest/, that means an official attempt by the court to find out the cause on
someone’s death.
Source: Daniel Jones, “English Pronunciation dictionary”, 94
4. The alveolar consonants /t, d, n/ when they occur at the end of a word or syllable, can
optionally assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonant at the beginning of
the next syllable.
Thus /n/ can become bilabial m before the bilabials /p, b, m/ as in the examples:
ten men /,te[n] ‘men/ → /,te[m] ’men/
downbeat /‘dao[n] bi:t/ → /’dao[m] bi:t/
/n/ → [m] / ___m, b (bilabials) (optional)
5. In the same way d can change to b and g respectively, as in
red paint /,red ’peint / → /,reb ’peint/
admit /ed ’mIt / → /eb ’mIt/
bad guys /’bæd ,gaiz/ → /’bæg ,gaIz/
/d/ → [b] -p
-m
/d/ → [g] / -g
It is also possible for t to change to p and k respectively, though a more frequent
possibility is for t to be realized as glottal stop when followed by another
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consonant. / ? /. A glottal voiceless sound produced by the closure of the vocal
cords.
eight boys /,eit boiz/ → /,ei?boiz/ (,eip’boiz)
t → ? / - Consonant
6. In the same way s and z can change to [ and ¿ respectively, but only before [ or j at
the beginning of the next syllable. In you, you’re the j may disappear.
this shape /,ðIs’[eIp/ → [,ðI[’[eIp]
these shoes /,ði:z’[u:z/ → [,ði:¿’[u:z]
unless you… /,en’lesju/ → [,en’les[ju[
as you see /,æzju‘si: / → [,æ¿u‘si:]

B. Progressive assimilation
When assimilation is forward, this is rightward; the assimilation is to a following phone.
Conditioning sound → Assimilated sound
Assimilation can also operate in the other direction (progressive assimilation); that is,
alveolar consonants sometimes assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonants,
at the end of the preceding syllable. In English this applies only to syllabic n, changing it
to syllabic m or ŋ depending on the place of the preceding plosive.
ribbon /‘rIbn/ → [‘rIbm]
(Note that although ribbon /‘rIb en/ can also be pronounced /‘riben/, with a phonetic
vowel between the b and n, then, this assimilation can operate only if the two consonants
are in direct contact, without any phonetic e between them).
bacon /‘beik n/ → [beikŋ]
up and down /,tp n ‘daon/ → [,tp m ‘daon]
This kind of assimilation cannot apply when the following sound is a vowel.
happens ‘hæp nz → [‘hæp mz]
happen suddenly ,hæp n ‘std n li → [,hæp m ‘std n li]
happening [‘hæp n Iŋ] (cannot assimilate)
n → m / p-
More examples on assimilation
1. Yod coalescence (or coalescent assimilation) is the process which changes t or d plus j
into ç or g respectively. Across word boundaries, in standard accents it mainly affects
phrases involving you or your.
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let you out ,let ju’aot → ,let[u’aot
would you try ,wodju’traI → ,wogu’traI
get your bags ,get jo: ‘bægz → ,get[o:’bægz
2. Within a word, the status of yod coalescence depends on whether the following vowel is
strong or weak.
-Where the vowel is strong I, e, u:, or oe, yod coalescence can frequently be heard in
Be E, although it is not considered standard. In AmE there is usually no j present, so the
possibility of assimilation does not arise.
tune tju:n → t[u:n
endure In’djoe → in’goe
factual ‘f æktjuel → ‘f æk[uel
educate ‘edjukeIt → ‘egukeIt
3. Historically, a process of yod coalescence is the origin of the ç used by all speakers in
words such as nature, and of the g in words such as religion.
Similarly, yod coalescence involving fricatives ( sj → [; zj → ¿) explains the [ in words
such as pressure, delicious patient, Russian, and the ¿ in words such as measure. For
example, delicious dI’lI [es came to English from Latin, via French delicieux delisjo; but
the sj coalesced into [ several centuries ago.
/’pre[.er, dI’lI[.es, ’peI.[ent, ’rt[.en, me¿e/
Source: Logman Pronunciation dictionary.
1.2. Elision /e’lI[en/
1. Elision is the omission (= deletion) of a sound that would otherwise be present. It is
particularly characteristic of rapid or casual speech. It is not random, but follows certain
rules, which differ from one language to another.
Elision, then, is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or
a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker
to pronounce. Sometimes, sounds may be elided for euphonic effect. (Pleasant or
harmonious sound). English does not often show elision in writing.
The elided form of a word or phrase may become a standard alternative for the full
form, if used often enough. In English, this is called a contraction, such as can’t from
cannot. Contraction differs from elision in that contractions are set forms that have
morphologized, but elisions are not.
Examples of elision in English.

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comfortable: /’ktpfatebel/ → /’ktpftabel/
fifth: /’fIfθ/ → /’fIθ/
him: /hIm/ → /Im/
laboratory: /læ’boretori/ →
/’læbretori/ (American english),
/le’boretri/ (British english)
temperature: /’tsmperet[a/ → /’tsmpat[a/, /’tsmpret[a/
vegetable: /’vsd¿etebel/ → /’vsd¿tebel/
A synonym for elision is syncope /sIŋ.kepI/. This term is most often associated with the
elision of vowels between consonants.
e.g. Latin tabula → Spanish tabla.
e.g. Eng. He has → he’s.
The opposite of elision is epenthesis /e’pent.θesIs/, whereby sounds are inserted into
a word to ease pronunciation /i:¿/.
2. Some types of elision typically occur within a single syllable and therefore within a
word and they are represented by transcribing a second pronunciation. In English they
include.
2.1. The elision of t in st[ and of d in nd¿. Thus lunch /ltnç/ may be pronounced
/ltnç/ or, less commonly /ltn[/; strange streIng may be /streIng/ or,
less commonly, /streIn¿/ (Note that in a word such as enjoy /In’goI/, the
consonants are in different syllables and no elision is possible).
/ltnç/
lunch /ltnç/
/ltn[/
/estreIng/
strange /streIng/
/streIn¿/

2.2. The elision of p in mps, of t in nts, and of k in ŋks, ŋkt. Thus jumped gtmpt may
be pronounced gtmpt, less commonly, /gtmt/; lynx lIŋks may be lIŋks or, less
commonly, lIŋs.
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3. other types of elision occur only at syllable boundaries. This applies both within
words and between words. They include the elision of t and d when surrounded by other
consonants, and the elision of e before a liquid.
3.1. Elision of a t or d is usually possible when it is preceded by one of certain consonants
at the end of a syllable, if the next syllable (or word ) starts with a consonant.
Under these conditions
t may be elided in ft, st, and less commonly in pt, kt, t[t, θt, [t;
d may be elided in Id, nd and less commonly in bd, gd, d¿d, vd, ðd, zd, md, ŋd.
Additionally, t is sometimes elided in the contracted negative-n’t, no matter what
kind of sound follows.
- Next /nekst/ in isolation, or before a vowel sound, this word is Pronounced
/nekst/. But in a phrase such as next thing, next question it is often
pronounced /neks/, with elision of the t.
- Stand /stænd/ in Isolation, or before a vowel sound, this word is pronounced
stænd. But is a phrase such as stand clear, stand firm it is often pronounced
stæn, with elision of the d.
- didn’t /‘dident/ When followed by another word in a phrase this word is
sometimes pronounced /‘didn/, with elision of the t.
3.2. Elision of the e is often (though not always) possible when it is followed by a liquid
(= l or r) and then a weak vowel. This has the effect of making the liquid SYLLABIC.
unless COMPRESSION also occurs (in which case all trace of the e disappears).
See the example:
- Camera /‘kæm er e/ The full form is ‘kæmere. When e is elided, in the first
instance it makes the r syllabic: ‘kæm r e. This is usually compressed to give
‘kæmre. All these possibilities occur.
- Mother /‘mtðe/ / er In Br E r is usually inserted at the end of this word when
the following word begins with a vowel sound (R-liaison = non-rhothic accents,
when r is not pronounced). Hence mother and father becomes /,mtðer en
‘fa:ðe/.
The e of mother is now in a elision environment; hence the phrase can also be
pronounced /,mtð r en ‘fa:ðe/.
In AmE the full form is /,mtðr en ‘fa:ðer/, which can likewise become /,mtð ren
‘fa:ðr/ by compression. This compressed form of mother does not occur when
the word said is isolation.
4. In casual speech e is also sometimes elided in the first syllable of a word in which the second
syllable is stressed and begins with a liquid. The initial syllable then undergoes compression.
Thus terrific te’rIfIk sometimes become ‘trIfIk, or collide ke’laId becomes klaId.
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The same applies to cases of apparent elision of e in some speakers occasional
pronunciation of words such as incident ‘In,sedent, capacity Ke’pæsetI, where there
usually seems to be a compensatory lengthening of the preceding consonant, given the
effect of In’s:dent , Ke’pæs:tI.
5. Sometimes a pronunciation that was originally the result of elision has become the only
possibility for some speakers. Some people have ‘Kæmra as the only pronunciation for
camera, or pli:s as the only form for police.
For many English people it would feel very artificial to pronounce t in postman ‘peosmen.
The elision can be:
a. aphæresis or aphesis (Initial). Pronounced /e’fIerisIs/, when a consonant is
elided at the beginning of a word, as in ‘coon’ for ‘raccoon’ or ‘till’ for ‘until’. It
is the loss of one or more sounds from the beginning of a word, especially the loss
of an unstressed vowel.
[k]nife pronounced /’naIf/
a’cute > cute
[e]’gyptian > gyptian > gypsy
[a]’mend > mend
b. Syncope (Medial). Pronounced /‘sIŋkepI/. The loss of one or more sounds at the
interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
postman /‘peos. men/; o’er for over, heav’n for heaven, ‘fish ‘n’ chips’.
1. The loss of any sound
• old english hláford > english lord
• english worcester, pronounced [‘woste]
• english gloucester, pronounced [‘glbste]
2. Syncope in informal speech
Various sorts of colloquial reductions might be called “syncope”. Forms such
as “didn’t” that are written with an apostrophe are, however, generally called
contractions:
• english go[ing t]o > gonna
• english wa[nt t]o > wanna
• english did n[o]t > didn’t
• english do[n’t k]no[w] > dunno
• english I [woul]d [h]ave > I’d’ve
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c. apocope (Final). Pronounced /e’pbkepi/. It is the loss of one or more sounds from
the end of a word, and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
‘I don’t know’ /I duno/
postman /‘peos men/.
1.3. dissimilation /,dIsIm.I’leI.[en/
Dissimilation is a phonological process that involves one of two similar or identical sounds
within a word becoming less like the other or even disappearing entirely. Because r’s in
successive syllables are particularly difficult to pronounce, they frequently dissimilate. One
historical example of dissimilation is marble, from French marbre. In this case the second r
has dissimilated to l in order to prevent a repetition of the r and ease articulation.
marbre → marble
Other contemporary examples of dissimilation include enterprise, governor, impropriety,
prerogative, surprise, and thermometer, in which there is a tendency for the first r to drop
out of the pronunciation resulting in
enterprise [’en.te.praIz]
governor [’gtv.en.er]
impropriety [,im.pe-‘praI.e.tI]
prerogative [pe-‘rbg.e.tIv]
surprise [se ‘praIz]
thermometer [θe ‘mbm.I.te]
Note that other consonants besides r may be altered or omitted as a result of dissimilation,
such as n in government (‘gtv. en. ment].
Source: The American Heritage® Book of English Usage. Copyright © 1996 by Houghton
Mifflin Company. http://www.bartleby.com/64/C007/066.html
Dissimilation, then, is a phenomenon whereby similar consonant or vowel sounds in a word
becomes less similar. For example, when one /r/ sound occurs before another in the middle
of a word in rhotic dialects of English, the first tends to drop out, as in “beserk” for berserk,
“supprise” for surprise, “paticular” for particular, and “govenor” for governor (note this doesn’t
affect the pronunciation of government, which has only one /r/).
1.4. Insertion or epenthesis /ep’ent.θe.sIs, in’ss:[en/
The epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of
a word or initial position. (phonetics).
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It is also defined as the insertion of a phoneme, letter, or syllable into a word, usually to
satisfy the phonological constraints of a language or poetic context.
I speak english /aI es’pi:k iŋglI[/
He is a estudent /hi:z e es’tjudent/
1.5. Neutralization /,nju:trel.aI’zeI.[en/
Two phonemes (= sounds whose difference has the power of distinguishing words) may, in
certain phonetic environments, not be distinguishable. We call this neutralization.
1.5.1. In most environments English /p/ and /b/ are in opposition; that is, they carry a potential
difference in meaning. This can be seen in the pair pin /pIn/ and bin /bIn/, cup /ktp/
and cub /ktb/. Note, however, that after /s/ the opposition is neutralized (since p here
has no ASPIRATION).We conventionally write spin /spIn/ phonemically as spIn ; but
since there is no possible difference between /p/ and /b/ here we could just as well
write /sbIn/.
1.5.2. One type of neutralization is symbolized explicitly in Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary (LPD) by the use of symbols i and u. The opposition between i: and I
operates in most environments, as seen in green /gri:n/ and grin /grIn/, leap /li:p/
and lip /lIp/. But there are two environments in which it is neutralized:
• When the vowel is in a WEAK syllable at the end of a word ( or at the end of part
of a compound word of the stem) as in happy /’hæp.i/ valley /’væl.i/, babies
/‘beIbiz/.
• When the vowel is in a weak syllable before another vowel, as in radiation, /,reI.
di’eI.[
e
n/, glorious, /’glo:.ri.es/.
In these positions the traditional Received Pronunciation (Standard English) form is
I (a short vowel). But in fact some speakers use I, some use i: some, use something
intermediate or indeterminate, and some use fluctuate between the two possibilities.
The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (LPD) symbol i (a short vowel) reflects this.
Similarly, The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary LPD symbol /u/ represents the
neutralization of the opposition between u: and o. This neutralization is also found
in certain other weak syllables, for example in one pronunciation of stimulate /’stIm.
ju.leIt/ (also ‘stIm. je. leIt).
1.6. gemination /,gem.I’neI.[en/
N (Noun) Doubling, duplication, repetition. Phonetics. the doubling of a consonantal sound.
Rhetoric. the immediate repetition of a word, phrase, etc., for rhetorical effect.
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Summary of important phonological processes in English:
1. assimilation /e,sIm.I’leI.[en/. Sounds becoming more alike. These can be voicing,
manner or place. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound. Example:
/fop.bo:l/.
2. Elision /e’lI[en/. It is the omission of a segment. It could be:
2.1. aphæresis: deletion of first segment(s) of a word (initial). Example: around –
round.
2.2. Syncope: deletion of segment(s) from the middle of a word or end of the syllable:
suppose -- sppose. (medial)
2.3. apocope: deletion of last segment(s) of a word (final). Example: breakfast –
Breakfast.
3. Insertion (epenthesis) /in’ss:[en, ep’ent.θe.sIs/. Inserting segment(s) into a word:
example: [straik[ --[estraik].
4. Neutralization /nIutre’laIseI[en/. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the
two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this
case before /r/.
5. haplology /hæp’lbl. e. gI/. It is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two
consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. The phenomenon was identified by
American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20
th
century.
Conditions:
1) Syllables are both medial; and
2) The structure of the two syllables is similar.
Examples
English (colloquial):
• Engla land > England
• particularly > particuly
• pierced-ear earrings > pierced earrings
• probably > probly
6. gemination /gemi’ne I[en/. A segment, vowel or consonant, becomes double long like
the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie, the /s/ would
be shorter).
7. degemination /dIgemi’ne I[en/. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to
one single consonant, as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a
single /m/.
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8. Consonant harmony /’kbsenænt ’ha:menI/. One consonant becomes more like
another: often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog.
9. denasalization /dIneIzelaI’zeI[en/. Removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment
leaves you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Imagine talking with a
stuffy nose. Example: nut -- dut.
10. devoicing /dI’voIsIŋ/. A voiced segment becomes voiceless. Usually nothing else
changes as in ‘vote -- fote.
11. Metathesis /met’æθesIs/. It is responsible for the most common types of speech errors,
such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti, ask as /’æks/. Some other frequent
English pronunciations that display metathesis are:
/’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English)
/’æsterIks/ for asterisk
/’ktmfterbel/ for comfortable
/Inter’dju’s/ for introduce
/’Intregel/ for integral
/rsvelent/ for relevant
12. Nasalization /neIzelaI’zeI[en/. In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound
while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the
production of the sound by the mouth. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization
of the vowel /a/ in ‘pond’. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated
by printing a tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized
equivalent of [a], and [ ] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. The nasals consonants can
nasalize the vowels.
13. Palatalization /pæletelaI’zeI[en/. A sound, usually before a /j/ glide but often before a
high front vowel, is moved closer to the palat. miss you -- mishu or ‘make Eve -- [mejciv]
where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized, they
usually become africates.
14. Spirantization /spaIrentI’zeI[en/ /[en/. Stops become fricatives, usually between
vowels. example ata -- asa. Only the manner changes here. Note though that place might
also change. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English, when you spirantize a
[b] in english you often get [v].
15. Voicing assimilation /‘voIsIŋ asimi’leI [en/. Segment becomes like another usually
adjacent segment, in voicing. Example ‘ata’ -- [ada], have to -- hafta. vowel harmony:
Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel.
16. Vowel reduction /’vaolwl rI ‘dek [en/. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or
similar short lax vowel.
~
v
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Observe the excercises and the processes in the each one:
1. He estudies english Insertion
2. He waited till 7 o’clock Elision
3. They went to the fupbol Assimilation
4. Sorry, it is asks not aks Metathesis
5. It is the same to say happi: or happI Neutralization
BIBlIogRaPhY
Wells, J. C.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Jones Daniels
(1997) English Pronunciation Dictionary. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.
CUP.
Anne C. Newton, Editor.
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum,
a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV,
Number 4.
Underhill, Adrian
(1994) Sound foundations. Oxford, Heineman English Language Teaching.
Cambridge University Press
(1995) International Cambridge dictionary of english. Cambridge University Press.
Cunninghan, Sarah and Bowler, Bill
(1991) Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
(1993) Headway intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/english/courses/eng718/phonprocesses.html
http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elision
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissimilation
http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/m/a/mam1034/csd300.phonologicalprocesses.html
http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/Table3.htm
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aCTIVITY
1. Mention some phonological processes and give examples.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
2. Give the rule for the assimilation process of the English prefix in- . Consider the following
examples i[m]practical, i[n]sufferable and i[ŋ]complete.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
3. How many kinds of assimilation do we have? Give an example.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
4. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Why is it important in language
learning?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5. Explain the phonological process of elision. Give some examples.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
6. Mention kinds of elision.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
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7. Explain the yod coalescence as a process.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
8. Explain the process of dissimilation.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
9. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
10. What do you understand by neutralization?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
11. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Why is it important in language
learning?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
12. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English.
____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
13. What do you understand by neutralization?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
oBjECTIVES
1. Recognize the difference among word stress, syllable stress and
sentence stress.
2. Recognize types of stress.
3. Be aware of the importance of word stress and sentence stress.
4. Get familiar with rules of word stress in English.
5. Point out the importance of sentence stress and English rhythm.
UNIT II
sTrEss, sTrEssED syLLAbLE, worD sTrEss,
sENTENCE sTrEss AND ENgLIsh rhyThm
STRESS, STRESSEd SYllaBlE, woRd STRESS, SENTENCE STRESS aNd
ENglISh RhYThM
2.1. Word Stress is phonemic in English, this is the movement of stress in a word from
one position to another changes the meaning of the word. For example, the words desert
/’dez.et/ and dessert /dI.’zs:t/ are distinguished by stress, as are the noun a record /’rek.o:d/
and the verb to record /rI’ko:d/.
Stressed syllables in English are louder than non-stressed syllables, as well as being
longer and having a higher pitch. They also tend to have a fuller realization than unstressed
syllables.
Examples of stress in English words, using boldface to represent stressed syllables, are
holiday, alone, admiration, confidential, degree, and weaker.
Ordinarily, grammatical words (auxiliary verbs, prepositions, pronouns, etc.) do not receive
stress, whereas content or lexical words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) must have
at least one stressed syllable.
English is a stress-timed language. That is, stressed syllables appear at a roughly
steady tempo (approximately fixed tempo), and non-stressed syllables are shortened to
accommodate this.
(a) Stress-timed language (Rhythm). See the example.
Taken from http://members.tripod.com/chifenchen/rhythm.htm
2.2. Types of stress
Traditional approaches describe English as having three degrees of stress: Primary ( ’ ),
secondary ( , ) and unstressed. However, if stress is defined as relative respiratory force
(that is, it involves greater pressure from the lungs than unstressed syllables), as most
phoneticians argue, and is inherent in the word rather than the sentence (that is, it is lexical
rather than prosodic), then these traditional approaches combines two distinct processes:
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a) Stress on the one hand, and
b) vowel reduction on the other. In this case, primary stress is actually prosodic stress,
whereas secondary stress is simple stress in some positions, and an unstressed but not
reduced vowel in others. Either way, there is a three-way phonemic distinction: Either
three degrees of stress, or else stressed, unstressed, and reduced.
In languages, such as Russian and English, vowel reduction may occur when a vowel
changes from a stressed to an unstressed position. In English, many unstressed vowels
reduce to schwa-like vowels, though the details vary with dialect.
Unit 2. Practice 1
Degrees of stress
words
Sentence
pattern
Stressed and
unstressed syllable
Reduced syllable
(The unstressed syllable changes to schwa)
Janet
∎∙
janet ‘gænIt / ‘gænet
Elephant
■∙∙
Elephant ‘elIfent / ‘elefent
Jemina
∙■∙
JeMina gI‘maIna / ge‘maIna/
Mississipi
.∙∙■∙
MissiSSipi .misI‘sIpI / .mise‘sIpI
When a stressed syllable contains a pure vowel (rather than a diphthong), followed by a
single consonant and then another vowel, as in holiday, many native speakers feel that
the consonant belongs to the preceding stressed syllable, /’hbl.i.deI/. However, when
the stressed vowel is a diphthong, as in admiration or weaker, speakers agree that the
consonant belongs to the following syllable: /’ædmi’reI[en/. (Phonetically, the vowel in weak
is also a diphthong, [ij].)
2.3. word stress in English
The word Stress in English is the magic key to understanding spoken English. Native
speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they
do not even know they use it.
Non-native speakers, who speak English to native speakers without using word stress,
encounter two problems:
1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast.
2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.
To understand word stress helps to understand what syllable is. Every word is made
from syllables.
Each word has one, two, three or more syllables.
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word number of syllables
dog
dog
/dɒg/
1
green
green
/gri:n/
1
quite
quite
/kwáɪt/
1
quiet
qui-et
/’kwaɪ. ət/
2
orange
or-ange
/’or. ɪnʤ
2
table
ta-ble
/teɪ. bəl/
2
expensive
ex-pen-sive
/ek. ‘spen.sɪv/
3
interesting
in-ter-est-ing
/‘ɪn.tres. tɪŋ/
(3 in fast speech)
4
realistic
re-a-lis-tic
,rɪ. a. ‘lɪs. tɪk
4
unexceptional
un-ex-cep-tion-al
/, ʌn. ɪk.’sep. ʃən.l/
5
Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a, e, i,
o, or u) or vowel sound.

2.4. Importance of word stress
Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages, Japanese or French for example,
pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis. Other languages, English for example, use
word stress.
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Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want.
It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and
accurately, even in difficult conditions. If, for example, you do not hear a word clearly, you
can still understand the word because of the position of the stress.
Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. Now imagine that you
are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. You cannot hear clearly. In
fact, you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words, photo... Which word is it,
photograph or photographer? Of course, with word stress you will know immediately which
word it is because in reality you will hear either Photo... or phoTo... So without hearing the
whole word, you probably know what the word is ( Photo...graph or phoTo...grapher). It’s
magic! (Of course, you also have the ‘context’ of your conversation to help you.)
This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. There are many,
many other examples, because we use word stress all the time, without thinking about it.
Example:
Decide which stress pattern do the words belong to and write it in the space?
Unit 2. Practice 2
Stress pattern
■∙∙ ∙■∙ ∙∙■
1. Manchester
2. Anthony
3. Jemina
4. elephant
5. Morocco
6. Amazon
7. Carpenter
8. happiness
2.5. Rules of word stress in English
In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength in one word.
We accentuate ONE syllable, this is, we say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important)
and all the other syllables remain very quietly.
Let’s take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the
same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it
is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different.
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Shape Total syllables Stressed syllable
Pho To gRaPh
3 #1
Pho To gRaPh ER
4 #2
Pho To gRaPh IC
4 #3
This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer, JaPAN, CHINa, aBOVE,
converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCETera.
The syllables that are not stressed are weak or small or quiet. Native speakers of English
listen carefully for the STRESSED syllables, but not the weak syllables. If you use word
stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and
your comprehension.
Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - on the radio or in
films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it!
There are two very important rules about word stress:
1. one word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses,
you have heard two words, not one word).
2. The stress is always on a vowel.
There are some rules about which syllable to stress. But...the rules are rather complicated!
Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Listen carefully to spoken English and try
to develop a feeling for the “music” of the language.
When you learn a new word, you should also learn its stress pattern. If you keep a vocabulary
book, make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you do not know, you can look in a
dictionary. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. This is where they show which
syllable is stressed, usually with an apostrophe (‘) just before or just after the stressed syllable.
(The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used.) Look at this example for
the word plastic. There are 2 syllables. Syllable #1 is stressed. Which one is correct?
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Example
Phonetic spelling:
dictionary a
Phonetic spelling:
dictionary B
PLAS TIC
/plæs’tik/ /’plæs tik/
There are two very simple rules about word stress:
1. one word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two
stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can
be a “secondary” stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the
main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words).
2. we can only stress vowels, not consonants.
Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to
put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It
is better to try to “feel” the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.
Rule 1. Stress on first syllable
Rule Example
Most 2-syllable nouns
PRESent, EXport, CHIna, Table
Most 2-syllable adjectives
PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a
change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress the
frst syllable, it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress the
second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import,
contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the
frst or second syllable (www.englishclubtip.com).
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Unit 2. Practice 3
Pronounce the words and provide the stress appropriately.
Import, object, pencil, ruler, lotion, tiger, lemon, mirror and disco.
Quickly, rapid, slowly, heavy, silly, bony, early and stormy.

Rule 2. Stress on last syllable
Rule Example
Most 2-syllable verbs
To preSENT, to exPORT, to decide, to beGIN
Unit 2. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable)
Word stress. Read the words and pronounce them correctly providing the appropriate stress.
relax
destroy
depend
intent
collect
produce
invite
assist
repair
suggest
skate
research
survive
return
prefer
Rule 3. Phonemic stress.
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change
with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If
we stress the first syllable, it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent).
But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples:
the words export, import, contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending
on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable (www.englishclubtip.com).
Unit 2. Practice 5
Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress.
Stress in the first syllable Stress in the second syllable
‘Abstract (Adjevtive) abs’tract (Noun)
‘conduct (Noun) con’duct (verb)
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‘contract (noun) con’tract (verb)
‘contrast (noun) con’trast (verb)
‘desert (noun) de’ssert (noun)
‘import (noun) im’port (verb)
Rule 4. Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)
Rule Example
Words ending in –ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic
Words ending in –sion and –tion aTTENtion, revelation
Unit 2. Practice 6
Pronounce the words correctly and provide the right stress in A and B:
(penultimate = second from end)
a. Ending in ic
autographic
authentic
automatic
barbaric
boracic
autodidactic
autistic
axiomatic
basic
boric
acrylic
rhythmic
rubric
rustic
prosodic
B. Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end)
-sion
admission
passion
tension
permission
adquisition
-tion
action
promotion
simulation
deduction
relation
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Important note
For a few words, native English speakers don’t always ‘agree’ on where
to put the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsiom and others
say TELevison. Another example is CONtroversy and controversy (www.
englishclubtip.com).
Rule 5. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
Rule Example
Words ending in –cy, -ty, -phy and –gy
deMOcracy, dependaBIlity, photography,
geOLogy
Words ending in –al
CRItical, geoLOGical
Unit 2. Practice 7
A) Pronounce the words ending in –cy correctly and provide the appropriate stress
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
adequacy
aristocracy
consistency
constancy
competency
agency
autocracy
consonancy
consultancy
conveniency
absorbency
adequacy
agency
ascendancy
bureaucracy
accountancy
advertency
aristocracy
autocracy
clemency
B) Pronounce the words ending in –ty correctly and provide the appropriate stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
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ability
abnormality
absorbability
absurdity
audacity
austerity
automaticity
barbarity
bellicosity
benignity
bestiality
biodiversity
bioelectricity
biosafety
bisexuality
brutality
calamity
capability
carnality
catholicity
C) Pronounce the words ending in –phy correctly and provide the adequate stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
autography
biography
cardiography
cosmography
encephalography
bibliography
calligraphy
chronography
crystallography
historiography
geography
filmography
ethnography
idiography
mammography
mythography
oscillography
petrography
philosophy
radiography
d) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy correctly and provide the adequate
stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
allergy
anthology
astrology
biotechnology
chronology
analogy
apology
astrobiology
cardiology
climatology
genealogy
histology
hydrology
ideology
immunology
laryngology
lexicology
monology
morphology
musicology
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E) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
abdominal
aboriginal
philosophical
acquisitional
additional
aesthetical
aeronautical
agrichemical
agricultural
alphabetical
analytical
compositional
computational
epidemiological
noninflectional
nonmarital
psychological
professional
monolitical
nonpractical
Rule 6. Compound words (words with two parts)
Rule Example
a) For compound nouns, the stress is
on the first part
BLACKbird, GREENhouse
b) For compound adjectives, the stress
is on the second part
bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned
c) For compound verbs, the stress is
on the second part
to understand, to overflow
Unit 2. Practice 8
A) For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird. Practice the words
loudly and provide the adequate stress.
blackboard
saucepan
saleswork
iceland
bedroom
bathroom
wallpaper
bathtub
housework
grasshopper
boyfriend
seafood
undercut
diningtable
blue-green
hwatermelon
highlight
fishtank
tumbledown
underworld
witchcraft
B) For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part: bad TEMpered.
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Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.
long-legged
three-headed
flowered-dress
masked man
six-sided
long-handled
green-eyed
staff-necked
baby-faced
short-tempered
thin-skinned
smooth-tongue
broken-hearted
light-footed
long-winded
tight-fisted
sure-footed
high-heeled
freckle-faced
stone-faced
kind-hearted
C) For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part: to understand, to overflow.
Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.
turn back (return) talk back (to) (answer rudely) Keep down (Do not vomit)
take charge (of)
(assume responsibility)
write down (make notes)
Kick around (Discuss)
look over (review) talk over (discuss):
Kick down
(Break something with your feet)
Bring back (return) highlighted let down (Disappoint)
Call back (telephone again)
Keep around
(Keep something near you)
lock down
(Make something very secure)
Unit 2. Practice 9
Now read the 4-syllable words and write them on the appropriate space
Stress pattern
∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙
1. Felicity
2. Afghanistan
3. Alexander
4. Wolverhampton
5. Rhinoceros
6. Mississipi
Taken from “Rhymes Rhythm, Michael Vaughan- Reeds
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2.6. Syllable Stress
In words of more than one syllable, the syllables do not all have equal stress. There is
usually one that has particularly strong stress. This means that on this syllable your voice is
louder and usually pitched higher, and you hang on to the syllable considerably longer than
on the other syllables of that word. Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or
make it completely unrecognisable.
So stressed syllables in English are usually held longer than unstressed syllables. They may
also be louder and higher in pitch.
Although all stressed vowels are long, stressed vowels at the end of a word or before a
voiced consonant are held somewhat longer than vowels before voiceless consonants.
long
Before a voiceless consonant
longer
Before a voiced consonant word end.
Seat
Shoot
Bet
Make
Rip
seed
shoe
bed
made
rib

An accent is the placement of intonation pitch-prominence (= higher or lower pitch than the
surroundings) on a word. Speakers choose to accent certain words (or to de-accent others)
because of the particular meaning they wish to convey in a particular situation. Accents
can fall only on stressed syllables. Thus to accent the word collapse ke’læps the pitch-
prominence goes on the syllables læps, but on tumble ‘tʌmbel on the syllable tʌm.
Summing up the rules
a) Always stress the syllable before one that’s pronounced [[n] –ssion/ -tion,
[ [s ] –cious/ -tions. [ [l ] –cial/-tial, etc., e. g. attention, spacious, artificial.
b) In words ending ‘-ic’, ‘-ical’, ‘-ically’, the stress is on the syllable before ‘-ic’, except
‘Árabic, a’rithmetic, ‘lunatic, ‘heretic, ‘politics, and ‘rhetoric (but adjectives: arith’metic,
he’retical, po’litical, rhe’torical).
c) Words ending in ‘-ese’ have the stress on this syllable (Chinése, journa’lese).
d) Do not stress the negative prefix attached to an adjective (‘possible, im’possible; ‘literate,
i’lliterate) except: ‘nowhere, ‘nothing, and ‘nobody, nonsense.
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PRaCTICE
A. Exaggerate the stressing as much as you can - i.e. Make the stressed syllable louder,
higher and longer than the unstressed ones.
a) Completion efficient invasion financial advantageous vivacious.
b) Photogenic scientific materialistic geographical musical technical.
c) psychology/psychologist meteorology/meteorologist ideology/ideologist.
d) Chinese Japanese Portuguese Cantonese Balinese Viernese.
e) Organised/disorganised complete/incomplete attractive/unattractive legal/illegal
where/nowhere sense/nonsense.
B. Practise shifting the stress
photograph politics competing analyse
photographer political competitor analysis
photographic politician competition analytical
C. Practise the words. Where are the stresses?
Photography develop photographic amateurs political
Institute photographs possibility politician competitive
Career technical competition distinguished politics
answers: C. pho’tography / ‘institute / ca’reer / de’velop / ‘photographs / ‘technical / photo’graphic / possi’bility /
compe’tition / ‘amateurs / poli’tician / dis’tinguished / po’litical / com’petitive / ‘politics
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dialogue: Photography or politics?
Diana: What have you decided to do after college, Jeremy?
Jeremy: I’m going to take up photography. Mr McKenzie’s recommended the course
at the Institute. He believes I could make a career as a photographer.
Diana: You’ll have to develop your own photographs. That requires technical
skill. Jeremy, you’re not a technician! And photographic materials are very
expensive.
Jeremy: Well, Diana, Mr McKenzie thinks there’s a possibility I might win the Observer
competition. I sent in four entries. All the competitors are amateurs, like
myself.
Diana: I detest competitions. I never agree with the decision of the judges! I’m going
to be a politician. I shall become the most distinguished woman on the political
scene!
Jeremy: I thought you hated competing! Don’t tell me politics isn’t competitive!
2.7. Sentence Stress
Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help
you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.
Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or “beat”. You remember that word stress
is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words
within a sentence.
In general, in any given English utterance there will be particular words that carry more
“weight” or “volume” (stress) than others. From a speaking perspective, sentence stress will
affect the degree to which an ESL student sounds “natural”. In terms of listening, it affects
how well a student can understand the utterances they hear.
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what is the difference between “word stress” and “sentence stress”?
Whereas sentence stress refers to the process whereby particular words are stressed
within an overall sentence. Word stress refers to the process whereby particular syllables
(or parts of words) are stressed within and overall word. In general, sentence stress is more
of a consideration for overall fluency - word stress tends to have more of a phonological and
morphemic importance
I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher whose MAIN INterest is to TAKE SPEcial,
BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that exHIBit ABstract MEANings in their
photoGRAPHic STRUCture.
Most sentences have two types of word:
• Content words – stressed
Content words
Main verbs go, talk, writing, dance, sell, give, employ
Nouns student, desk, book, car, music,
Adjectives big, clever, studious, red, big, interesting
Adverbs quickly, slowly, loudly, never, always, rarely
Negative aux. verbs can’t, don’t, aren’t, doesn’t, didn’t
Demonstratives this, that, those, these.
Question marks who, which, where, how, What
• Grammatical words- unstressed
Pronouns I, you, he , they, We, she, it
Prepositions On, under, with, behind, across
Articles The, a, some, an, any
Conjunctions But, and, so, because,
Auxiliary verbs Can, should, must, can, have, do
Verb to be Is, was, am
For example:
I am speaking to the young workers.
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You’re listening to the music, but you aren’t concentrated in the topic.
He is speaking quickly, so it is difficult for him to understand him.
Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry
the meaning or sense.
grammatical words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make
the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form or “structure”.
If you remove the grammatical words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the
sentence.
If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not understand the sentence. The
sentence has no sense or meaning.
Imagine that you receive this telegram message:
Will you SELL Me CAR because I’m GONE to FRANCE
This sentence is not complete. It is not a “grammatically correct” sentence. But you probably
understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car
for them because they have gone to France. We can add a few words:
Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE
The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more
correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically
correct sentence. But the information is basically the same:
Content Words
Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE.
Grammatical Words
In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed.
Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important because it adds “music” to the
language. It is the rhythm of the English language. It changes the speed at which we speak
(and listen to) the language. The time between each stressed word is the same.
In our sentence, there is 1 syllable between SELL and CAR and 3 syllables between CAR
and GONE. But the time (t) between SELL and CAR and between CAR and GONE is the
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same. We maintain a constant beat on the stressed words. To do this, we say “my” more
slowly, and “because I’ve” more quickly. We change the speed of the small structure words
so that the rhythm of the key content words stays the same.
Syllables
2 1 3 1
will you SEll my CaR because I’ve goNE to FRaNCE.
__________
t1
beat
_____
t1
beat
_____________
t1
beat
___
t1
beat
Rules for Sentence Stress in English
The basic rules of sentence stress are:
1. Content words are stressed
2. grammatical words are unstressed
3. The time between stressed words is always the same
Exceptions
The above rules are for what is called “neutral” or normal stress. But sometimes we can
stress a word that would normally be only a grammatical word, for example to correct
information. Look at the following dialogue:
“They’ve been to Mongolia, haven’t they?”
“No, ThEY haven’t, but wE have.
Note also that when “be” is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed (even though in this
case it is a content word).
Special STaIR Exercises
S.T.A. I. R stands for:
• S tress
• T iming
• a rticulation
• I ntonation
• R hythm
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These are the 5 essential components of good English pronunciation. Make sure people
can understand your English by using the interactive S.T.A.I.R exercises in Pronunciation
Power.
Sentence Stress Practice
Unit 2. Practice 10
Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.
These are the house that Jaqueline built
One Two Three Four
1. This is the house that Jack built
2. These are the houses that Jack built
3. These are the houses that Jaqueline built
4. This is the house that my mother designed
5. This is the bicycle Peter repaired
6. Those are the people we met in the park
7. That is the person I saw on the stairs
8. Those are the people we drove to the party
9. That is the gardener who works for my mother
10. Andrew is taller than Peter and Thomas
11. Tom’s not as tall as the rest of the family
12. What an amazingly lively production
13. How can we possibily get there in time
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B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please, turn off the television before you go out.
5. I can’t decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson’
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
2.8. Sentence rhythm
Sentence rhythm is a natural part of language development. Most children master the
intonation patterns and rhythms of language before they master the words.
Because the patterns and rhythms of our native language are so deeply ingrained, the best
way to review writing is to read it out loud. Any lapses in meaning or coherence can then be
seen easily.
It is important to remember that an English sentence will have a certain number of beats.
Stressed (content words always take up an entire ‘beat’, while unstressed grammatical
words fall between the beats. The time between beats is always the same. For this reason
grammatical words are often spoken faster and with less volume. They are literally being
squeezed into the gap between regular stressed beats. In the examples below, all the
grammatical words (or groups of grammatical words) take the same amount of time to
pronounce the number of sounds or syllables they include. Doing simple rhythmic clap or
thump in time to the spoken sentence demonstrate how this happens.
Rhythm is timing patterns among syllables.
There are basically two types of sentence rhythm in languages:
A) “Stress-timed rhythm” and B) “syllables-timed rhythm”. English has “stress-times rhythm
and Spanish, a syllable-time rhythm.
Stress-time rhythm has an alternation of stressed and unstressed.
Important Note: Negative words and negative “to-be, “to have”, and auxiliary verbs need to
be stressed: (e.g., no, never, isn’t, haven’t, can’t, don’t, won’t).
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Unit 2. Practice 11
Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. See the examples:

I am talking to the clever students
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3

You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us.
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4

He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
1. John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.
2. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.
3. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back
roads of France.
4. jack bought a new car last Friday.
5. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january.
6. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future.
7. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?
8. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging
experiment.
9. Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.
10. As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern.
Unit 2. Practice 12
Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder, longer, clearer,
and high-pitched.
1. john wants to be an actor, so he wants to live in hollywood.
2. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
3. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday.
4. After the movie, they went to a bar to have beer.
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Unit 2. Practice 13
Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. (Remember if you hear the “to-be”
or auxiliary verb is stressed, then the sentence is negative).
13. a.
1. I ______ understand your story. (can, can’t)
2. Tom _______ come to the party tonight. (can, can’t)
3. They _______ hear the speaker. (can, can’t)
4. We _______ told to do that. (were, weren’t)
5. They ________ doing the homework. (are, aren’t)
6. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. (were, weren’t)
13.B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please turn off the television before you go out.
5. I can’t decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson’.
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My Grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10 There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
here’s how we can improve our pronunciation:
1. Learn the following rules concerning pronunciation.
2. English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered
syllabic.
3. In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance
(there is stress, but each syllable has its own length).
4. English pronunciation focuses on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the
other, non-stressed, words.
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5. Stressed words are considered content words: Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter - (most)
principle verbs e.g. visit, construct - Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting - Adverbs e.g.
often, carefully
6. Non-stressed words are considered function words: Determiners e.g. the, a - Auxiliary
verbs e.g. am, were - Prepositions e.g. before, of - Conjunctions e.g. but, and - Pronouns
e.g. they, she
7. Read the following sentence aloud: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the
distance.
8. Read the following sentence aloud: He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn’t have
to do any homework in the evening.
9. Notice that the first sentence actually takes about the same time to speak well!
10. Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the
sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words in
each sentence.
11. Write down a few sentences, or take a few example sentences from a book or exercise.
12. First underline the stressed words, then read aloud focusing on stressing the underlined
words and gliding over the non-stressed words.
13. Be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves! By focusing on stressed words,
non-stressed words and syllables take on their more muted nature.
14. When listening to native speakers, focus on how those speakers stress certain words
and begin to copy this.
Tips:
1. Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often “swallowed” in English.
2. Always focus on pronouncing stressed words well, non-stressed words can be glided
over.
3. Don’t focus on pronouncing each word. Focus on the stressed words in each sentence.
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BIBlIogRaPhY
Anne C. Newton, Editor.
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum,
a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV,
Number 4.
J.C. Wells
(2006) English intonation: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
P. Ashby
(2005) Speech sounds. London: Routledge, Second edition.
A. Cruttenden
(2001) Gimson’s pronunciation of english. London: Edward Arnold. Sixth edition.
B. Collins and I. M. Mees
(2003) Practical phonetics and phonology. London: Routledge.
J.D. O’Connor
(1980) Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Second edition.
P. Roach
(2000) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge University Press. Third edition.
P. Roach, J. Hartman and J. Setter (ed.)
(2006) English pronouncing dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Seventeenth
edition.
J.C. Wells
(2000) Longman pronunciation dictionary. Longman.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-rules.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1.pdf
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.mp3
http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/Table3.htm
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aCTIVITY
1. Why is word stress phonemic?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Indicate the traditional types of stress and the three degrees of stress.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. What are the problems non-native speakers face when they speak to native speakers?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Why is word stress so important?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What are the simple rules for word stress?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Where are most 2-syllable nouns stressed? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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7. Where are most 2-syllable verbs stressed? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Give examples of lexical entries where the stress is phonemic.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What is the difference between word stress and sentence stress?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. What are the basic rules for sentence stress? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Be aware of the different processes that take place in connected speech
in spoken language.
2. Get familiar with different changes as a result of assimilation.
3. Recognize compound words and how they are stressed.
4. Understand how double consonants are pronounced in connected speech.
5. Understand the importance of elision process in connected speech.
6. Learn how r is pronounced in isolation and in connected speech.
7. Understand how stress changes in connected speech.
8. Understand how /t/ can be pronounced as a voiced sound /d/ in connected
speech.
UNIT III
CoNNECTED sPEECh
CoNNECTEd SPEECh
When a word occurs in a phrase or sentence, its pronunciation may sometimes be different
from the pronunciation used when it is said in isolation.
Some of the characteristics of the phonetics of connected speech are discussed in this unit.
3.1. Assimilation
3.2. Compounds and phrases
3.3. Double consonant sounds
3.4. Double consonant letters
3.5. Elision
3.6. R liaison
3.7. Stress shift
3.8. T-voicing
3.9. Weak forms
3.10. Word linking
3.1. assimilation
It is a process in which one or more segments become adapted in one or more aspects to
a neighbouring segment.
Example: in English, the alveolar nasal of the prefix /in-/ changes to [l] in illegal (complete
convergence) and to [m] in input (partial convergence). In the latter case the change is from
alveolar to labial under influence of the neighbouring labial segment [p]. When assimilation
takes place between two vowels it is more commonly referred to as vowel harmony
(agreement among vowels in successive syllables in respect of one or more feautures:
bathtub → battered in a child).
Sounds tend to change as a result of assimilation. Let see some of this common
assimilations.
/ t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
/ d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
/ n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
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/ t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/
/ d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
/ n / changes to / ŋ / before / k / or / g /
/ s / changes to / [ / before / [ / or / j /
/ z / changes to / ¿ / before / [ / or / j /
/θ/ changes to / s / before / s /
1. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
basket maker mixed bag
best man mixed blessing
cat burglar mixed marriage
cigarette paper mixed metaphor
circuit borrad pocket money
coconut butter post mortem
court martial pot plant
direct method private property
dust bowl put back
fast motion put by
first base right pair
flight plan secret police
foot brake set point
front bench set back
front man set piece
fruit machine sheet metal
Great Britain sit back
/ -m /
/ t / → / p / / -b /
/ -p /
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2. / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
bad pain good cook
blood bank good morning
blood bath grand master
blood brother ground plan
blood poisoning head boy
blood pressure hold back
blood pudding lord mayor
broad bean mud bath
card punch mud pie
closed book old bailey
command module old boy
command post old man
custard pie old maid
custard powder old moon
dead beat oxford blue
food poisoning red bag
food processor second mate
gold plate sound barrier
gold medal stand by
gold mine united party
good man word blindness
/ -m /
/ d / → / b / / -b /
/ -p /
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3. / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
action planning iron man
american plan on me
brown paper one pair
brown bear open book
chicken breast open market
common market open prison
cold man pen pal
cotton belt pin money
cotton picker queen bee
down payment queen mother
fan belt question mark
fan mail roman mile
foreign minister sun bath
foreign mission sun blind
garden party tin plate
green belt town planning
green bean venetian blind
hen party virgen birth
human being wine box
in blue wine bar
/ -m /
/ n / → / m / / -b /
/ -p /
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4. / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/
cigarette card short cut
credit card smart card
cut glass street credibility
fat girl street cry
first class that cake
flan cap
5. / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
bad girl hard cash
bird call hard copy
closed game hard core
cold call hard court
cold cream highland cattle
field glasses red carpet
good cook sand castle
grand canyon second class
ground control second comino
ground cover second cousin
had come slide guitar
had gone
/ -k /
/ t / → / k /
/ -g /
/ -k /
/ d / → / g /
/ -g /
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6. / n / changes to /ŋ/ before / k / or / g
action group open court
common good roman calendar
common ground roman candle
garden cress roman catholic
golden gate tin can
golden goose tone control
human capital town clero
in camera town crier
iron curtain
7. / s / changes to / [ / before / [ / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound
bus shelter nice yacht
dress shop space shuttle
nice shoes
8. / z / changes to / ¿ / before / [ / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound
cheese shop where’s tours?
Rose show
these sheep
9. / θ / changes to / s / before / s /
bath salts earth science
bath seat fifth set
birth certificate fourth season
both sexes fourth summer
both sides north-south divide
Source: http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/assimilation.html#as04
/ -k /
/ n / → / ŋ /
/ -g /
/ -[
o / u
/
/ s / → / [ /
/ -j
o / u
/
/ -[
o / u
/
/ z / → / ¿ /
/ -j
o / u
/
/ θ / → / s / / / -s /

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3.2. Compounds and phrases
A two-element compound is typically pronounced with early stress: that is to say, its first
element has more stress than its second.
‘bedtime /‘bed taIm/
‘block
o
buster /‘blbk
o
btst e/ || /‘blo:k
o
btst
e
r/
Notice that, although many such compounds are written as single words, others are written
as two words.
‘christmas
o
card
‘visitors’ book
‘music
o
lessons
‘beauty
o
contest
3.2.1. On the other hand, a two-word phrase is typically pronounced with late stress: that is
to say, its second word has more stress than its first.
,next ‘time
,typed ‘cards
,several ‘books
,weekly ‘lessons
3.2.2. These, and all stress patterns, can be changed if the speaker wants to emphasize a
particular contrast.
,Not a
o
school 'boy, __ a ,school ’girl!
,Not
o
music ‘lessons, __ ,just
o
time to ’practise.
,Not ‘weekly
o
lessons, __ ’monthly ones!
3.2.3. Sometimes a compound has a different meaning from the corresponding phrase.
A ‘darkroom (a room developing photographs)
A ,dark ‘room (a room which is dark because there is little light in it)
A ‘yellow
o
hammer (a kind of bird)
A ,yellow ‘hammer (a hammer coloured yellow)
A ‘moving van (to carry furniture when one moves house)
A ,moving ‘van (a van that is motion).
3.2.4. Some expression, which are grammatically compounds, are nevertheless pronounced
with late stress (= as if they were phrases). There is no firm rule; that is why many
compounds and phrases are listed separately with their stress patterns.
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One group of expressions of this type comprises those where the first element names
the material or ingredient out of which a thing is made.
a ,rubber ’duck
,paper ’plates
,cheese ’sandwiches
,apple ’crumble’
a ,pork ’pie
Note, however, that expressions involving cake, juice, water take early stress.
‘almond cake
‘orange juice
‘barley
o
water
3.2.5. In names of English places, note that all take late (final stress) stress except street,
which takes early (beginning) stress.
,Melrose ‘Road
,Lavender ‘Crescent
,Oxford ‘Circus
,King’s ‘Avenue
but ‘Gower Street
3.3. double Consonant Sounds
Double consonant sounds (“geminates”) in English phonetic are found only across
grammatical boundaries: where two words occur next to one another in connected speech,
or in the two parts of a compound word, or a stem and an affix. They are always found in a
syllable boundary, too. Examples are a nice sight /e,nais’saIt/, midday, /mId’deI/, soulless
/’seol les/ || /‘sool les/ .
3.3.2. Although cases like these consist of two identical phonemes in succession, they are
not usually pronounced like two distinct complete sounds. The details depend upon
their manner of ARTICULATION.
• Fricatives, nasal, liquids: a geminate is pronounced like a single sound, except
that it lasts longer. In this set, /ðIs’set/ the two s’s come together to make a long
s: between the two vowels, straddling (being found) the syllable boundary. In ten
names, /ten ’neImz/we get a long n:
• Plosives: a geminate is pronounces like a single sound, with just one sequence
of approach-hold-release; but the hold is longer in a geminate. In big game,
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/,bIg’geIm/ there is a single phonetic g: between the two vowels, straddling the
syllable boundary. Exceptionally, because of the possibility of a GLOTTAL STOP,
a geminated t may consist phonetically of ?t: that time /,ðæt’taIm / but a single
long alveolar t: is also possible.
• affricates are the only case where two successive complete consonant sounds
are pronounced independently, one after the other. In rich choice /,rIt[ ’t[oIs/
the fricative part of the first ç can be separately heard before the beginning of the
second ç. In orange juice there are two separate g’s.
3.4. double consonants letters
3.4.1. Double consonant letters in English spelling normally correspond to a single
consonant sound in pronunciation. So happy is pronounced /’hæp.i/ (not /’hæppi/);
rabbit rhymes perfectly with habit, Ellen rhymes perfectly with helen.
3.4.2. The main exception arises in a few words with cc before i or e, for example succeed
/sek’si:d/.
The other import exception is where the two consonant letters in question belong to
two different parts of a compound word, or one to a stem and one to an affix. Then
the two letters most often correspond to two phonemes (DOUBLE CONSONANT
SOUNDS). Examples: parttime /,pa:t’ taIm/, unnamed /tn’ neImd/ meanness
/’mi:n.nes/ (however many adverbs in ly drop one I sound when attached to a stem
ending in l: fully /’foli/).
3.5. Elision
It is the omission or loss of a vowel, a consonant, a syllable, a segment, or segments in oral
speech.
The nature of elision may be stated quite simple: under certain circumstances sounds
disappear; one might express this in more technical language by saying that in certain
circumstances a phoneme may be realized as zero, or have zero realization. As with
assimilation, elision is typical of rapid, casual speech; the process of change in phoneme
realizations produced by changing the speed of speech is sometimes called gradation.
Producing elisions is something which foreign learners do not need to learn to do, but it is
important for them to be aware that when native speakers of English talk to each other, quite
a number of phonemes that the foreigner might expect to hear are not actually pronounced.
We will look at some example, though only a small numbers of the many possibilities can be
given here. Peter Roach (83). pp. 108-110.
3.5.1. loss of weak vowel after p, t, k.
In words like ‘potato’, ‘tomato’, ‘canary’, ‘perhaps’, ‘today’, the vowel in the first
syllable may disappear; the aspiration of the initial plosive takes up the whole
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of the middle portion of the syllable, resulting in these pronunciation, where h
indicates aspiration: /p
h
teIteo/, /t
h
ma:teo/, /k
h
neerI/, /p
h
h æ ps/, /t
h
deI/.
3.5.2. Weak vowel + n, l or r becomes syllabic consonant. Examples:
‘tonight’ /te’naIt/ → / ‘t ņait/;
‘police’ /pe’li:s/ → / ‘p!i:s/,
‘correct’ /ke’rekt/ → /krekt/.
3.5.3. Avoidance of complex consonant clusters.
It has been said that no normal English speaker would ever pronounce all the
consonants between the last two words of the following:
‘George the sixth’s throne’ /go:g ðe sIksθs θreon/. Though this is not impossible to
pronounce, something like /… sIks θreon is more likety. In clusters of three plosives
or two plosives plus a fricative, the middle plosive or two may disappear, so that the
following pronunciations result:
‘acts’ / æks/; ‘looked back’ /’lok bæk/; scripts / ‘skrIps/.
3.5.4. Loss of final v in ‘of’ before consonants. Examples : ‘lots of them’ / lbts e ðem/;
‘waste of time’ /weIst e mtnI/.
3.5.5. It is difficult to know whether contractions of grammatical words should be regarded
as examples of elision or not.
The fact that they are regularly represented with special spelling forms makes them
seem rather different from the above examples. The best known cases are:
• ‘had’, ‘would’ : spelt ‘d, pronounced d after vowels, ed after consonants.
• ‘Is’, ‘has’ spelt ‘s, pronounced s after fortis consonants (voiceless) , z after lenis
consonants (voiced) , except that after s, z, ¿, [, ¿ ç, g- is pronounced Iz and
‘has’ is pronounced Iz in contracted form.
• ‘Wil’: spelt ‘ll, pronounced l after vowels and syllabic ! after consonants.
• ‘Have’: spelt ‘ve, pronounced v after vowels, ev after consonants.
• ‘Not’: spelt ‘n’t, pronounced nt after vowels, syllabic ņt after consonants.
(There are also vowel changes associated with n’t; e.g. ‘can’ kæn- ‘can’t’ ka.nt,
‘do’ du:- ‘don’t deont).
• ‘Are’: spelt ‘re, pronounced e after vowels, usually with some change in the
preceding vowel, e.g. ‘you’ ju: - ‘you’re’ joe, ‘we’ wi:’ – ‘we’re’ wIe, ‘they’ ðeI
-‘they’re’ ðeI, linking r is used when a vowel follows. Contracted ‘are’ is also
pronounced as e or er when following a consonant.
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3.6. R liaison
3.6.1. In BrE (RP), and other non-rhotic accents, a word said in isolation never ends in r.
Nevertheless, in connected speech an r may be pronounced in some cases if the
next word begins with a vowel sound.
3.6.2. This typically happens with a word (syllable) that ends in one of the vowels e, o:, o:,
s:, Ie, ee, oe, when the following word (syllable) begins with a vowel sound.
Far /fa:
r
/ || /fa:r/ In isolation, or before a consonant sound, this word is, in RP,
pronounced /fa:/. But in phrases such as far away, far out it is usually pronounced
/fa:r/. (In Gen Am it is always /fa:r/, whatever the environment it occurs in).
Near /nIe/ || /nI
e
r/ In isolation, the RP form is /nIe/. But in a phrase such as near
enough it is usually pronounced /nI
e
r/.
3.6.3. Usually, as in the cases just mentioned, the spelling includes r. The inserted r-sound
is then known as linking r. It corresponds to a historical r, now lost before a consonant
or pause.
3.6.4. In RP (standard english), however, as in other non-rhotic accents, the insertion is
frequently made even if there is no r in the spelling. This intrusive /r/ does not
correspond to historical r, and there is no corresponding r in AmE.
Comma /’kbme/ || /’ko:me/ In isolation, the RP form is /’kbm.e/. But in a phrase
such as put a comma in, it is often pronounced /’kbm.er/ (In american english it is
always /’ko:me/, whatever the environment).
Thaw /0o:/ || /0o:/ In isolation, RP thaw is /0o:/. In the phrase thaw out, intrusive
r may be added, giving /0o:r’aot/ (In Gem Am there is no r). (Thaw: the period of
warmer weather that causes ice and snow to turn into water).
The dictionary does show r liaison within a word, whether linking or intrusive. The
linking r, being obligatory, is shown thus: storing /sto:rIŋ/. The intrusive r, being
optional, is shown thus: thawing /0o:
r
Iŋ/.
3.7. Stress Shift
3.7.1. Some words seem to change their stress patterns in connected speech. Although in
isolation we say fundamental with the main stress these on ment and japanese
with the main stress on /ni:z/, in connected speech these words often have a different
pattern. For example, there might be greater stress on ftnd than on ment, or greater
stress on /gæp/ than on /ni:z/. This phenomenon is known as stress shift.
3.7.2. A phrase usually receives late stress. The placing of primary stress on the last
element means that the basic stress of the first element is weakened by one degree:
combining weekly /’wi:.kli/ and lessons /’les.
e
nz/ gives the phrases weekly lessons
/,wi:
o
kli’ les.
e
nz/
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Hence one would expect that fundamental /,ftn.de’men.t
e
l/ plus mistake /mI’steIk/
would give /ftn,de’men.t
e
l mI’steIk/ and that japanese /,gæpe’ni:z/ plus language
/’læŋ.gwIg/would give /,gæpe,ni:z’ læŋ.gwIg/.
3.7.3. But these stress patterns are unbalanced. In fact, native speakers of English usually
switch round the stress levels in the first element, and say /,ftn.de,men.t
e
lmI’steIk/,
/,gæpeni:z’læŋ.gwIg/.
3.7.4. The same thing happens with a phrase such as that made by combining very lazy
/,veri’leI.zi/ with people ‘pi:p
e
l. The usual pattern involves stress shift, thus, verI,leI
zI ‘pi:p
e
l.
3.7.5. Stress shift potentially affects all words entered in the Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary that include the secondary stress-mark (,). In practice, though, it is likely
to apply only to those which are regularly followed in a phrase by a more strongly
stressed word: most adjectives, but only certain nouns.
3.8. T-voicing
For most Americans and Canadians the phoneme t is sometimes pronounced as a voiced
sound. Where this is the usual AmE pronunciation it is shown by the symbol /t/.
3.8.1. Phonetically, t is a voiced alveolar tap (flap). It sounds like a quick English d, and also
like the r of some languages. For many Americans, it is actually identical with their
d in the same environment, so that AmE shutter /’[tt.e
r
/ may sound identical with
shudder /’[td.e
r
/.
3.8.2. Learners of English as a foreign language who take AmE as their model are
encouraged to use t where appropriate.
3.8.3. After n, AmE t can optionally be elided (omitted). Accordingly, it is shown in italics, as
ţ. Thus AmE winter /’wInt
e
r/ can sound identical to winner /’wIne
r
/. Note, however,
that some speakers of AmE consider this pronunciation incorrect.
3.8.4. In connected speech, t at the end of a word may change to t if both the following
condition apply:
• the sound before the t is a vowel sound or r.
• the next word begins with a vowel sound and follows without a pause.
Thus in AmE right /raIt/ may pronounced /raIt/ in the phrase right away /,raIte’weI/,
right out /,raIt’aot/. But in right now /raIt’nao/ no t is possible: nor in left over
/,left’eo.ve
r
/.
3.8.5. Under the same condition, if the sound before a t at the end of a word is n, the t
change to t (and therefore possibly disappear): paint /peInt/, but paint it /’peIn t It/.
Again, some people consider this incorrect.
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘ ˘
˘
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3.9. weak forms
3.9.1. Many English function words (grammatical words), such as articles, pronouns,
preposition, auxiliaries, modals etc, have more than one pronunciation. In particular,
they have a strong form, containing a strong vowel, and a weak form, containing a
weak vowel. An example is at, with strong form æt and weak form et.
3.9.2. The weak form is generally used if the word is unstressed (as is usually the case
with function or grammatical words). The strong form is used only when the word is
stressed for some reason.
Jim´s at lunch. He´ll be back at one. … /et/…/et/…
We say “at home “, not “in home”. ... /’æt/…
I´ll invite them round. … /ðem/…
They were delighted.… /we/ || /we
r
/
Tell me how they were. … /ws:/ || /’ws:
r
/
3.9.3. Nevertheless, the strong form is used even for certain unstressed functions words:
(i) Usually, in the case of a preposition followed by a pronoun at the end of a
sentence.
I´m looking at you… /ætjo/ or /etjo/.
(ii) Always, when a word is left exposed by a syntactic operation involving the
movement or deletion of the word on which it depends
Where does he come from? … (he comes from X) /’ktm frbm/ || /’ktm frtm/.
I can speak better than you can ( = than you can speak) /’oIken spi:k ... ’ju:
kæn/
It was aimed at but not achieved … (= they aimed at it ) /’eimd æt/
“Stranded” or “left” like this, the last word in each sentence or phrase has to be
strong.
3.9.4. It is important for learners of English to use weak forms appropriately. Otherwise,
listeners may think they are emphasizing a word where this is not really so. Equally,
native speakers should not be misled into supposing that careful or declamatory
speech demands strong forms throughout. One exception is in singing, where strong
forms are often used. Even here, though, articles are generally weak.
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UNIT 3. Practice 1
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs
The weak form (unstressed form) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or
in the middle of sentence.
The strong form (strong stress) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence.
auxiliary verb
weak form Strong form
do /de/ or /do/ /du:/
does /dez/ /dtz/
have /hev/ /hæv/
has /hez/ /hæz/
were /we/ /ws:/
was /wez/ /wbz/
can /ken/ /kæn/
Instruction. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is
Strong (S) or weak (W).
1. When was your birthday? (W)
It was in April. (W)
2. Have you got a good English dictionary? ( )
Yes, I have. ( )
3. Does your mother work in an office? ( )
Yes, she does. ( )
4. Where were your parents married? ( )
I think they were married in London. ( )
5. Has your father got dark hair? ( )
Yes, he has. ( )
6. Do you get the bus to work’? ( )
Yes, I do. ( )
7. How many languages can you speak? ( )
I can speak two - English and French ( )
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8. Does she live in the north of England? ( )
Yes, she does ( )
9. Can you speak English? ( )
Yes, she can. ( )
10. Has she got a job? ( )
Yes, she has, ( )
11. Have they got any children) ( )
Yes, they have. ( )
12. Do they share the housework? ( )
Yes, they do, ( )
13. Were they married in Japan? ( )
Yes, they were ( )
3.10. weak Vowels
3.10.1. Among unstressed syllables it is useful to distinguish between those that nevertheless
contain a strong vowel and those that have a weak vowel. This distinction has
implication for syllabification and sometimes for rhythm.
3.10.2. A stressed syllable (shown in words of more than one syllable by one of the marks
‘ (primary stress) , (secondary stress) = equal to primary or secondary stress, must
always contain a strong vowel. This may be any vowel or diphthong except e, i, u.
All the syllables in the following words, whether stressed or unstressed, are strong
- vowelled:
red /red/
hope /heop/ || /hoop/
bedtime /’bed, taIm/
undone /,tn’dtn/
acorn /’eIko:n/ || /’eIko:rn/
butane /’bju:teIn/
3.10.3. The vowels e, i ,u are always weak. So, too, is I in many cases, as well as o in
BrE and oo in AmE. The unstressed syllables in the following words are all weak-
vowelled:
allow /e’lao/
happy /’hæp.i/
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situation /,sIt[u’eI[
e
n/
carelessness /’keelesnes/ or /lIsnIs/
remember /rI’mem.be/ or /rI’memb
e
r/
standard /’stænded/ or /’stænd
e
rd/
stimulus /’stImjoles/ or /’stImjeles/
3.10.4. The weak vowels e may be realized in the form of a SYLLABIC CONSONANT
(some consonants such as ņ, ! can for the nucleus of a syllable), as in suddenly
/std
e
ņli/. Diphthongs arising from the COMPRESSION of weak syllables (the
capacity of sequence of sounds to be pronounced either as two separate syllables,
or compressed into a single syllable), as in annual / ‘ænjuel/, remain weak.
3.10.5. The distinction between weak /I/ and /e/ has the power of distinguishing word in
Received Pronunciation (RP), Standard English. For example, V. I Lenin is ’lenIn,
but Jhon Lennon is ’lenen. The words rabbit ´ræbIt and abbot ‘æbet do not rhyme.
In certain other kinds of English, however, this distinction may be neutralized.
(NEUTRALIZATION: the suppression of an opposition between phonemes operative
in other positions phonemes): either e is used instead of weak I in virtually all
positions, or the choice between I and e depends upon the phonetic context. So
rabbit at Longman Pronunciation Dictionary shows a secondary pronunciation
/´ræbet/.
3.10.6. Even in RP and other kinds of English that maintain the distinction between weak
I and e, many words may be heard with either pronunciation, and this is shown in
LPD. For example, carelessness, civil, private are nowadays usually pronounced
/’keelesnes/, /’sIv
e
l/, /’praIvet/. A conservative minority say /’keelIsnIs/, /’sIvIl/,
/’praIvIt/, and these are given in as secondary pronunciations.
3.11. word linking
It takes place when a word that begins with a vowel sound is linked to the consonant sound
at the end of the word before it.
Practice the sentence loudly making linking words appropriately.
1. The west End

2. Marble Arch
3. Gatwick Airport
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4. Heathrow Airport

/w/
5. The City of London

/j/
6. The Royal Albert Hall
7. The Houses of Parliament
8. The Tower of London
9. The London Underground
10. Then Bank of England

Unit 3: Practice 2
Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking.
1. She laughed at the joke.
..t..
2. She jumped over the wall
….
3. The pane crashed in the jungle
….
4. Columbus discovered America
….
5. The bomb destroyed a house
….
6. They traveled across Europe by train
….
7. He introduced Amanda to his friends
….
Source: Headway Pronunciation P-I. Bill Bowler. Sue Parminter. 2004.
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Unit 3. Practice 3
Read the sentences and say what form the prepositions are used in them: Strong or weak
form?
Prepositions weak form Strong form
to /te/ /tu:/
from /frem/ /frbm/
for /fe/ or /fer/ /fb:/
at /et/ /æt/
of /ev/ /bv/
B: Hello, Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny?
S: Speaking.
B: Hello. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz.
I am looking from (c) James Bond. We had a lunch appointment at (d). Isn’t he there?
S: I’m sorry, sir, but he’s gone to (e) Budapest.
B: I was afraid of (f) that. Where exactly?
S: He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal.
B: Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble.
S: He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days.
B: All right. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell him
I’m waiting for (m) his call.
S: Yes, sir.
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BIBlIogRaPhY
J.C. Wells
(2006) English intonation: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
(2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman,
Jones Daniel
(1997) English pronunciation dictionary. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.
CUP.
P. Ashby
(2005) Speech sounds. London: Routledge, Second edition.
A. Cruttenden
(2001) Gimson’s pronunciation of english. London: Edward Arnold. Sixth edition.
B. Collins & I. M. Mees
(2003) Practical phonetics and phonology. London: Routledge.
J.D. O’Connor
(1980) Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Second edition.
P. Roach
(2000) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge University Press. Third edition.
P. Roach, J. Hartman & J. Setter (ed.)
(2006) English pronouncing dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Seventeenth
edition.
http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/phonetics.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1.pdf
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.mp3
http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/assimilation.html#as04
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aCTIVITY
1. What can you say about assimilation in connected speech?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Can you explain the assimilation of /t, d/ into /p, b/ before bilabial nasal and bilabial
stops? (Case 1, 2). Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Can you explain the assimilation alveolar nasal /n/ into bilabial nasal /m/? (Case 3)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Can you explain the assimilation of /t/ into voiceless velar /k/ (Case 4). Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What about the assimilation of alveolar stop voiced /d/ into velar stop voiced /g/? (Case 5)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. How is a compound word stressed? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. How are double consonant letters treated? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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8. Where are double consonants sounds found? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. Explain some cases of elision.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Explain the pronunciation of R-liaison briefly?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
11. What do you understand by Stress shift?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
12. Explain the phenomenon of T-voicing.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
13. What do you know about weak forms? Why is it so important in English language
learning?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Understand the components of the suprasegmental phonology: Intonation,
length and stress.
2. Get familiar with the rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh- question).
3. Understand and produce sentences following the fall-rise pattern.
(Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).
4. Produce sentences following combined patterns (pausing in the middle,
lists, doubt, apology, etc)
5. Be aware of the tag questions intonation pattern.
6. Be aware of the intonation pattern behind weak forms, linking, elision
and shifting tonic.
7. Practice the intonation, Length and stress through rhythm and jingles.
UNIT IV
sUPrAsEgmENTAL PhoNoLogy
SUPRaSEgMENTal PhoNologY
Suprasegmental phenomena are those that pertain to intonation, length and stress.
Suprasegmental phenomena, also called prosodic phenomena, are normally examined in
relation to individual lexical items or short phrases. However, many interesting prosodic
patterns can be described only in terms of major constituents or entire sentences. Moreover,
they are intimately connected with the syntactic and semantic properties of the sentences in
which they occur. The prosodic properties of entire sentences, particularly those pertaining
to pitch and stress, are referred to as intonation.
Intonational studies are not so well developed as those which deal with the suprasegmental
properties of individual lexical items, and we will restrict our attention to examples that
show the close relationship between intonation and the syntactic and semantic structure of
sentences (Langacker, 82).
Four major features in the teaching of English suprasegmentals will be introduced in this
chapter: 1) intonation units, 2) stress, 3) tone, 4) pitch range and 5) length by reviewing
relevant and current research (Mehmet Celik, University of Turkey).
4.1. Prosodic features: Intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length
Intonation
Intonation is the music of the language. In English, we use tone to signal emotion, questioning, and
parts of the sentence among many other things. It’s important to recognize the meaning behind the
tones used in everyday speech, and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings
between the speaker and the listener. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds
can be overlooked, but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression.
In English and many other languages, for example, questions answerable by ‘yes’ or ‘no’
occur with rising (or non-falling) intonation, while declaratives and other kinds of questions
occur with final falling intonation.
(1) Did Danny buy a cow? Ye, No.
(2) Danny bought a cow.
(3) What did Danny buy?
Rising intonation
Falling intonation
Falling intonation
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For Cruttenden (1986:35), intonation has three important features:
1) Division of a (dividing) a stream of speech into intonation units,
2) Selection of a syllable (of a word), which is assigned the ‘tonic’ status, and
3) Selection of a tone for the intonation unit To this list, another feature can be added:
pitch range, or key (Brazil et al., 1980).
Let’s study then the suprasegmental elements that characterized English Language:
1) intonation units, 2) stress, 3) tone, 4) pitch range and length by reviewing relevant and
current research (Mehmet Celik, University of Turkey.
1) Intonation Unit
An ‘intonation unit’ is a piece of utterance, a continuous stream of sounds, bounded by
a fairly perceptible pause. Pausing in some sense is a way of packaging the information
such that the lexical items put together in an intonation unit form certain psychological and
lexic~grammatical realities. Typical examples would be the inclusion of subordinate clauses
and prepositional phrases in intonation units.
Consider the example below, in which slashes correspond to pauses (Roach, 1983:146)
(see Halliday, 1967; Leech & Svartvik, 1975 for more): the meaning is given in brackets.
• Those who sold quickly / made a profit
(A profit is made by those who sold quickly.)
• Those who sold / quickly made a profit
(A profit was quickly made by those who sold.)
2) Stress
In every word in English, there is one main emphasized syllable. The vowel sound in this
syllable sounds higher in pitch, longer, and louder, and this is called stress. This helps
create the rhythm of the language, and knowing how to recognize the stressed syllable will
help you with comprehension. Placing the stress where it should be when you’re speaking
helps native speakers understand you better as well.
The stress is related to syllable stress, word stress and sentence stress, which were
developed in Unit II.
The stress is very important in English because in some cases the stress can also be
phonological because it will change the meaning of the word. Stress on the second syllable
will be a verb and on the first will be a noun or adjective, for example: ‘record and re’cord.
(Review unit II on stress)
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Four major types of stress are identified:
2.1. unmarked tonic stress
2.2. emphatic stress
2.3. contrastive stress
2.4. new information stress
Tonic stress. An intonation unit almost always has one peak of stress, which is called
‘tonic stress’, or ‘nucleus’. Because stress applies to syllables, the syllable that receives
the tonic stress is called ‘tonic syllable’. The term tonic stress is usually preferred to refer
to this kind of stress in referring, proclaiming, and reporting utterances. Tonic stress is
almost always found in a content word in utterance final position. Consider the following, in
which the tonic syllable is underlined:
1. I’m going.
2. I’m going to London.
3. I’m going to London for a holiday.
A question does arise as to what happens to the previously tonic assigned syllables. They
still get stressed, however, not as much as the tonic syllable, producing a three level stress
for utterances: the stressed, (content words) unstressed (grammatical words) and the
unmarked (going and holiday in the sentence).
I’m going to london for HOliday.
2.1. Unmarked tonic stress. It refers to the word that should be marked, but it is not because
another word was emphasized. Example:
I’m go into London for Holiday.
2.2. Emphatic stress. One reason to move the tonic stress from its utterance final position
is to assign an emphasis to a content word, which is usually a modal auxiliary, an intensifier,
an adverb, etc. Compare the following examples. The first two examples are adapted from.
Roach (1983: 144).
i. It was very BOring. (unmarked)
ii. It was VEry boring. (emphatic)
i. You mustn’t talk so LOUDly. (unmarked)
ii. You MUSTN’T talk so loudly. (emphatic)
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Some intensifying adverbs and modifiers (or their derivatives) that are emphatic by nature
are (Leech & Svartvik, 1.975:135): indeed, utterly, absolute, terrific, tremendous, awfully,
terribly, great, grand, really, definitely, truly, literally, extremely, surely, completely, barely,
entirely, very (adverb), very (adjective), quite, too, enough, pretty, far, especially, alone, only,
own, -self.
2.3. Contrastive Stress. In contrastive contexts, the stress pattern is quite different from
the emphatic and non-emphatic stresses in that any lexical item in an utterance can receive
the tonic stress provided that the contrastively stressed item can be contrastable in that
universe of speech. No distinction exists between content and function words regarding this.
The contrasted item receives the tonic stress provided that it is contrastive with some lexical
element (notion.) in the stimulus utterance. Examples:
a) Do you like this one or THAT one?
b) I like THIS one.
Consider the following sentences where we can find contrast.
C) She played the piano yesterday. (It was her who...)
D) She played the piano yesterday. (She only played (not. harmed) ...)
E) She played the piano yesterday. (It was the piano that...)
F) She played the piano yesterday. (It was yesterday...)
2.4. New Information Stress. In a response given to a wh-question, the information supplied,
naturally enough, is stressed. That is, it is pronounced with more breath force, since it is
more prominent against a background given information in the question. The concept of
new information is much clearer to students of English in responses to wh-questions than in
declarative statements.
a) What’s your NAME
b) My name’s GEORGE.
a) Where are you FROM?
b) I’m from WALES.
a) Where do you LIVE
b) I live in BONN
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The questions given above could also be answered in short form except for the last one, in
which case the answers are:
• George,
• Wales,
• in Bonn
In other words, ‘given’ information is omitted, not repeated. In the exchange:
a) What’s your name?
b) (My name’s) George.
The ‘new’ information in this response is ‘George.’ The part referring to his name is given in
the question, so it may be omitted.
Regarding the significance of new information declarative statements, Ladefoged (1982:100)
states: ‘In general, new information is more likely to receive a tonic accent than material that
has already been mentioned.
3) Tone
A unit of speech bounded by pauses has movement, of music and rhythm, associated with
the pitch of voice (Roach, 1983: 113). This certain pattern of voice movement is called ‘tone’.
A tone is a certain pattern, not an arbitrary one, because it is meaningful in discourse. By
means of tones, speakers signal whether to refer, agree, disagree, question or hesitate, or
indicate completion and continuation of turn-taking, in speech.
Tone allows identifying different kinds of sentences: a falling tone, rising tone, falling
rising tone, rising falling and a combination of them, etc. that will be seen later on.
What makes a tone a rising or failing or any other type of tone is the direction of the pitch
movement on the last stressed (tonic) syllable (Brown, 1977:45). If the tonic syllable is in
non-final position, the glide continues over the rest of the syllables. A fall in pitch on the tonic
syllable renders (provides) the tone as ‘fall’. A ‘rise’ tone is one in which the tonic syllable is
the start of an upward glide of pitch. This glide is of two kinds; if the upward movement is
higher, then it is ‘high rise’; if it is lower, then it is ‘low rise’. ‘Fall-rise’ has first a pitch fall and
then a rise.
3.1. Falling intonation: In statements, wh-questions, imperatives, requests, exclamations,
and Yes/No questions (when the speaker uses a falling intonation, we assume that he
already knows the answer).
Examples:
a) Statements: I’ll report you to the headmaster.
b) wh-questions: Where is the PENcil?
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c) Imperatives: Go and see a doCtor.
d) Requests: Please sit DOWN.
e) Exclamations: Watch OUT!
f) Yes/No questions: (when the speaker uses a falling intonation, we assume that the
speaker already knows the answer and he only needs confirmation).
a) Have you MET him?
b) YES.
3.2. Rising intonation
a) Yes/No questions when the speaker is sure that he does not know the answer and that
the addressee knows the answer. In this question we have three possible answers from
addressee:
A) Isn’t he NICE?
B) i) Yes.
ii) No.
iii) I don’t know.
3.3. high-Rising: Asking for repetition or clarification.
If the tonic stress is uttered with extra pitch height, as in the following intonation units, we
may think that the speaker is asking for a repetition or clarification, or indicating disbelief.
a) I’m taking up TAxidermy this autumn.
b) Taking up WHAT? (clarification).
a) She passed her DRIving test.
b) She PASSED? (disbelief).
3.4. Falling- Rising (Followed by a Fall) Sentential adverbs, compound sentences and so on.
Consider the following in which the former of the intonation units are uttered with a fallin-
rising tone (the slash indicates a pause):
Sentencial adverbs:
• Private enterPRISE / is always EFficient.
• A quick tour of the CIty / would be NICE.
• PreSUmably / he thinks he CAN.
• Usually / he comes on SUNday.
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Compound sentences: One of the most frequent complex clause types in English is one
that has dependent (adverbial or subordinate) clause followed by an independent (main)
clause. When such a clause has two intonation units, the first, non-final, normally has a
fall-rise while the second, final, has falling tone. Therefore, the tone observed in non-final
intonation units can be said to have a ‘dependency’ tone, which is falling-rising.
Consider the following:
• When I passed my REAding test / I was VEry happy.
non final (Fall-rise) final intonation (Falling)
(dependency tone)
• If you SEE him / give my MESsage.
When the order of complex clause is reversed, we may still observe the pattern fall-rise and
fall respectively, as in
• I WON’T deliver the goods / unless I receive the PAYment.
• The moon revolves around the EARTH / as we ALLknow.
4) Pitch
Pitch represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound
.
It is one of the three major
auditory attributes of sounds along with loudness and timbre. When the actual fundamental
frequency can be precisely determined through physical measurement, it may differ from
the perceived pitch because of overtones, also known as partials, harmonic or otherwise,
in the sound. The human auditory perception system may also have trouble distinguishing
frequency differences between notes under certain circumstances. According to acoustical
terminology, it is the auditory attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered
on a scale from low to high.
Pitch is one of the acoustic correlates of stress (Underhill 1994:57). From a physiological point
of view, ‘...pitch is primarily dependent on the rate of vibration of vocal cords... (Cruttenden,
1986:3). When the vocal cords are stretched, the pitch of voice increases. Pitch variations
in speech are realized by the alteration of the tension of vocal cords (Ladefoged, 1982:226).
The rate of vibration in vocal cords is increased by more air pressure from the lungs. In an
overwhelming majority of syllables that are stressed, a higher pitch is observed. Therefore,
loudness to a certain extent contributes to the make-up of pitch. That is, higher pitch is heard
louder than lower pitch.
The term ‘key’ can be described as utterance pitch; specific and/or meaningful sequences
of pitches in an intonation unit.
For a key to be significant:
1) It should be under speaker’s control,
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2) It should be perceptible to ordinary speakers, and
3) It should represent a contrast (Roach, 1983:113).
For each intonation unit, speaker must choose one of the three keys as required for the
conversation. Most of the speech for a speaker takes place at the mid (unmarked) pitch
(key), employed in normal and unemotional speech. In contrast, high and low pitches
(keys) are marked: high key is used for emotionally charged intonation units while use of
low key indicates an existence of equivalence (as in appositive expressions), and relatively
less significant contribution to the speech.
There are three kinds of keys (pitch): high, mid and low (Coulthard,1977) and speakers
make use of them depending on what and how they want to say the things.
1. Mid pitch. (unmarked) In denotative or declarative statements (affirmative or negative)
I wan to go to the market.
It is not raining today.
2. high pitch.
2.1. Exclamations:
High: She: Oh GOD¡
Mid:
Low: He:/have you GUESSED?/
2.2. Contrastivity:
High: DAVdi¡ /
Mid: / we’re going to MARgate this year /
Low:
High: YALE /
Mid: / I’m going to HARvard /
Low.
2.3. Echo/repeat:
a) 30 thousand dollars. (said Barney sadly)
b) 30 thousand dollars¡. Echo. (high).
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3. low pitch
3.1.Co-reference:
High:
Mid: / I TOLD you already /
Low: DUMmy / ( it refers back to you)
3.2. Non-defining relative clauses
High:
Mid: / my DOCtor / / is very WELL-known /
Low: who’s a neuROlogist
3.3. Statements of opinion.
High:
Mid: / the GOvernment / / will agree with our deMANDS
Low: I THINK
5. length
In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that are distinctively longer than
other sounds. There are short vowels as well as long consonants (the latter are often called
geminates).
Many languages do not have distinctive length. Among the languages that have distinctive
length, there are only a few that have both distinctive vowel length and distinctive consonant
length. It is more common that there is only one or that they depend on each other.
The languages that distinguish between different lengths have usually long and short sounds.
English distinguish between long and short vowels:
English short vowels: /I/, /e/, /æ/, /t/, /e/, /b/, /o/
English long vowels: /i:/, /3:/, /a:/, /o:/, /u:/.
Length may be distinctive for vowels, for consonants, or for both, although distinctive length
is more common with vowels than with consonants.
Phonetically, of course, considerable variation in length is possible. In English the length is
phonological because we can change the meaning of the word.
It –eat; leave, live; sheep, ship; heat, hit (short /I/and long /i:/)
Pull, pool; full, fool (short /o/ and log /u:/ )
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Heart /ha:t/; hard /ha:d/; harm /ha:m/ (long vowel /a:/)
Caught /ko:t/ cord /ko:d/; corn /ko:n/; course /ko:s/ (long vowel /o:/)
4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby
4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, wh- question)
Stress, rhythm and intonation are, if anything, more important for communication
than the correct pronunciation of individual sounds. We have looked at intonation
when we saw how meaning could be altered by shifting the Tonic.
The Tonic is the syllable of greatest stress an utterance. It is also the syllable where
most `movement´ occurs.
A sentence with the Tonic at the end will look like this, the voice rising on each
stressed syllable and then falling slightly below the pitch it was at before:
‘A farmer went trotting upon his grey mare’.

The whole sentence seems to be dropping like a series of small towards the Tonic,
in which all the features of the other stressed syllables-movement, loudness, length-
are present in an exaggerated form.
This is called the ‘rising-falling’ intonation pattern. If the Tonic is the last syllable in
the sentence, the voice will slide from high to low within that syllable.
I bought some food. Jane’s away.
If there are one or more unstressed syllables after the Tonic, the voice drops on the
following syllable and there is no further movement until the end of the phrase or
sentence.
I thought I saw a burglar. I thought I saw an alligator.
This pattern is used
(a) for statements.
(b) for ‘wh’ questions (what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why, and
how).
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There is also a plain ‘falling’ pattern, in which the voice does not rise on the Tonic, but
remains flat and then falls either within the final syllable or on the following one:
I feel sick. It’s snowing.
The difference between this and the first pattern is that if you use the second you
will sound distinctly bored or, at the very least, lacking in enthusiasm.
Practice
a. Statements
(a)
Final syllable
I took the books.
I put them down
We`re going to church.
(b)
Second –last syllable
I`ve bought you a present.
My father’s a teacher.
We’re going by taxi.
(c)
Followed by several syllables
I’ve dropped the thermometer.
He’s going into politics.
I think he’s an anthropologist.
B. ‘Wh-’questions
(a)
What’s that?
Where’s the tea?
Which is yours?
Who’s that girl?
Whose are these?
(b)
What are you going?
When did you get there?
Where are you going?
Why didn’t you tell me?
How are the children?
(c)
When will you finish it?
Which is the easiest?
Who were you talking to?
Why don’t we go to the cinema?
How did you hurt yourself?
C. Practice making a difference between rising-falling and falling intonation
It’s raining.
I’m going away.
I’m ill.
I’ve killed him.
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dIalogUE: what time does the plane leave?
ROBERT: What’s the time?
EMILY: Ten past two, dear.
ROBERT: When does the plane leave?
EMILY: Not until a quarter to four.
ROBERT: Why did we get here so early?
EMILY: Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.
ROBERT: Where’s my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?
EMILY: It’s there, dear, between your feet.
ROBERT: Emily! Where are you going?
EMILY: I’m going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the
loudspeaker.
ROBERT: Which gentleman?
EMILY: That man over there with all the packages.
ROBERT: Who is he?
EMILY: I don’t know. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement…
Yes, I was afraid so. The plane’s delayed. It won’t be leaving till five.
ROBERT: How did he manage to hear it if we didn’t?
EMILY: Because he was listening. You were talking too much to hear.
ROBERT: What do you mean, I was talking too much?
EMILY: Oh dear. Never mind.
ROBERT: What time is it now, Emily?

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4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern
(Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).
This pattern is the reverse of the one rising-falling pattern. The main movement in
the sentence is still on the Tonic syllable, but this time the voice falls on the Tonic
and then rises. You use this pattern to ask questions that require an answer of Yes
or No.
Let’s look at three sentences, first as statement with a rising-falling pattern, and
then in question form:

(a) I bought some food. (b) Did you buy some food?
I saw a burglar. Did you see a burglar?
A saw an alligator Did you see an alligator?
Did you notice that the second pattern is, in fact, not the exact reverse of the first?
In the statement, once the voice has fallen after the Tonic, it stays at the same level,
but in the question the voice continues to rise to the end of the sentence. Be careful
not to rise too sharply, especially if you have a lot to add after the Tonic, or you’ll end
up in a squeak! /s’kwi:k/ (very high tone of voice).
Did you see an alligator in the bath at the party last night?
The fall-rise pattern is also used for greetings, the voice rising and falling on the
greeting, and then, on the name that follows falling a little more and rising again
sharply.
Hello, Jane! Good evening, Mrs. Baker!
You also use this tune with ‘wh’ questions when you’re asking for information to be
repeated. The intonation here usually expresses shock or anger, implying, I don’t
believe you.
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I saw your girlfriend at the cinema last night.
Where did you see her?
At the cinema. She was with Charlie Brown.
Who was she with? Charlie Brown?
PRaCTICE 1
(a)
a. Yes / no questions
Are you alone?
Can I come in?
May I sit down?
Do you mind if I smoke?
Are you sure?
Have you got an ashtray?
May I borrow some matches?
Would it be possible to have a cup of tea?
Oh, am I being a nuisance? /’nju:sens/
(someone who annoys you and causes trouble)
(b)
C. Requests for repetition
What did you say?
When was all this?
Where did you say you found it?
Which pills did you take?
Who did you say you went with?
Whose wife danced on the table?
Why did you think it was me?
How did you get in?
B. greetings
Hullo, Peter.
Good morning, Doctor.
Good afternoon, Mr Mumble.
Good evening, everybody.
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dIalogUE: were you at home last night?
SERGEANT: Good evening, Sir. Mr Holmes?
HOLMES: Good evening, officer. Yes, that’s right-John Holmes. Won’t you come in?
SERGEANT: Thank you. May I ask you a few questions?
HOLMES: Yes, of course. Won’t you sit down?
SERGEANT: Thank you. It’s about last night. Were you at home, Mr Holmes?
HOLMES: Yes, Sergeant, I was, actually. I wasn’t feeling very well.
SERGEANT: Were you alone?
HOLMES: Er, yes. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend.
SERGEANT: Did you go out at all?
HOLMES: No, I stayed in all evening-that is, except for a few minutes when I
popped out to post a letter.
SERGEANT: Do you remember what time this was?
HOLMES: Yes, it was about-um-half past eight.
SERGEANT: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you- er-
popped out to post a letter. /pa:pt’aut/ (Go somewhere suddenly)
HOLMES: No, I don’t think so. Oh yes, just a minute. The caretaker said ‘good evening’.
SERGEANT: The caretaker, Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes, the caretaker was murdered last
night. /’keeteIke/ (Someone who looks after a building)
Vocabulary
Popped out. /pa:pt’aut/. Go somewhere suddenly.
Caretaker. /’keeteIke/. Someone who looks after a building.
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4.2.3. Intonation 3: Combined patterns. (Pausing in the middle, lists, doubt, apology,
etc.)
Intonation is one of the means a speakers uses to send signals to the listener, such
as ‘don’t interrupt me’: ‘I haven’t finished yet’, or ‘That’s all for the moment’. Over to
you, if the speakers pauses in the middle of a sentence, he will stop on a rising tone
to show you that he intends to continue.

I was about to put my hands inside the box… when I heard a ticking noise.
/tIkIŋ/ (strong)
In the first part of the sentence, up to the pause, the pattern is the ordinary rising-
falling one of statements, until you come to the Tonic, which has the falling-rising
tune. This falling-rising only on the Tonic is frequently used to express doubt,
hesitation, or apology. It can also imply, Can I help you?
Well… I’m sorry. I think I’ve got it. Dr Mark’s secretary.

You use the falling-rising tune, too, when enumerating lists. Every item in your list
will have its own pattern, each one on the same level as the last:

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday…

If your list is complete, the final item will have the rise-fall pattern, indicating to your
listener that it is the last element. This is called a `closed´ list:
I’m free on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday.
If you want to show that you could go on but leave the rest to your listener’s
imagination, you use the falling-rising pattern on the last item as well. This is called
an ‘open’ list:
I’m free on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday….
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Implying that any day of the week is possible. This applies to questions, too:
Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday?
Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday…?
Practice 1
a. (a) If you go to the India / you must see the Taj Mahal.
I’ve bought a painting / but now I don’t like it.
I saw your uncle in the park/ but I don’t think he saw me
(b) Yes. No Excuse me. Williams’ Bakery.
I don’t think so. I’m sorry to bother you. Mandrake College.
B. (a) Closed lists -statements and questions
We went to Rome and Athens and Beirut and Cairo.
I can offer you tea or coffee or hot chocolate.
Did you see my cousin or my uncle or my aunt?
Shall we go to the cinema or the pub or stay at home?

(b) Open lists
Now say the sentences in B (a) again, using the falling-rising intonation on the last item
as well.
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dIalogUE : I’m afraid I’m lost
OLD LADY: Excuse me. I’m terribly sorry to bother you…
POLICEMAN: Yes? That’s quite all right. Can’t I help you at all?
OLD LADY: I don’t know to begin.
POLICEMAN: Well, the beginning’s always a good place to start.
OLD LADY: But, you see, I don’t know the beginning. I’m looking for a small, old-
fashioned hotel where I – if only I could remember the name!
POLICEMAN: Or the name of the street?
OLD LADY: The street? Oh I’ve no idea. I’m afraid.
POLICEMAN: Or the area?
OLD LADY: I know it was not far from the Pier. Or could that have been last year. I
wonder? No, no, last year I went with Emily- I think.
POLICEMAN: Did you say near the Pier? There’s no pier here.
OLD LADY: There must be ! My hotel was near it.
POLICEMAN: Which pier? /po:t/ (port)
OLD LADY: Eastbourne Pier, of course!
POLICEMAN: Eastbourne? But this is Seaford!
OLD LADY: Seaford! Really? I thought it seemed rather a long way!
Vocabulary
Pier. /po:t/. port.
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4.2.4. Intonation 4. Tag questions
Tag questions are those little questions stuck at the end of a sentence, usually
asking for confirmation of what has just been said.
In the first pattern the speaker makes a statement which he or she believes to be
true. The tag question is not really asking a question –the speaker does not except
anything but agreement.
You’re learning English, aren’t you?
Yes, I am
The sentence, being a statement, will have a rise –fall intonation pattern, and so will
the tag question:
You’re learning English, aren’t you? You killed Cock Robin, didn’t you?
In the second pattern the speaker is not at all sure of the truth of his statement. In
fact, though it has a statement form. It’s really a question, so it will have a falling-
rising intonation, and so will the tag question:
You didn’t eat it, did you? She will be there tonight, won’t she?
The third pattern starts making a definite statement. The speaker seems certain
that its true. Then there comes a slight pause, as if an awful feeling of doubt in
creeping in /’krIpIŋ/ (moving carefuly). The tag question expresses this doubt with
a falling-rising intonation:
That’s my money-isn’t it? You said you wanted to go to Aden-didn’t you?
Two things to note
(a) If the main sentence is in the affirmative, the tag question is always in the negative.
If the main sentence is in the negative, the tag question is in the affirmative.
(b) Although there’s a comma before the tag question you link if the question itself
begins with a vowel:

That’s the answer, isn’t it? I’m not going to fall, am I?

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Practice 1
a. Rising-falling
This is your frog, isn’t it?
You know where I found it, don’t you?
And you put it in my bed, didn’t you?
So you know what’s going to happen to you, don’t you?
And you won’t do it again, will you?
B. Falling-rising
You’ll come with me to the school fete, wont you?
I’ll pick you up at two, shall I?
And we’ll go by car, shall we?
We won’t have to stay long, will we?
You’ll come and some tea afterwards, won’t you?
C. Definite statement followed by doubt-rising-falling, falling-rising
You have got to buy the tickets –haven’t you’
I didn’t turn off the bath water –didn’t I?
The hotel is in this street –isn’t it?
You weren’t in the plane crash –were you?
d. Tag question with special stress-rising-falling, falling-rising within the Stressed
word.
I like pop music-don’t you?
We’re going to the pub on Saturday -aren’t you?
We’ve been invited to the Joneses- haven’t you?
Mine’s a real diamond- isn’t yours?
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dIalogUE: Fish like a bit of silence, don’t they?
PASSER-BY: Nasty weather, isn’t it?
FISHERMAN: All right if you’re a duck.
PASSER-BY: Come here regularly, don’t you?
FISHERMAN: Yes, I do.
PASSER-BY: Come fishing every Sunday, don’t you?
FISHERMAN: That’s right.
PASSER-BY: No many other people today, are there?
FISHERMAN: No there aren’t, are there?
PASSER-BY: Caught some fish already, have you?
FISHERMAN: No, not yet.
PASSER-BY: Stay here all day, will you?
FISHERMAN: I should like to.
PASSER-BY: You don’t mind if I sit down, do you?
My talking doesn’t disturb you, does it?
FISHERMAN: No, but it seems to disturb the fish.
PASSER-BY: Ah, they like a bit of silence, don’t they?
Same as me. I like a bit of peace, too, don’t you?
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4.2.5. weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1)
weak forms: out of [ev] the [ðe] car; peas and [en] carrots and [en] cabbage.
linking: sitting
¸
on
¸
an
¸
ant’s nest; your bit
¸
of beef.
Elision: detes(t) picnics; couldn’(t) stay; roas(t) pork.
Two consecutives stresses: ‘stop grumbling’; ‘brown bread’; ‘boiled beef’.
Rising intonation of incomplete lists:
tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot…
Unit 4. Practice 1 (4.2.5. B and C)
a. Few proverbs
Eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Here today, gone tomorrow.
A red rag to bull. A bull in a china shop.
There’s no smoke without fire.
You can’t fit a square peg into a round hole. /peg/ (a stick of wood).
B. which is s/he saying?
(a) That sounds to me like a foul.
vowel.
(b) We’ve decided to cover this part with glass.
grass.
(c ) What a cat your cousin is!
cad /kæd/ (a man who cannot be trusted)
(d) These sheep are going to have their wool shorn off.
torn.
(e) I didn’t realize it was so light, did you?
late,
Vocabulary
Shear, shorn /[Ie, [o:n/ take out the wool.
Check your answers in the answers key (B and C).
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C. do you know how the ‘o’s and ‘u’s (either separately or in combination) are
pronounced in the names of these fruit and vegetables? Put the correct phonetic
symbol(s) after each one.
(a) lemon [ ] (g) broad bean [ ] (m) turnip [ ] (s) apricot[ ]
(b) lettuce [ ] (h) asparagus [ ] (n) melon [ ] (t) carrot [ ]
(c) almond [ ] (i) beetroot [ ] (o) currant [ ] (u) cucumber [ ] [ ]
(d) sultana [ ] (j) artichoke [ ] (p) grapefruit [ ] (v) potato [ ] [ ]
(e) orange [ ] (k) sprout [ ] (q) sugarbeet [ ] (w) onion [ ] [ ]
(f) sweetcorn [ ] (l) walnut [ ] (r) gooseberry [ ] (x) mushroom [ ]
(y) cauliflower [ ] [ ]
d. listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses syllables.
detest beautiful perfect salad beetroot
basket cabbage behind tomatoes rabbit
indoors pudding chicken cucumber dumplings
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dIalogUE: Bit of beef at the picnic
PAUL: Picnics! Detest picnics!
KATE: Paul, do stop grumbling and get the basket out of the car. We couldn’t stay
indoors today. It’s beautiful!
PAUL: I do like a proper Sunday dinner. What I like is roast pork with apple sauce and
gravy, peas and carrots and cabbage, and treacle tart for pudding… /’tri:kel
ta:rt/ (azúcar, melaza)
KATE: Here’s a perfect spot! Spread the rug behind this bush. Good. Look, we’ve got
brown bread and butter and pâté and cold chicken…
PAUL: Blast! I’m sitting on an ant’s nest! Picnics! /blæst/ criticise very strongly)
KATE: And the salad’s got tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot…
PAUL: Rabbit food! Oh for a plate of boiled beef and dumplings!
KATE: Oh dear! Paul, I do believe your bit of beef is coming this way! Isn’t that a
Bull?

4.2.6. weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and rhythm
(Review 2).

weak forms: of [ev], to [te] and so on.
linking: that’s
¸
a; sort of; sitting
¸
in.
Tag question:

You’re sitting in, isn’t it?; just joking, aren’t you?; the plants, can’t it?

Intonation: rising-falling on statements and ‘wh-’ questions, falling-rising on ‘yes/
no’ question.
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Syllable stress: make your voice higher and louder and hang on to the syllable a
little longer on the stresses.
Rhythm: Feel it, like music. Not the same all the way through, but regular within
each phrase.
Unit 4. Practice 2 (4.2.6. B, C and d)
A few more proverbs
a. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Many hands make light work.
Look after the pence and the pounds will look after themselves.
Look after the sense and the sounds will look after themselves.
A fool and his money are soon parted. Penny wise, pound foolish.
Never look a gift horse in the month. Half a loaf is better than no bread
A woman, a dog and a walnut tree. Beggars can’t be choosers.
The more you beat ’em the better they be.
B. which is s/he saying?

(a) How many lambs have you got this year?
rams
(b) That’s a photograph of a marsh hare I took last spring.
march
(c) Don’t leave those boots lying about in the hall.
books
(d) Water has to be transported by means of a long train.
drain.
(e) Do you think this cream’s all right?
green’s
C. which of these words rhyme with ‘funny’?
Money Monday chutney Sonny botany anemone
Puny Pony journey Sony alimony runny
Many honey sunny Coney Granny Mummy
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d. listen to the dialogue. how many syllables are there in these words?
(a) position (c) everybody (e) especial (g) aren’t (i) serious
(k) Extraordinary (b) listening (d) noises (f) hear (h) audible
(j) stethoscope (l) pitched
Vocabulary
Broth. /bro:θ/. A thin soup with a meat or vegetable flavour.
Ram(s). /ræm/. A male sheep.
hare. /her/. Animals similar to rabbit but bigger.
Marsh. /mar[/. An area of soft wet land.
dIalogUE: listening to the plants talking
GEORGE: That’s a funny sort of position you’re sitting in, isn’t it?
ANDREW: I’m listening to the plants talking.
GEORGE: Andrew! Plants can’t talk –everybody knows that.
ANDREW: But they make noises. Not noises like the ones human beings make. Not even
animal noises. Special sounds. You can hardly hear them with the human ear.
GEORGE: Well, if they aren’t audible, how do you know they make them? Come on,
you’re just joking, aren’t you?
ANDREW: I’m as serious as…as… Sunday. Honestly, George. Cross my heart and hope
to die.
GEORGE: What’s that thing that’s hanging round your neck? Looks like sort of a snake.
ANDREW: It’s a doctor stethoscope. Lie down on the ground and put the stethoscope
into your ears. Hear anything?
GEORGE: Golly. I did! How extraordinary! A very high-pitched squeaking! It can’t be the
plants, can it?
Vocabulary
golly /’ga:lI/ Interj. Colloq. ¡Caray¡
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4.2.7. Stress: consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak forms.
(Review 3)
Stress: no stress on negative prefixes: impo’lite; un’happy.
Consecutive stresses: a ‘good ‘heavens; ‘big ‘black ‘beard; ‘mer’maid.
The shifting Tonic: are you a ‘mer’maid? Of ‘course I’m a ‘mer’maid.
Intonation: especially of questions.
linking: are you ¸ a; seen ¸ a: got ¸ a
Elision: hasn(‘t) got time; han(d) some; bi(g) black.
weak forms: but [bet] are you; handsome and [en] dashing. also within words:
polite [pe’laI]; forgive [fe’gIv]; handsome [‘hænsem]
Vocabulary: Dashing /’dæ[Iŋ/ (go somewhere in a hurry)
Unit 4. Practice 3 (4.2.7 B,C y d)
a. Still more proverbs
Pride comes before a fall. Great minds think alike
One good turn deserves another. Fools seldom differ. /‘dIfer/,
If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.
Nothing venture, nothing gain.
If ‘ifs’ and ‘ands’ were pots and pans, there’d be no need for tinkers.
Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor, rich man, poor man, beggarman, thief.
Tinkers /’tInker/ (to make changes to repair something)
B. which is s/he saying?
(a) The brute! He pinched my shin!
chin!
gin!
(b) I just adore fresh bread.
french
(c) I’ll find out if he ever came to the surface again.
service
(d) Have you ever seen such an awful sore before in all your life?
shore
chore
jaw
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(e) I’m so cross. I’ve lost the marvellous cot I got from Tom and Margaret.
cod
cart
card
C) Underline the Tonic in each phrase or sentence in the following dialogue:
I’m going to the Repton Show in October.
That’s a boat show, isn’t it?
No, a motor show.
Are you going to Repton alone?
No, Peter’s going, too.
Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter?
Peter Blenkinsop. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter.
When did you tell me? It must have been someone else. You never told me.
d) Mark the stressed syllables in these words before you practice the dialogue
orally?
Mermaid before unhappy handsome actually
impolite upset borrow delighted unadventurous
Check your answers to exercises b and c in the answer key.
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dIalogUE: Nobody wants a mermaid
PASSER-BY: Good heavens! Forgive me, but- are you a mermaid?
MERMAID: Of course I’m a mermaid! You can see I m a mermaid. It’s most impolite
to stare like that.
PASSER-BY: I’m terribly sorry. I didn’t mean to be rude. Only I’ve never seen a mermaid
before
MERMAID: (weeping) Well, now you have.
PASSER-BY: Oh dear! I didn’t mean to upset you.
MERMAID: It wasn’t you. It’s just that I’m so unhappy. He doesn’t love me.
PASSER-BY: Who doesn’t love you? Haven’t you got a hankie? No, of course not. How
silly of me. Here, borrow mine. That’s right. Have a good blow and tell me
all about it.
MERMAID: He’s a sailor, you see. He’s so handsome and dashing with his big black
beard and flashing eyes. But he doesn’t want a mermaid.
PASSER-BY: There, there. He ought to be delighted –you can follow him out to sea.
MERMAID: He says he hasn’t got time for girls at sea.
PASSER-BY: Don’t you think you’d actually be happier with a nice, quiet, ordinary,
unadventurous chap- like me?
Vocabulary
dashing. /’dæ[Iŋ/ Hit somebody or someone violently. Ojos matadores.
Flashing. /flæ[Iŋ/ Bright, brilliant.
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4.2.8. Rhythm and gingles.
american light Verse: a Contemporary Selection
anne C. Newton, Editor

1. The purple cow
I never saw a purple cow
I never hope to see one;
Bu I can tell you, anyhow,
I’d rather see than be one.
2. The abominable Snowman
I’ve never seen an abominable snowman,
I’m hoping not to see one;
I’m also hoping, if I do,
That it will be a wee one.
3. Babies.
I think that whenever I see one,
I’d rather have been than still be one.
4. Risposte
Ah, yes, I wrote “The Purple Cow” –
I’m sorry, now, I wrote it¡
But I can tell you, anyhow,
I’ll kill you if you quote it.
5. The hippopotamus
Behold the hippopotamus¡
We laugh at how he looks to us,
And yet in moments dank and grim
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I wonder how we look to him.
Peace, peace, thou hippopotamus¡
We really look all right to us,
As you no doubt delight the eye
Of other hippopotami.
6. The Camel
The came has a single hump:
The dromedary, two;
Or else the other way around.
I’m never sure. Are You?
7. The Purist
I give you now professor Twist,
A conscientious scientist.
Trustees exclaimed, “He never bungles¡”
And sent him off to distant jungles.
Camped on a tropic riverside,
One day he missed his living bride.
She had, the guide informed him later,
Been eaten by an alligator.
Professor Twist could not but smile.
“You mean” he said, “a crocodile”
8. The panther
The panther is lie a leopard,
Except it hasn’t been peppered.
Should you behold a panther crouch
Prepare to say Ouch.
Better yet, if called by a panther,
Don’t anther.
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9. adventures of Isabel
Isabel met an enormous bear;
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t care
The bear was hungry, the bear was ravenous.
The bear’s big mouth was cruel and cavernous.
The bear said, “Isabel, glad to meet you.
How do, Isabel, now I’ll eat you¡”
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t worry;
Isabel didn’t scream or scurry.
She washed her hands and
She straightened her hair up,
Then Isabel quietly ate the bear up.
Once in a night as black as pitch,
Isabel met a wicked old witch.
The witch’s face was cross and wrinkled;
The witch’s gums with teeth were sprinkled.
“Ho, ho. Isabel¡” the old witch crowed.
“I’ll turn you into an ugly toad¡”
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t worry;
Isabel didn’t scream or scurry.
She showed no range and she showed no rancor,
But she turned the witch into milk and drank her.
Isabel met a troublesome doctor;
He punched and he poked till he really shocked her.
The doctor’s talk was coughs and chills,
And the doctor’s satchel bulged with pills.
The doctor said unto Isabel,
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“Swallow this; it will make you well¡”
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t worry;
Isabel didn’t scream or scurry.
She took those pills from the pill concocter,
And Isabel calmly cured the doctor.
10. distant views
Two sayings that I’ve been inclined
In puzzlement off times to ponder
Are out of sight is out of mind
And absence makes the heart grow fonder.
They’re opposite as day and night,
The very height of contradiction,
No more alike than black and white,
Or large and small, or fact and fiction
To reconcile them, though, I’ve quit;
It’s not a thing I’m growing grey from,
For I have found, at last, that it
Depends on whom you are away from
11. Reading Matter
People say, with piercing look,
“I can read you like a book.”
Whereupon I bow my head
And submit to being read,
Hoping, with a hope quite grim,
They’re the kind who merely skims
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12. wishful Thinking
If I had the wings of a bird of the air
And the fins of a fish of the sea,
I could travel with speed and abandon all care,
I could ramble the wide world free.
The wings of a bird and the fins of a fish,
As well as the legs of a deer—
I could fly, I could swim, I could run as I wish,
But I’d certainly look mighty queer.
13. argument
If you convinced me
And I convinced you,
Would there not still be
Two points of view?
14. Surplus Commodity
The getting is easy,
The giving is nice;
The taking’s the tough part
About advice.

15. Etiquette
The people tell the story of a sparrow and the cat,
The feline thin and hungry and the bird exceeding fat,
With eager, famished energy and claws of gripping steel,
Puss pounced upon the sparrow and prepared to make a meal.
The sparrow never struggled when he knew that he was caught
(If somewhat slow in action he was mighty quick of thought),
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But chirped in simple dignity that seemed to fit the case,
“No gentleman would ever eat before he washed his face¡”
This hint against his manners wounded Tommy like a knife,
For cats are great observers of the niceties of life;
He paused to lick his paws, which seemed the proper things to do
When, chirruping derisively, away the sparrow flew¡
In helpless, hopeless hunger at the sparrow on the bough
Poor Tommy glowered longingly and vowed a solemn vow
“Henceforth I’ll eat my dinner first, and then wash myself¡”
and that’s the universal etiquette for educated cats.
Arthur Guiterman
16. The naught prepositions
I lately lost a preposition;
It hid, I thought, beneath my chair.
And angrily I cried: “Perdition¡”
Up from out of in under there¡”
Correctness is my vade mecum. (go with me)
And straggling phrases I abhor;
And yet I wondered: “what should he come
Up from out of in under for?”
Morris Bishop
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17. Favourite
That poem is splendid thing,
I love to ear you quote it.
I like the thought, I like the swing,
I like it all. (I wrote it)
Mother goose Rhymes:
a child’s literary heritage
1. Twinkle, Twinkle, little Star
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are¡
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are¡
2. humpty dumpty
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;
All the king’s horses.
And all the king’s men.
Couldn’t put Humpty together again.
3. little Bo-Peep
Little Bo-peep has lost her sheep
And can’t tell where to find them.
Leave them alone, and they will come home
Bringing their tails behind them.
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4. little Boy Blue
Little Boy Blue,
Come blow your horn;
The sheep’s in the meadow,
The cow’s in the corn .
Where’s the little boy
That looks after the sheep?
He’s under the haystack,
Fast asleep.
5. ladybird, ladybird
Ladybird, Ladybird,
Fly away home.
Your houses is on fire,
Your children will burn.
Fly to the east,
Fly to the west,
Fly to the one you love the best.
6. a dillar, a dollar
A dillar, a dollar,
A ten o’clock scholar
What makes you come so soon?
You used to come at ten o’clock,
But now you come at noon.
7. jack and jill
Jack and Jill
Went up the hill.
To fetch a pail of water.
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Jack fell down
and broke his crown,
And Jill came tumbling after.
8. little Polly Flinders
Little Polly Flinders.
Sat among the cinders,
Warming her pretty little toes.
Her mother came and caught her
And spanked her little daughter.
For spoiling her nice new clothes.
9. little Tommy Tucker
Little Tommy Tucker
Sings for his supper.
What shall he eat?
White bread and butter.
How shall he cut it
Without any knife?
How shall he marry
Without any wife?
10. The old woman in the shoe
There was and old woman.
Who lived in a shoe.
She had so many children.
She didn’t know what to do.
She fed them some broth.
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Without any bread,
Then spanked them all soundly
and sent them to bed.
11. Mary had a little lamb
Mary had a little lamb.
Its fleece was white as snow;
And everywhere that Mary went.
The lamb was sure to go.
It followed her to school one day,
Which was against the rule;
It made that children laugh and play
To see a lamb at school.
12. hi, diddle, diddle
Hi, diddle, diddle,
The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon.
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And the dish ran away with the spoon.
13. Sing a Song of Sixpence
Sing a song of sixpence,
A pocketful of rye,
Four-and-Twenty blackbirds
Baked in a pie.
When the pie was opened,
The birds began to sing;
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Wasn’t that a dainty dish
To set before the King¡
The king was in his countinghouse,
Counting out his money;
The Queen was in the parlor,
Eating bread and honey;
The maid was in the garden,
Hanging out the clothes;
Along came a blackbird
And snipped off her nose¡
14. Mary, Mary, Quite contrary
Mary, Mary,
Quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
With silver bells,
And cockleshells,
And pretty maids all in row.
15. a tisket, a tasket
A tisket, a tasket,
A green and yellow basket,
I wrote a letter to my love
And on the way I dropped it.
I dropped it, I drooped it,
And on the way I drooped it.
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16. This is the house that jack Built
This is the house that Jack built.
This is the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the man all tattered and torn,
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That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cock that crowed in the morn,
That waked the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the farmer sowing his corn,
That kept the cock that crowed in the morn,
That waked the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
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That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
Come butter come
Come, butter, come,
Come, butter, come!
Peter stands at the gate,
Waiting for a buttered cake;
Come, butter, come.

Unit 4. Practice 4 (4.2.8. a, B and C)
a. do you know how these words are pronounced?
although bought dough fought plough thorough dizzy
borough brought drought nought rough caterpillar tough
bough cough enough ought sought thought trough
B. ¿how is the letter ‘a’ pronounced in English in the names of these places?

France Wales Holland Portugal New Zealand
Japan China Bulgaria Malaysia South Africa
Brazil Nassau Uganda Hungary Yugoslavia
Spain Arabia Albania Romania Australia

C. here are all the months of the year. Put a stress mark on the stressed syllables
january march may july september november
february april june august october december
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d. weak forms. listen to the teacher or the tape. The speakers are speaking very fast.
what are they saying? Copy the sentences on your notebook
E. Practice the intonation pattern.
A) Hullo, how are you? A) How do you do?
B) I’m very well. But how are you? B) Dow do you do?
A) Why do you ask? A) Haven’t we met before?
B) I thought you looked ill. B) Have we? When?
A) What do you mean, ill? A) At your cousin’s party.
B) You’ve got spots. B) Whose cousin?
A) Who? A) Your cousin.
B) You. B) I haven’t got a cousin.
A) What spots? A) You must have¡ we met there¡
B) Sort of red spots. B) Are you sure it was me?
A) Where? A) Well, why don’t we have a cup of coffee and
see if we can find out?
B) All over your face.
A) What shall I do?
B) You could always wear a veil.
Vocabulary: Veil /veIl/ (A thin piece of cloth worn over the woman’s head or face)
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BIBlIogRaPhY

Roach, P.
(1983) English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Underhill, A.
(1994) Sound foundations: Living phonology. Oxford: Heinemann.
Kenworthy, J.
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman.
Coulthard, M.
(1977) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman.
Langacker, Ronalnd W.
(1998) Fundamental of linguistic analysis. University of California, San Diego -
Harcourt Brace Iovanovich, Inc.
Ponsonby, Mimi.
(1987) How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
Yolanda D. Federici Foreword Eulalie Osgood Grover.
(1988) Mother Gosse rymes. American light verse.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
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aCTIVITY
1. What can you understand by suprasegmental phonology? Mention the English supra-
segmental elements.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. What is intonation and what are the three important features about intonation?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. What is an intonation unit’?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. What are the four major types of stress identified? Give brief explanation.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Give a definition of tone and mention the different kind of sentences according to the
tone, mentioning sub classifications.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Define pitch and its classification.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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7. What do you know about length?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Can you explain the rising-falling pattern? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What pattern do ‘request for repetition’ and ‘greetings’ follow?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘pausing in the middle’ and ‘making
lists’ follow? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
11. What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘doubt’ and ‘apology’ follow? Give
examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
12. Explain ‘tag question’ intonation pattern and give examples?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
13. How is intonation behind weak forms, linking, elision and shifting tonic? Explain.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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14. How and what exercises would you use to teach suprasegmental aspect of the language
to your students in the classroom?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Understand the concept of English syllable.
2. Understand the structure of English Syllable.
3. Get familiar with syllabification rules.
4. Find out the difference between phonetic syllable and orthographic
syllable.
5. Find out the difference between syllable and diphthongs.
6. Be aware of the syllabic consonants and its importance for Syllable
division.
7. Understand articulation, co articulation, and breaking in the syllable
formation.
UNIT V
ENgLIsh syLLAbLE
Syllable
Onset
Rythme
Nucleus
E.g.
/k æ
i n/
t/
‘cat’
/sk
‘skin’
Coda
ENglISh SYllaBlE
5.1. definition
In phonetics, a syllable is a group of sounds that are pronounced together. Every English
word consists of one or more complete syllables.
glad consists of one syllable: /glæd/
Coming consists of two syllables: /ktm/ and /Iŋ/
So does valley: /’væl/ and /I/
tobacco consists of three syllables: /te’bæk/ and /eo/ or /-oo/
Each syllable contains one vowel, and only one. This vowel may be preceded or followed by
one or more consonants. The vowel itself may be a short vowel, a long vowel, or a diphthong;
or, if it is the weak vowel e, it may be combined with a nasal or liquid to give a SYLLABIC
CONSONANT. All four types appear in the example lubrication /,lu:.brI’keI.[
0
n/.
Syllables carry the features of stress and intonation. They are important in verse and metrics,
since the rhythm of a word or phrase is determined by the number and nature of the syllables
it contains. The division of a word into syllables is its ‘syllabification’. The syllabification of
entries can be shown by spacing between successive syllables or by a dot.
5.2. Kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification
Phonetic (spoken) syllables must not be confused with orthographic (written)
syllables
a) Phonetic Syllable. Corresponds to syllables classification of the spoken language.
E.g. /’hæp/ and /en/.
B) Orthographic syllable. It is a group of letters in spelling. When a word is split across
two lines of writing, it should be broken at an orthographic syllable boundary.
In some cases this may not exactly correspond to a phonetic syllable boundary. In the
word happen the spelling includes two p’s, and the orthographic syllabification is
hap.pen. But the pronunciation has only a single p. and the syllables are /’hæp/ and
/en/.
a) hap.pen (orthographic syllabification)
b) /’hæp/, /en/ (phonetic syllabification)
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5.3. The structure of the syllable (by Tuncer Can)
First of all, if we have a look at the structural properties of syllable we observe that syllable
consists of a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel), and the consonants that cluster
around this central peak.
The preceding consonant or consonants cluster is called the “onset”. For example, the “b” in
the word “bar” is the onset. The consonant or consonant cluster which is following the peak
(nucleus) of sonority is called the “coda”. For example, the “rt” cluster in the word “art” is
the coda. The peak of sonority is called the “nucleus”. In the word “bar” “a” is the nucleus.
The nucleus is a vowel in most cases, although the consonants [ r ], [ l ], [ m ], [ n ], and the
velar nasal (the ‘/h/’ sound) can also be the nucleus of a syllable.
Table 3. Structural Properties of the syllable.
Parts description optionality
– onset
Initial segment of a syllable (Optional)
– Nucleus
Central segment of a syllable Obligatory
– Coda
Closing segment of a syllable (Optional)

As seen in Table 3. English syllables require a nucleus, which is usually a vowel, and
optionally onset or coda, which are usually consonants or consonant clusters. In case they
have an onset, English Syllables may start with 1, 2 or 3 consonants. In English syllables,
consonant clusters are not arbitrarily formed, their representation is as follows:
Consonant Clusters:
1. s + (initial) p,t,k,f,m,n,w,l,y,r / s:pre-initial/others:initial
2. s + other consonants + (post-initials) l,r,w,j =pre-initial+initial+post-initials
In the following words, the onset is in bold; the rest underlined.
read flop strap
The consonant clusters which constitute the coda are also not arbitrarily formed, they can
be described as: ”any consonant except for h, r, w, j may be final consonant. There may be
two kinds of Final Cluster:
1) Final cluster: /pre-final + final / final + post final, Pre-finals (m, n, nasal, l, s. Example:
bump, belt
2) Final cluster: /Post-finals (s, z, t, d, /q/. Example: bets, beds).
Syllables of English can be “open” or “closed”, if a syllable ends with a vowel (i.e.CV, CVV)
this is open syllable but if it ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i.e. CVC, VCC)
this would be closed syllable.
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So, the structural formula for the English Syllable can be drawn as: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C),
with a maximal example being strengths (/strεŋkθs/, although it can be pronounced /strεŋθs/).
1. Final cluster / pre - final + final / final + post final, pre finals (m, n, nasal, l, s).
2. Final cluster / post final (s,z, t, d, q = bets, beds).
Pre-initial + Initial + Post-initials -Vowel - Pre-final + Final+ Post-final
or (C) (C) (C) V (C) (C) (C) (C)
Onset Nucleus Coda, or
Onset + Rhyme (the rest of the syllable after the onset). Rhyme can be divided as nucleus
+ coda. One tree diagram exemplifying this phenomenon is:
σ
rhyme
onset nucleus coda
5.4. Kinds of syllables according to its structure
Syllables of English can be: “open” or closed”
1. open syllable: If the syllable ends with a vowel (i.e CV, CVV)
2. Closed syllable: If the syllable ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i.e.
CVC, VCC) this would be a closed syllable.
5.5 Syllabification
Syllable divisions are shown by pacing. This makes the transcription easier to read, as
well as making certain details of pronunciation more explicit. Nevertheless the question of
syllabification in English is controversial, and must therefore be discussed.
It is generally agreed that phonetic syllable divisions must be such as to avoid (as far as
possible) creating consonants clusters which are not found in words in isolation. Hence we
can argue whether candy is kan-di or cand-i, but it cannot be ca-ndi, since it is not possible
initial consonant cluster in English.
These two extracts indicate the complexity of syllabification (in English) and the consequent
difficulty in finding rules:
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Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written. In
most languages, the actually spoken syllables are the basis of syllabification in writing
too. However, due to the very weak correspondence between sounds and letters in
the spelling of modern English, for example, written syllabification in English has to be
based mostly on etymological i.e. morphological instead of phonetic principles. English
“written” syllables therefore do not correspond to the actually spoken syllables of the
living language.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllable#Syllabification
As a result, most even native English speakers are unable to syllabify (or spell) words
with any degree of accuracy without consulting a dictionary or using a word processor.
The process is, in fact, so complicated that even schools usually do not provide much
more advice on the topic than to consult a dictionary. Even the Internet does not seem
to provide any general syllabification guide, explanation, or discussion not meant
for experts. In addition, there are differences between British and US syllabification
and even between dictionaries of the same kind of English.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllabification
http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html
5.6. Rules for Phonetic Syllabification
Harley (2003) proposes fourteen rules to describe how English words are formed or framed. She
describes this phenomenon through Phonotactics. She first defines phonotactics as “the rules
that describe possible sequences of sounds for forming English words”. These rules are:
1. All phonological words must contain at least one syllable, and hence must contain at
least one vowel.
2. Sequences of repeated consonants are not possible.
3. The velar nasal /ng/ never occurs in the onset of a syllable.
4. The glottal fricative /h/ never occurs in the coda of a syllable.
5. The affricates /ts/ and /dz/, and the glottal fricative /h/ do not occur in complex onsets.
6. The first consonant in a two-consonant onset must be an obstruent.(p,t,k, d, f, g).
7. The second consonant in a two-consonant onset must not be a voiced obstruent.
8. If the first consonant of a two-consonant onset is not an /s/, the second consonant must
be a liquid or a glide – the second consonant must be /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/.
9. Every subsequence contained within a sequence of consonants must obey all the
relevant phonotactic rules.
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10. No glides in syllable codas.
11. The second consonant in a two-consonant coda cannot be /ng/, /d/, /r/, /3/.
12. If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, the first consonant in the coda must
also be voiced.
13. When a non-alveolar nasal is in a coda together with a non-alveolar obstruent, they msut
have the same place of articulation, and obstruent must be a voiceless stop.
14. Two obstruents in a coda together must have the same voicing.
(Harley, H. 2003)
onset
The following syllable combinations can occur as the onset:
All single consonant phonemes except /ŋ/
Plosive plus approximant other than /j/:
/pl/, /bl/, /kl/, /gl/,
/pr/, /br/, /tr/*, /dr/*, /kr/, /gr/,
/tw/, /dw/, /gw/, /kw/
play, blood, clean, glove, prize,
bring, tree, dream, crowd,
green, twin, dwarf, language,
quick
Voiceless fricative plus approximant other than /j/:
/fl/, /sl/,
/fr/, /θr/, /[r/,
/sw/, /θw/
floor, sleep, friend, three,
shrimp, swing, thwart
Consonant plus /j/:
/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /gj/,
/mj/, /nj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/,
/sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /lj/
pure, beautiful, tube, during,
cute, argue, music, new, few,
view, thurifer, suit, Zeus, huge,
lurid
/s/ plus voiceless plosive:
/sp/, /st/, /sk/
speak, stop, skill
/s/ plus nasal:
/sm/, /sn/
smile, snow
/s/ plus voiceless fricative:
/sf/
sphere
/s/ plus voiceless plosive plus approximant:
/spl/, /spr/, /spj/, /smj/,
/str/, /stj/,
/skl/, /skr/, /skw/, /skj/
split, spring, spew, smew, street,
student, sclerosis, scream,
square, skewer
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Nucleus
The following can occur as the nucleus:
• All vowel sounds
• /m/, /n/ and /l/ in certain situations ( syllabic)
• /r/ in rhotic varieties of English () in certain situations (see below under word-level rules,
syllabic)
Coda
The following can occur as the coda:
The single consonant phonemes except /h/, /w/, /j/
and, in non-rhotic varieties, /r/

Lateral approximant + plosive:
/lp/, /lb/, /lt/, /ld/, /lk/
help, bulb, belt, hold, milk
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + plosive:
/rp/, /rb/, /rt/, /rd/, /rk/, /rg/
harp, orb, fort, beard, mark,
morgue
Lateral approximant + fricative or affricate:
/lf/, /lv/, /lθ/, /ls/, /l[/, /lt[/, /lg/
golf, solve, wealth, else, Welsh,
belch, indulge
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + fricative or affricate:
/rf/, /rv/, /rθ/ /rs/, /r[/, /rt[/, /rg/
dwarf, carve, north, force, marsh,
arch, large
Lateral approximant + nasal:
/lm/, /ln/
film, kiln (oven)
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + nasal or lateral:
/rm/, /rn/, /rl/
arm, born, snarl (gruñón)
Nasal + homorganic plosive:
/mp/, /nt/, /nd/, /ŋk/
jump, tent, end, pink
Nasal + fricative or affricate:
/mf/, /mθ/ in non-rhotic varieties, /nθ/, /ns/, /nz/, /nt[/,
/ng/, /ŋθ/ in some varieties
triumph, warmth, month, prince,
bronze, lunch, lounge, length
Voiceless fricative + voiceless plosive:
/ft/, /sp/, /st/, /sk/
left, crisp, lost, ask
Two voiceless fricatives: /fθ/ fifth
Two voiceless plosives: /pt/, /kt/ opt, act
Plosive + voiceless fricative:
/pθ/, /ps/, /tθ/, /ts/, /dθ/, /dz/, /ks/
depth, lapse, eighth, klutz (torpe),
width (ancho), box
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Lateral approximant + two consonants:
/lpt/, /lfθ/, /lts/, /lst/, /lkt/, /lks/
sculpt, twelfth, waltz, whilst, mulct,
calx
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + two consonants:
/rmθ/, /rpt/, /rps/, /rts/, /rst/, /rkt/
Warmth, excerpt, corpse, quartz,
horst, infarct
Nasal + homorganic plosive + plosive or fricative:
/mpt/, /mps/, /ndθ/, /ŋkt/, /ŋks/, /ŋkθ/ in some varieties
Prompt, glimpse, thousandth,
distinct, jinx, length
Three obstruents: /ksθ/, /kst/ sixth, next
Source: http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
Note: For some speakers, a fricative before /θ/ is elided so that these never appear
phonetically: /fIfθ/ becomes [fIθ], /siksθ/ becomes [sikθ], /twelfθ/ becomes [twelθ]
Syllable-level rules
1. Both the onset and the coda are optional.
2. /j/ at the end of an onset (/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /mj/,
/nj/, /lj/, /spj/, /stj/, /skj/) must be followed by /u:/ or /oe/
3. Long vowels and diphthongs are usually not followed by /ŋ/
4. /o/ is rare in syllable-initial position
5. Stop + /w/ before /u:, o, t, ao/ are excluded
.
word-level rules
• /e/ does not occur in stressed syllables
• /¿/ does not occur in word-initial position in native English words although it can occur
syllable-initial, e.g. /trs¿e(
r
)/
• /θj/ occurs in word-initial position in a few obscure words: thew, thurible, etc.; it is more
likely to appear syllable initial, e.g. /snθjuz/
• /m/, /n/, /l/ and, in rhotic varieties, /r/ can be the syllable nucleus (ie a syllabic consonant)
in an unstressed syllable following another consonant, especially /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/.
• Certain short vowel sounds /s/, /æ/, /b/ and /t/ (Checked vowels) cannot occur without
a coda in a single syllable word. In Standard English the checked (/I/, /s/, /æ/, /o/, /b/,
and /t/) are those that usually must be followed by a consonant in a stressed syllable,
(up, bit, bet, but, put, but). while free vowels are those that may stand in a stressed
open syllable with no following consonant. (bee, bay, boo, bra, buy, toe, cow, boy).
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonotactics
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5.7 Rules for orthographic syllabification
Rule 1. Every syllable has one vowel sound.
Rule 2. The number of vowels sounds in a Word equals the number of syllables.
Home= 1 sub . ject =2 pub. lish . ing =3
Rule 3. A one syllable words is never divided.
stop feel bell
Rule 4. Consonant blends and digraphs are never separated.
rest . ing bush . el reach . ing
Rule 5. When a word has a ck or an x in it, the word is usually divided after the ck or x.
nick . el tax . i
Rule 6. A compound word is divided between the two words that make the compound
word.
in . side foot . ball tooth . brush
Rule 7. When two or more consonants come between two vowels in a word, it is usually
divided between the first two consonants.
sis . ter but . ter hun . gry
Rule 8. When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word, it is usually
divided after the consonant if the vowel is short.
lev . er cab . in hab . it
Rule 9. When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word, it is u s u a l l y
divided before the consonant if the vowel is long.
ba . sin fe . ver ma . jor
Rule 10. When two vowels come together in a word, and are sounded separately, divide
the word between the two vowels.
ra . di . o di . et i . de . a
Rule 11. When a vowel is sounded alone in a word, it forms a syllable itself.
gra . u . ate a . pron u . nit
Rule 12. A word that has a prefix is divided between the root word and the prefix.
dis . count miss . fit un . tie
Rule 13. When be, de, ex and re are at the beginning of a word, they make a syllable of
their own.
be . came de . fend ex . hale re . main
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Rule 14. A word that has a suffix is divided between the root word and the suffix.
kind . ness thank . ful stuff . ing
Rule 15. When a word ends in le, preceded by a consonant, the word is divided before
that consonant.
pur . ple fum . ble mid . dle
Rule 16. When –ed comes at the end of a word, it forms a syllable only when preceded
by d or t.
s tart . ed fund . ed
Rule 17. When a word or a syllable ends in al or el, these letters usually form the last
syllable.
lev . el us . u . al
Rule 18. When ture and tion are at the end of a word, they make their own syllable.
lo . tion pos . ture.
Rule 19. A word should be divided between syllables at the end of a line. The hyphen (.)
stays with the syllable at the end of the line.
Source: http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html
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Application
1. Apply the rules to the word syllabification.
s
O R
/ \ / \
| | N C
| | | |
[ f l a p ]
‘flap’
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ r i: d ]
‘read’
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ t o p ]
‘top’
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ w i n ]
‘win’
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ w i n ]
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ d ouǾ ]
‘wind’ ‘dow (window)’
O R
/ | \ / \
| | | N C
| | | | | | | |
[ s t r ǡ ŋk θ
s ]
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ r i: d ]
‘read’
‘strengths’
S: syllable
O: onset
R: rhyme
N: nucleus
C: coda
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Unit V. Practice 1
a) Read the words loud out providing adequate stress.
B) Represent the verbs, adjetives and nouns using syllable tree representations.
1. Two-syllable words
VERBS
1. deceive 6. object
2. sharpen 7. conquer
3. collect 8. record
4. pronounce 9. polish
5. copy 10. depend
adjECTIVES
1. Easy 6. yellow
2. complete 7. early
3. major 8. happy
4. alone 9. heavy
5. below 10. dirty
NoUNS
1. bishop 6. office
2. aspect 7. array
3. affair 8. petrol
4. carpet 9. dentist
5. defeat 10. Autumn
2. Three syllable words
VERBS
1. entertain 6. elicit
2. resurrect 7. compete
3. abandon 8. imagine
4. deliver 9. determine
5. interrupt 10. separate
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adjECTIVES
1. important 6. insolent
2. enormous 7. fantastic
3. veredic 8. negative
4. decimal 9. accurate
5. abnormal 10. tomato

Compound words
a. First element adjectival, stress on the second element
loud-speaker
bad-tempered
head-quarters
second-class
three-wheeler
b. First element nominal, stress on the first element
typewriter
car-ferry
sunrise
suitcase
tea-cup
c. Mixture of type a and b
long-surfing
gunman
shoelace
red-blooded
gear-box
over-weight
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5.8. diphthongs
A diphthong is a complex vowel: a sequence of two vowel qualities within a single
syllable.
Several English vowel phonemes are diphthongal. The /aI/ of time /taIm/, for example,
involves a movement of the tongue from a starting-point /a/ towards an endpoint /I/.
Ordinary diphthongs are diminuendo (or falling), in that the prominence decreases as we
pass from the first element to the second: the /a/ part of /aI/ is more prominent than the /I/
part. (Compare CRESCENDO DIPHTHONGS).
An English diphthong has the same duration and rhythmic characteristics as a long vowel.
5.9. Crescendo diphthongs
5.9.1. A crescendo (or rising) diphthongs is one in which the prominence increases as
we pass from the first element to the second.
5.9.2. All English diphthongs phonemes are diminuendo (falling) diphthongs: in nice
nais the prominence decreases as we pass from a to I. No English phoneme has
crescendo diphthong as its usual phonetic realization. Nevertheless, crescendo
diphthong may arise in one of two ways.
• A semivowel (j or w) is followed by a vowel. In the words yes /jes/ and win /wIn/,
the sequences represented by /je/ and /wI/ could be regarded as crescendo
diphthongs.
• A vowel written in LPD (Longman pronunciation dictionary) as i or u is
compressed with a following vowel (see COMPRENSSION). If lenient ‘li:ni
ˇ
ent
is compressed from three syllables to two, there are actually two distinct possible
outcomes (although admittedly it may be difficult to hear the difference between
them). Rather than changing all the way to the corresponding semivowel j
(giving ‘li:n jent), the i may merely come to form the less prominent part of a
crescendo diphthong ĭ, thus ‘li:n ĭent. Similarly, influence /’Influ.ens/, rather
than becoming /’In.flw.ens/, may be pronounced with a crescendo diphthong
ŭe, thus ‘Inflŭens,. This is particularly likely if a semivowel give rise to a difficult
sequence of consonants, as in glorious /’glo:ries/. Where –rj- is awkward.
5.10. Syllabic consonants
5.10.1. Most syllables contain a vowel sound. Sometimes, though, a syllable consists
only of a consonant (or consonants). If so, this consonant (or one of them) is a
nasal (usually n) or liquid (l or, especially in AmE, r). For example, in the usual
pronunciation of suddenly /’std.
0
n.li/, the second syllable consists of n alone. Such
a consonant is called a syllabic consonant.
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5.10.2. Instead of syllabic consonant it is always possible to pronounce a vowel e plus
an ordinary (non-syllabic) consonant. Thus it is possible, though not usual, to say
/’stdenli/ rather than /’stdnli/.
5.10.3. Likely syllabic consonants are shown with the symbol
e
, thus suddenly /’std
e
nli/.
Longman Principle Dictionary `s regular principle is that a raised symbol indicates
a sound whose insertion lPd does not recommend. Hence this notation implies
that lPd prefers bare n in the second syllable. Since there is then no proper vowel
in this syllable, the n must be syllabic.
5.10.4. Similarly, in middle /’mId
e
ļ/ lPd recommends pronunciations with syllabic l, thus /’mIdļ/
In father /’fo:ðe/ or /’fo:ð
e
r/ lPd (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary) recommends
for AmE (American english) a pronunciation with syllabic r, thus /’fo:ð r/.
5.10.5. The IPa (International Phonetic Alphabet) provides a special diacritic, to show
a syllabic consonant, thus ņ , /’std.
e
.ņ.li/ For AmE syllabic r, the symbol a is
sometimes used, thus /’fo:ð
s
/. Because lPd uses spaces to show syllabification, it
does not need these conventions. Any nasal or liquid in a syllable in which there in
no other vowel must automatically be syllabic.
5.10.6. Syllabic consonants are also sometimes used where lPd shows italic e plus a nasal
or liquid, thus distant /’dIs
e
tnt/. Although there is a possible pronunciation `dIst nt,
lPd recommends `dIstent. (In fact, in some varieties of English or styles of speech, a
syllabic consonant may arise from almost any sequence of e and a nasal or liquid.)
5.10.7. When followed by a weak vowel, syllabic consonants may lose their syllabic quality,
becoming plain non-syllabic consonants: see COMPRESSION. For example,
threatening /’0ret
e
n.Iŋ/ may be pronounced with three syllables, including syllabic
n, thus /’0ret n Iŋ/; or compressed into two syllables, with plain n, thus /’0retnIŋ/.
5.11. articulation
English consonants have the following typical manners of articulation:
p, t, k, b, d, g are plosives, articulated with a complete obstruction of the mount passage
entirely blocking the air flow for a moment.
f, v, θ, ð, s, z, [, ¿ are fricatives, articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make
the air flow turbulent, while allowing it to pass through continuously.
ç, g are affricates, articulated with firs a complete (and also usually tr, dr) obstruction and
the a narrowing of the mouth passage (AFRICATES).
m, n, ŋ are nasals, articulated by completely obstructing the mouth passage but allowing the
air to pass out through the nose.
r, l are liquids articulated by diverting or modifying the air flow through the mouth, but allowing
it to pass through continuously without turbulence (see LIQUIDS) j, w are semivowels,
anticipatorily like vowels, but functioning like consonants because they are not syllabic.
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5.12. Co articulation
5.12.1. Speech sounds tend to be influenced by the speech sounds which surround them.
Coarticulation is the retention of a phonetic feature that was present in a preceding
sound, or the anticipation of a feature that will be needed for a following sound.
Most allophonic variation – though not all – is coarticulatory).
For example, a vowel or liquid that is adjacent to a nasal tends to be somewhat
nasalized. This coarticulation of nasality applies to the vowels in money /’mtni/
and to the l in elm /elm/.
5.12.2. The English “voiced” obstruents tend to be devoiced when adjacent to a voiceless
consonant or to a pause, e.g. the consonants in good /god/ when said in isolation,
or in a phrase such as the first good thing. This is coarticulation of voicing.
5.12.3. Many consonants vary somewhat depending on which vowel comes after them.
Thus the [ in sheep /[i:p/ is more i:-like, the [ in short /[o:t/ us /[o:rt/more o:-
like. This is coarticulation of place of articulation. Other examples are the d in
dream /dri:m/ (post-alveolar because of the r) and the b in obvious ‘bb vi
ˇ
es ||
‘o:b- (sometimes labiodentals because of the v).
5.12.4. For cases where coarticulation is variable, and may lead to the use of what sounds
like a different phoneme see ASIMILATION.
5.13. Breaking
When a vowel is followed in the same syllable by r or l, a glide sound e may develop before
liquid. The vowel thus become a diphthong, and is said to undergo breaking.
Two types of breaking are particularly frequent in English, are shown explicitly in LPD:
1. Feel /fI:
e
l/ Besides the traditional pronunciation /fI:l/, the form /fI:el/ (or fIel/) is often to
be heard, especially in BrE (British English). This happens when I follows i:, eI, aI, oI,
and is termed pre-I breaking.
2. Fear /fIel/ or /fI
e
r/. In AmE (American English), the usual pronunciation involves the
phoneme I. (Unlike BrE, AmE has no phoneme Ie) However, this word may actually
sound more like /fIer/, especially if said slowly. This is due to pre-r breaking, which
arises when r follows I, e, æ, particularly in a word of one syllable.
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BIBlIogRaPhY

Roach, P.
(1983) English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Underhill, A.
(1994) Sound foundations: Living Phonology. Oxford: Heinemann.
Kenworthy, J.
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman.
Coulthard, M.
(1977) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman.
Langacker, Ronalnd W.
(1998) “Fundamental of linguistic analysis”. University of California, San Diego -
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Ponsonby, Mimi.
(1987) How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jrubba/phon/syllables.html
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aCTIVITY
1. What is a syllable?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Explain the structure of a syllable.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Mention kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Mention kinds of syllables according to its structure.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What do you understand by syllabification?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Mention some phonic syllabification rules.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. Mention some orthographic syllabification rules.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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8. What is a diphthong?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What do you understand by crescendo diphthongs?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. What is a Syllabic consonant? Mention some of them.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. What is the difference between articulation and co articulation?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. What is breaking?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Represent the words using a tree, similar to ones we have present earlier in the course:
lunch, cooper, transatlantic, syllabic, rhyme, island, breakfast and book.
lunch cooper transatlantic syllabic
rhyme breakfast book
oBjECTIVES
1. Reinforce the theory on suprasegmental phonology.
2. Deepen the information received.
3. Clarify certain concepts form another perspective.
4. Apply the theory into the classroom.
UNIT VI
sELECTED rEADINg
6.1. gloBal ENglISh aNd ThE TEaChINg oF PRoNUNCIaTIoN
Jennifer Jenkins, lecturer in sociolinguistics and phonology at King’s College, London
The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has caused
a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the
teaching of English. This article presents my research into the pronunciation of global
English and gives some teaching implications.
1. What is global English?
2. What are the implications of EIL for pronunciation?
3. The findings from research
4. What are the implications for pronunciation teaching?
1. what is global English?
The term ‘global English’ is being used increasingly nowadays. It is a means of
demonstrating that English is spoken in every part of the world, both among speakers
within a particular country who share a first language, and across speakers from different
countries/first languages.
English is no longer spoken only by its native speakers in the UK, North America, Australia
and New Zealand, and by those who learn English in order to communicate with native
speakers. It is also spoken among non-native speakers within countries like India, the
Philippines and Singapore and internationally among non- native speakers from a wide
range of countries/first languages throughout the world. This last use of English is often
referred to as ‘English as an International Language’ or EIL, and it is this kind of English
which we will focus on here as it is the largest group of English speakers, numbering
around 1.5 billion.
2. what are the implications of EIl for pronunciation?
The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has
caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation
models in the teaching of English. Their argument is that native speaker accents are
not necessarily the most intelligible or appropriate accents when a non-native speaker is
communicating with another non-native speaker.
As regards intelligible pronunciation for EIL, we need to identify which pronunciation
features are crucial for mutual understanding when a non-native speaker of English talks
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to another non-native speaker and which are not at all important. These are often not the
same features that are crucial and unimportant for a native speaker of English
3. The findings from research
In my research I analysed interactions between non-native speakers of English. The aim
was to find out which features of British/American English pronunciation are essential
for intelligible pronunciation, and which are not. The findings have been formed into
a pronunciation core for teaching which is known as the Lingua Franca Core. This is
to indicate that it is intended as a guide for lingua franca interactions, not interactions
between a native and non-native speaker of English. The main features of the Lingua
Franca Core are...
• All the consonants are important except for ‘th’ sounds as in ‘thin’ and ‘this’
• Consonant clusters are important at the beginning and in the middle of words. For
example, the cluster in the word ‘string’ cannot be simplified to ‘sting’ or ‘tring’ and
remain intelligible.
• The contrast between long and short vowels is important. For example, the difference
between the vowel sounds in ‘sit’ and seat’
• Nuclear (or tonic) stress is also essential. This is the stress on the most important
word (or syllable) in a group of words. For example, there is a difference in meaning
between ‘My son uses a computer’ which is a neutral statement of fact and ‘My SON
uses a computer’, where there is an added meaning (such as that another person
known to the speaker and listener does not use a computer).
On the other hand, many other items which are regularly taught on English pronunciation
courses appear not to be essential for intelligibility in EIL interactions. These are...
• The ‘th’ sounds (see above)
• vowel quality, that is, the difference between vowel sounds where length is not
involved, e.g. a German speaker may pronounce the ‘e’ in the word ‘chess’ more like
an ‘a’ as in the word ‘cat’.
• Weak forms such as the words ‘to’, ‘of’ and ‘from’ whose vowels are often pronounced
as schwa instead of with their full quality.
• Other features of connected speech such as assimilation (where the final sound of
a word alters to make it more like the first sound of the next word, so that, e.g. ‘red
paint’ becomes ‘reb paint’.
• Word stress.
• Pitch movement.
• Stress timing.
All these things are said to be important for a native speaker listener either because they
aid intelligibility or because they are thought to make an accent more appropriate.
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4. what are the implications for pronunciation teaching?
• Students should be given choice. That is, when students are learning English so
that they can use it in international contexts with other non-native speakers from
different first languages, they should be given the choice of acquiring a pronunciation
that is more relevant to EIL intelligibility than traditional pronunciation syllabuses
offer. Up to now, the goal of pronunciation teaching has been to enable students
to acquire an accent that is as close as possible to that of a native speaker. But for
EIL communication, this is not the most intelligible accent and some of the non-core
items may even make them less intelligible to another non-native speaker.
• The non-core items are not only unimportant for intelligibility but also socially more
appropriate. After all, native speakers have different accents depending on the region
where they were born and live. So why should non-native speakers of an international
language not be allowed to do the same?
• Finally, students should be given plenty of exposure in their pronunciation classrooms
to other non-native accents of English so that they can understand them easily even
if a speaker has not yet managed to acquire the core features. For EIL, this is much
more important than having classroom exposure to native speaker accents.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. ”Global English and the teaching of pronunciation”, by Jennifer Jenkins, Lecturer in sociolinguistics
and phonology at King’s College, London, British Council BBC and It is used free of charge (2002).
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.2. RhYThM
Steve Darn, Izmir University of Economics
Rhythm is both a feature of and product of the phonological structure of English. The
phonology of any language is a system, so that a change in one part of the system will affect
some or all of the other parts.
1. Sentence stress
2. Connected speech
3. Teaching rhythm
4. Recognition
5. Production
6. Conclusion
The system looks like this:


English is a very rhythmical language, so that a learner who can maintain the rhythm of the
language is more likely to sound both natural and fluent. The two components of the system
which have the greatest influence on rhythm are sentence stress and the various features of
connected speech, i.e. what happens to words when we put them in an utterance.
Sounds Word stress
Sentence
stress
Phonology
Features of
connected
speech
Intonations Rhythm
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Sentence stress
In any sentence, some words carry a stress. These are the ‘strong’ or ‘lexical’ words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs). The remaining words are ‘grammatical’ words and
are unstressed or ‘weak’ (conjunctions, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries, articles).
‘It’s the worst thing that you could do’
The rhythm produced by this combination of stressed and unstressed syllables is a
major characteristic of spoken English and makes English a stress-timed language. In
stress-timed languages, there is a roughly equal amount of time between each stress in a
sentence, compared with a syllable-timed language (such as French, Turkish and West
Indian English) in which syllables are produced at a steady rate which is unaffected by
stress differences. Sentence stress is an important factor in fluency, as English spoken with
only strong forms has the wrong rhythm, sounds unnatural and does not help the listener to
distinguish emphasis or meaning.
Connected speech
Speed is also a factor in fluency. When we speak quickly, we speak in groups of words which
are continuous and may not have pauses between them. This causes changes to the ‘shape’
of words. Unstressed words always sound different when used in a sentence as opposed to
being said in isolation.
The most common features of connected speech are the weak forms of grammatical and
some lexical words (and, to, of, have, was, were) and contractions, some of which are
acceptable in written English (can’t, won’t, didn’t, I’ll, he’d, they’ve, should’ve). However, we
often ignore other features which preserve rhythm and make the language sound natural.
The most common of these are:
• Elision (losing sounds)
• linking (adding or joining sounds between words)
• assimilation (changing sounds)
Added to these is the use of the schwa, the most common vowel sound in English.
Many unstressed vowel sounds tend to become schwa, and because it is an
important feature of weak forms, learners should be able to recognise and produce it.
There is a temptation to try to teach the rules associated with these features, using phonemic
script to write examples. An awareness-raising approach is often more profitable, starting by
asking students what happens to certain words when we put them in a sentence:
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listen
it’s upstairs
one or two
right kind
why did you?
unpopular
first girl
Christmas
ask them
four o’clock
blue apple
last Monday
This might be followed by a categorisation task, from which rules or guidelines could be
elicited.
Teaching rhythm
Rhythm, then, is a product of sentence stress and what happens to the words and sounds
between the stresses. Unfortunately, learners are often introduced first to written forms and
then to the complexities of spelling. Learners whose mother tongue is phonemic or syllable-
timed have particular problems. Teachers should remember to:
• Provide natural models of new target language before introducing the written form.
• Use natural language themselves in the classroom.
• Encourage learners to listen carefully to authentic speech.
• Teach recognition before production.
• Integrate rhythm and other aspects of phonology into grammar, vocabulary and functional
language lessons as well as listening and speaking activities.
A number of useful teaching techniques are listed here, focusing either on rhythm as a whole
or on contributing aspects, and divided into recognition and production activities.
Recognition
• Speed dictations (the boys are good / the boy is good / the boy was good).
• Dictogloss and other variations on dictation.
• Ask students how many words they hear in a sentence (to practise recognising word
boundaries).
• Ask; “What’s the third / fifth / seventh word?” in the sentence.
• Teaching weak forms and contractions at the presentation stage, and highlighting these
on the board.
• Matching phrases to stress patterns.
• Using tapescripts. Marking stresses and weak forms.
• Using recordings of deliberately ‘unnatural’ English.
• Authentic listening.
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Production
• Drills (especially back-chaining).
• Physical movement (finger-clicking, clapping, tapping, jumping) in time to the rhythm of
the sentence .
• Focus on stress in short dialogues (can you? yes I can)
• Making short dialogues, paying attention to stress and rhythm (How often do you speak
English? Once in a while)
• Headlines, notes and memos (build the rhythm with content words, then add the rest)
• Reading out short sentences with only the stressed words (How…come…school?), then
add the other words without slowing down.
• Reading aloud (with plenty of rehearsal time)
• Focus on short utterances with distinctive stress and intonation patterns and a specific
rhythm (long numbers, ‘phone numbers, football results)
• Jazz chants.
• Poems, rhymes and tongue-twisters (limericks are good at higher levels).
• Songs. (the rhythm of English lends itself to rock and pop music, while rap involves fitting
words into distinct beat).
Conclusion
Because phonology is a system, learners cannot achieve a natural rhythm in speech without
understanding the stress-timed nature of the language and the interrelated components
of stress, connected speech and intonation. Attention to phonology begins at lower levels
and builds up as learners progress towards fluency. There are specific phonology courses
available, while most integrated syllabuses include pronunciation activities which run in
parallel to structural, functional and skills development. Above all it is important to remember
that there is a place for phonology in nearly every lesson.
This article published: 4th April, 2007
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Rhythm” by Steve Darn, Izmir University of Economics British Council BBC and It is used free of
charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.3. dEVEloPINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh SoNgS
Balbina Ebong & Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon
Like us, you might already use songs in class, and find that your students enjoy them. But
have you considered choosing songs specifically to work on pronunciation?
Songs provide examples of authentic, memorable and rhythmic language. They can be
motivating for students keen to repeatedly listen to and imitate their musical heroes. Here,
we look at some aspects of pronunciation that can be focused on through songs.
1. Using songs to focus on sounds
2. Using songs to focus on words
3. Using songs to focus on connected speech
4. Conclusion
1. Using songs to focus on sounds
Sounds are the smallest unit from which words are formed and can be categorised as
vowels and consonants.
Why are they difficult?
• As languages differ in their range of sounds, students have to learn to ‘physically’
produce certain sounds previously unknown to them.
Learners can find sounds difficult to pick out, and may not see the point in focusing
on them.
• However, incorrectly pronounced sounds strain communication, sometimes even
changing a phrase’s meaning.
How songs can help
• Songs are authentic and easily accessible examples of spoken English. The rhymes
in songs provide listeners with repetition of similar sounds.
• Students often choose to listen to songs time and again, indirectly exposing them to
these sounds.
What we do
To focus learners on particular sounds, we create activities based on songs’ rhymes.
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activity 1
We replace some of the rhymes in the song, with a gap. Students listen and fill the gaps,
using the song to guide them. More analytically minded students can then categorise the
words according to sounds. (From ‘An Englishman in New York,’ by Sting)
o: eI t
talk
New York
walk
day
say
one
sun
run
Alternatively, we highlight differences between sounds, using the lyrics to show how
changing one sound can alter meaning (minimal pairs).
activity 2
We choose six words from a song from which minimal pairs can be created
heaven - even
hunger - ‘anger
man - mad (From ‘Imagine’ by John Lennon),
We write the pairs separately on cards and give out one set per group of four or five
students. The students then match the pairs. They then listen to the song and ‘grab’ the
correct one. Choices are then checked against the lyrics.
2. Using songs to focus on words
Words are combinations of sounds which form together to give meaning. A word is
uttered in syllables, usually one emphasised syllable (the stress) and the rest weak
(unstressed).
Why are they difficult?
• Even when the same words exist in both languages, the number of syllables is not
always identical.
• Each English word has its own stress pattern, with very complex ‘rules’ to guide
learners.
• Weak syllables are central to English, though students often find this hard to believe.
Moreover, focusing on these can result in over-emphasis (not weakening) of these
syllables.
How songs can help
• Words in songs fit the music, helping learners associate the number of syllables /
stress in these words, with memorable rhythms.
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• The relaxed atmosphere songs create can expose students to this difficult
pronunciation area, without their realizing.
• Songs contain endless examples of weak syllables, helping to convince learners of
the way English is pronounced.
What we do
To raise learners’ awareness of the number of syllables / word stress, our activities target
specific words, especially those where the music makes the stress patterns clearer.
activity 3
We give out the lyrics, with certain words for students to guess the number of syllables,
leaving a space by each word to write the number in. Students then listen, checking their
predictions.
At higher levels, we repeat the activity, with students underlining the stressed syllable
whilst listening. We then drill these words and sing or chant the whole song through.
3. Using songs to focus on connected speech
Connected speech is the natural way we speak, linking together and emphasising certain
words, rather than each word standing alone. Contractions (two words forming one) are
an extreme example of the way we connect speech, to the extent that the written form
too is affected.
Why is it difficult?
• Students normally learn words individually and, especially at lower levels, tend to
pronounce each word separately.
• Students frequently misconceive contractions as being ‘incorrect’, only used in
‘slang’.
• Not all words within a phrase carry the same weight.
How songs can help
• Songs, and especially the chorus, provide real and ‘catchy’ examples of how whole
phrases are pronounced often to the extent that students find it difficult to pick out
individual words. The music further emphasises the ‘flow’ of the words.
• Songs, like other spoken texts, are full of contractions.
• Students can be keen to reproduce this, in order to sing the song as they hear it.
What we do
We use songs that have numerous contracted words to convince learners that contractions
are natural in English.
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activity 4
• We rewrite the lyrics with the contractions in full form
‘I am wondering why’
‘I cannot see’
• Students listen, identifying the contracted words. On a second listening, they rewrite
the words with the contractions
‘I’m wondering why’
‘I can’t see’
• This works even with the lowest level classes.
To help learners hear how words flow in phrases, we choose catchy tunes for learners to
fit words to.
activity 5
• We play each line of the chorus, for learners to hum back until they get the rhythm.
• In groups, students then order the lines of the song on strips of paper by remembering
the tune.
• Other activities can focus on highlighting the strong words in phrases, and singing
only these, replacing the rest with ‘mmm’. Finally, students can practise and present
their singing, for example for a ‘song contest’.
• Alternatively, more creative groups could write their own words to fit the tune.
4. Conclusion
There are no ‘standard’ songs for teaching pronunciation. Any song can be an example
of different pronunciation aspects. However, we try to choose songs that are clear (use
quality recordings where possible), not too fast, memorable, likely to appeal to our
learners (possibly songs they already know) and easy to create activities for, depending
on the area of pronunciation we are focusing on.
Finally, a word of warning: songs are creative works, so be ready to justify the occasional
‘mis-pronunciation’ to your students!
This article published: 21st June, 2006.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Developing English through songs” by Balbina Ebong & Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council,
Cameroon. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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Using songs to focus on connected speech
SONgS
‘Imagine’ by John Lennon
Imagine there’s no Heaven
It’s easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today

Imagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace

You may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as one

Imagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world

You may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will live as one
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‘An Englishman in New York,’ by Sting

I don’t drink coffee I take tea my dear
I like my toast done on one side
And you can hear it in my accent when I talk
I’m an Englishman in New York
See me walking down Fifth Avenue
A walking cane here at my side
I take it everywhere I walk
I’m an Englishman in New York

I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York

If, “Manners maketh man” as someone said
Then he’s the hero of the day
It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile
Be yourself no matter what they say

I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York

Modesty, propriety can lead to notoriety
You could end up as the only one
Gentleness, sobriety are rare in this society
At night a candle’s brighter than the sun

Takes more than combat gear to make a man
Takes more than a license for a gun
Confront your enemies, avoid them when you can
A gentleman will walk but never run

If, “Manners maketh man” as someone said
Then he’s the hero of the day
It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile
Be yourself no matter what they say
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
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6.4. TEaChINg ThE SChwa
Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico
If you only learn or teach one phoneme, make sure it’s the most common English sound
- the schwa.
1. Why the schwa is the most common sound
2. Why I teach the schwa
3. How I teach the schwa
4. Conclusion
1. why the schwa is the most common sound
In stress-timed languages such as English, stresses occur at regular intervals. The words
which are most important for communication of the message, that is, nouns, main verbs,
adjectives and adverbs, are normally stressed in connected speech. Grammar words
such as auxiliary verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers and prepositions are not usually
stressed, and are reduced to keep the stress pattern regular.
This means that they are said faster and at a lower volume than stressed syllables, and
the vowel sounds lose their purity, often becoming a schwa
Listen to these two examples of the same question. The first is with every word stressed
and the second is faster and more natural with vowels being reduced.
“ Whát kínd of músic dó yóu líke?” (slowly)
“ Whatkín of músic doyoulíke?” (fast)
The same thing happens with individual words. While stressed syllables maintain the
full vowel sound, unstressed syllables are weakened. For example, the letters in bold in
the following words can all be pronounced with a schwa (depending on the speaker’s
accent): support, banana, button, excellent, experiment, colour, sister, picture.
2. why I teach the schwa
To understand the concept of word or sentence stress, learners also need to be aware of
the characteristics of ‘unstress’, which include the occurrence of the schwa. In addition,
if learners expect to hear the full pronunciation of all vowel sounds, they may fail to
recognise known language, especially when listening to native speakers. Even if they
understand, students often do not notice unstressed auxiliaries, leading to mistakes such
as, “What you do?’” and “They coming now”.
Helping your students to notice the schwa won’t necessarily lead to an immediate
improvement in listening skills or natural-sounding pronunciation, but it will raise their
awareness of an important feature of spoken English.
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3. how I teach the schwa
Fast dictation
I find this activity useful for introducing the schwa in context. However, it can be repeated
several times with the same group of students, as it also recycles grammar and vocabulary.
Warn students that you are going to dictate at normal speaking speed, and that you will
not repeat anything. Tell them to write what they hear, even if it’s only one word. Then
read out some sentences or questions including language recently studied in class. For
example, I used these questions with Pre-Intermediate level students, following revision
of present simple questions:
1) How many brothers and sisters have you got?
2) How often do you play tennis?
3) What kind of music do you like?
4) What time do you usually get up?
5) How much does it cost?
After reading the sentences, allow students to compare in pairs or groups. Then read again,
while students make changes and additions, before a final comparison with their partner(s).
Next, invite individual learners to write the sentences on the board, while others offer
corrections. The teacher can correct any final mistakes that other learners do not notice.
Say the first sentence again naturally, and ask learners which words are stressed. Repeat
the sentence, trying to keep stress and intonation consistent, until learners are able to
correctly identify the stressed syllables. Then point to the schwa on the phonemic chart
and make a schwa sound. Get students to repeat. Read the first sentence again and
ask learners to identify the schwa sounds. Repeat the sentence naturally until students
are able to do this. Ask them to identify the stress and schwas in the other sentences,
working in pairs or groups. My students found the following, although again there is some
variation between accents.
1) How many brothers and sisters have you got?
2) How often do you play tennis?
3) What kind of music do you like?
4) What time do you usually get up?
5) How much does it cost?
I normally get learners to write the schwa symbol underneath the alphabetic script.
Once this is done, you can drill the sentences, perhaps by ‘backchaining’. This is where
the sentence is drilled starting from the end, gradually adding more words.
Try to maintain natural sentence stress when drilling. A danger of focusing on the schwa
is that it can be given too much emphasis, so correct this tendency if it occurs in individual
and choral repetitions.
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After doing this activity for the first time, I ask learners some awareness-raising questions:
• What kinds of words are stressed? (Content words, i.e. nouns, main verbs, adjectives,
adverbs).
• What kinds of words are generally not stressed? (‘Grammar words’, i.e. auxiliary
verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers, prepositions).
• Do stressed syllables ever contain schwa? (No).
• Do you think this is more important for listening or speaking? (Students will often say
‘speaking’ but in fact this is more important for what Underhill calls ‘receptive pronuncia-
tion’: learners will still be understood if they give all vowel sounds their full value, but it’s
worth practising these features orally to help learners ‘develop an ear’ for them).
Stress and schwa prediction
Take a short section of tape or video script (a short dialogue or a few short paragraphs of
spoken text). Before listening or watching, ask learners to identify the stressed syllables
and schwas, and to rehearse speaking the text. They then listen or watch and compare
their version with the recording. There will probably be differences, but this can lead
to a useful discussion, raising issues such as variations in the use of schwa between
accents, and emphatic stress to correct what someone else has said.
word stress and schwa
I often ask learners to identify word stress and schwa in multiple-syllable words recently
studied in class. This recycles vocabulary, and illustrates the point that schwa does not
occur in stressed syllables. It also helps with aural comprehension as well as correct
pronunciation of these words.
a gentle reminder
You may still find, even when drilling, that learners are tempted to pronounce the full
vowel sound in unstressed syllables. I give my students a gentle reminder that schwa is
the ‘Friday afternoon’ sound. Slumping in the chair and looking exhausted while saying
schwa normally gets a laugh!
4. Conclusion
Many of my students have seemed fascinated by the insight that English is not spoken as
they thought, with every vowel being given its full sound, and after an initial introduction
to the schwa start to look for it themselves in other words and sentences. More ambitious
students take every opportunity to practise this ‘native-speaker’ feature, while others
revert to the full vowel sound after drilling, but in either case their expectations of how
English sounds will have changed (This article published 21
ts
march, 2006).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Teaching the Schwa” by Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico. British Council BBC and It is
used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.5. INToNaTIoN
Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon
Intonation is crucial for communication. It’s also a largely unconscious mechanism, and
as such, a complex aspect of pronunciation. It’s no surprise that many teachers don’t feel
confident about tackling it in the classroom. When teaching grammar or lexis, we find ways
of making the language accessible to our learners. How then to do this with intonation?
1. What is intonation?
2. Why teach intonation?
3. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation?
4. How I help my students:
• Awareness-raising
• Intonation and grammar
• Intonation and attitudes
• Intonation and discourse
5. Conclusion
1. what is intonation?
Intonation is about how we say things, rather than what we say. Without intonation,
it’s impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words.
Listen to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words: the ‘melody’ you
hear is the intonation. It has the following features:
• It’s divided into phrases, also known as ‘tone-units’.
• The pitch moves up and down, within a ‘pitch range’. Everybody has their own
pitch range. Languages, too, differ in pitch range. English has particularly wide pitch-
range.
• In each tone unit, the pitch movement (a rise or fall in tone, or a combination of the
two) takes place on the most important syllable known as the ‘tonic-syllable’. The
tonic-syllable is usually a high-content word, near the end of the unit.
• These patterns of pitch variation are essential to a phrase’s meaning. Changing the
intonation can completely change the meaning.
Example:
- Say: ‘It’s raining’.
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- Now say it again using the same words, but giving it different meaning. You could
say it to mean ‘What a surprise!’, or ‘How annoying!’, or ‘That’s great!’. There are
many possibilities.
2. why teach intonation?
Intonation exists in every language, so the concept we’re introducing isn’t new. However,
learners are often so busy finding their words that intonation suffers. Yet intonation can be as
important as word choice - we don’t always realise how much difference intonation makes:
• Awareness of intonation aids communication.
• Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even
taking offence!
Though it’s unlikely our learners will need native-speaker-level pronunciation, what they
do need, is greater awareness of intonation to facilitate their speaking and listening.
3. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation?
It’s difficult to hear our own intonation. Choose somebody to listen to closely: as you
listen, visualise the melody in your head, ‘seeing’ how it’s divided into tone-units. Next
time you do a class speaking activity, focus on your students’ intonation. Are there
students whose language is ‘correct’, but something doesn’t sound right? Do they come
across as boring or insincere? It may well be their pitch range isn’t varied enough.
4. how I help my students
awareness-raising
Some techniques I find useful for raising learners’ awareness of intonation:
Provide learners with models - don’t be afraid to exaggerate your intonation.
Let students compare two examples of the same phrase, ex: varied/flat intonation,
English / L1.
Ask students to have a 2-minute conversation in pairs as ‘robots’ (elicit the word using
a picture if necessary), i.e. with no intonation. When they then go back to speaking
‘normally’, point out that the difference is made by intonation - this is what gives movement
to our voices.
Get students to imitate my intonation, but without words, just humming.
Intonation doesn’t exist in isolation. So it makes sense to approach it together with other
factors.
Intonation and grammar
Where patterns associating intonation and grammar are predictable, I highlight these to
my students. I see these as starting-points, rather than rules. Some examples are:
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Wh-word questions: falling intonation
Yes / No questions: rising
Statements: falling
Question - Tags: ‘chat’ - falling; ‘check’ - rising
Lists: rising, rising, rising, falling
When practising these constructions, I include activities focusing specifically on intonation.
For example, Question-Tags: Students in groups are assigned jobs to mime to
each other. Students make notes about what they think each person’s job is.
They then have to check they’ve understood the jobs: Students use rising/falling
intonation question-tags depending how sure they are: ‘You’re a pilot, aren’t you?’.
At the end, students confirm their jobs.
Intonation and attitude
It’s important that students are aware of the strong link between intonation and attitude,
even if it’s difficult to provide rules here.
The first thing is for learners to recognise the effect of intonation changes.
I say the word ‘bananas’ - firstly with an ‘interested’ intonation (varied tone); then
‘uninterested’ (flat). Students identify the two and describe the difference. We then
brainstorm attitudes, such as ‘enthusiastic’, ‘bored’, ‘surprised’, ‘relieved’. I say ‘bananas’
for these. Students then do the same in pairs, guessing each other’s attitude.
This can be developed by asking students to ‘greet’ everybody with a particular attitude.
At the end, the class identify each person’s attitude. For younger learners, I use ‘Mr Men’
characters (Miss Happy, Mr Grumpy, Miss Frightened, etc.) Each student is allocated a
character and, as above, they greet the class with that character’s voice.
Intonation and discourse
Learners’ also need awareness of intonation in longer stretches of language. Here, we
can give our learners clearer guidelines: ‘new’ information = fall tone; ‘shared’ knowledge
= ‘fall-rise’.
A simple shopping dialogue demonstrates this:
SK: Can I help you?
C: I’d like a chocolate (fall) ice-cream.
SK: One chocolate (fall-rise) ice-cream. Anything else?
C: One strawberry (fall) ice-cream.
SK: One chocolate (fall), one strawberry (fall). Anything else?
C: Yes. One chocolate (fall), one strawberry (fall), and one vanilla (fall-rise).
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Higher level students can identify the ‘new’ / ‘shared’ information, and then practice
reading accordingly.
With lower level students, we memorise the dialogue together. Although I don’t refer to
intonation directly, I use my hands to indicate it (fall = hand pointing down; fall-rise =
down then up). Students then prepare their own dialogues. I’ve found my learners pick
up these patterns very quickly.
5. Conclusion
When working on intonation in the classroom:
Remember that intonation is relevant to any speaking activity, and makes interesting
remedial/revision work.
Remember that students don’t always have to ‘know’ we’re focusing on intonation: every
time I drill phrases they’re hearing intonation models.
Provide realistic and clear contexts.
Avoid going into theory.
Help students find patterns / rules-of-thumb, wherever possible.
Use a consistent system for marking intonation on the board for example: arrow for tone;
tonic-syllable in CAPITALS; double lines ( // ) for tone-unit boundaries.
Keep it positive and don’t expect perfection. The last thing I’d want is to make my students
so anxious about their intonation that they stop speaking!
This article published: 16th March, 2006.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Intonation” by Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon British Council BBC and It is used
free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.6. woRd STRESS
Emma Pathare, Teacher, Trainer, Dubai
A major benefit of focusing students on how words are stressed is the extra mental
engagement with the word that it gives. A language learner needs to engage with a word
many times, preferably in different ways, in order to really learn it - identifying and practising
word stress can provide one or two of those engagements.
1. Why word stress is important
2. What word stress is
3. Some ‘rules’ of word stress
4. How I help my students
5. In the classroom
6. Conclusion
1. why word stress is important
Mistakes in word stress are a common cause of misunderstanding in English. Here are
the reasons why:
Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word very difficult to hear and
understand; for example, try saying the following words:
o O O o
b’tell hottle
And now in a sentence:
“I carried the b’tell to the hottle.”
Now reverse the stress patterns for the two words and you should be able to make sense
of the sentence!
“I carried the bottle to the hotel.”
Stressing a word differently can change the meaning or type of the word:
“They will desert* the desert** by tomorrow.”
o O O o
desert* desert**
Think about the grammatical difference between desert* and desert**.
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I will look at this in more detail later.
Even if the speaker can be understood, mistakes with word stress can make the listener
feel irritated, or perhaps even amused, and could prevent good communication from
taking place.
These three reasons tell me that word stress is an important part of the English language,
and it is something I should help my students with.
2. what word stress is
When we stress syllables in words, we use a combination of different features. Experiment
now with the word computer. Say it out loud. Listen to yourself. The second syllable of
the three is stressed. What are you doing so that the listener can hear that stress?
A stressed syllable combines five features:
It is l-o-n-g-e-r - com p-u-ter
It is loUdER - comPUTer
It has a change in pitch from the syllables coming before and afterwards. The pitch of
a stressed syllable is usually higher.
It is said more clearly -The vowel sound is purer. Compare the first and last vowel
sounds with the stressed sound.
It uses larger facial movements - Look in the mirror when you say the word. Look at
your jaw and lips in particular.
It is equally important to remember that the unstressed syllables of a word have the
opposite features of a stressed syllable!
3. Some ‘rules’ of word stress
There are patterns in word stress in English but, as a rule (!), it is dangerous to say there
are fixed rules. Exceptions can usually be found.
Here are some general tendencies for word stress in English:
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word Type of word
Tendency
Exceptions
apple
table
happy
two-syllable nouns
and adjectives
stress on the first syllable
o o
apple
hotel
lagoon
suspect
import
insult
words which can be
used as both
nouns and verbs
the noun has stress on the first syllable
o o
“You are the suspect!”
the verb has stress on the second
syllable
o o
“I suspect you.”
respect
witness
hairbrush
football
compound nouns
fairly equally balanced but with stronger
stress on the first part
o o
hairbrush
4. how I help my students
Students can be alarmed when they meet words which are similar but have different
stress patterns:
O o o O oo O o o o o o O o
Equal Equality Equalise Equalisation
A useful thing you can do is to help students see connections with other word families.
Patterns can usually be found, for example:
O o o O oo O o o o o o O o
Final Finality Finalise finalisation
Neutral Neutrality Neutralise neutralisation
There are some recognised differences in word stress which depend on the variety of
English being used, for example:
O o O o O O o o
Caribbean Caribbean
aluminium (British English) aluminium (American English)
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These differences are noted in good learner dictionaries. If words like these come up in
class, point them out to students. Ask if there are similar cases of differences in word
stress in their own language - this will heighten awareness and interest.
5. In the classroom
Raise awareness & build confidence
You can use the same questions with your students that I have used in this article.
These will help to raise the students’ awareness of word stress and its importance. Some
learners love to learn about the ‘technical’ side of language, while others like to ‘feel’
or ‘see’ the language more, hearing the music of word stress or seeing the shapes of
the words. Try to use a variety of approaches: helping students to engage with English
in different ways will help them in their goal to become more proficient users of the
language. Build students’ confidence by drawing their attention to the tendencies and
patterns in word stress that do exist.
Mark the stress
Use a clear easy-to-see way of marking stress on the board and on handouts for students.
I use the big circle - small circle (O o) method. It is very easy to see and has the added
advantage of identifying the number of syllables in the word, as well as the stressed
syllable.
Students also need to be aware of the way dictionaries usually mark stress - with a mark
before the stressed syllable, e.g. ‘apple. By knowing this, students will be able to check
word stress independently.
Cuisenaire rods
These different sized, small coloured blocks are great for helping students to ‘see’ the
word stress. The students build the words using different blocks to represent stressed
and unstressed syllables. (Children’s small building blocks are a good substitute!)
Integrate word stress into your lessons
You don’t need to teach separate lessons on word stress. Instead, you can integrate
it into your normal lessons. The ideal time to focus students’ attention on it is when
introducing vocabulary. Meaning and spelling are usually clarified for students but the
sound and stress of the word can all too often be forgotten.
Quickly and simply elicit the stress pattern of the word from the students (as you would
the meaning) and mark it on the board. Drill it too!
Students can use stress patterns as another way to organise and sort their vocabulary.
For example, in their vocabulary books they can have a section for nouns with the
pattern o o, and then a section for the pattern o o. Three syllable words can be
sorted into o o o (Saturday, hospital) and o o o (computer, unhappy).
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Remember what I noted before: The more times students mentally engage with new
vocabulary, the more they are likely to actually learn it. Engaging students through word
stress helps to reinforce the learning of the words.
Troubleshooting
Initially, many students (and teachers!) find it difficult to hear word stress. A useful strategy
is to focus on one word putting the stress on its different syllables in turn. For example:
o o 0 0 o o o 0 o
Computer Computer Computer
Say the word in the different ways for the students, really exaggerating the stressed
syllable and compressing the unstressed ones. Ask the students which version of the
word sounds ‘the best’ or ‘the most natural’.
By hearing the word stressed incorrectly, students can more easily pick out the correct
version.
A personalised and effective way of getting students to hear the importance of correct
word stress is by using people’s names as examples. I introduce word stress with my
name:
“How many parts/syllables are there in my name?”
“Which is the strongest - the first or second?”
“Is it Emma or Emma?”
Then you can question students about their own names - this will give them a personalised
connection to the issue of words stress, with a word they will never forget!
Conclusion
Any work on aspects of pronunciation can take a long time to show improvements and
be challenging for both the students and the teacher, but working on word stress can be
fun and over time will help your students to be better understood and more confident
speakers (this article published 21
th
february 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Word Stress” by Emma Pathare, Teacher, Trainer, DubaiBritish Council BBC and It is used free of
charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG.
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6.7. CoNNECTEd SPEECh
Connected speech 1
Vanessa Steele
Teaching pronunciation used to involve little more than identifying and practicing the sounds
of which a language is composed, that is to say, its phonemes. Recently however, there has
been a shift of focus towards the other systems operating within phonology, which may be
more important in terms of overall intelligibility.
1. What connected speech is?
2. How this affects native and non-native speakers
3. Aspects of connected speech
4. Working on weak forms
5. Conclusion
1. what connected speech is?
“English people speak so fast” is a complaint I often hear from my students, and often
from those at an advanced level, where ignorance of the vocabulary used is not the
reason for their lack of comprehension. When students see a spoken sentence in its
written form, they have no trouble comprehending. Why is this?
The reason, it seems, is that speech is a continuous stream of sounds, without clear-cut
borderlines between each word. In spoken discourse, we adapt our pronunciation to our
audience and articulate with maximal economy of movement rather than maximal clarity.
Thus, certain words are lost, and certain phonemes linked together as we attempt to get
our message across.
2. how this affects native and non-native speakers
As native speakers, we have various devices for dealing with indistinct utterances caused
by connected speech. We take account of the context; we assume we hear words with
which we are familiar within that context. In real life interaction, phonetically ambiguous
pairs like “ a new display” / “ a nudist play”, are rarely a problem as we are actively
making predictions about which syntactic forms and lexical items are likely to occur in a
given situation.
Non-native speakers, however, are rarely able to predict which lexical item may or may
not appear in a particular situation. They tend to depend almost solely on the sounds
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which they hear. Learners whose instruction has focused heavily on accuracy suffer
a “devastating diminuation of phonetic information at the segmental level when they
encounter normal speech.” (Brown 1990.)
3. aspects of connected speech
So what is it that we do when stringing words together that causes so many problems for
students?
Weak Forms
There are a large number of words in English which can have a “full” form and a “weak”
form. This is because English is a stressed timed language, and in trying to make the
intervals between stressed syllables equal, to give the phrase rhythm, we tend to swallow
non-essential words. Thus, conjunctions, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries and articles
are often lost, causing comprehension problems for students, particularly for those whose
language is syllable timed. Some examples of words which have weak forms are;
and
fish and chips (fish´n chips)
a chair and a table (a chair ´n a table)
Can
She can speak Spanish better than I can (The first “can” is the weak form, the second the
full form.)
of
A pint of beer
That´s the last of the wine!
have
Have you finished? (weak)
Yes, I have. (full)
Should
Well, you should have told me. (Both”should” and “have” are weak here)
The relevance of certain features of connected speech to students’ needs is often
debated. However, this is not the case with weak forms. Learners must come to not only
recognise and cope with the weak forms they hear, but also to use them themselves when
speaking English. If they do not their language will sound unnatural and over formalised,
with too many stressed forms making it difficult for the listener to identify the points of
focus. This, the degree to which connected speech contributes towards “naturalness” or
“intelligibility”, is a useful starting point from which to measure the value to students of
the different features of connected speech.
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4. working on weak forms
Here are some ways in which we can attempt to help our students with weak forms.
How many words do you hear?
Play a short dialogue, or a group of sentences, and ask students to listen and write
down the number of words they hear. Go over each phrase to check whether they could
identify all the words and then to see if they can accurately produce what they heard.
Contrast the weak or natural version with the full version, pointing out that the full version
is often more difficult to pronounce.
Unnatural speech
Activities built around “unnatural speech” are an enjoyable way of working on weak
forms and rhythm. To obtain “unnatural speech”, record someone reading a sentence
as if it were just a list of words. A good way of doing this is to put the words onto flash
cards, and to reveal one at a time, so the reader gives each word its full pronunciation.
When you have a few sentences, play them several times to the students, who should
then work in pairs to try to make the speech more natural sounding. They can then
either use graphics to show the points they would change, or take turns reading out their
different versions, or record themselves using a more natural pronunciation. Conduct a
general feedback session at the end of the activity, discussing reasons for the changes
the groups have made.
Integrating
Integrate pronunciation into vocabulary work, practising, for example, the weak form in
phrases with “of” (a loaf of bread, a cup of coffee, a can of coke ).
Integrate weak forms into grammar work. If practising “going to” for example, the teacher
can write on the board examples such as;
Go on holiday
Earn more money
Buy a car
Ask different students to read these phrases as a sentence with “going to”. Listen for and
highlight the weak form of “to” before the consonant sounds, and the “full” form of “to”
with the linking “w” sound before the vowel.
5. Conclusion
Pronunciation work should be seen as an integral part of what goes on in the classroom.
Try not to fall into the text book trap of dividing language up into isolated chunks. One
lesson on grammar, the next on vocabulary, then pronunciation and so on. All language,
like speech, is connected, and students will benefit from learning the weak forms and stress
patterns of new words from the start, rather than in a remedial lesson months later.
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Raising students awareness of these forms, whenever they arise, is the first step towards
helping your learners to speak a little more naturally. Even if they do not assimilate
these forms at first, “...in many cases, the simple awareness of their existence can help
enormously in enabling students to better understand the language they hear.” ( Gerald
Kelly- “How to Teach Pronunciation.”)
Connected speech 2
Vanessa Steele
An advanced student of mine speaks both clearly and usually correctly, but can often sound
over formal and at times stilted. He has learnt his English “through the eye” and has trouble
interpreting the utterances of native speakers who do not monitor their output. His delivery is
an attempt at a precise version of every sound. With native speakers, articulatory precision
is a stylistic device, a conscious choice if we want to emphasize a point, be insistent or
threatening. In normal social interaction though, this is not usually the case and articulatory
imprecision is the more natural and functional option.
1. Aspects of connected speech
2. Intrusion and linking
3. Elision
4. Working on connected speech
5. Integrating work on connected speech
6. Conclusion
1. aspects of connected speech
Speech is a continuous stream of sounds, without clear-cut borderlines between them,
and the different aspects of connected speech help to explain why written English is so
different from spoken English.
So, what is it that native speakers do when stringing words together that causes so many
problems for students?
2. Intrusion and linking
When two vowel sounds meet, we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a
/ j /, / w / or / r / , to mark the transition sound between the two vowels, a device referred
to as intrusion. For example:
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Intruding /r/
The media /r/ are to blame.
Law(r)and order.
Intruding /j/
I /j/ agree.
They /j/ are here!
Intruding /w/
I want to /w/ eat.
Please do /w/ it.
Word boundaries involving a consonant and a vowel are also linked, as we tend to drag
final consonants to initial vowels or vice versa. For example:
Get on. (geton)
Not at all. (notatall)
It´s no joke. (snow joke)
3. Elision
As I have mentioned, a native speaker’s aim in connecting words is maxium ease and
efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across. In minimizing our
efforts, we weaken our articulation. If articulation is weakened too much, the sound
may disappear altogether, a process known as elision. It is the vowels from unstressed
syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation.
Common sound deletions
A syllable containing the unstressed “schwa” or is often lost. For example,
int(e)rest,
sim(i)lar,
lib(a)ry,
diff(e)rent,
t(o)night.
/ t / and / d /
With consonants, it is / t / and / d / which are most commonly elided, especially when they
appear in a consonant cluster. For example,
chris(t)mas
san(d)wich
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The same process can occur across word boundaries, for example,
mus(t) be
the firs(t) three
you an(d) me
we stopp(ed) for lunch
/ h /
The / h / sound is also often deleted. For example,
you shouldn´t (h)ave
tell (h)im.
4. working on connected speech
If your learners have not worked on these forms before, you might wish to set some
lesson time aside to work specifically on these features of connected speech. One way
of introducing them to sound deletions could be to write a few short phrases on the
board. For example:
That´s an interesting idea.
Are you coming out tonight?
It´s the tallest building.
You must tell him.
Try if possible to use language you have recently been working on in the classroom.
Then ask the class to count the number of sounds in each word, and write the numbers
which they give you on the board above the words, like this:
3 4 4 3
you must tell him
Now play a recording of the phrases, or read them yourself, and ask the learners to listen
again and write down how many sounds they hear. Prompt them if necessary, asking
if, for example, the “t” is really pronunced twice between “must” and “tell”, or only
once.
• Drill the phrases then ask the students to practise these phrases themselves.
You could also read out the phrases, once using the elided forms, then again in a
more clipped, emphatic manner.
• Ask the learners which sounds more natural. Highlight that the features of connected
speech not only make the phrase more natural sounding but that it is also easier to
pronounce the words in this way.
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Exercises like this help to show learners the differences between written and spoken
English, and they highlight the importance of listening to words rather than relying on
their written forms.
5. Integrating work on connected speech
It is a good idea to try and integrate work on connected speech into everyday lessons.
When studying grammar for example, don´t focus solely on the form of the words, draw
attention to the way they are pronounced in natural conversation.
• Superlatives, for example, provide practise of sound deletions. you could write a few
phrases on the board:
The Nile is the longest river in the world.
The Vatican is the smallest country in the world.
• Ask the students to listen to the sounds while you repeat the phrases a few times and
see if they can spot the disappearance of the “t” on the superlative adjective.
• Drill the phrases, chorally and individually. Students might like to write their own
general knowledge quiz, using questions such as, “Which is the tallest building in the
world?”
• As they read their questions, make sure they elide the final “t” (unless of course, the
next word begins with a vowel).
Such exercises provide practice of both grammatical form and pronunciation, and the
repetition helps students to begin using these features of connected speech in a natural
manner.
Anything which you have recently been working on in class can be used as a basis
for pronunciation work. For example, a useful way of practising the intruding sounds
/ r /, / w / and / j / is when studying phrasal verbs.
Do/ w /up
Play / j / up
Go/ w /away
Go/ w /out
• Drill the verbs chorally and individually before providing a more personalized practice
activity in which students ask each other questions using the verbs you are focusing on.
Phrasal verbs can also be used to show how we tend to link final consonants and initial
vowels across word boundaries.
Get out (getout)
Put on (puton)
Come out (cumout)
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6. Conclusion
Students often find pronunciation work fun and stimulating, as well as valuable. However,
they will need time and confidence in order to assimilate the features of connected
speech and to make them their own. Research does suggest though, that by simply
drawing students attention to these forms, you are givng them considerable help towards
making sense of the language they hear.
This article published: 28th February, 2005
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Connected Speech 1,2, by Vanessa Steele, British Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.8. ENglISh SENTENCE STRESS
Lynn Gallacher, British Council, Spain
Sentence stress is a difficult area to work on for learners and teachers alike. For this reason
it’s also an area which is often neglected, but this aspect of the language can cause problems
for learners in both their speaking and perhaps more importantly listening.
1. English is a stress timed language
2. Listening
3. Listening activities
4. Speaking
5. Speaking activities
6. Conclusion
English is a stress timed language
The English language is often referred to as stress-timed. This means that stress in a spoken
sentence occurs at regular intervals and the length it takes to say something depends on the
number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself.
Try saying or listening to the sentences below:
1 2 3 4
1 and 2 and 3 and 4
1 and a
2 and a 3 and a 4
1 and then a
2 and then a 3 and then a 4
The four sentences take the same length of time to say and you will notice the numbers are
stressed and the unstressed words in between are said much more quickly in order to keep
the rhythm of the language. In other languages, which are not stress-timed the stress would
fall more equally on each word and syllable.
listening
In a recent class I discussed with my students the reasons they found listening difficult in
English. Some comments were:
“The words come too fast”
“I panic when I don’t understand every word”
“Some words are swallowed”
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I think what students are referring to here, amongst other things, is the stress-timed aspect
of English.
listening activities
Here are some activities I’ve done in class with students of all levels to raise awareness of
stress time in English and help them overcome the difficulties it causes during listening.
After completing a listening comprehension task in class, give the students the tape script
and play a very short extract. Students mark on the tape script the words that are stressed.
Discuss the kinds of words that are stressed. They will usually be the words that give
meaning: verbs, nouns and adjectives.
Give the students the tape script to a listening before they hear it and ask them to predict
which words they think will be stressed. Play the tape to check the predictions.
Play a fairly short listening extract, maybe a paragraph in length, students write down the
important (stressed) words they hear. You can play the tape several times.
Emphasise that this isn’t a dictation exercise you don’t want students to try to write down
every word.
In groups ask the students to try and recreate the listening extract using the words they
have and their knowledge of the English language. Compare the students’ version with the
original.
Discuss with students the aim of this activity - to show how native speakers listen and
understand the language, taking note of the important words, usually stressed ones, and
using their knowledge of the language to build meaning.
The important conclusion being it is not necessary to understand every word.
Speaking
Stress timing can help speakers communicate meaning. Learners need to be made aware of
the fact that the way they say something can affect it’s meaning. Read to the sentence below
with the stress on different words. You can hear that the meaning changes.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
Not using stress-time can also make students sound laboured when they speak and can
cause irritation on the part of the listener. The activities below are designed to practise
stress-time and increase students’ fluency.
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Speaking activities
Stress timing is most noticeable in patterned language such as poetry and limericks.
Here are some limericks I’ve used with my students:
There was a young lady from Niger,
Who smiled as she rode on a tiger.
After the ride
She was inside,
And the smile on the face of the tiger.

There once was a lady named Lynn
Who was so uncommonly thin,
that when she essayed
to drink lemonade,
she slipped through the straw and fell in!
I read the limericks aloud and checked the students understand them. The students in
groups then try writing one. It’s fun to use the names of the students in the class to start the
limerick. Next we mark the stressed syllables and the students read the limericks out, trying
to keep to the rhythm.
Recently I was working with 2 advanced students who were about to take the speaking part of
the Proficiency exam. Their grammar and vocabulary was fine but when they spoke English
they didn’t sound fluent. They spoke very deliberately and gave words equal stress.
I asked them to record themselves speaking and then listen to the recording. They were
aware they didn’t sound fluent but still didn’t know what to do about it.
Next we used the cassette from the course book they were using, and chose a two-person
dialogue to listen to. The students, using the tape-script, recorded themselves again and
again until the dialogue sounded as close as possible to the original.
Conclusion
In this article I have outlined the difficulty my students have with listening and speaking in relation
to English as a stress-timed language and suggested some ways to help students. It should be
noted that stress-time is only one of many factors that influence how we say something. Speech
rhythms change according to the meaning the speaker wants to convey, who the speaker is
talking to and the context they are speaking in. It’s also quite a difficult area for students to work
on, so don’t expect instant results (this article published 17
th
january, 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on
the www.teaching,org.uk.website.” English Sentence Stress”, by Lynn Gallacher, British Council, Spain, British
Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.9. INTEgRaTINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN INTo ClaSSRooM aCTIVITIES
Barney Griffiths, Teacher trainer, Teacher, Materials writer, Spain.
Pronunciation work has traditionally taken a secondary role in language teaching to work on
grammar and more recently lexis. In my work as a teacher trainer I have been surprised at
how often experienced teachers are reluctant to tackle pronunciation issues in class. I can
think of at least two reasons why pronunciation tends to be neglected: firstly, the lack of clear
guidelines and rules available in course books, and secondly the fact that isolated exercises
once a month do not seem to have much of an effect. This is not surprising, however; like
all other areas of language teaching, pronunciation needs constant attention for it to have a
lasting affect on students, which means integrating it into daily classroom procedures. I find
that addressing issues regularly during the language feedback or group correction stage
of a lesson helps to focus learners’ attention on its importance and lead to more positive
experiences.
1. Using student talk to teach pronunciation
2. Word stress
3. Vowel sounds
4. Diphthongs
5. Weak forms
6. Sentence stress
7. Conclusion
1. Using student talk to teach pronunciation
Pronunciation work can be kept simple and employ exercises which are both accessible
and enjoyable for students, whatever their level. Whenever students do a freer speaking
activity, the main aim is usually for them to develop their spoken fluency in the language.
However, the activity also serves to work on students’ accuracy through the feedback we
give them on their use of language.
When my students do such a group or pair work activity at any level I listen in and
take notes which are divided into three areas of language: pronunciation, grammar
and lexis. Within the latter, as well as unknown lexis I will also include areas such as
register, function, set phrases…and within the former I will include notes on any area of
pronunciation that leads to miscommunication. This includes diphthongs, vowel sounds
(including weak forms), consonant sounds, word stress and sentence stress. All of these
areas can be dealt with quickly and efficiently by having some simple exercises ready
which require nothing more than the board and a basic knowledge of the phonemic
chart.
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If learners are introduced to the phonemic chart one phoneme at a time, it can be
introduced from beginner level and students are quick to appreciate its value. A rule
for when ‘ea’ is pronounced /e/ (head) and when it is pronounced /i:/ (bead) will not
necessarily aid production, whereas the activities I propose here will. Once your students
get used to the exercises, pronunciation work becomes even more efficient and dare I
say it, effective.
2. word stress
Here is a simple exercise I repeat regularly for work on word stress and individual
sounds.
I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘I suppose (pronounced with stress on first syllable)
I will see her tonight’. The listener doesn’t understand because of the mispronunciation
and asks the other student to repeat until finally they write it down and we see what the
word was.
After the activity, on the board I put a column with two bubbles to represent word stress,
the first small, the second much larger. I write ‘suppose’ under the bubbles and drill it
before asking students to think of other two syllable words with second-syllable stress.
I get ‘outside’, ‘today’, ‘below’ and ‘behind’, which I accept as correct before asking for
verbs only. I then get ‘accept’, ‘believe’, ‘forget’….and these go in the same column.
If a student asks for rules during this exercise, in this case ‘Do all 2-syllable verbs have
this stress pattern?’, for example, I either ask them to think of examples that contradict
their rule to give myself time to consider it or I tell them we will look at rules for this
the following lesson. As a general rule I find that this procedure encourages learner
autonomy by having learners form their own hypotheses which are then confirmed or
disproved by the teacher in the following lesson.
3. Vowel sounds
I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘Not now because he is did (dead)’.
After the activity, on the board I draw a column with the heading /e/.
In this column I write the word ‘dead’ and have students repeat it. I then ask for examples
of words which rhyme with this, which students find easy (‘red’, ‘bed’, etc.).
I do not write these, however. I then ask for words which rhyme and have the same vowel
spelling, i.e. ‘ea’. I put students in pairs or groups to think of words, giving myself some
thinking time, too. In this case, depending on the level I will get ‘head’, ‘bread’, ‘read’, ‘lead’,…
and we end up with an extendable list of words with the same spelling and sound.
It is the cognitive work of trying to think of similar words, writing them down and their
organisation into columns that helps learners retain sounds and spellings, rather than
their simply revising the lists. This is why all students should be encouraged to copy the
list into their notebooks.
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If the classroom allows it, it’s also a great idea to have students pin posters with sound
columns up on the wall and add to them whenever a new item comes up for that sound,
particularly if it is a strange or different spelling.
The idea is to get a basic poster with a phoneme at the top and various columns with
different spellings.
/e/
‘e’ ‘ea’ ‘ai’
Bed Dead Said
Pen Head
4. diphthongs
I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘I didn’t find (pronounced / f i: n d /) it anywhere’.
I make a column with /ai/, drill ‘find’ and my students give me ‘fight’, ‘bike’, ‘buy’, ‘eye’,
‘my’, etc. for the sound.
I accept these without writing them and then encourage students to think of other words
spelt like ‘find’. I get ‘mind’ and ‘kind’.
There may be only one or two for any given pattern. If I have thought of any other words
myself I add them to the column, ensuring that they are not obscure words or too high
for this particular level (in this case I might choose to introduce ‘bind’ and ‘grind’, but
probably not ‘rind’ or ‘hind’).
5. weak forms
I hear an elementary learner say: ‘I will buy vegetables (pronouncing ‘table’ at the end)’.
I note that this is also an opportunity to work on word stress.
I make a column with a schwa, and drill ‘vegetable’, marking the word stress.
With an elementary class there is a case for simply teaching this point rather than eliciting
known words, so I point out the number of syllables and the stress on the beginning of
the word, explaining that this makes the final syllable weak and not pronounced as the
word ‘table’.
I add to the list ‘comfortable’ and ‘presentable’ as further examples, but avoid adding
more so as not to overwhelm students at this level.
For the second example I point out that the stress is on the second syllable. I can think of
objections teachers have made to my suggesting this, such as students’ confusion at the
lack of a steadfast rule or the non-uniformity of the examples, for example, but to cater to
this merely serves to reinforce students’ belief that a language always obeys a strict set
of rules. In my experience this approach is not a useful one. The only way to learn these
fundamental pronunciation points is to notice them, note them down and practise them
regularly.
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6. Sentence stress
I use fluency drills to work on sentence stress. I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘He
told me I couldn’t have a holiday’ (bold words are stressed). This causes confusion
due to the stress being placed on the wrong words in the sentence, i.e. the pronouns, or
grammar words, as opposed to the content words.
The activity is simply a choral drill, but of the whole sentence and maintaining an English
rhythm. ‘He told me I couldn’t have a holiday’.
The trick here is not to over-exaggerate on the stressed words, but keep the stress and
rhythm natural. Think in terms of modelling a rhythm, rather than a stress pattern. Using
gesture like the conductor of an orchestra or tapping on the board to show the rhythm is
especially helpful for students who cannot hear it easily.
Admittedly, this latter exercise on sentence stress does seem to take longer to have
an effect, but if highlighted early on and practised relatively often, students do seem to
internalise how English stress differs from their own language and helps overcome what
in later stages of learning becomes a fossilised way of speaking. Sentence stress causes
more communication problems for a fluent speaker than any number of grammatical
errors.
7. Conclusion
One of the beauties of using student speech for pronunciation work is that it directly
addresses students problems. I have attempted to provide a couple of very simple
exercises here to help teachers integrate pronunciation into their classes on a regular
basis. Regular work in this area helps learners to develop their own hypotheses and
gut-feeling for English pronunciation, something experts and researchers have long
emphasised as an essential skill of a good language learner (this article published 8
th

november, 2004).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Integrating pronunciation in the classroom”, by Barney Griffiths, Teacher trainer, Teacher, Materials
writer, Spain , British Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.10. TEaChINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN wITh PhoNEMIC SYMBolS
Alan Stanton, teacher trainer and materials writer
Phonemic symbols represent the sounds of the English language. Using them can be a
valuable tool to improving your students’ pronunciation.
1. Why use phonemic symbols?
2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols?
3. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols?
4. What is the best way to learn phonemic symbols?
5. Which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn?
6. Don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols?
1. why use phonemic symbols?
The alphabet which we use to write English has 26 letters but (British) English has 44
sounds. Inevitably, English spelling is not a reliable guide to pronunciation because
• Some letters have more than one sound
• Sometimes letters are not pronounced at all
• The same sound may be represented by different letters
• Sometimes syllables indicated by the spelling are not pronounced at all
Here a few challenging questions to put to your students:
• How do you pronounce gh in ‘enough’, ‘through’ and ‘ghost’? (like f in fun, not
pronounced, like g in got)
• How many syllables are there in ‘chocolate’? (3)
The letters of the alphabet can be a poor guide to pronunciation. Phonemic symbols, in
contrast, are a totally reliable guide. Each symbol represents one sound consistently.
Here are five good reasons why students should know phonemic symbols.
1.1. Students can use dictionaries effectively. The second bit of information in dictionaries
for English language learners is the word in phonemic symbols. It comes right after
the word itself. Knowing phonemic symbols enables students to get the maximum
information from dictionaries.
1.2. Students can become independent learners. They can find out the pronunciation
of a word by themselves without asking the teacher. What is more, they can write
down the correct pronunciation of a word that they hear. If they cannot use phonemic
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symbols for this, they will use the sound values of letters in their own language and
this will perpetuate pronunciation errors.
1.3. Phonemic symbols are a visual aid. Students can see that two words differ, or are
the same, in pronunciation. For example they can see that ‘son’ and sun’ must be
pronounced the same because the phonemic symbols are the same. They can use
their eyes to help their ears and if they are able to hold and manipulate cards with
the symbols on, then they are using the sense of touch as well. The more senses
students use, the better they will learn.
1.4. Phonemic symbols, arranged in a chart, are part of every student’s armoury of
learning resources. Just as they have a dictionary for vocabulary and a grammar
book for grammar, so they need reference materials for pronunciation: the phonemic
symbols and simple, key words that show the sound of each symbol.
1.5. Although speaking a language is a performance skill, knowledge of how the
language works is still of great value. Here is another question to ask students:
How many different sounds are there in English? Usually, students do not know.
Phonemic symbols on the wall in a classroom remind them that there are 44. Even
if they have not mastered all of them, they know what the target is and where the
problems are. The chart is a map of English sounds. Even with a map, you can get
lost but you are better off with a map than without one.
2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols?
To be frank, yes. Every profession has specialist knowledge that is not widely known
outside the profession. If you are a doctor, you will be able to name every bone in the
human body, which most people can’t do. If you are a language teacher, then you know
phonemic symbols, which most people don’t. Students can learn these symbols by
themselves and one day you might meet a student who asks you to write a word on the
board using phonemic symbols. It is best to be prepared.
3. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols?
Absolutely not. 19 of the 44 symbols have the same sound and shape as letters of the
alphabet. This means that some words, such as ‘pet’, look the same whether written with
phonemic symbols or letters of the alphabet. That leaves just 25 to learn. Compare that
with the hundreds of different pieces of information in a grammar book or the thousands
of words in even a small dictionary. It is a very small learning load. Moreover, it is visual
and shapes are easy to remember. Anyone who can drive is able to recognise more than
25 symbols giving information about road conditions. Even if we go beyond separate,
individual sounds and include linking, elision and assimilation, there is still a limited and
clearly defined set of things to learn.
4. what is the best way to learn phonemic symbols?
Most native-speaker teachers of English learn grammar from the textbooks they use
when they first start teaching, because they are unlikely to have been exposed to any
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formal study of English grammar. They learn by teaching, which is a very effective way
of learning. It is possible to learn phonemic symbols in the same way. You just need to
keep one symbol ahead of the students.
5. which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn?
The consonants are the easiest, because most of them have the same form as a letter
of the alphabet (17 out of 24). Therefore, it is best to start by teaching students a large
number of consonant symbols and a small number of easy vowel symbols such as /e/
and /i/. Note, however, that the sound /j/ represents the initial sound of ‘yellow’, not the
initial sound of ‘judge’. Experience shows that students are very likely to make mistakes
with the symbol /j/, so it needs special attention.
6. don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols?
Not at all. It is true that the 44 phonemes in British English are based on the sounds
of Received Pronunciation, an accent which is not frequently heard nowadays. Most
native-speaker teachers do not have this accent but still use phonemic symbols. When
the symbols are arranged in a chart, each one occupies a box. This indicates that the
real sound that you actually hear can vary up to certain limits, depending on the influence
of other sounds and on individual ways of speaking. There is not just one perfect way
to say each sound - there is an acceptable range of pronunciations. Think of the pieces
in a game of chess. They can vary considerably in size, shape and appearance but we
can always recognise a knight because it behaves like a knight and not like a king. The
point is that words such as ‘ship’, sheep’, ‘sip’ and ‘seep’ should sound different from
each other, not that each sound is pronounced exactly like the sounds of RP. Learning
phonemic symbols will help students to understand the importance of length and voicing.
Simply knowing that the symbol : indicates a long sound can be very helpful.
There is no end to our study of grammar and vocabulary but phonemic symbols are
limited, visual and physical. They may seem challenging at first but it is like learning to
swim or ride a bicycle. Once you can do it, it is easy and you never forget.
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PhoNEMIC SYMBolS
i: u: s: a: o:
Vowel sounds
e b t æ e o I
diphthongs
Ie eI oe oI eo ee aI ao
Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 1
Unvoiced p t ç k
Voiced b d g g
Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 2
Unvoiced f 0 s [
Voiced v ð z ¿
other consonants
m n ŋ h l r w j
(this article published 5
th
march, 2002)

Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols”, by Alan Stanton, teacher trainer and materials
writer, BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.11. PRoNUNCIaTIoN ChaRT aCTIVITIES
Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico
These activities are designed for use with the teaching English interactive phonemic
chart.
If your students have access to computers at home, you can download and copy the chart
for them to use with their homework.
1. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols.
2. Voiced and unvoiced consonants.
3. Sound and spelling correspondence.
4. Using the chart for autonomous learning.
1. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols
If you have a computer with a projector, the chart can be used in class to recycle and
reinforce recently learned vocabulary, at the same time as revising the phonemic symbols.
All these activities assume that learners have had at least some initial introduction to the
phonemic alphabet.
• Give the students a list of recently learned words with a specific sound underlined,
e.g. one of the vowel sounds. The learners then categorise the words into the different
vowel sounds. To make the activity easier, you could restrict the number of vowel
sounds used, and give learners the options they have to choose from. They can
come and click on these sounds on the board or computer to check. When checking
with the whole class, one student can stand at the board or sit at the computer,
clicking on the ‘correct’ sound for each word, which the teacher confirms or rejects.
• Give the students a list of recently learned words in phonemic script. In groups, they
have to work out what the words are. They can send a group member to the board
or the computer to click on sounds to help them check. They then have to write the
words in alphabetic script. This can be made more learner-centred if, after some work
in class on the phonemic alphabet, learners choose 5 recently learned words and
write them in phonemic script for homework. In the next class they exchange books
and use the chart to help them work out the words.
• Individual learners prepare a recently learned word in phonemic script. They come to
the board or computer and spell it out. Other learners have to identify the word, and
any mistakes in the phonemic transcription, then give its alphabetic spelling.
A variation on both the above activities is for you or the learners to prepare phonemic
transcriptions of vocabulary with a deliberate mistake. Learners in groups identify the
mistake and replace it with the correct phoneme.
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• Learners work in two teams. One team member stands at the board or sits at the
computer, and the other team calls out a word (you could specify a subject area,
recently learned vocabulary, or leave the choice of words open). The team member
has to spell out the word on the chart, and receives a point for a correct answer. The
class is the judge, with the teacher having the final say.
• The teacher gives one learner a word, written alphabetically. The learner has to tap
out the word in phonemic script, while other learners identify it. As a variation, the
teacher gives one learner a word in phonemic script. He taps it out on the board, and
the other team gets a point for giving the correct spelling.
• Write the name of your favourite famous person in phonemic script on the board.
The class as a whole has to work out who it is using their existing knowledge of the
phonemic chart. They then write the name of a favourite famous person in phonemic
script on a piece of paper (an English name, e.g. Tom Cruise, not Enrique Iglesias).
The teacher collects these and redistributes them. Learners have to work out who
this person is - they can take turns in clicking on the sounds on the board or the
computer to check individual sounds. Once they’ve worked out the name, they can
find the person who wrote it and ask some more questions, e.g. why they like this
person, what films they’ve been in etc.
2. Voiced and unvoiced consonants
Certain pairs of consonants can be problematic for some learners. In some cases, the
main difference between the pair is whether the consonant is voiced or unvoiced, that is,
whether or not the vocal chords vibrate when making this sound.
• This discovery activity can be used to help learners notice the difference between
voiced and unvoiced consonants. Begin by asking learners what noise a bee makes.
As they make a buzzing noise, do the same and put your fingers on your throat,
indicating that they should do likewise. This will allow them to feel the vibrations of
the vocal chords that occur with voiced consonant sounds. Ask them if they can feel
the vibrations.
• Then focus on a voiced / unvoiced pair such as s and z. Make the sounds with your
fingers on your throat, indicating that the learners should do the same. You can help
learners with this by getting them to make the ‘bee’ sounds for z, and the sound a
snake is supposed to make for s. Ask them when they feel the vocal chords vibrate
- with s or z? (The answer should be z). Tell them that this is the main difference
between the two sounds, and that z is voiced while s is unvoiced. You could then give
them a list of words and ask them to categorise the underlined consonant sound into
these two categories. With /s/ and /z/, you might choose to include some third person
singular verb and plural endings. In this list the sound being focused on is the final
sound in each case.
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/s/ /z/
cups pens
speaks reads
gets goes
puts lives
tents cars
plants sees
bags hears
looks learns
stops rise
rice rose
place plays
• Learners then use the chart to decide which of the other consonant sounds are voiced
and which are unvoiced. In a computer lab, learners could do this in pairs. They listen
to a sound and repeat it, with their fingers on their throat to check if it is voiced or
unvoiced. In class with the computer and a projector, the teacher or a learner could click
on sounds while the rest of the class repeat them and categorise them into voiced or
unvoiced.
• As a follow up, you could do a minimal pairs activity using some voiced / unvoiced
pairs, focusing on initial consonant sounds. Display this list or something similar on
the board and say a word from each pair. After each word learners have to say voiced
or unvoiced, depending on which of the pair they hear. They can then test each other
in pairs.
Voiced Unvoiced
ben pen
do to
gone con
van fan
gin chin
zoo sue
• This activity has the advantage of establishing the voiced / unvoiced distinction, and
a shared gesture that learners and the teacher can use in class to indicate that a
sound is voiced or unvoiced, i.e. the fingers on the throat. It also helps learners to
become conscious of the muscle movements involved in voicing a consonant. All of
this will be useful in future classes if problem arise in the discrimination or production
of voiced / unvoiced consonant pairs.
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3. Sound and spelling correspondence
The chart can also be used to highlight both patterns and variations in sound and spelling
correspondence.
For example, as a discovery activity to help learners notice the effect of adding an ‘e’ to
the end of a word, you could give the learners some of the words from the following list:
cap cape
mat mate
pin pine
not note
pet pete
kit kite
sit site
win wine
hat hate
cut cute
• Learners use the chart to help them write the phonemic transcription for each word,
checking with a dictionary if necessary. The teacher then asks them to formulate a
general ‘rule’ for the effect of adding an ‘e’ to the end of a word. (It makes the vowel
sound ‘say its name’, i.e. the ‘a’ in ‘cape’ sounds like the letter A as it is said in the
alphabet.)
• It is not advisable to over-emphasise the irregularity of English spelling, given that
80% of English words do fit into regular patterns. However, speakers of languages
such as Spanish, Italian or Japanese where there is a very high correspondence
between sound and spelling may need to have their attention drawn to the different
possibilities for pronunciation in English.
• One way of doing this is to give them a list of known words where the same letter
or combination of letters, normally a vowel or vowels, represent different sounds.
Learners will have at least some idea of how these words are pronounced, and can
categorise the words according to the sound represented, using the chart to help
them, before holding a final class check. For example, you could give learners the
following list of words including the letter a, which they categorise according to how
the as are pronounced. Where the word contains more than one a with different
sounds, underline which a you want them to use to make their categorisations.
Spanish, capital, make, art, car, understand, average, banana, take, practice.
To make the activity easier, give the students the phonemic symbols for the different
possible pronunciations of e.
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4. Using the chart for autonomous learning
If learners have access to a computer outside class, they can use the chart together with
a dictionary to check the pronunciation of new words they meet in their own reading. This
is particularly useful for learners who are not yet fully familiar with all the sounds on the
chart. Encourage your learners to record the pronunciation of new words they meet, both
in and out of class, in their vocabulary notebooks.
• you can also set homework related to pronunciation, which learners can check using
the online chart before bringing to class. As mentioned above, you could ask them
to write 5 new words from the class in phonemic script for homework, to be used to
test their classmates. Similarly, if you want to focus on a sound which is problematic
for your learners, ask them to find 5 words including that sound and write them in
phonemic script. With a little training, your learners could prepare their own ‘minimal
pairs’, for example with the sounds /i:/ and /I/. Depending on their level, they might
come up with something like this:
/I/ /i:/
sit seat
hit heat
hill wheel
mill meal
bin been
ship sheep
• They can use these to test their classmates’ ability to discriminate between these
sounds, as well as their own pronunciation, in the next class. They simply show the
two lists of words to a partner, and say one of the words. The partner responds ‘left’ or
‘right’. For example, in the list above, if student A says ‘seat’, student B will (hopefully)
respond ‘right’ (this article published 17
th
january, 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Pronunciation Chart Activities”, by Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico, BBC and It is used free
of charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.12. PRaCTICINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh PRoVERBS
Yi Yang
Practicing pronunciation can be very tedious. Proverbs, however, will give fun. For example,
when practicing “a”, students will prefer reading “No pains, no gains” to some monotonous
sentences such as “He looks pale today.”
Sentences with several words involving the same sound are good materials for practicing that
sound. Many proverbs contain the rhetorical devices related to sound such as alliteration,
rhyme and repetition, and thus very suitable for pronunciation exercises (For instance:
Practice makes perfect. / Where there is a will, there is a way.) Repeating a sound two or
more times in a short sentence can give the student a deeper impression, and the euphonic
rhythm can keep the boredom away.
The following is a list of proverbs that can be used for pronunciation exercises. Sounds
are marked with boldface instead of being represented by phonetic symbols because the
American and British symbols are different, and some symbols may be distorted on the
internet.
Vowels
• A friend in need is a friend indeed.
• Every bullet has its billet.
• A good wife and health is a man’s best wealth. / East and west, home is best.
• A drowning man will catch at a straw.
• He laughs best who laughs last.
• He who has an art has everywhere a part.
• A little pot is soon hot. / A spot is most seen on the finest cloth.
• New lords, new laws. / Walls have ears.
• One man beats the bush, another man catches the bird.
• Well begun is half done.
• Finders keepers, losers weepers.
• Kind words are the music of the world. / The early bird catches the worm.
• Haste makes waste.
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• Little strokes fell great oaks. / As you sow you shall mow.
• Good advice is beyond price. / Might makes right.
• An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of learning.
• No joy without annoy.
• Constant dripping wears away a stone.
Consonants
• Penny wise, pound foolish./ Practice makes perfect.
• There is nothing which has been bitter before being ripe.
• Time and tide wait for no man.
• A bird in hand is worth two in the wood. / Every dog has his day.
• Care killed the cat.
• A good name is better than a golden girdle.
• Fair feathers make fair fowls. / Birds of a feather flock together.
• Even the weariest river winds somewhere safe to sea.
• Something is better than nothing. / Birds of a feather flock together.
• Least said, soonest mended. / More haste, less speed.
• A lazy youth, a lousy age.
• No sunshine but hath some shadow. / Better be sure than sorry.
• Labor is often the father of leisure.
• Work has bitter root but sweet fruit.
• There is no royal road to learning.
• It is hard to be high and humble. / Do on the hills as you would do in the hall.
• Everybody has his merits and faults.
• No garden without its weeds.
• Do not count your chickens before they are hatched.
• Every jack has his jill.
• Try before you trust.
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• Better be drunk than drowned.
• A miss is as good as a mile. / Many a little makes a mickle.
• A stitch in time saves nine.
• Seeing is believing. / Everything must have a beginning.
• look before you leap. / A cracked bell can never sound well.
• willful waste makes woeful want. / where there is a will, there is a way.
Students could later be asked to interpret the meaning of the proverbs orally or in writing,
which will lead the pronunciation activity naturally to a speaking or writing activity.
Source: Yi Yang, yangyi@gse.harvard.edu
The Internet TESL Journal, vol. v, N.º 3, march 1999
URL: http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Yang-Proverbs.html

o

K E Y
Unit I. Practice 1
Summary of the phonological processes
1. assimilation: /e,sIm.I’leI.[en/. Sounds becoming more alike. These can be voicing,
manner or place. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound.
2. Elision: /e’lI[en/. Deletion of some segments in different positions.
Could be:
2.1. aphæresis or aphesis: (Initial). /e’fIerIsIs/ and /’æfisIs/. Deletion of first
segment(s) of a word. Example: around – round.
2.2. Syncope. (Medial). /‘sIŋkepI/. Deletion of segment(s) at the middle of a word or
end of the syllable: suppose -- sppose. (medial).
2.3. apocope: (Final). /e’pbkepi/. Deletion of last segment(s) of a word. Example:
breakfast – Breakfast.
3. Insertion (epenthesis): /in’ss:[en, ep’ent.θe.sIs/. Inserting segment(s) into a word:
example: [straik[ --[estraik].
4. Neutralization: nIutre’laIseI[en/. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the
two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this
case before /r/.
5. haplology. Pronounced /hæp’lbl.e.gI/. Elimination of a syllable when two consecutive
identical or similar syllables occur. Syllable or part of a syllable (usually vc or cv) is
deleted when there is an identical one nearby. Example: probably-probly. (there are two
[ab] combinations and one is deleted).
Conditions:
1) Syllables are both medial; and
2) The structure of the two syllables is similar.
Examples of English (colloquial):
Engla land > England
6. gemination: /gemi’neI[en/. A segment, vowel or consonant, becomes double long like
the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie, the /s/ would
be shorter).
7. degemination. /dIgemi’neI[en/. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to
one single consonant, as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a
single /m/.
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8. Consonant harmony: /’kbnsenent ‘ha:men / consonant becomes more like another:
often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog.
9. denasalization:/dIneIzelaI’zeI[en/ removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment leaves
you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Imagine talking with a stuffy
nose. Example: nut -- dut.
10. devoicing: / dI’vosIoŋ/ a voiced segment becomes voiceless. Usually nothing else
changes as in ‘vote - fote.
11. Metathesis: /met’æθesIs/ is responsible for the most common types of speech errors,
such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti, ask as /’æks/. Some other frequent
English pronunciations that display metathesis are:
/’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English)
/’æsterIks/ for asterisk
/’ktmfterbel/ for comfortable
/Inter’dju’s/ for introduce
/’Intregel/ for integral
/rsvelent/ for relevant
12. Nasalization: /neIzelaI’zeI[en/ In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound
while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production
of the sound by the mouth. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization of the vowel
/a/ in ‘pond’. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated by printing a
tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized equivalent of
[a], and [v] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. The nasals consonants can nasañize the
vowels.
13. Palatalization: /pæletelaI’zeI[en/, a sound, usually before a /j/ glide but often before a
high front vowel, is moved closer to the palat. miss you -- mishu or ‘make Eve -- [mejciv]
where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized, they
usually become africates.
14. Spirantization: /spaIrentI’zeI[en / [en/ Stops become fricatives, usually between
vowels. example ata -- asa. Only the manner changes here. Note though that place might
also change. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English, when you spirantize a
[b] in english you often get [v].
15. Voicing assimilation: /‘vo IsIŋ asimi’leI [en/ Segment becomes like another usually
adjacent segment, in voicing. Example ‘ata’ -- [ada], have to -- hafta. vowel harmony:
Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel.
Vowel reduction: /’vaolwl rI ‘dek [en/. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or
similar short lax vowel.
~
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Unit 2. Practice 1 (p. 34)
Degrees of Stress
words Sentence pattern
Stressed and
unstressed
syllable
Reduced syllable
(The unstressed syllable
changes to schwa)
Janet ■∙ Janet ‘ʤænɪt / ‘ʤænət
Elephant ■∙∙ Elephant ‘elɪfənt / ‘eləfənt
Jemina ∙■∙ Jemina ʤɪ’maɪna / ʤə’maɪna
Mississipi .∙∙ ■∙ Mississipi .misɪ’sɪpɪ / .misə’sɪpɪ
Unit 2. Practice 2 (p. 36)
Stress pattern
■∙∙ ∙■∙ ∙∙■
1. Manchester

2. Anthony

3. Jemina

4. elephant

5. Morocco

6. Amazon

7. carpenter

8. happiness

Unit 2. Practice 3 (p. 39)
Pronounce the words stress appropriately.
Import, object, pencil, ruler, lotion, tiger, lemon, mirror and disco.
Quickly, rapid, slowly, heavy, silly, bony, early and stormy.
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Unit 2. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable) (p. 39)
Word stress. Read the words and pronounce them correctly.
re’lax pro’duce skate
des’troy in’vite re’search
de’pend a’ssist sur’vive
in’tent re’pair re’turn
co’llect su’ggest pre’fer
Unit 2. Practice 5 (p. 39)
Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress.
Stress in the first syllable Stress in the second syllable
‘abstract (adjective) abs‘tract (noun)
‘conduct (noun) con‘duct (verb)
‘contract (noun) con‘tract (verb)
‘contrast (noun) con‘trast (verb)
‘dessert (noun) de‘sert (noun)
’import (noun) im’port (verb)

Unit 2. Practice 6 (p. 40)
Pronounce the words correctly: (penultimate = second from end)
A. Ending in -ic
auto‘graphic autodi’dactic a’crylic
au‘thentic au’tistic rhythmic
auto‘matic axio’matic ‘rubric
bar‘baric ‘basic ‘ustic
bo‘racic ‘boric pro’sodic
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B. Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end) (p. 40)
-sion -tion
a’dmission ‘action
‘passion pro’motion
‘tension simu’lation
pe’rmission de’duction
ad’mission re’lation

Unit 2. Practice 7 (p. 41)
A. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –cy
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
a’dequacy ‘agency ab’sorbency a’ccountancy
aris’tocracy au’tocracy a’dequacy ad’vertency
con’sistency con’sonancy ‘agency aris’tocracy
‘constancy con’sultancy as’cendancy au’tocracy
com’petency con’veniency bu’reaucracy ‘clemency

B. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –ty (p. 42)
stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
a’bility aus’terity bes’tiality bru’tality
abnor’mality automa’ticity biodi’versity ca’lamity
absorba’bility bar’barity bioelec’tricity capa’bility
ab’surdity belli’cosity bio’safety car’nality
au’dacity be’nignity bisex’uality catho’licity
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C. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –phy (p. 42)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
au’tography bi’bliography ’geography my’thography
’biography ca’lligraphy fil’mography osci’llography
car’diography chro’nography eth’nography pe’trography
cos’mography crysta’llography i’diography phi’losophy
encepha’lography histo’riography ma’mmography ra’diography
D. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy (p. 42)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
’allergy a’nalogy ge’nealogy laryn’gology
an’thology a’pology his’tology lexicology
as’trology astro’biology hy’drology mo’nology
biotech’nology car’diology i’deology mor’phology
chro’nology cli’matology immu’nology musi’cology
E. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al (p. 43)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
abd’ominal aes’thetical ana’lytical non’marital
abo’riginal aero’nautical compo’sitional psycho’logical
philo’sophical agri’chemical compu’tational pro’fessional
acqui’sitional agri’cultural epidemio’logical monol’itical
a’dditional alpha’betical non’inflectional non’practical
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Unit 2. Practice 8 (p. 43)
A. For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird.
’blackboard ’bathtub ’blue-green
’saucepan ’housework ’watermelon
’saleswork ’grasshopper ’highlight
’iceland ’boyfriend ’fishtank
’bedroom ’seafood ’tumbledown
’bathroom ’undercut ’underworld
’wallpaper ’diningtable ’witchcraft
B. For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part: bad-TEMpered (p. 44).
long-’legged staff-’necked long-’winded
three-’headed baby-’faced ’tight-fisted
flowered-’dress short-’tempered sure-’footed
masked’ man thin-’skinned high-’heeled
six-’sided smooth-’tongue freckle-’faced
long-’handled broken-’hearted stone-’faced
green-’eyed light-’footed kind-’hearted
C. For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part: to understand, to overflow (p. 44).
turn ’back
(return)
talk ’back (to)
(answer rudely)
keep ’down
(do not vomit)
take ’charge (of)
(assume responsibility)
write ’down
(make notes)
kick ’around
(discuss)
look ’over
(review)
talk ’over
(discuss)
kick ’down
(break something with your feet)
bring ’back
(return)
high’lighted
let ’down
(disappoint)
call ’back
(telephone again)
keep ’around
(keep something near you)
lock ’down
(make something very secure)
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Unit 2. Practice 9 (p. 44)
Now read the 4-syllable words and write on the appropriate space.
Stress pattern
∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙
1. Felicity
2. Afghanistan
3. Alexander
4. Wolverhampton
5. rhinoceros
6. Mississipi
Unit 2. Practice 10 (p. 51)
A. Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.

These are the house that jaqueline built
one Two Three Four
1. This is the house that jack built
2. These are the houses that jack built
3. These are the houses that jaqueline built
4. This is the house that my mother designed
5. This is the bicycle Peter repaired
6. Those are the people we met in the park
7. That is the person I saw on the stairs
8. Those are the people we drove to the party
9. That is the gardener who works for my mother
10. andrew is taller than Peter and Thomas
11. Tom’s not as tall as the rest of the family
12. what an amazingly lively production
13. how can we possibily get there in time
B. Repeat the sentences loudly (p. 52).
Can 1. you pass me a plastic knife?
I 2. want to take a photography class?
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China 3. is the place where I was born.
Please t 4. urn off the television before you go out.
I can’t 5. decide which book to borrow.
Do you 6. understand this lesson’
Sparky 7. is a very happy puppy.
It is 8. critical that you finish your essay.
My 9. grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. 10.
Unit 2. Practice 11 (p. 53)
Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. See the examples:
I am talking to the clever students
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3
You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us.
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
1. John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.
2. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.
3. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back
roads of France.
4. jack bought a new car last Friday.
5. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january.
6. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future.
7. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?
8. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment.
9. Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.
10. As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern.
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Unit 2. Practice 12 (p. 53)
Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder, longer, clearer
and high-pitched.
1. john wants to be an actor, so he wants to live in hollywood.
2. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
3. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday.
4. After the movie, they went to a bar to have beer.
Unit 2. Practice 13 (p. 54)
13.A. Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. (Remember if you hear the
“to-be” or auxiliary verb is stressed, then the sentence is negative).

1. I __can____ understand your story. (can, can’t)
2. Tom __can_____ come to the party tonight. (can, can’t)
3. They __can’t_____ hear the speaker. (can, can’t)
4. We __weren’t____ told to do that. (were, weren’t)
5. They _are_____ doing the homework. (are, aren’t)
6. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. (were, weren’t)
13 B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please turn off the television before you go out.
5. I can’t decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson’
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
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Unit 3. Practice 1 (p. 74)
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs.
The weak form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of
sentence, and when it is not stressed. The strong form is used when the auxiliary verb is at
the end of a sentence, or stressed.
auxiliary verb weak form Strong form
do /de/ or /do/ /du:/
does /dez/ /dtz/
have /hev/ /hæv/
has /hez/ /hæz/
were /we/ /w s:/
was /wez/ /wbz/
can /ken/ /kæn/
Instruction. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is
Strong (S) or weak (w).
1. When was your birthday? ( W )
It was in April. ( W )
2. Have you got a good English dictionary? ( W )
Yes, I have. ( S )
3. Does your mother work in an office? ( W )
Yes, she does. ( S )
4. Where were your parents married? ( W )
I think they were married in London. ( W )
5. Has your father got dark hair? ( W )
Yes, he has. ( S )
6. Do you get the bus to work’ ( W )
Yes, I do. ( S )
7. How many language can you speak? ( W )
I can speak two – English and French ( W )
8. Does she live in the north of England? ( W )
Yes, she does ( S )
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9. Can you speak English? ( W )
Yes, she can. ( S )
10. Has she got a job? ( W )
Yes, she has, ( S )
11. Have they got any children) ( W )
Yes, they have. ( S )
12. Do they share the housework? ( W )
Yes, they do, ( S )
13. Were they married in Japan? ( W )
Yes, they were ( S )
Unit 2. Practice 2 (p. 77)

Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking.
1. She laughed at the joke.
t
2. She jumped over the wall
t
3. The van crashed in the jungle
t
4. Columbus discovered America
d
5. The bomb destroyed ahouse
d
6. They traveled across Europe by train
d
7. He introduced Amanda to his friends
t
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Unit 3. Practice 3 (p. 78)
Key: The prepositions because the come in the middle of sentences and are not stressed
are pronounced with weak pronunciation.
Prepositions weak form Strong form
to /te/ /tu:/
from /frem/ /frbm/
for /fe/ or /fer/ /fo:/
at /et/ /æt/
of /ev/ /bv/
B: Hello, Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny?
S: Speaking.
B: Hello. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz.
I am looking from (c) James Bond. We had a lunch appointment at (d). Isn’t he
there?
S: I’m sorry, sir, but he’s gone to (e) Budapest.
B: I was afraid of (f) that. Where exactly?
S: He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal.
B: Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble.
S: He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days.
B: All right. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell
him I’m waiting for (m) his call.
S: Yes, sir.
Unit 4. Practice 1 (4.2.5. B, C and d)
4.2.4. Weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1)
B. (a) vowel (b) glass (c) cat (d) shorn (e) light
C. (a) [ə] (g) [ɔ:] (m) [ɜ:] (s) [ɒ]
(b) [ɪ] (h) [ə] (n) [ə] (t) [ə]
(c) [ə] (i) [u:] (o) [ʌ] (u) [ju:] [ʌ]
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(d) [ʊ] (j) [əʊ] (p) [u:] (v) [ə] [əʊ]
(e) [ɒ] (k) [aʊ] (q) [ʊ] (w) [ʌ] [ə]
(f) [ɔ:] (l) [ʌ] (r) [ʊ] (x) [ʌ] [ʊ]
(y) [ɒ] [aʊə]

D. de’test ‘basket in’doors ‘beautiful
‘cabbage ‘pudding ‘perfect be’hind
‘chicken ‘salad to’matoes ‘cucumber
‘beetroot ‘rabbit ‘dumplings
Unit 4. Practice 2 (4.2.6. B, C and d)
4.2.6. Weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2).
B. (a) rams (b) marsh (c) books (d) drain (e) cream’s
C. money, honey, sunny, Sonny, runny
D. (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 2 (f) 1 (g) 1 (h) 3 (i) 3 (j) 3 (k) 3 (l) i
Unit 4. Parctice 3 (4.2.7. B, C and d)
4.2.7. Stress, consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak forms. (Review 3)
B. (a) gin (b) French (c) service (d) shore (e) cod
C. I’m going to the Repton Show in October. That’s a boat show, isn’t it’ No, a motor show.
Are you going to Repton alone? No, peter’s going, too. Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter?
Peter Blenkinsop. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter. When did you tell me? It
must have been someone else. You never told me.
D. ‘mermaid, impo’lite, be’fore, up’set, un’happy, ‘borrow, ‘handsome, de’lighted ‘actually,
unad’venturous.
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Unit 4. Practice 4 (4.2.8. a, B, C and d)
4.2.8. Rhythm and gingles. A few more rhymes and jingles
A. [o:lðeo] [bo:t] [deo] [fo:t] [plao] [θtre] [θru:]
[‘btre] [bro:t] [draot] [no:t] [rtf] [ðeo] [ttf]
[bao] [kbf ] [intf] [o:t] [so:t ] [θo:t] [trbf]
[‘btrebrid¿] [‘ltfbre] [s’kobr:e] [sloo]
B. [o:] [eI] [e] [o] [i: - e]
[e - æ ] [e] [ee - e] [e - eI - e] [æ - e]
[e ] [æ - o:] [æ - e] [e] [o: - e]
[eI] [e - eI - e] [æ - eI - e] [eI - e] [b - eI - e]
C. ‘Janu(a)ry, ‘March, ‘May, Ju’ly, Sep’tember, No’vember,’Feb(r)u(a)ry, ‘Apr(i)l, ‘June,
‘August, Oc’tober, De’cember.
(a) I thought you were one of the ones who won an award at the bazaar on Thursday.
(b) I bought you some more oranges and a pound of bananas at the greengrocer’s
that’s just opened at the corner of Earl’s Court Gardens.
(c) You can see from her early work that there’s a certain sense of purpose, almost of
urgency, which she appears to have lost as soon as she started to be accepted as
a serious artist.
(d) More than a thousand representatives from the whole of the Third World were
presents at the concert given in the park yesterday afternoon to commemorate the
anniversary of the birth of Ernest Hurlingham.
(e) There was an extraordinary man at your party who said that for years and years
he’d had been wanting to meet us. He said he would have asked the Templetons to
introduce us, but he hadn’t seen them for ages and didn’t know what had happened
to them.
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Unit V. Practice 1 (a, p. 145)
1.A. Read the words lout out providing the adequate stress.
1. Two-syllable words
VERBS
1. de’ceive /dI.’sIv/ 6. ‘object /’bb.gIkt/
2. ‘sharpen /’[a:p.en/ 7. ‘conquer /’kbŋk.e (r)/
3. co’llect /k e’lekt/ 8. re’cord /rI.’ko:d/
4. pro’nounce /pre’naons/ 9. ‘polish /’pb.lI[/
5. ‘copy /‘kbpI/ 10. de’pend /dI.’pend/
ADJECTIVES
1. ‘easy /’i: . zI/ 6. ‘yellow /‘jel.eo/
2. com’plete /kem ‘pli:t/ 7. ‘early /’s:.lI/
3. ‘major /‘meI.ge/ 8. ‘happy /’hæp.I/
4. a’lone /e ‘leon/ 9. ‘heavy /’hev.I/
5. be’low /bI ‘lao/ 10. ‘dirty /’ds:tI/
NOUNS
1. ‘bishop /’bI[.ep/ 6. ‘office /‘bf.Is/
2. ‘aspect /’æsp. ekt/ 7. a’rray / e.‘reI/
3. a’ffair /e’fee/ 8. ‘petrol /‘pet.rel/
4. ‘carpet /’ka:p.It/ 9. ‘dentist /‘den.tIst/
5. de’feat /dI’fi:t/ 10. ‘autumn /‘o:.ten/
2. Three syllable words
VERBS
1. enter’tain /,en. te. ‘teIn/ 6. e’licit /I ’lIs.It/
2. resurr’ect /rez. e, ‘rekt/ 7. com’peting /kem. ‘pi:t. iŋ/
3. a’bandon /e ’bæn. den/ 8. I’magine /I.’mæg.In/
4. de’liver /dI ’lIv. er/ 9. de’termine /dI ’ts:. mIn/
5. ‘interrupt /‘In. te’rtpt/ 10 ‘separate /’sep. er. eIt/
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ADJECTIVES
1. im’portant /Im ‘po:t.ent/ 6. ‘insolent /’In.sel.ent/
2. e’normous /I’no:.mes 7. fan’tastic /fæn ‘tæst.Ik/
3. veredic /’ver.I.dIk/ 8. ‘negative /’neg.et.Iv/
4. ‘decimal /’des I,mel/ 9. ‘accurate /‘æk.jer.et/
5. ab’normal /æb ’no:.mel/ 10. to’mato /te ‘ma:.teo/
Compound words
a) First element adjectival, stress on the second element
1. loud’speaker /,lao ‘spi:.ke/
2. bad-‘tempered /bæd ‘tem.pe/
3. head’quarters /hed ‘kwo:.tez/
4. second-‘class /,sek. end ‘kla:s/
5. three-‘wheeler /θri: ‘hwi:.ler/
b) First element nominal, stress on the first element
1. ‘type,writer /’taIp ,raI.te(r)/
2. ‘car-,ferry /’ka: ,fer.I/
3. ‘sun,rise /‘stn.,raIz/
4. ‘suit,case /‘su:t .,keIs/
5. ‘tea-,cup /’ti:.ktp/
c) Mixture of type a and b
1. ‘long-,surfing /,lbŋ ’ss:f.Iŋ/
2. ‘gun ,man /’gtn.,mæn/
3. ‘shoe ,lace /’[u:.,leIs/
4. ,red-‘blooded /,red ‘bltd.Id/
5. ‘gear-,box /’gIe. ,bbks/
6. over-‘weight /eo.ve. ‘weIt/
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
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Unit 5. Practice 1 (B, p. 145)
1.B. Represent the verbs, adjectives and nouns in exercise 1, using syllable trees representations.

Deceive
/dǰsǰv/
s
/ \
O R
/ \

|
N C

|

[ d ǰ ]


s


/

\


O

R


/

\


|

N C




|

|


[ s ǰ v ]

Sharpen
/ɇȉa:p . ǟn/
s
/ \
O R
/ \

|
N C
| |
[ ɇȉ D p ]




s

/

\

O

R

/

\


N C

|

|

[ǟ Q

]
Collect
/N ǟɇleNW/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
|

[k ǟ]










s

/

\


O

R

/

\


N C

|

|

|

[
ɇl e kt ]
Pronounce
/prǟɇnaȐns/
s
/ \
O R
/ \ / \
| | N C
| | |

[
p

r

ǟ

]




s


/

\


O

R


/

\


N C


|


|


|


[

n aȐ

n s

]

Copy
/kǘpǰ/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C

| |
|
[k ǘ ]

s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
|

[p ǰ ]
Object
/ɇǘb.Ȫǰkt/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
| |
[ ɇǘ b ]

s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C

|
| |
[ Ȫ ǰ k ]

Conquer

/kǘŋk. ǟ/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N

|
| | |
[ k ǘ ŋ k ]



s
/ \



O R

/ \

N C

|

[ǟ ]


Polish

/pǘ

. lǰȉ/

s
/ \
O R
/ \

N C


| |
|

[p ǘ ]




s
/ \
O R
/ \

N C

| |

[ l ǰ ȉ ]

|
C
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Wells, J. C.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Anne C. Newton (Editor).
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum. A
journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV, Nº 4.
otras fuentes para consultar
Carr Phillip
(1999) English phonetics and phonology: An Introduction.
Goldsmith John A.
(1996) The handbook of phonological theory.
(1999) Phonological theory: The essential readings.
Roca Iggy, Johnsin Wyn
(1999) A course in phonology.
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.telefonica.net/web2/eseducativa/alphabet_mp3.html
http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/omphonetics/contenidotematico.htm
http://www.google.com.pe/search?hl=es&q=+elision+in+english&meta=
http://www.sil.org/capacitar/FONETICA/cursos/cursoafricadas.PDF


se terminó de imPrimir
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FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN DECANO Dr. Carlos Barriga Hernández DIRECTORA ACADÉMICA Dra. Elsa Barrientos Jiménez DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATIVO Prof. Enrique Pérez Zevallos PROGRAMA DE LICENCIATURA PARA PROFESORES SIN TÍTULO PEDAGÓGICO EN LENGUA EXTRANJERA DIRECTORA Mg. María Emperatriz Escalante López COMITÉ DIRECTIVO Dra. Edith Reyes de Rojas Lic. Walter Gutiérrez Gutiérrez

Yoni Cárdenas Cornelio Fonética y Fonología del Inglés II Serie: Textos para el Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera Primera edición Lima, febrero de 2009 © Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera Facultad de Educación, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Av. Germán Amézaga s/n. Lima 1, Ciudad Universitaria de UNMSM- Pabellón Administrativo de la Facultad de Educación - 2.º piso, oficina 203 Teléfono: 619-7000 anexos 3021, 3022 / E-mail: prog_idiomas_edu@unmsm.edu.pe Website: www.unmsm.edu.pe/educacion/licenciatura/index.htm Ilustración de carátula: David A. Villanueva Diseño, diagramación e impresión: Centro de Producción Editorial e Imprenta de la UNMSM Este libro es propiedad del Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera de la Facultad de Educación de La Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Ninguna parte de este libro puede ser reproducida o utilizada por cualquier medio, sea éste electrónico, mecánico o cualquier otro medio inventado, sin permiso por escrito de los editores.

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION. Acknowledgments. English vowels and consonants (Review). UNIT I Phonological processes 1.1. Assimilation. 1.2. Elision. 1.3. Dissimilation. 1.4. Insertion or epenphesis. 1.5. Neutralization. 1.6. Gemination. ACTIVITY. UNIT II

7 8 9

15 19 23 23 24 24 28

Stress, word stress, stressed syllable, sentence stress and English rhythm 2.1. Word stress. 2.2. Types of stress. 2.3. Word stress in English. 2.4. Importance of word stress. 33 33 34 35

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

2.5. Rules of word stress in English. 2.6. Syllable stress. 2.7. Sentence stress. 2.8. Sentence rhythm. ACTIVITY. UNIT III Connected speech 3.1. Assimilation. 3.2. Compounds and phrases. 3.3. Double consonant sounds. 3.4. Double consonants letters. 3.5. Elision. 3.6. R Liaison. 3.7. Stress shift. 3.8. T-voicing. 3.9. Weak forms. 3.10. Weak vowels. 3.11. Word linking. ACTIVITY. UNIT IV Suprasegmental Phonology 4.1. Prosodic features: intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length 4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby 4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh-question). 4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern (Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).

36 45 47 52 57

61 67 68 67 69 71 71 72 73 75 76 80

85 94 94 97

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apology. The structure of the syllabe (by Turncer Cam). Articulation. 5.7. 5.11. Diphthongs. Rules for ortographic syllabification. Intonation 3: Combined patterns (pausing in the middle. 4. Intonation 4: Tag questions. ACTIvITy. UNIT V The english syllable 5.8.13. etc). 5. Rules for phonetic syllabification. 5.6. linking. syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2). doubt.5. 114 -5- .3.2. Crescendo diphthongs. Kinds of syllabes according to its structure. the shifting tonic. 5. Rhythm and jingles. linking. 4. 5.2. Syllabic consonants.2. Syllabification.5. 5. elision.4.12.6. 5.7. 4. 135 135 136 137 137 138 142 142 147 147 148 149 149 151 103 106 108 111 130 4. consecutive stress. Stress.1. Definition.10. 100 4.2. 5.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4.9.2.2. linking and elision (Review 1).4. 5.3. weak forms (Review 3). Weak forms. American light verse: A contemporary selection. Co articulation. Breaking. ACTIVITY.2. Weak forms. 5. Kinds of syllable in the process of syllabification. 5. lists.8. tag question. intonation.

Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols. KEY. 6. Connected speech (1 and 2).6. Practicing pronunciation through proverbs. Global english and the teaching of pronunciation. Pronunciation chart activities.12.11. 6. Intonation.7. 6.10. 6. Integrating pronunciation into classroom activities. 6. 6. English sentence stress. BIBLIOGRAPHY.3.2.4. 155 158 162 168 171 175 180 188 191 195 199 204 207 225 -6- . 6. 6. Developing pronunciation through songs. Teaching the schwa.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras UNIT VI Selected reading 6.1.9. Word stress.5. Rhythm. 6. 6.8. 6.

tone pitch and length). types of stress. its structure and some rules for syllabification. In this anthology we have selected burning and attractive articles written by different authors. linking. stress shift. Written by Mimi Ponsonby. assimilation.teachingenglish. well known all over the world. R liaison. sentence stress and rules for stressing correctly were considered in the second unit. Most of these articles in chapter sixth are owned by the British Council BBC and they were first published on the http://www. We have also developed important aspects related diphthongs. In the fourth unit we have considered basic information about suprasegmental phonology (intonation. then we concentrated on kinds of intonation with lots of exercises. Intonation. importance of word stress. following mainly ideas found the book “How now. epenthesis or insertion. Global English. YonY Cárdenas Cornelio . phonological processes and application of the theory in the classroom. we have considered basic and interesting reading materials for deepening what we have been doing in the earlier chapters. in order to help teachers to speak with appropriate stress and intonation and avoid being misunderstood. Different aspects such as elision. In the fifth unit we have considered the study of the English syllable. stress. neutralization. in the sixth unit. T voicing and weak forms. syllabic consonants. elision. Word stress.org.. germination and other important processes considered in language learning. all of them connected with spoken language were considered in the third unit. all of them. we have included phonological processes such as assimilation. Brown cow?.uk/tink/ articles website. Among these articles. Finally. Other important websites were also used to prepare this anthology and they are at the end of each unit and in the bibliography at the end of the book.Introduction This book aims at deepening the study of English Phonetics and Phonology focusing on suprasegmental aspects of the language. articulation and co articulation among others. connected speech and rhythm are some of these interesting materials that are used free of charge.

Aída Mendoza Cuba. Anne Baker. a colleague of mine from whom I have learned to become a dedicated professional in ELT. Félix Quesada and Dr. who is always clarifying our doubts. and National University of San Marcos. Mimi Ponsonby. 97 and 98. especially my husband Mr. completing the practical aspect of the course. Special thanks to Mrs. Daniel Jones (“English Pronunciation Dictionary”. Last but not least. . Joanne Kenworthy. to our friends who can not be mentioned individually but who are always with us being sources of ideas. Gustavo Solís Fonseca. to David Villanueva for always being ready to solve our computer illiteracy. Angélika Marsch and Andrés Easthouse from Universidad de Lima from whom we have learned a lot in the summer courses. We would also like to thank our friends Carmen Caceda Cordoba. my English trainer. 90). Rosalyn Hurst. Director of the Foreign Language School for giving us the chance of organising. and that allowed us to complete with the practical aspect of the course.Acknowledgements First and foremost our thanks to our dear students from the specialty of English who took the course of English Phonetics and Phonology at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. 91). Alfredo Villanueva for not complaining and understanding the work even during holidays. We also want to thank University of San Marcos professors Dr. classes of 96. Faculty of Education. They were the ones who in a way made us think that something else was needed in the course and this book is the result of it. designing and redesigning this specialised book. to our university for supporting us in the developing of this book as a way to improve the professional development of the ELT in Peru. To our families. At the same time I would like to give my deepest recognition to Peter Roach.. 99 regular and upgrading courses. Dr. making it comprehensible and easy to be understood. reviewing. Maria Escalante López. and professors Ricardo Floyd P. Adrian Underhill. Michael Vaughan-Rees. J C Wells (“Longman Pronunciation Dictionary”. Scott Thornbury. as well as for being in charge of the correction. for providing us clear theory on this matter. which is going to help English Teachers in the Program of Lisenced of Foreign Languages. among others. to the seniorest of all.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii ENglISh VowElS aNd CoNSoNaNTS (REVIEw) The vowels long vowels i: a: u: : : sheep far fool horse bird  æ    Short vowels ship hat foot sock (UK) cup e    head above mother (US) worm (US) The consonants Voiced b book d g v ð z   l r j w m n ŋ day give very the zoo vision jump look run yes we moon name sing Voiceless p pen t k f  s   town cat fish think say she cheese -9- .

flu’en.z/ influenza /’lt./ croissant (UK) /’hæp. m. .spek’ten/ /.cambridge.ht .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras diphthongs e a  day eye boy a mouth  nose (UK) o  e  nose (US) ear (UK) hair (UK) pure (UK) other symbols h ~  i ţ u   /’hænd/ hand ~ /’kwæs. etc.bl/ or /’le.: r <> /’le. Source: http://dictionary./ little l.10 - .b/ linking r is pronounced only before a vowel in British English: f:r: f:ræp.ri:’tel/ /’ss.bl/ = /’le. n can be pronounced either: l or .n.tm/ expectation retell system ’ .org/help/phonetics.z four : four apples Main stress secondary stress syllable division /./ butter (US) /.ek.’i/ happy /’bţ.

/f/ /v/ . . /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ . /j/ /k/ /g/ /h/ Fricatives affricates Nasals lateral Semivowels /ŋ/ . Table 2. /q/ /ð/ . . /n/ /l/ /r/ . 2000) . /m/ . . . Vowels /i:/ Front /i/ /e/ /æ/ // // /:/ /a:/ Central Back // /u:/ // /e/ /e/ diphthongs ear air way /a/ // /a/ fly boy now high Mid low // insure /:/ // // go (Rogers.11 - . . /w/ . . .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Before we star with our course. Modern English Vowels. Table 1 Manner of articulation Stops Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Point of articulation Bilabial labiodental Interdental alveolar alveopalatal Velar /p/ /b/ . it is necessary to review the basic consonant and vowel charts. . // // // // . . .

.

epenthesis or insertion behind the connected speech. Be aware of the principal phonological processes of assimilation and elision. 5. Understand the processes of dissimilation. 3. Understand the process of neutralization and germination.UNIT I PhoNoLogICAL ProCEssEs oBjECTIVES 1. 2. 4. Have an overview about other phonological processes. . apply these rules into the exercises to understand the processes.

.

d. It is found in all languages which cause speech sounds to be modified in a way which makes them more similar to their neighbours. n/ which.sm. t. and s. [in] occurs in the most environments: before vowels.has the same place of articulation as the following consonant: We say: the nasal assimilates in place of articulation to the following consonant. b.’le. d. d. g] [ŋ] i[ŋ]conclusive i[ŋ]considerate i[ŋ]correct i[ŋ]complete i[n]convenient (bilabials) (alveolars) (velars) The nasal in the prefix in. Therefore. when they are followed by a consonant which does not have alveolar place of articulation. Let’s take a look at the English prefix {–in} [m] I[m]potent I[m]partial I[m]possible I[m]practical I[m]mature [ m ] before [ n ] before [ ŋ ] before Consider the following data: I[ n ] advisable I[ n ]animate I[ n ]ordinate i[ n ]take i[ n ]direct i[ n ]secure [n] i[n]direct i[n]dependent i[n]tolerance i[n]sufferable i[n]sufficient [p. we want to say that the underlying form of the prefix is /n/ .PhoNologICal PRoCESSES There are different kinds of processes in all languages. m] [t.n/ Colleen Richey establishes (97) that assimilation is a phonological process where a phone becomes similar to a nearby phone. s] [k. but the most relevant in English and for language teachers are: assimilation /. A well-known example is that of English alveolar consonants such as /t. Based on these data. tend to adopt the place of articulation of the following consonant.

bilabial sounds /t/ assimilates to /p/ before bilabial sounds. this is. b:l/ /p/ / . the same as the continuant alveopalatal /j/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras /n/ → → → [m] / ___ bilabial consonants [ŋ] / ___ velar consonants [n] elsewhere 1.b:l/ → ← Conditioning sound /b/ /fp. The sound that changes is called the assimilated sound or the target. ‘football’ /ft. then the phone assimilates to a preceding phone. and The /s/ is assimilated to /  / before /  / or / j / . The sound that causes the change is called the conditioning sound or trigger. and the fricative alveopalatal // is passing its characteristics to the preceding sound phoneme /s/. one segment influences another that precedes it. a. Let’s see some regressive assimilation processes: 2. This assimilation can be considered to be optional and is called regressive assimilation. A similar case is the assimilation of /s/ to a following // or /j/.b:l/ 1.16 - . It is the alteration of a speech sound to make it more similar to its neighbours. There are two kinds of assimilation Regressive assimilation. is concerned with one sound becoming phonetically similar to an adjacent sound.b:l/ .b:l/ /t/ → → /fp.1. Assimilation. Thus the /t/ at the end of the ‘foot’ /ft/ change to /p/ when followed by /b/ in the word ‘football’.1. Assimilated sound /p/ ‘football’ /ft. resulting in the pronunciation of ‘this ship’ as / ð’p/ and this year as / ð’’jr/. ‘this ship’ ‘this year’ /s/ /s/ → → /ðsp/ /ðs’jr/ / / [] → → [] / - / -j /ð’p/ /ð’’jr/. giving the pronunciation /fp. then. Two sounds that have the same place or articulation are called homorganic. When the assimilation is backward. direction of assimilation Assimilation is type of co articulation. this is.

kwest/.kwest/. as in It is also possible for t to change to p and k respectively.k (optional) -g / . ‘inquest’ / iŋ.k (obligatory) B) ‘inquest’ / /iŋ. while in others this assimilation is optional (for example: ’incautious’ may be /in’k:. m/ as in the examples: ten men downbeat /. d. In some cases it seems to be normal that the /n/ is regularly assimilated to the place of articulation of the following consonants (e.te[m] ’men/ /’da[m] bi:t/ [m] / ___m.s/ or /iŋ’k:. though a more frequent possibility is for t to be realized as glottal stop when followed by another . so that prefix and stem are easily separable. n → [ŋ] In B the assimilation is obligatory because ‘in’ is an integral part of the word “Inquest” /’iŋ. 94 4. The alveolar consonants /t. See the rules: A) ‘incautious’ can be transcribed as /in’k:. being the assimilation optional because the prefix and the stem are easily separable. the assimilation is normally treated as optional.g. In the same way d can change to b and g respectively.17 - .gaz/ [b] [g] / -p -m -g 5.red ’peint / /d ’mt / /’bæd . kwest/).s/ or /iŋ’k:. b.gaiz/ /d/ /d/ → → → → → → → → /. that means an official attempt by the court to find out the cause on someone’s death.te[n] ‘men/ /‘da[n] bi:t/ /n/ red paint admit bad guys /. the assimilation is shown as obligatory. can optionally assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonant at the beginning of the next syllable.s/. The assimilation of /n/ is a rather special case: many English words begin with the prefixes ‘in-‘ and ‘un-‘. The prefix n is an integral part of the word. n → [ŋ or n] . and in a number of cases the /n/ of these prefixes is followed by a consonant which is not alveolar. Source: Daniel Jones.reb ’peint/ /b ’mt/ /’bæg . “English Pronunciation dictionary”.s/. b (bilabials) (optional) /. n/ when they occur at the end of a word or syllable. When it seems more like an integral part of the word. Where it is clear that the prefix is attached to a word that exists independently.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. Thus /n/ can become bilabial m before the bilabials /p.

ei?biz/ (. this is rightward.p n ‘dan/ ‘hæp nz → → → [beikŋ] [. Progressive assimilation When assimilation is forward.n’lesju[ [. with a phonetic vowel between the b and n.eit biz/ → t → /. but only before  or j at the beginning of the next syllable.ðs’ep/ /.p m ‘dan] [‘hæp mz] [.ð’ep] [. Yod coalescence (or coalescent assimilation) is the process which changes t or d plus j into  or  respectively. you’re the j may disappear. eight boys /. Across word boundaries. the assimilation is to a following phone. without any phonetic  between them). In the same way s and z can change to  and  respectively.hæp m ‘sd n li] This kind of assimilation cannot apply when the following sound is a vowel. that is.n’lesju/ /.æzju‘si: / → → → → [. this shape these shoes unless you… as you see /. / ? /. alveolar consonants sometimes assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonants. . Conditioning sound → Assimilated sound Assimilation can also operate in the other direction (progressive assimilation).eip’biz) ? / .æu‘si:] B. In you.18 - . ribbon /‘rbn/ → [‘rbm] (Note that although ribbon /‘rb n/ can also be pronounced /‘ribn/. changing it to syllabic m or ŋ depending on the place of the preceding plosive. in standard accents it mainly affects phrases involving you or your. [‘hæp n ŋ] (cannot assimilate) .Consonant 6. A glottal voiceless sound produced by the closure of the vocal cords. bacon up and down happens happen suddenly happening /‘beik n/ /.ði:z’u:z/ /. then. at the end of the preceding syllable. this assimilation can operate only if the two consonants are in direct contact.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras consonant.hæp n ‘sd n li → n → m / pMore examples on assimilation 1. In English this applies only to syllabic n.ði:’u:z] [.

delicious patient. me/ Source: Logman Pronunciation dictionary. delicious d’l s came to English from Latin. and of the  in words such as religion. zj → ) explains the  in words such as pressure. the status of yod coalescence depends on whether the following vowel is strong or weak. -Where the vowel is strong . or . English does not often show elision in writing. Contraction differs from elision in that contractions are set forms that have morphologized. Elision /e’ln/ 1.get j: ‘bægz → → → . tune endure factual educate tju:n n’dj ‘f æktjul ‘edjuket → → → → tu:n in’ ‘f ækul ‘euket 3. but the sj coalesced into  several centuries ago. if used often enough. Within a word. d’l. yod coalescence can frequently be heard in Be E. a consonant. u:. producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce.get:’bægz 2. ’r. but follows certain rules. Similarly. this is called a contraction. 1. is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel. . For example.letu’at . Elision. Examples of elision in English. or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase. Sometimes.wu’tra . which differ from one language to another. such as can’t from cannot. In English. /’pre. Historically. e. yod coalescence involving fricatives ( sj → . so the possibility of assimilation does not arise. (Pleasant or harmonious sound). It is particularly characteristic of rapid or casual speech. although it is not considered standard.s.r. sounds may be elided for euphonic effect. then. In AmE there is usually no j present. but elisions are not. ’pe. a process of yod coalescence is the origin of the  used by all speakers in words such as nature. The elided form of a word or phrase may become a standard alternative for the full form. and the  in words such as measure. It is not random.2.let ju’at . Elision is the omission (= deletion) of a sound that would otherwise be present.19 - .n.wdju’tra .nt.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii let you out would you try get your bags . Russian. via French delicieux delisjo.

he’s. The opposite of elision is epenthesis /e’pent. Some types of elision typically occur within a single syllable and therefore within a word and they are represented by transcribing a second pronunciation. Latin tabula e. Thus jumped mpt may be pronounced mpt. The elision of t in st and of d in nd. less commonly /ln/. This term is most often associated with the elision of vowels between consonants. /stren/ (Note that in a word such as enjoy /n’/. Eng.1. the consonants are in different syllables and no elision is possible). ŋkt. 2.kp/. less commonly. strange stren may be /stren/ or.θss/. .20 - . Thus lunch /ln/ may be pronounced /ln/ or. less commonly. of t in nts.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras comfortable: fifth: him: laboratory: temperature: vegetable: /’kftbl/ /’ffθ/ /hm/ /læ’brtri/ /’tmprt/ /’vdtbl/ → → → → → → /’kftbl/ /’fθ/ /m/ /’læbrtri/ (American english). He has → → Spanish tabla. 2. lynx lŋks may be lŋks or.2. whereby sounds are inserted into a word to ease pronunciation /i:/. /ln/ lunch /ln/ /ln/ /estren/ strange /stren/ /stren/ 2. /’tmprt/ /’vdtbl/ A synonym for elision is syncope /sŋ. /mt/.g.g. e. /l’brtri/ (British english) /’tmpt/. lŋs. The elision of p in mps. and of k in ŋks. less commonly. In English they include.

didn’t /‘didnt/ When followed by another word in a phrase this word is sometimes pronounced /‘didn/. See the example: Camera /‘kæm r / The full form is ‘kæmr.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. - . This compressed form of mother does not occur when the word said is isolation. st. They include the elision of t and d when surrounded by other consonants. This applies both within words and between words. 3. Under these conditions t may be elided in ft. θt. ŋd.mð rn ‘fa:ðr/ by compression. this word is Pronounced /nekst/. Thus terrific t’rfk sometimes become ‘trfk. Hence mother and father becomes /. . When  is elided. 4. But in a phrase such as next thing. 3. The  of mother is now in a elision environment. But is a phrase such as stand clear. dd. which can likewise become /. with elision of the t. kt. t. vd. Mother /‘mð/ / r In Br E r is usually inserted at the end of this word when the following word begins with a vowel sound (R-liaison = non-rhothic accents. .2. The initial syllable then undergoes compression. In casual speech  is also sometimes elided in the first syllable of a word in which the second syllable is stressed and begins with a liquid.Next /nekst/ in isolation.mðr n ‘fa:ðr/. Elision of the  is often (though not always) possible when it is followed by a liquid (= l or r) and then a weak vowel. if the next syllable (or word ) starts with a consonant.21 - . this word is pronounced stænd.1. This is usually compressed to give ‘kæmr. hence the phrase can also be pronounced /. with elision of the t. gd. Additionally.mðr n ‘fa:ð/. and less commonly in pt.mð r n ‘fa:ð/. or before a vowel sound. when r is not pronounced). zd. tt. or before a vowel sound. next question it is often pronounced /neks/. md. In AmE the full form is /. in the first instance it makes the r syllabic: ‘kæm r . no matter what kind of sound follows. This has the effect of making the liquid SYLLABIC. nd and less commonly in bd. other types of elision occur only at syllable boundaries. or collide k’lad becomes klad. unless COMPRESSION also occurs (in which case all trace of the  disappears). with elision of the d. ðd. All these possibilities occur. Elision of a t or d is usually possible when it is preceded by one of certain consonants at the end of a syllable. d may be elided in d. and the elision of  before a liquid. stand firm it is often pronounced stæn. t is sometimes elided in the contracted negative-n’t. Stand /stænd/ in Isolation.

The loss of one or more sounds at the interior of a word. For many English people it would feel very artificial to pronounce t in postman ‘psmn. especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. Pronounced /‘sŋkp/. pronounced [‘wst] english gloucester. ‘fish ‘n’ chips’. heav’n for heaven. It is the loss of one or more sounds from the beginning of a word. or pli:s as the only form for police. K’pæs:t. as in ‘coon’ for ‘raccoon’ or ‘till’ for ‘until’. Some people have ‘Kæmra as the only pronunciation for camera. 5. old english hláford > english lord english worcester. mn/. 1. Forms such as “didn’t” that are written with an apostrophe are. > > > cute gyptian mend > gypsy Syncope (Medial). The elision can be: a. when a consonant is elided at the beginning of a word.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras The same applies to cases of apparent elision of  in some speakers occasional pronunciation of words such as incident ‘n. o’er for over. pronounced [‘glst] Syncope in informal speech Various sorts of colloquial reductions might be called “syncope”. aphæresis or aphesis (Initial). Sometimes a pronunciation that was originally the result of elision has become the only possibility for some speakers. postman /‘ps. where there usually seems to be a compensatory lengthening of the preceding consonant. The loss of any sound • • • 2.sdnt. capacity K’pæst. however. generally called contractions: • • • • • english go[ing t]o english wa[nt t]o english did n[o]t english do[n’t k]no[w] english I [woul]d [h]ave > > > > > gonna wanna didn’t dunno I’d’ve . Pronounced /’frss/. [k]nife pronounced /’naf/ a’cute [e]’gyptian [a]’mend b. given the effect of n’s:dnt .22 - . especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.

and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel..θe. (phonetics). governor.3. then.t. in which there is a tendency for the first r to drop out of the pronunciation resulting in enterprise governor impropriety prerogative surprise thermometer [’en. and “govenor” for governor (note this doesn’t affect the pronunciation of government. In this case the second r has dissimilated to l in order to prevent a repetition of the r and ease articulation.im. It is the loss of one or more sounds from the end of a word. n. For example. from French marbre. Source: The American Heritage® Book of English Usage. “supprise” for surprise. One historical example of dissimilation is marble. apocope (Final). “paticular” for particular. impropriety. surprise. ‘I don’t know’ postman /I duno/ /‘ps mn/. Insertion or epenthesis /ep’ent.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii c.4.tv] [s ‘praz] [θ ‘mm. 1. marbre → marble Other contemporary examples of dissimilation include enterprise.bartleby. 1. when one /r/ sound occurs before another in the middle of a word in rhotic dialects of English. especially to the interior of a word or initial position. such as n in government (‘gv.n... mnt].com/64/C007/066.dsm.ss. http://www.t] Note that other consonants besides r may be altered or omitted as a result of dissimilation.html Dissimilation. prerogative.n/ Dissimilation is a phonological process that involves one of two similar or identical sounds within a word becoming less like the other or even disappearing entirely. in’s:n/ The epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds to a word. and thermometer. they frequently dissimilate.p-‘pra.praz] [’gv. Pronounced /’pkpi/. the first tends to drop out. which has only one /r/). is a phenomenon whereby similar consonant or vowel sounds in a word becomes less similar. .t] [p-‘rg. dissimilation /. as in “beserk” for berserk. Because r’s in successive syllables are particularly difficult to pronounce.r] [.23 - .’le. Copyright © 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

1. This can be seen in the pair pin /pn/ and bin /bn/. phrase. di’e. leap /li:p/ and lip /lp/.re.2.em. Similarly.n/ N (Noun) Doubling. babies /‘bebiz/. that after /s/ the opposition is neutralized (since p here has no ASPIRATION). cup /kp/ and cub /kb/. not be distinguishable. for rhetorical effect. usually to satisfy the phonological constraints of a language or poetic context.24 - .5. Neutralization /. but since there is no possible difference between /p/ and /b/ here we could just as well write /sbn/. use something intermediate or indeterminate. repetition.5.n/ Two phonemes (= sounds whose difference has the power of distinguishing words) may. 1. some use i: some.let/ (also ‘stIm.i/. duplication.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras It is also defined as the insertion of a phoneme. The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (LPD) symbol i (a short vowel) reflects this. gemination /. the immediate repetition of a word. j.i/ valley /’væl. in certain phonetic environments. or syllable into a word. Phonetics.6. for example in one pronunciation of stimulate /’stm.’ne. glorious. Note.a’ze. . and some use fluctuate between the two possibilities. But there are two environments in which it is neutralized: • When the vowel is in a WEAK syllable at the end of a word ( or at the end of part of a compound word of the stem) as in happy /’hæp. as in radiation. When the vowel is in a weak syllable before another vowel. • In these positions the traditional Received Pronunciation (Standard English) form is  (a short vowel). The opposition between i: and  operates in most environments. let). I speak english He is a estudent /a es’pi:k iŋgl/ /hi:z  es’tjudnt/ 1. This neutralization is also found in certain other weak syllables. letter. ju. The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary LPD symbol /u/ represents the neutralization of the opposition between u: and . Rhetoric. 1. /. however.1.5. In most environments English /p/ and /b/ are in opposition. they carry a potential difference in meaning.n/. that is..nju:trl.ri. as seen in green /gri:n/ and grin /grn/.s/. One type of neutralization is symbolized explicitly in Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (LPD) by the use of symbols i and u.We conventionally write spin /spn/ phonemically as spn . etc. the doubling of a consonantal sound. We call this neutralization. /’gl:. But in fact some speakers use .

aphæresis: deletion of first segment(s) of a word (initial).2. apocope: deletion of last segment(s) of a word (final). Conditions: 1) Syllables are both medial.b:l/. Insertion (epenthesis) /in’s:n. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to one single consonant. /. It could be: 2. haplology /hæp’ll. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound. Sounds becoming more alike. Example: breakfast – Breakfast. A segment.1. manner or place.sm. It is the omission of a segment. (medial) 2. and 2) The structure of the two syllables is similar. Example: /fp. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie. degemination /demi’ne n/. Neutralization /nutr’lasen/. Examples English (colloquial): • • • • Engla land particularly pierced-ear earrings probably > > > > England particuly pierced earrings probly 6. 4. gemination /emi’ne n/. assimilation /. These can be voicing. 2. Inserting segment(s) into a word: example: [straik[ --[estraik].n/. . It is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur.ss/. as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a single /m/. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this case before /r/. vowel or consonant.25 - . 3.3. 7.θe. 5. 2. the /s/ would be shorter). Elision /e’ln/. Example: around – round. . becomes double long like the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. The phenomenon was identified by American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20th century.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Summary of important phonological processes in English: 1. Syncope: deletion of segment(s) from the middle of a word or end of the syllable: suppose -.’le.sppose. ep’ent.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 8. denasalization /dnezla’zen/. miss you -. 15. 11. they usually become africates. ask as /’æks/. Palatalization /pæltla’zen/. 10. Consonant harmony /’ksnænt ’ha:mn/. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization of the vowel /a/ in ‘pond’. Vowel reduction /’valwl r ‘dk n/. is moved closer to the palat. when you spirantize a [b] in english you often get [v]. devoicing /d’vsŋ/.fote. Segment becomes like another usually adjacent segment.asa.[mejciv] where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’.mishu or ‘make Eve -.dut. have to -. Some other frequent English pronunciations that display metathesis are: /’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English) /’æstrks/ for asterisk /’kmftrbl/ for comfortable /ntr’dju’s/ for introduce /’ntrgl/ for integral /rvlnt/ for relevant 12. Metathesis /met’æθss/.26 - . Nasalization /nezla’zen/. Example: nut -. in voicing. A voiced segment becomes voiceless. usually between vowels.[ada]. 16. nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered. example ata -. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English. Note though that place might also change. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated by printing a tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized equivalent of [a]. Stops become fricatives. Usually nothing else changes as in ‘vote -. A sound. vowel harmony: Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel. One consonant becomes more like another: often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog. . Removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment leaves you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. usually before a /j/ glide but often before a high front vowel. Imagine talking with a stuffy nose. Voicing assimilation /‘vsŋ asimi’le n/. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or similar short lax vowel. In phonetics. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized. and [ ~] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. 14. Spirantization /sparnt’zen/ /n/. 13. It is responsible for the most common types of speech errors. so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth. 9. Example ‘ata’ -. The nasals consonants can v nasalize the vowels. such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti.hafta. Only the manner changes here.

Addison Wesley Longman Limited.wikipedia. Headway intermedial pronunciation. Sorry. C.speech-language-therapy. Cambridge University Press. Anne C.edu/departments/english/courses/eng718/phonprocesses. Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Editor.htm http://en.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into. They went to the fupbol 4. He waited till 7 o’clock 3.personal.rdg. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.edu/users/m/a/mam1034/csd300.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Observe the excercises and the processes in the each one: 1. Oxford.personal.html http://www.org/wiki/Dissimilation http://www.phonologicalprocesses. (1997) Underhill. a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Adrian (1994) (1995) (1991) (1993) Cambridge University Press Cunninghan. It is the same to say happi: or happ Insertion Elision Assimilation Metathesis Neutralization BIBlIogRaPhY Wells. Bill http://www. International Cambridge dictionary of english.wikipedia. CUP.27 - . (1997) Jones Daniels (1997) English Pronunciation Dictionary. J. American light verse: A contemporary selection.bgsu.htm . Pronunciation dictionary. Sound foundations. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Essex. Newton.org/wiki/Elision http://en. Heineman English Language Teaching.com/Table3.html http://www.ac. Oxford University Press. it is asks not aks 5. Oxford. English teaching forum. He estudies english 2. Number 4. Volumen XV.psu. Sarah and Bowler.

Why is it important in language learning? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5. How many kinds of assimilation do we have? Give an example. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. i[n]sufferable and i[ŋ]complete.28 - . Consider the following examples i[m]practical.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras aCTIVITY 1. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Mention kinds of elision. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Explain the phonological process of elision. Give some examples. Mention some phonological processes and give examples. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 6.. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ . Give the rule for the assimilation process of the English prefix in.

__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 8.29 - . ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 13. What do you understand by neutralization? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 9. Explain the yod coalescence as a process. Explain the process of dissimilation. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 10. What do you understand by neutralization? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 11. Why is it important in language learning? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 12.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 7. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English.

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2. 3. Be aware of the importance of word stress and sentence stress. Recognize the difference among word stress. worD sTrEss.UNIT II sTrEss. 5. Get familiar with rules of word stress in English. Recognize types of stress. sTrEssED syLLAbLE. . syllable stress and sentence stress. 4. sENTENCE sTrEss AND ENgLIsh rhyThm oBjECTIVES 1. Point out the importance of sentence stress and English rhythm.

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it involves greater pressure from the lungs than unstressed syllables).htm 2. secondary ( . For example. this is the movement of stress in a word from one position to another changes the meaning of the word. it is lexical rather than prosodic). and non-stressed syllables are shortened to accommodate this. However. using boldface to represent stressed syllables. Examples of stress in English words. admiration.STRESS. (a) Stress-timed language (Rhythm). and weaker. etc. confidential. English is a stress-timed language. as most phoneticians argue.1. Ordinarily. Types of stress Traditional approaches describe English as having three degrees of stress: Primary ( ’ ). SENTENCE STRESS aNd ENglISh RhYThM 2. See the example. grammatical words (auxiliary verbs. Taken from http://members. woRd STRESS. prepositions. as well as being longer and having a higher pitch.t/ and dessert /d. verbs.) do not receive stress. stressed syllables appear at a roughly steady tempo (approximately fixed tempo). are holiday. then these traditional approaches combines two distinct processes: . and is inherent in the word rather than the sentence (that is.:d/ and the verb to record /r’k:d/.2.tripod. They also tend to have a fuller realization than unstressed syllables. Word Stress is phonemic in English. the words desert /’dez. and adverbs) must have at least one stressed syllable. alone. if stress is defined as relative respiratory force (that is. That is. degree. STRESSEd SYllaBlE.’z:t/ are distinguished by stress. adjectives. pronouns. Stressed syllables in English are louder than non-stressed syllables. whereas content or lexical words (nouns. as are the noun a record /’rek. ) and unstressed.com/chifenchen/rhythm.

(Phonetically. encounter two problems: 1. Every word is made from syllables.3. whereas secondary stress is simple stress in some positions.mis‘sp When a stressed syllable contains a pure vowel (rather than a diphthong). vowel reduction may occur when a vowel changes from a stressed to an unstressed position. Word stress is so natural for them that they do not even know they use it. /’hl. word stress in English The word Stress in English is the magic key to understanding spoken English. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them. 2. there is a three-way phonemic distinction: Either three degrees of stress. Non-native speakers. unstressed. To understand word stress helps to understand what syllable is.. especially those speaking fast. Each word has one. the vowel in weak is also a diphthong.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras a) Stress on the one hand. such as Russian and English. Practice 1 Degrees of stress words Janet Elephant Jemina Mississipi Sentence pattern Stressed and unstressed syllable janet Elephant JeMina MissiSSipi Reduced syllable ■∙∙ ∙■∙ . followed by a single consonant and then another vowel. However. and an unstressed but not reduced vowel in others. speakers agree that the consonant belongs to the following syllable: /’ædm’ren/. who speak English to native speakers without using word stress. and reduced. three or more syllables. In languages. when the stressed vowel is a diphthong. In English. or else stressed. They find it difficult to understand native speakers. many unstressed vowels reduce to schwa-like vowels. . In this case.∙∙■∙ ∎∙ (The unstressed syllable changes to schwa) ‘ænt / ‘ænt ‘elfnt / ‘elfnt ‘mana / ‘mana/ . two.) 2. though the details vary with dialect.de/.mis‘sp / . as in admiration or weaker. and b) vowel reduction on the other. primary stress is actually prosodic stress. many native speakers feel that the consonant belongs to the preceding stressed syllable. Unit 2. [ij].34 - . Either way. as in holiday. Native speakers of English use word stress naturally.

pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis. Importance of word stress Word stress is not used in all languages.rɪ. tɪk un-ex-cep-tion-al /. or u) or vowel sound.l/ number of syllables 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a. English for example.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii word dog green quite quiet orange table expensive dog /dɒg/ green /gri:n/ quite /kwáɪt/ qui-et /’kwaɪ. ‘spen. tɪŋ/ (3 in fast speech) realistic unexceptional re-a-lis-tic . Other languages. i. ʌn. use word stress. e.sɪv/ in-ter-est-ing interesting /‘ɪn. ət/ or-ange /’or. o.’sep. 2.4. a. ʃən. ɪk. Some languages. Japanese or French for example. bəl/ ex-pen-sive /ek.35 - . .tres. ɪnʤ ta-ble /teɪ. ‘lɪs.

Jemina 4... with word stress you will know immediately which word it is because in reality you will hear either Photo. In fact. It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and accurately.. elephant 5. without thinking about it. Let’s take 3 words: photograph. And it is not always the same syllable. Amazon 7. Rules of word stress in English In English. we say one syllable very loudly (big. you do not hear a word clearly.5. you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words. Now imagine that you are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. Carpenter 8.graph or phoTo. we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength in one word. Practice 2 Stress pattern 1. photograph or photographer? Of course. So the shape of each word is different. Morocco 6..grapher). Think again about the two words photograph and photographer.36 - . You cannot hear clearly.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want... It’s magic! (Of course. Anthony 3. many other examples. because we use word stress all the time.. Example: Decide which stress pattern do the words belong to and write it in the space? Unit 2. If. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. photographer and photographic. for example. photo. important) and all the other syllables remain very quietly.) This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. you probably know what the word is ( Photo. happiness ■∙∙ ∙■∙ ∙∙■ 2. So without hearing the whole word.. Which word is it. even in difficult conditions. you can still understand the word because of the position of the stress. or phoTo. There are many. strong. .. you also have the ‘context’ of your conversation to help you. Manchester 2.. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. We accentuate ONE syllable. this is.

Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English .the rules are rather complicated! Probably the best way to learn is from experience. you can look in a dictionary. you can USE it! There are two very important rules about word stress: 1. JaPAN. There are some rules about which syllable to stress. deMAND. one word. CHINa. you have heard two words. one stress. usually with an apostrophe (‘) just before or just after the stressed syllable.) Look at this example for the word plastic.on the radio or in films for example. Listen carefully to spoken English and try to develop a feeling for the “music” of the language.. (One word cannot have two stresses. When you learn a new word. Native speakers of English listen carefully for the STRESSED syllables. but not the weak syllables. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. Syllable #1 is stressed. If you do not know.37 - .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Shape Pho To gRaPh Total syllables 3 Stressed syllable #1 Pho To gRaPh ER 4 #2 Pho To gRaPh IC 4 #3 This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer. There are 2 syllables. After that. make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you keep a vocabulary book. The stress is always on a vowel. aBOVE. If you use word stress in your speech. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. INteresting. not one word). So if you hear two stresses. imPORtant. Which one is correct? . The syllables that are not stressed are weak or small or quiet. (The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used. This is where they show which syllable is stressed. But. converSAtion. etCETera.. you should also learn its stress pattern. 2. you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension.

Stress on first syllable Rule Most 2-syllable nouns Most 2-syllable adjectives Example PRESent. It is true that there can be a “secondary” stress in some words.38 - . HAPpy /’plæs tik/ There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress. Table PRESent.com). But if we stress the second syllable. More examples: the words export. because there are many exceptions. EXport. . Here are some more. 2. for example is a two-syllable word. it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent). rules that can help you understand where to put the stress.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Example Phonetic spelling: dictionary a Phonetic spelling: dictionary B PLAS TIC /plæs’tik/ There are two very simple rules about word stress: 1.englishclubtip. you hear two words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress. If you hear two stresses. (One word cannot have two stresses. we can only stress vowels. Rule 1. and is only used in long words). it becomes a verb (to offer). But do not rely on them too much. not consonants. SLENder. rather complicated. It is better to try to “feel” the music of the language and to add the stress naturally. The word present. CHIna. Two stresses cannot be one word. If we stress the first syllable. contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable (www. import. CLEVer. one word has only one stress.

contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable (www. ruler. Stress in the first syllable ‘Abstract (Adjevtive) ‘conduct (Noun) Stress in the second syllable abs’tract (Noun) con’duct (verb) .com). Stress on last syllable Rule Most 2-syllable verbs Example To preSENT. lotion. lemon. early and stormy.39 - . Rule 2. slowly. rapid. Phonemic stress. silly. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable) Word stress. for example is a two-syllable word. heavy. relax destroy depend intent collect Rule 3. There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress. Practice 3 Pronounce the words and provide the stress appropriately. But if we stress the second syllable. pencil. produce invite assist repair suggest skate research survive return prefer Unit 2. The word present. to decide. tiger. mirror and disco. bony. Practice 5 Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress.englishclubtip. Quickly. Import.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2. to beGIN Unit 2. If we stress the first syllable. to exPORT. More examples: the words export. Read the words and pronounce them correctly providing the appropriate stress. object. it becomes a verb (to offer). import. it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent).

Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end) Rule Words ending in –ic Words ending in –sion and –tion Example GRAPHic. Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end) -sion admission passion tension permission adquisition -tion action promotion simulation deduction relation .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras ‘contract (noun) ‘contrast (noun) ‘desert (noun) ‘import (noun) con’tract (verb) con’trast (verb) de’ssert (noun) im’port (verb) Rule 4. revelation Unit 2. geoLOGic aTTENtion. geoGRAPHic. Practice 6 Pronounce the words correctly and provide the right stress in A and B: (penultimate = second from end) a. Ending in ic autographic authentic automatic barbaric boracic autodidactic autistic axiomatic basic boric acrylic rhythmic rubric rustic prosodic B.40 - .

Practice 7 A) Pronounce the words ending in –cy correctly and provide the appropriate stress Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) adequacy aristocracy consistency constancy competency agency autocracy consonancy consultancy conveniency absorbency adequacy agency ascendancy bureaucracy accountancy advertency aristocracy autocracy clemency B) Pronounce the words ending in –ty correctly and provide the appropriate stress. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) .com). Another example is CONtroversy and controversy (www. -ty. -phy and –gy Words ending in –al Example deMOcracy. For example.41 - . Rule 5. geOLogy CRItical.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Important note For a few words. photography. dependaBIlity. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) Rule Words ending in –cy. some people say teleVIsiom and others say TELevison. geoLOGical Unit 2. native English speakers don’t always ‘agree’ on where to put the stress. englishclubtip.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras ability abnormality absorbability absurdity audacity austerity automaticity barbarity bellicosity benignity bestiality biodiversity bioelectricity biosafety bisexuality brutality calamity capability carnality catholicity C) Pronounce the words ending in –phy correctly and provide the adequate stress. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) allergy anthology astrology biotechnology chronology analogy apology astrobiology cardiology climatology genealogy histology hydrology ideology immunology laryngology lexicology monology morphology musicology . Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) autography biography cardiography cosmography encephalography bibliography calligraphy chronography crystallography historiography geography filmography ethnography idiography mammography mythography oscillography petrography philosophy radiography d) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy correctly and provide the adequate stress.42 - .

blackboard saucepan saleswork iceland bedroom bathroom wallpaper bathtub housework grasshopper boyfriend seafood undercut diningtable blue-green hwatermelon highlight fishtank tumbledown underworld witchcraft B) For compound adjectives. Compound words (words with two parts) Rule Example a) For compound nouns. the stress is BLACKbird. old-FASHioned is on the second part c) For compound verbs. Practice 8 A) For compound nouns. the stress is on the second part: bad TEMpered.43 - . the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird. GREENhouse on the first part b) For compound adjectives. Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress. to overflow on the second part Unit 2. the stress is to understand. . the stress bad-TEMpered.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii E) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) abdominal aboriginal philosophical acquisitional additional aesthetical aeronautical agrichemical agricultural alphabetical analytical compositional computational epidemiological noninflectional nonmarital psychological professional monolitical nonpractical Rule 6.

Michael Vaughan. to overflow.Reeds . Practice 9 Now read the 4-syllable words and write them on the appropriate space Stress pattern 1. turn back (return) take charge (of) (assume responsibility) look over (review) Bring back (return) Call back (telephone again) talk back (to) (answer rudely) write down (make notes) talk over (discuss): highlighted Keep around (Keep something near you) Keep down (Do not vomit) Kick around (Discuss) Kick down (Break something with your feet) let down (Disappoint) lock down (Make something very secure) Unit 2. Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress. long-legged three-headed flowered-dress masked man six-sided long-handled green-eyed staff-necked baby-faced short-tempered thin-skinned smooth-tongue broken-hearted light-footed long-winded tight-fisted sure-footed high-heeled freckle-faced stone-faced kind-hearted C) For compound verbs.44 - . Afghanistan 3. Mississipi ∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙ Taken from “Rhymes Rhythm. Wolverhampton 5. Rhinoceros 6. the stress is on the second part: to understand. Alexander 4. Felicity 2.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.

Speakers choose to accent certain words (or to de-accent others) because of the particular meaning they wish to convey in a particular situation. etc. long Before a voiceless consonant Seat Shoot Bet Make Rip longer Before a voiced consonant word end. journa’lese). So stressed syllables in English are usually held longer than unstressed syllables.. d) Do not stress the negative prefix attached to an adjective (‘possible. a’rithmetic. There is usually one that has particularly strong stress. [ l ] –cial/-tial. ‘politics. ‘-ically’. ‘lunatic. Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or make it completely unrecognisable. e. i’lliterate) except: ‘nowhere. and ‘rhetoric (but adjectives: arith’metic. They may also be louder and higher in pitch. seed shoe bed made rib An accent is the placement of intonation pitch-prominence (= higher or lower pitch than the surroundings) on a word. the syllables do not all have equal stress.45 - . and you hang on to the syllable considerably longer than on the other syllables of that word. [ s ] –cious/ -tions. c) Words ending in ‘-ese’ have the stress on this syllable (Chinése. This means that on this syllable your voice is louder and usually pitched higher. . rhe’torical). Although all stressed vowels are long.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 2. ‘literate. Summing up the rules a) Always stress the syllable before one that’s pronounced [n] –ssion/ -tion. nonsense. artificial. the stress is on the syllable before ‘-ic’. g. po’litical. spacious. and ‘nobody. im’possible. Syllable Stress In words of more than one syllable. Accents can fall only on stressed syllables. ‘nothing. Thus to accent the word collapse k’læps the pitchprominence goes on the syllables læps. but on tumble ‘tʌmbl on the syllable tʌm. ‘heretic. attention. except ‘Árabic. he’retical. ‘-ical’.6. b) In words ending ‘-ic’. stressed vowels at the end of a word or before a voiced consonant are held somewhat longer than vowels before voiceless consonants.

B.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras PRaCTICE A. higher and longer than the unstressed ones. a) Completion efficient invasion financial advantageous vivacious. d) Chinese Japanese Portuguese Cantonese Balinese Viernese. Practise shifting the stress photograph photographer photographic politics political politician competing competitor competition analyse analysis analytical C. b) Photogenic scientific materialistic geographical musical technical. Make the stressed syllable louder. pho’tography / ‘institute / ca’reer / de’velop / ‘photographs / ‘technical / photo’graphic / possi’bility / compe’tition / ‘amateurs / poli’tician / dis’tinguished / po’litical / com’petitive / ‘politics . c) psychology/psychologist meteorology/meteorologist ideology/ideologist. Exaggerate the stressing as much as you can .e. e) Organised/disorganised complete/incomplete attractive/unattractive legal/illegal where/nowhere sense/nonsense.46 - . Where are the stresses? Photography Institute Career develop photographs technical photographic possibility competition amateurs politician distinguished political competitive politics answers: C. Practise the words.i.

He believes I could make a career as a photographer. Well.7. In general. especially when spoken fast. you’re not a technician! And photographic materials are very expensive. sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English. All the competitors are amateurs. From a speaking perspective. Mr McKenzie thinks there’s a possibility I might win the Observer competition. Jeremy? I’m going to take up photography. Mr McKenzie’s recommended the course at the Institute. Diana. You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. in any given English utterance there will be particular words that carry more “weight” or “volume” (stress) than others. Jeremy. You’ll have to develop your own photographs. I shall become the most distinguished woman on the political scene! I thought you hated competing! Don’t tell me politics isn’t competitive! Jeremy: Diana: Jeremy: 2. In terms of listening. sentence stress will affect the degree to which an ESL student sounds “natural”.47 - . Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence. Sentence Stress Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. like myself. I never agree with the decision of the judges! I’m going to be a politician. That requires technical skill. . I sent in four entries. it affects how well a student can understand the utterances they hear. Like word stress. I detest competitions. Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or “beat”.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dialogue: Photography or politics? Diana: Jeremy: Diana: What have you decided to do after college.

it On. any But.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras what is the difference between “word stress” and “sentence stress”? Whereas sentence stress refers to the process whereby particular words are stressed within an overall sentence. big. dance. loudly. have. Most sentences have two types of word: • Content words – stressed Content words Main verbs Nouns Adjectives Adverbs Negative aux. music. red. who. and. Can. give. sentence stress is more of a consideration for overall fluency . doesn’t. BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that exHIBit ABstract MEANings in their photoGRAPHic STRUCture. some. a. book. they. because. don’t. talk. big. writing. should. where. In general. an. which. you. employ student. What Grammatical words. interesting quickly. am For example: I am speaking to the young workers. he . sell. slowly. do Is. always. aren’t.word stress tends to have more of a phonological and morphemic importance I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher whose MAIN INterest is to TAKE SPEcial. she. that. so. Word stress refers to the process whereby particular syllables (or parts of words) are stressed within and overall word. clever. under. We. can. studious. rarely can’t. car. with. desk. was. must.48 - . verbs Demonstratives Question marks • go. never. how. across The. these. . didn’t this. those.unstressed Pronouns Prepositions Articles Conjunctions Auxiliary verbs Verb to be I. behind.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii

You’re listening to the music, but you aren’t concentrated in the topic. He is speaking quickly, so it is difficult for him to understand him. Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense. grammatical words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form or “structure”. If you remove the grammatical words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the sentence. If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not understand the sentence. The sentence has no sense or meaning. Imagine that you receive this telegram message: Will you SELL Me CAR because I’m GONE to FRANCE

This sentence is not complete. It is not a “grammatically correct” sentence. But you probably understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car for them because they have gone to France. We can add a few words: Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE

The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically correct sentence. But the information is basically the same: Content Words Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE. Grammatical Words In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed. Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important because it adds “music” to the language. It is the rhythm of the English language. It changes the speed at which we speak (and listen to) the language. The time between each stressed word is the same. In our sentence, there is 1 syllable between SELL and CAR and 3 syllables between CAR and GONE. But the time (t) between SELL and CAR and between CAR and GONE is the

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Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

same. We maintain a constant beat on the stressed words. To do this, we say “my” more slowly, and “because I’ve” more quickly. We change the speed of the small structure words so that the rhythm of the key content words stays the same. Syllables 2 will t1 you SEll beat __________ 1 my _____ t1 CaR beat 3 because t1 I’ve goNE beat _____________ 1 to ___ t1 FRaNCE. beat

Rules for Sentence Stress in English The basic rules of sentence stress are: 1. Content words are stressed 2. grammatical words are unstressed 3. The time between stressed words is always the same

Exceptions
The above rules are for what is called “neutral” or normal stress. But sometimes we can stress a word that would normally be only a grammatical word, for example to correct information. Look at the following dialogue: “They’ve been to Mongolia, haven’t they?” “No, ThEY haven’t, but wE have. Note also that when “be” is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed (even though in this case it is a content word).

Special STaIR Exercises
S.T.A. I. R stands for: • • • • • S tress T iming a rticulation I ntonation R hythm

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fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii

These are the 5 essential components of good English pronunciation. Make sure people can understand your English by using the interactive S.T.A.I.R exercises in Pronunciation Power.

Sentence Stress Practice Unit 2. Practice 10
Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.

These are the
One 1. 2. 3.

house that
Two

Jaqueline
Three

built
Four

This is the

house that

Jack Jack Jaqueline mother Peter met in the saw on the drove to the Peter and rest of the lively get there in

built built built
designed repaired

These are the houses that These are the houses that house that my bicycle person I gardener who taller than
amazingly

4. This is the 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

This is the That is the That is the Andrew is What an How can we

Those are the people we Those are the people we

park stairs
party

works for my mother Thomas family
production

10. 11. 12. 13.

Tom’s not as tall as the possibily
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time

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

B. Repeat the sentences loudly 1. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2. I want to take a photography class? 3. China is the place where I was born. 4. Please, turn off the television before you go out. 5. I can’t decide which book to borrow. 6. Do you understand this lesson’ 7. Sparky is a very happy puppy. 8. It is critical that you finish your essay. 9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat. 10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.

2.8. Sentence rhythm
Sentence rhythm is a natural part of language development. Most children master the intonation patterns and rhythms of language before they master the words. Because the patterns and rhythms of our native language are so deeply ingrained, the best way to review writing is to read it out loud. Any lapses in meaning or coherence can then be seen easily. It is important to remember that an English sentence will have a certain number of beats. Stressed (content words always take up an entire ‘beat’, while unstressed grammatical words fall between the beats. The time between beats is always the same. For this reason grammatical words are often spoken faster and with less volume. They are literally being squeezed into the gap between regular stressed beats. In the examples below, all the grammatical words (or groups of grammatical words) take the same amount of time to pronounce the number of sounds or syllables they include. Doing simple rhythmic clap or thump in time to the spoken sentence demonstrate how this happens. Rhythm is timing patterns among syllables. There are basically two types of sentence rhythm in languages: A) “Stress-timed rhythm” and B) “syllables-timed rhythm”. English has “stress-times rhythm and Spanish, a syllable-time rhythm. Stress-time rhythm has an alternation of stressed and unstressed. Important Note: Negative words and negative “to-be, “to have”, and auxiliary verbs need to be stressed: (e.g., no, never, isn’t, haven’t, can’t, don’t, won’t).

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3. 3. 2. . Practice 11 Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug. After the movie. 9. longer. 1. and high-pitched. John is coming over tonight. See the examples: I am talking to the clever students Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future. clearer. he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern. they went to a bar to have beer. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess? 8. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment. Shakespeare wrote passionate. 5. Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 1. We are going to work on our homework together.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2.53 - . 2. john wants to be an actor. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back roads of France. moving poetry. so he wants to live in hollywood. jack bought a new car last Friday. 6. 4. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday. 7. 4. Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. 10. As you might have expected. Unit 2. Practice 12 Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder.

English pronunciation focuses on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other. 3. 4. 4. such as French or Italian. (can. 8. weren’t) (are. 6. Learn the following rules concerning pronunciation. I want to take a photography class? 3. 1. Please turn off the television before you go out. 9. 7. Repeat the sentences loudly 1. I ______ understand your story. 4.54 - . here’s how we can improve our pronunciation: 1. can’t) (were. (Remember if you hear the “to-be” or auxiliary verb is stressed. 2. 5. . It is critical that you finish your essay. 10 There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. then the sentence is negative). English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered syllabic. Do you understand this lesson’. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2. each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress. 13. Sparky is a very happy puppy. In other languages. aren’t) (were. They ________ doing the homework. Practice 13 Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. can’t) (can. 6. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. weren’t) 13. a. 3. Tom _______ come to the party tonight. but each syllable has its own length). non-stressed. My Grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.B. 2. 5.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. China is the place where I was born. can’t) (can. We _______ told to do that. I can’t decide which book to borrow. They _______ hear the speaker. words.

were .g. Notice that the first sentence actually takes about the same time to speak well! 10. visit. she 7. Focus on the stressed words in each sentence. but. kitchen. 13.Adverbs e.g. focus on how those speakers stress certain words and begin to copy this. then read aloud focusing on stressing the underlined words and gliding over the non-stressed words.g.g.55 - . Non-stressed words are considered function words: Determiners e.g. .Prepositions e. 2. 14. Read the following sentence aloud: He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn’t have to do any homework in the evening. First underline the stressed words. Read the following sentence aloud: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. construct . 11. This is because there are 5 stressed words in each sentence. Write down a few sentences. 9. and .Pronouns e. Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often “swallowed” in English.Adjectives e.g. the sentences take the same time to speak. a . Be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves! By focusing on stressed words. non-stressed words can be glided over. 8. beautiful. they. 12. the. often.g. am. Stressed words are considered content words: Nouns e. When listening to native speakers. before.Conjunctions e. non-stressed words and syllables take on their more muted nature.Auxiliary verbs e. carefully 6. 3. or take a few example sentences from a book or exercise. of . Peter .g. Don’t focus on pronouncing each word.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 5. interesting .g. Always focus on pronouncing stressed words well. Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first. Tips: 1.(most) principle verbs e.

London: Edward Arnold. Speech sounds. London: Routledge. (1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English phonetics and phonology.D.co. Gimson’s pronunciation of english. Cambridge University Press. Cruttenden (2001) (2003) (1980) P. Wells (2000) P.htm http://www. O’Connor http://www.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1. Practical phonetics and phonology.htm .com/pronunciation/word-stress-rules.bbc.C.com/Table3. Second edition.pdf http://downloads. M. Third edition. Wells (2006) P.56 - . Cambridge University Press. Roach (2000) (2006) J. Sixth edition.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/ http://downloads. Cambridge University Press. Second edition.speech-language-therapy.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1. Cambridge University Press. English pronouncing dictionary. London: Routledge.) B.bbc. Number 4. Seventeenth edition. Newton. Better english pronunciation. J.mp3 http://www. Mees J. J. Hartman and J.co. Editor.co. Longman pronunciation dictionary.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras BIBlIogRaPhY Anne C. Collins and I.bbc. Roach. a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates.C. Longman. Volumen XV. Ashby (2005) A. English intonation: an introduction. Setter (ed.englishclub. English teaching forum.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii aCTIVITY 1. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . Indicate the traditional types of stress and the three degrees of stress. Why is word stress so important? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What are the simple rules for word stress? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Why is word stress phonemic? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.57 - . _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Where are most 2-syllable nouns stressed? Give examples. What are the problems non-native speakers face when they speak to native speakers? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 7. Where are most 2-syllable verbs stressed? Give examples. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Give examples of lexical entries where the stress is phonemic. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 8. What is the difference between word stress and sentence stress? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ o .58 - . What are the basic rules for sentence stress? Give examples.

3. Learn how r is pronounced in isolation and in connected speech. Understand the importance of elision process in connected speech. 7. . Understand how double consonants are pronounced in connected speech.UNIT III CoNNECTED sPEECh oBjECTIVES 1. 8. 2. 4. Understand how stress changes in connected speech. Be aware of the different processes that take place in connected speech in spoken language. Recognize compound words and how they are stressed. Understand how /t/ can be pronounced as a voiced sound /d/ in connected speech. 5. Get familiar with different changes as a result of assimilation. 6.

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its pronunciation may sometimes be different from the pronunciation used when it is said in isolation. T-voicing 3. Weak forms 3. 3.6. Let see some of this common assimilations. Compounds and phrases 3.4.2.1.1. Stress shift 3.3. Example: in English. Word linking 3.5. When assimilation takes place between two vowels it is more commonly referred to as vowel harmony (agreement among vowels in successive syllables in respect of one or more feautures: bathtub → battered in a child). assimilation It is a process in which one or more segments become adapted in one or more aspects to a neighbouring segment. Elision 3. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p / / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p / / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p / . the alveolar nasal of the prefix /in-/ changes to [l] in illegal (complete convergence) and to [m] in input (partial convergence).9. Some of the characteristics of the phonetics of connected speech are discussed in this unit.7. Double consonant letters 3.CoNNECTEd SPEECh When a word occurs in a phrase or sentence. In the latter case the change is from alveolar to labial under influence of the neighbouring labial segment [p].8. Double consonant sounds 3. R liaison 3.10. Sounds tend to change as a result of assimilation. Assimilation 3.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/ / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g / / n / changes to / ŋ / before / k / or / g / / s / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / / z / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / /θ/ changes to / s / before / s / 1.62 - . / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p / /t/→/p/ / -m / / -b / / -p / basket maker best man cat burglar cigarette paper circuit borrad coconut butter court martial direct method dust bowl fast motion first base flight plan foot brake front bench front man fruit machine Great Britain mixed bag mixed blessing mixed marriage mixed metaphor pocket money post mortem pot plant private property put back put by right pair secret police set point set back set piece sheet metal sit back .

63 - .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 2. / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p / /d/→/b/ / -m / / -b / / -p / bad pain blood bank blood bath blood brother blood poisoning blood pressure blood pudding broad bean card punch closed book command module command post custard pie custard powder dead beat food poisoning food processor gold plate gold medal gold mine good man good cook good morning grand master ground plan head boy hold back lord mayor mud bath mud pie old bailey old boy old man old maid old moon oxford blue red bag second mate sound barrier stand by united party word blindness .

64 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 3. / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p / /n/→/m/ / -m / / -b / / -p / action planning american plan brown paper brown bear chicken breast common market cold man cotton belt cotton picker down payment fan belt fan mail foreign minister foreign mission garden party green belt green bean hen party human being in blue iron man on me one pair open book open market open prison pen pal pin money queen bee queen mother question mark roman mile sun bath sun blind tin plate town planning venetian blind virgen birth wine box wine bar .

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/ /t/→/k/ / -k / / -g / cigarette card credit card cut glass fat girl first class flan cap 5. / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g / /d/→/g/ / -k / / -g / bad girl bird call closed game cold call cold cream field glasses good cook grand canyon ground control ground cover had come had gone hard cash hard copy hard core hard court highland cattle red carpet sand castle second class second comino second cousin slide guitar short cut smart card street credibility street cry that cake .65 - .

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. / z / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound /z/→// / - o / u / / -j o / u / cheese shop Rose show these sheep where’s tours? 9.power/assimilation.com/~ted. / n / changes to /ŋ/ before / k / or / g /n/→/ŋ/ / -k / / -g / action group common good common ground garden cress golden gate golden goose human capital in camera iron curtain open court roman calendar roman candle roman catholic tin can tone control town clero town crier 7.66 - . / θ / changes to / s / before / s / / θ / → / s / / / -s / bath salts bath seat birth certificate both sexes both sides earth science fifth set fourth season fourth summer north-south divide Source: http://www. / s / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound /s/→// / - o / u / / -j o / u / bus shelter dress shop nice shoes nice yacht space shuttle 8.html#as04 .btinternet.

Compounds and phrases A two-element compound is typically pronounced with early stress: that is to say. . ‘bedtime /‘bed tam/ ‘block obuster /‘blk obst / || /‘bl:k obst r/ Notice that. although many such compounds are written as single words.yellow ‘hammer (a hammer coloured yellow) A ‘moving van (to carry furniture when one moves house) A . . On the other hand. There is no firm rule.dark ‘room (a room which is dark because there is little light in it) A ‘yellow ohammer (a kind of bird) A . are nevertheless pronounced with late stress (= as if they were phrases). can be changed if the speaker wants to emphasize a particular contrast.school ’girl! .typed ‘cards . ‘christmas ocard ‘visitors’ book ‘music olessons ‘beauty ocontest 3. __ a .Not ‘weekly olessons. its first element has more stress than its second.2.just otime to ’practise.3.4. that is why many compounds and phrases are listed separately with their stress patterns.67 - .next ‘time .moving ‘van (a van that is motion). These.2. A ‘darkroom (a room developing photographs) A .2.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3.2. __ .Not omusic ‘lessons. its second word has more stress than its first.1. .2. a two-word phrase is typically pronounced with late stress: that is to say. Sometimes a compound has a different meaning from the corresponding phrase.2.several ‘books . and all stress patterns.Not a oschool 'boy.weekly ‘lessons 3. others are written as two words. . Some expression. which are grammatically compounds. __ ’monthly ones! 3. 3.

they are not usually pronounced like two distinct complete sounds.rubber ’duck . The details depend upon their manner of ARTICULATION.2.3.68 - . except that it lasts longer. They are always found in a syllable boundary.Melrose ‘Road . /md’de/. with just one sequence of approach-hold-release. juice. Examples are a nice sight /. In this set. .cheese ’sandwiches . soulless /’sl ls/ || /‘sol ls/ .King’s ‘Avenue but ‘Gower Street 3.2. a .Oxford ‘Circus . • Fricatives. or a stem and an affix.nais’sat/. In ten names.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras One group of expressions of this type comprises those where the first element names the material or ingredient out of which a thing is made. ‘almond cake ‘orange juice ‘barley owater 3.pork ’pie Note. /ðs’set/ the two s’s come together to make a long s: between the two vowels. which takes early (beginning) stress. but the hold is longer in a geminate. nasal.apple ’crumble’ a . In names of English places. too. straddling (being found) the syllable boundary. that expressions involving cake. liquids: a geminate is pronounced like a single sound. In big game. • . Although cases like these consist of two identical phonemes in succession.5. note that all take late (final stress) stress except street.Lavender ‘Crescent . /ten ’nemz/we get a long n: Plosives: a geminate is pronounces like a single sound.3.paper ’plates . 3. double Consonant Sounds Double consonant sounds (“geminates”) in English phonetic are found only across grammatical boundaries: where two words occur next to one another in connected speech. water take early stress. or in the two parts of a compound word. midday. however.

a consonant. but it is important for them to be aware that when native speakers of English talk to each other. because of the possibility of a GLOTTAL STOP. pp. one after the other. unnamed /n’ nemd/ meanness /’mi:n. one might express this in more technical language by saying that in certain circumstances a phoneme may be realized as zero. 108-110. a geminated t may consist phonetically of ?t: that time /.2. double consonants letters 3. though only a small numbers of the many possibilities can be given here. the vowel in the first syllable may disappear. or have zero realization. a syllable. 3. In words like ‘potato’. casual speech.1. Exceptionally.5. or segments in oral speech. Examples: parttime /.4.pa:t’ tam/. 3. As with assimilation. ‘canary’.rt ’ts/ the fricative part of the first  can be separately heard before the beginning of the second . In rich choice /. Double consonant letters in English spelling normally correspond to a single consonant sound in pronunciation.bg’gem/ there is a single phonetic g: between the two vowels. quite a number of phonemes that the foreigner might expect to hear are not actually pronounced. rabbit rhymes perfectly with habit. for example succeed /sk’si:d/.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii /. • affricates are the only case where two successive complete consonant sounds are pronounced independently. We will look at some example. straddling the syllable boundary.69 - .1. The main exception arises in a few words with cc before i or e. The nature of elision may be stated quite simple: under certain circumstances sounds disappear. Elision It is the omission or loss of a vowel. k.5.ðæt’tam / but a single long alveolar t: is also possible. ‘perhaps’. elision is typical of rapid. loss of weak vowel after p.4. ‘today’. Then the two letters most often correspond to two phonemes (DOUBLE CONSONANT SOUNDS). Producing elisions is something which foreign learners do not need to learn to do. Peter Roach (83). 3. the aspiration of the initial plosive takes up the whole . a segment. The other import exception is where the two consonant letters in question belong to two different parts of a compound word. So happy is pronounced /’hæp.4. or one to a stem and one to an affix.ns/ (however many adverbs in ly drop one I sound when attached to a stem ending in l: fully /’fli/). In orange juice there are two separate ’s. 3. ‘tomato’. the process of change in phoneme realizations produced by changing the speed of speech is sometimes called gradation. Ellen rhymes perfectly with helen.i/ (not /’hæppi/). t.

‘Wil’: spelt ‘ll. /krekt/. l or r becomes syllabic consonant.70 - . Avoidance of complex consonant clusters.2.‘can’t’ ka. /t h ma:t/. Examples: ‘tonight’ ‘police’ ‘correct’ /t’nat/ /p’li:s/ /k’rekt/ → → → / ‘t ņait/. ‘do’ du:.is pronounced z and ‘has’ is pronounced z in contracted form. except that after s. ‘looked back’ /’lk bæk/. Examples : ‘lots of them’ / lts  ðm/. Though this is not impossible to pronounce. Contracted ‘are’ is also pronounced as  or r when following a consonant. e. resulting in these pronunciation. Loss of final v in ‘of’ before consonants. ‘can’ kæn. pronounced nt after vowels.g. . ‘they’ ðe -‘they’re’ ðe. the middle plosive or two may disappear. e. ‘Is’. pronounced s after fortis consonants (voiceless) .3. pronounced v after vowels.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras of the middle portion of the syllable. /t h de/. where h indicates aspiration: /p h tet/. 3. z. ‘Have’: spelt ‘ve. pronounced l after vowels and syllabic  after consonants. ‘Not’: spelt ‘n’t. In clusters of three plosives or two plosives plus a fricative. something like /… sks θrn is more likety. usually with some change in the preceding vowel. The best known cases are: • • ‘had’. • ‘Are’: spelt ‘re.‘don’t dnt). . linking r is used when a vowel follows. ‘would’ : spelt ‘d. / ‘pi:s/. 3. ‘we’ wi:’ – ‘we’re’ w. /k h ner/. pronounced d after vowels. d after consonants. v after consonants.4. syllabic ņt after consonants. ‘waste of time’ /west  mn/. ‘you’ ju: . Weak vowel + n. 3. The fact that they are regularly represented with special spelling forms makes them seem rather different from the above examples.5.5.5. pronounced  after vowels.  . /p h h æ ps/.5. . ‘has’ spelt ‘s. (There are also vowel changes associated with n’t. It is difficult to know whether contractions of grammatical words should be regarded as examples of elision or not.nt. 3.g. so that the following pronunciations result: ‘acts’ / æks/.‘you’re’ j.5. scripts / ‘skrps/. • • • . z after lenis consonants (voiced) . It has been said that no normal English speaker would ever pronounce all the consonants between the last two words of the following: ‘George the sixth’s throne’ /: ð sksθs θrn/.

being optional. (Thaw: the period of warmer weather that causes ice and snow to turn into water). . Comma /’km/ || /’k:m/ In isolation. pronounced /fa:/. or before a consonant sound. 3. Near /n/ || /nr/ In isolation. now lost before a consonant or pause. intrusive r may be added.7.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. The inserted r-sound is then known as linking r. Stress Shift 3.2. whatever the environment it occurs in). whether linking or intrusive. in connected speech an r may be pronounced in some cases if the next word begins with a vowel sound.kli/ and lessons /’les.enz/ . A phrase usually receives late stress. RP thaw is /:/.2.6. it is often pronounced /’km. In BrE (RP). :. But in a phrase such as put a comma in.6. In the phrase thaw out. giving /:r’at/ (In Gem Am there is no r). The placing of primary stress on the last element means that the basic stress of the first element is weakened by one degree: combining weekly /’wi:. :. in connected speech these words often have a different pattern.1. this word is. however. This typically happens with a word (syllable) that ends in one of the vowels . The intrusive r. e.7. The linking r. the spelling includes r. But in a phrase such as near enough it is usually pronounced /nr/. Nevertheless. Some words seem to change their stress patterns in connected speech. there might be greater stress on fnd than on ment. This intrusive /r/ does not correspond to historical r.71 - . The dictionary does show r liaison within a word. Thaw /:/ || /:/ In isolation. . Usually. as in the cases just mentioned. and other non-rhotic accents.1.7. the insertion is frequently made even if there is no r in the spelling. But in phrases such as far away.4.6. and there is no corresponding r in AmE. 3. In RP (standard english). :. whatever the environment). 3. This phenomenon is known as stress shift.3. the RP form is /’km. It corresponds to a historical r. is shown thus: thawing /:rŋ/. when the following word (syllable) begins with a vowel sound.wi:okli’ les. Although in isolation we say fundamental with the main stress these on ment and japanese with the main stress on /ni:z/. is shown thus: storing /st:rŋ/. being obligatory.r/ (In american english it is always /’k:m/. Far /fa:r/ || /fa:r/ In isolation.6. 3./. a word said in isolation never ends in r. the RP form is /n/. R liaison 3.enz/ gives the phrases weekly lessons /. or greater stress on /æp/ than on /ni:z/. in RP. For example.6. (In Gen Am it is always /fa:r/. 3. far out it is usually pronounced /fa:r/. as in other non-rhotic accents.

˘ that some speakers of AmE consider this pronunciation incorrect. ver. In connected speech. 3. Note. t is a voiced alveolar tap (flap).men.fn. AmE t can optionally be elided (omitted).d.rat’at/.2. The usual pattern involves stress shift.). native speakers of English usually switch round the stress levels in the first element.72 - .æp’ni:z/ plus language /’læŋ.zi/ with people ‘pi:pl. and also ˘ like the r of some languages. It sounds like a quick English d. so that AmE shutter /’t. Stress shift potentially affects all words entered in the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary that include the secondary stress-mark (. .7. Accordingly. But these stress patterns are unbalanced.fn.8.gw/.r/ may sound identical with ˘ shudder /’d.tel/ plus mistake /m’stek/ would give /fn. but paint it /’pen t t/. The same thing happens with a phrase such as that made by combining very lazy /.3. Where this is the usual AmE pronunciation it is shown by the symbol /t/.r/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Hence one would expect that fundamental /.4. 3.telm’stek/.left’.de’men. In fact.8. t at the end of a word may change to t if both the following ˘ condition apply: • the sound before the t is a vowel sound or r. 3. but only certain nouns.7. After n. 3. But in right now /rat’na/ no t is possible: nor in left over ˘ /. • the next word begins with a vowel sound and follows without a pause.5.8.gw/.8. it is likely to apply only to those which are regularly followed in a phrase by a more strongly stressed word: most adjectives. Learners of English as a foreign language who take AmE as their model are encouraged to use t where appropriate.8. ˘ 3. For many Americans. the t change to t (and therefore possibly disappear): paint /pent/. if the sound before a t at the end of a word is n. Phonetically.1.3. ˘ ˘ right out /. Thus AmE winter /’wntr/ can sound identical to winner /’wnr/. Under the same condition.æp. 3.rat’we/. though.ni:z’ læŋ. T-voicing For most Americans and Canadians the phoneme t is sometimes pronounced as a voiced sound. In practice.le z ‘pi:pl. and say /. it is shown in italics. some people consider this incorrect.gw/would give /.vr/. ˘ 3.æpni:z’læŋ. however.7. it is actually identical with their d in the same environment.tel m’stek/ and that japanese /.5. as ˘ ţ.veri’le. ˘ 3. Thus in AmE right /rat/ may pronounced /rat/ in the phrase right away /.4. /. ˘ ˘ Again. thus.8.de’men. 3.

… /w/ || /wr/ Tell me how they were. when a word is left exposed by a syntactic operation involving the movement or deletion of the word on which it depends Where does he come from? … (he comes from X) /’km frm/ || /’km frm/. One exception is in singing.3. Even here. such as articles.9. have more than one pronunciation. the strong form is used even for certain unstressed functions words: (i) Usually. The strong form is used only when the word is stressed for some reason.9... An example is at..4.73 - . auxiliaries. where strong forms are often used. (ii) Always. native speakers should not be misled into supposing that careful or declamatory speech demands strong forms throughout. /’æt/… I´ll invite them round.1. not “in home”. modals etc. In particular. Nevertheless. It is important for learners of English to use weak forms appropriately. listeners may think they are emphasizing a word where this is not really so. … /t/…/t/… We say “at home “. though. I´m looking at you… /ætj/ or /tj/. in the case of a preposition followed by a pronoun at the end of a sentence.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. The weak form is generally used if the word is unstressed (as is usually the case with function or grammatical words). 3.9. preposition.9. they have a strong form.9. . ’ju: kæn/ It was aimed at but not achieved … (= they aimed at it ) /’eimd æt/ “Stranded” or “left” like this. 3. He´ll be back at one. containing a strong vowel.2. containing a weak vowel. and a weak form. with strong form æt and weak form t. Jim´s at lunch. pronouns.. articles are generally weak. … /ðm/… They were delighted. . Otherwise. Many English function words (grammatical words). weak forms 3. Equally. the last word in each sentence or phrase has to be strong. I can speak better than you can ( = than you can speak) /’kn spi:k . … /w:/ || /’w:r/ 3.

Do you get the bus to work’? Yes. she does. I have.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras UNIT 3. 7. 3. he has.English and French (W) (W) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . Where were your parents married? I think they were married in London. When was your birthday? It was in April. auxiliary verb do does have has were was can weak form /d/ or /d/ /dz/ /hv/ /hz/ /w/ /wz/ /kn/ Strong form /du:/ /dz/ /hæv/ /hæz/ /w:/ /wz/ /kæn/ Instruction. 4. Have you got a good English dictionary? Yes.74 - . 6. Practice 1 Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs The weak form (unstressed form) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of sentence. Has your father got dark hair? Yes. 1. 5. The strong form (strong stress) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence. 2. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is Strong (S) or weak (W). Does your mother work in an office? Yes. I do. How many languages can you speak? I can speak two .

This distinction has implication for syllabification and sometimes for rhythm. (secondary stress) = equal to primary or secondary stress. she does 9. All the syllables in the following words. Do they share the housework? Yes. they were 3.10.i/ . Have they got any children) Yes. i. as well as  in BrE and o in AmE. 12.3. u. The unstressed syllables in the following words are all weakvowelled: allow happy /’la/ /’hæp.75 - .10. i . The vowels . she has.2. is  in many cases. they have. 13. whether stressed or unstressed. 10. they do.vowelled: red hope bedtime undone acorn butane /red/ /hp/ || /hop/ /’bed. 11. are strong . Among unstressed syllables it is useful to distinguish between those that nevertheless contain a strong vowel and those that have a weak vowel. A stressed syllable (shown in words of more than one syllable by one of the marks ‘ (primary stress) . So. weak Vowels ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3. Has she got a job? Yes. must always contain a strong vowel. tam/ /.u are always weak. Can you speak English? Yes. 3. she can. Were they married in Japan? Yes.10. Does she live in the north of England? Yes. too. This may be any vowel or diphthong except .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 8.n’dn/ /’ek:n/ || /’ek:rn/ /’bju:ten/ 3.1.10.

and this is shown in LPD. The words rabbit ´ræbt and abbot ‘æbt do not rhyme.stu’en/ /’kelsns/ or /lsns/ /r’mem. private are nowadays usually pronounced /’kelsns/. /’pravt/. For example. 3. Even in RP and other kinds of English that maintain the distinction between weak  and .5. So rabbit at Longman Pronunciation Dictionary shows a secondary pronunciation /´ræbt/. 3. and these are given in as secondary pronunciations. 3.6. as in annual / ‘ænjul/. civil. however.76 - . word linking It takes place when a word that begins with a vowel sound is linked to the consonant sound at the end of the word before it. The distinction between weak // and // has the power of distinguishing word in Received Pronunciation (RP). many words may be heard with either pronunciation. I Lenin is ’lenn. Standard English. /’svl/. /’svl/. remain weak. A conservative minority say /’kelsns/. 1.10.b/ or /r’membr/ /’stændd/ or /’stændrd/ /’stmjls/ or /’stmjls/ 3. In certain other kinds of English. this distinction may be neutralized.4. but Jhon Lennon is ’lenn. Gatwick Airport . Practice the sentence loudly making linking words appropriately. as in suddenly /sdņli/. The west End 2. Marble Arch 3.11. For example. or the choice between  and  depends upon the phonetic context. V. The weak vowels  may be realized in the form of a SYLLABIC CONSONANT (some consonants such as ņ. carelessness.  can for the nucleus of a syllable). or compressed into a single syllable). /’pravt/. (NEUTRALIZATION: the suppression of an opposition between phonemes operative in other positions phonemes): either  is used instead of weak  in virtually all positions.10.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras situation carelessness remember standard stimulus /. Diphthongs arising from the COMPRESSION of weak syllables (the capacity of sequence of sounds to be pronounced either as two separate syllables.10.

t. Source: Headway Pronunciation P-I. The Houses of Parliament 8. 3. 7. 6.77 - . Columbus discovered America …. She laughed at the joke. He introduced Amanda to his friends …. 1. The bomb destroyed a house …. Heathrow Airport /w/ 5. 4. The London Underground 10. 5.. They traveled across Europe by train …. 2.. 2004. The Tower of London 9.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. She jumped over the wall …. The pane crashed in the jungle …. . The City of London /j/ 6. Bill Bowler. . The Royal Albert Hall 7. Then Bank of England Unit 3: Practice 2 Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking. Sue Parminter.

sir. B: I was afraid of (f) that. Where exactly? S: He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz. but he’s gone to (e) Budapest. I am looking from (c) James Bond. S: He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days. and you can tell him I’m waiting for (m) his call.78 - . B: All right. Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny? S: Speaking. sir. . We had a lunch appointment at (d). Oh. S: Yes.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 3. Isn’t he there? S: I’m sorry. B: Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble. B: Hello. Practice 3 Read the sentences and say what form the prepositions are used in them: Strong or weak form? Prepositions to from for at of weak form /t/ /frm/ /f/ or /fr/ /t/ /v/ Strong form /tu:/ /frm/ /f:/ /æt/ /v/ B: Hello. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool.

Roach. Seventeenth edition. Longman.bbc. Cruttenden (2001) (2003) (1980) P. B.html#as04 .htm http://www. J. London: Routledge.co. Collins & I. Practical phonetics and phonology.C. Ashby (2005) A.power/phonetics. London: Edward Arnold. Roach (2000) (2006) English phonetics and phonology. English pronouncing dictionary. Cambridge University Press.com/~ted.co. English pronunciation dictionary.power/assimilation. Cambridge University Press.D. Essex.co.79 - . Cambridge University Press.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/ http://downloads. CUP.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1. Second edition.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1. Pronunciation dictionary.bbc.bbc.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii BIBlIogRaPhY J. Sixth edition.pdf http://downloads.mp3 http://www. Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Second edition. Third edition. M. London: Routledge. Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.btinternet. Setter (ed. P. English intonation: an introduction.) Gimson’s pronunciation of english. O’Connor Speech sounds. Hartman & J. Wells (2006) (1997) (2000) Jones Daniel (1997) P. Mees J. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.btinternet.com/~ted. http://www.

What about the assimilation of alveolar stop voiced /d/ into velar stop voiced /g/? (Case 5) _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. b/ before bilabial nasal and bilabial stops? (Case 1. Give examples. How is a compound word stressed? Give examples. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ .80 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras aCTIVITY 1. Can you explain the assimilation of /t. Can you explain the assimilation of /t/ into voiceless velar /k/ (Case 4). 2). _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. d/ into /p. Can you explain the assimilation alveolar nasal /n/ into bilabial nasal /m/? (Case 3) _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. What can you say about assimilation in connected speech? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. How are double consonant letters treated? Give examples. Give examples. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3.

What do you know about weak forms? Why is it so important in English language learning? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ o . _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Explain the phenomenon of T-voicing.81 - .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 8. What do you understand by Stress shift? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 12. Explain some cases of elision. Where are double consonants sounds found? Give examples. Explain the pronunciation of R-liaison briefly? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 11. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 13. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10.

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Produce sentences following combined patterns (pausing in the middle. doubt.UNIT IV sUPrAsEgmENTAL PhoNoLogy oBjECTIVES 1. Practice the intonation. apology.question). (Yes / No question. 4. 2. . elision and shifting tonic. greetings). 6. Be aware of the tag questions intonation pattern. Understand and produce sentences following the fall-rise pattern. linking. Wh. length and stress. request for repetition. Get familiar with the rising-falling pattern (Statements. etc) 5. Be aware of the intonation pattern behind weak forms. Length and stress through rhythm and jingles. 7. lists. Understand the components of the suprasegmental phonology: Intonation. 3.

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1. 4. also called prosodic phenomena. 82). stress. pitch and length Intonation Intonation is the music of the language. In English and many other languages. Rising intonation Falling intonation (3) What did Danny buy? Falling intonation . University of Turkey). No. questioning. for example. questions answerable by ‘yes’ or ‘no’ occur with rising (or non-falling) intonation. 2) stress. particularly those pertaining to pitch and stress. However. length and stress. It’s important to recognize the meaning behind the tones used in everyday speech. In English. 3) tone. and parts of the sentence among many other things. many interesting prosodic patterns can be described only in terms of major constituents or entire sentences. 4) pitch range and 5) length by reviewing relevant and current research (Mehmet Celik. Four major features in the teaching of English suprasegmentals will be introduced in this chapter: 1) intonation units. Moreover. but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression. Prosodic features: Intonation. Intonational studies are not so well developed as those which deal with the suprasegmental properties of individual lexical items.SUPRaSEgMENTal PhoNologY Suprasegmental phenomena are those that pertain to intonation. while declaratives and other kinds of questions occur with final falling intonation. (1) Did Danny buy a cow? Ye. are normally examined in relation to individual lexical items or short phrases. they are intimately connected with the syntactic and semantic properties of the sentences in which they occur. tone. Suprasegmental phenomena. we use tone to signal emotion. The prosodic properties of entire sentences. and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings between the speaker and the listener. and we will restrict our attention to examples that show the close relationship between intonation and the syntactic and semantic structure of sentences (Langacker. are referred to as intonation. (2) Danny bought a cow. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds can be overlooked.

and louder. The stress is very important in English because in some cases the stress can also be phonological because it will change the meaning of the word.. which is assigned the ‘tonic’ status. for example: ‘record and re’cord. The vowel sound in this syllable sounds higher in pitch. Placing the stress where it should be when you’re speaking helps native speakers understand you better as well. Consider the example below.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras For Cruttenden (1986:35). Stress on the second syllable will be a verb and on the first will be a noun or adjective. another feature can be added: pitch range. University of Turkey. longer. Pausing in some sense is a way of packaging the information such that the lexical items put together in an intonation unit form certain psychological and lexic~grammatical realities. 1975 for more): the meaning is given in brackets. 1967. 3) tone. which were developed in Unit II. and this is called stress. there is one main emphasized syllable. 4) pitch range and length by reviewing relevant and current research (Mehmet Celik. a continuous stream of sounds. Let’s study then the suprasegmental elements that characterized English Language: 1) intonation units.) • Those who sold / quickly made a profit (A profit was quickly made by those who sold. in which slashes correspond to pauses (Roach.) 2) Stress In every word in English. This helps create the rhythm of the language. • Those who sold quickly / made a profit (A profit is made by those who sold quickly. 1) Intonation Unit An ‘intonation unit’ is a piece of utterance. (Review unit II on stress) . or key (Brazil et al. 2) Selection of a syllable (of a word). 1983:146) (see Halliday. and knowing how to recognize the stressed syllable will help you with comprehension. 2) stress. Leech & Svartvik. Typical examples would be the inclusion of subordinate clauses and prepositional phrases in intonation units.86 - . 1980). The stress is related to syllable stress. and 3) Selection of a tone for the intonation unit To this list. bounded by a fairly perceptible pause. intonation has three important features: 1) Division of a (dividing) a stream of speech into intonation units. word stress and sentence stress.

however. I’m going. 3. (emphatic) . Compare the following examples. and reporting utterances. the syllable that receives the tonic stress is called ‘tonic syllable’. (content words) unstressed (grammatical words) and the unmarked (going and holiday in the sentence). etc. Tonic stress is almost always found in a content word in utterance final position. proclaiming. Emphatic stress. emphatic stress 2.4. 2. (unmarked) ii. not as much as the tonic syllable. or ‘nucleus’. An intonation unit almost always has one peak of stress.2. You MUSTN’T talk so loudly.1. The first two examples are adapted from. new information stress Tonic stress. i. an intensifier. A question does arise as to what happens to the previously tonic assigned syllables. Example: I’m go into London for Holiday. contrastive stress 2.1. I’m going to London. (unmarked) ii. Roach (1983: 144). 2. unmarked tonic stress 2.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Four major types of stress are identified: 2. Unmarked tonic stress. which is usually a modal auxiliary. (emphatic) i. It was VEry boring. producing a three level stress for utterances: the stressed.3. Consider the following. but it is not because another word was emphasized. It refers to the word that should be marked. I’m going to London for a holiday. 2. which is called ‘tonic stress’. You mustn’t talk so LOUDly. It was very BOring. One reason to move the tonic stress from its utterance final position is to assign an emphasis to a content word.2. The term tonic stress is usually preferred to refer to this kind of stress in referring.87 - . Because stress applies to syllables. an adverb. in which the tonic syllable is underlined: 1. I’m going to london for HOliday. They still get stressed.

great. utterly. 2. The concept of new information is much clearer to students of English in responses to wh-questions than in declarative statements. awfully. harmed) . truly.3. naturally enough.) F) She played the piano yesterday.. In a response given to a wh-question. entirely.. (It was yesterday. it is pronounced with more breath force. since it is more prominent against a background given information in the question. 1. Examples: a) Do you like this one or THAT one? b) I like THIS one. a) What’s your NAME b) My name’s GEORGE.. is stressed. grand. the information supplied. (It was the piano that.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Some intensifying adverbs and modifiers (or their derivatives) that are emphatic by nature are (Leech & Svartvik. surely. extremely. C) She played the piano yesterday.975:135): indeed.4. barely. definitely.. (It was her who.. too. alone... absolute. only.) D) She played the piano yesterday. Contrastive Stress. The contrasted item receives the tonic stress provided that it is contrastive with some lexical element (notion.) in the stimulus utterance. No distinction exists between content and function words regarding this. the stress pattern is quite different from the emphatic and non-emphatic stresses in that any lexical item in an utterance can receive the tonic stress provided that the contrastively stressed item can be contrastable in that universe of speech. literally. own. pretty. completely. very (adjective).88 - . a) Where do you LIVE b) I live in BONN . terribly. far. That is. -self. terrific. (She only played (not. very (adverb). quite.) E) She played the piano yesterday.. New Information Stress.) 2. a) Where are you FROM? b) I’m from WALES. especially. really. tremendous. Consider the following sentences where we can find contrast. enough. In contrastive contexts.

If the tonic syllable is in non-final position. Ladefoged (1982:100) states: ‘In general. b) wh-questions: Where is the PENcil? . agree. so it may be omitted. question or hesitate. the glide continues over the rest of the syllables. Tone allows identifying different kinds of sentences: a falling tone. 1977:45). we assume that he already knows the answer). A tone is a certain pattern. A ‘rise’ tone is one in which the tonic syllable is the start of an upward glide of pitch. By means of tones. that will be seen later on. and Yes/No questions (when the speaker uses a falling intonation. then it is ‘low rise’. Regarding the significance of new information declarative statements. 1983: 113). ‘given’ information is omitted. Falling intonation: In statements. not repeated. because it is meaningful in discourse. This certain pattern of voice movement is called ‘tone’.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii The questions given above could also be answered in short form except for the last one. • in Bonn In other words. requests. or indicate completion and continuation of turn-taking. In the exchange: a) What’s your name? b) (My name’s) George. rising falling and a combination of them. imperatives. 3.1. in which case the answers are: • George. if it is lower. What makes a tone a rising or failing or any other type of tone is the direction of the pitch movement on the last stressed (tonic) syllable (Brown. This glide is of two kinds. rising tone. speakers signal whether to refer. in speech. 3) Tone A unit of speech bounded by pauses has movement. exclamations. etc.89 - . if the upward movement is higher. then it is ‘high rise’. not an arbitrary one. A fall in pitch on the tonic syllable renders (provides) the tone as ‘fall’. • Wales. ‘Fall-rise’ has first a pitch fall and then a rise.’ The part referring to his name is given in the question. falling rising tone. disagree. The ‘new’ information in this response is ‘George. of music and rhythm. wh-questions. Examples: a) Statements: I’ll report you to the headmaster. associated with the pitch of voice (Roach. new information is more likely to receive a tonic accent than material that has already been mentioned.

3. we assume that the speaker already knows the answer and he only needs confirmation). . Consider the following in which the former of the intonation units are uttered with a fallinrising tone (the slash indicates a pause): Sentencial adverbs: • Private enterPRISE / is always EFficient. as in the following intonation units. b) She PASSED? (disbelief). Rising intonation a) Yes/No questions when the speaker is sure that he does not know the answer and that the addressee knows the answer.2. Falling. or indicating disbelief.4.Rising (Followed by a Fall) Sentential adverbs. 3. high-Rising: Asking for repetition or clarification. a) She passed her DRIving test. • PreSUmably / he thinks he CAN. we may think that the speaker is asking for a repetition or clarification. 3. e) Exclamations: Watch OUT! f) Yes/No questions: (when the speaker uses a falling intonation. ii) No. In this question we have three possible answers from addressee: A) Isn’t he NICE? B) i) Yes. • A quick tour of the CIty / would be NICE. a) Have you MET him? b) YES.90 - . compound sentences and so on. b) Taking up WHAT? (clarification). a) I’m taking up TAxidermy this autumn.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras c) Imperatives: Go and see a doCtor. If the tonic stress is uttered with extra pitch height. iii) I don’t know. d) Requests: Please sit DOWN. 3. • Usually / he comes on SUNday.

Therefore. 4) Pitch Pitch represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. final intonation (Falling) When the order of complex clause is reversed. final. For a key to be significant: 1) It should be under speaker’s control. That is. it is the auditory attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered on a scale from low to high. The moon revolves around the EARTH / as we ALLknow. When the actual fundamental frequency can be precisely determined through physical measurement.91 - .pitch is primarily dependent on the rate of vibration of vocal cords. . a higher pitch is observed. In an overwhelming majority of syllables that are stressed. ‘.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Compound sentences: One of the most frequent complex clause types in English is one that has dependent (adverbial or subordinate) clause followed by an independent (main) clause. It is one of the three major auditory attributes of sounds along with loudness and timbre. as in • • I WON’T deliver the goods / unless I receive the PAYment. From a physiological point of view. When the vocal cords are stretched. Pitch is one of the acoustic correlates of stress (Underhill 1994:57).. the tone observed in non-final intonation units can be said to have a ‘dependency’ tone. normally has a fall-rise while the second. non-final. the pitch of voice increases. The human auditory perception system may also have trouble distinguishing frequency differences between notes under certain circumstances. 1982:226). The term ‘key’ can be described as utterance pitch. When such a clause has two intonation units. According to acoustical terminology. (Cruttenden. we may still observe the pattern fall-rise and fall respectively.. higher pitch is heard louder than lower pitch. Consider the following: • When I passed my REAding test / I was VEry happy. it may differ from the perceived pitch because of overtones. which is falling-rising. the first. also known as partials. Pitch variations in speech are realized by the alteration of the tension of vocal cords (Ladefoged. 1986:3). specific and/or meaningful sequences of pitches in an intonation unit.. non final (Fall-rise) (dependency tone) • If you SEE him / give my MESsage.. in the sound. Therefore. loudness to a certain extent contributes to the make-up of pitch. harmonic or otherwise. The rate of vibration in vocal cords is increased by more air pressure from the lungs. has falling tone.

. Exclamations: High: She: Oh GOD¡ Mid: Low: He:/have you GUESSED?/ 2. (high). 2. and relatively less significant contribution to the speech.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 2) It should be perceptible to ordinary speakers. and 3) It should represent a contrast (Roach. high pitch. mid and low (Coulthard. There are three kinds of keys (pitch): high. (said Barney sadly) b) 30 thousand dollars¡. (unmarked) In denotative or declarative statements (affirmative or negative) I wan to go to the market. 2. Contrastivity: High: DAVdi¡ / Mid: / we’re going to MARgate this year / Low: High: YALE / Mid: / I’m going to HARvard / Low. speaker must choose one of the three keys as required for the conversation. In contrast.2. 2. high and low pitches (keys) are marked: high key is used for emotionally charged intonation units while use of low key indicates an existence of equivalence (as in appositive expressions).1977) and speakers make use of them depending on what and how they want to say the things. Echo/repeat: a) 30 thousand dollars. Mid pitch. Echo.92 - .1.3. 1983:113). employed in normal and unemotional speech. Most of the speech for a speaker takes place at the mid (unmarked) pitch (key). 1. For each intonation unit. It is not raining today.

/u:/. Phonetically. /e/. ship.93 - . sheep. Among the languages that have distinctive length. //.2.Co-reference: High: Mid: / I TOLD you already / Low: DUMmy / ( it refers back to you) 3. of course. /:/. The languages that distinguish between different lengths have usually long and short sounds. leave. fool (short // and log /u:/ ) .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. Statements of opinion. Non-defining relative clauses High: Mid: / my DOCtor / / is very WELL-known / Low: who’s a neuROlogist 3. /3:/. length or quantity is a feature of sounds that are distinctively longer than other sounds. considerable variation in length is possible. There are short vowels as well as long consonants (the latter are often called geminates). //. hit (short //and long /i:/) Pull. /æ/. or for both. live. It is more common that there is only one or that they depend on each other. although distinctive length is more common with vowels than with consonants. English distinguish between long and short vowels: English short vowels: English long vowels: //. // /i:/. pool. length In phonetics. for consonants. full. Length may be distinctive for vowels. Many languages do not have distinctive length.3.1. /a:/. In English the length is phonological because we can change the meaning of the word. there are only a few that have both distinctive vowel length and distinctive consonant length. High: Mid: / the GOvernment / / will agree with our deMANDS Low: I THINK 5. low pitch 3. heat. It –eat. //.

the voice drops on the following syllable and there is no further movement until the end of the phrase or sentence. who. Jane’s away. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby 4. for ‘wh’ questions (what. loudness. when.2. and how). I thought I saw an alligator. If there are one or more unstressed syllables after the Tonic. if anything. We have looked at intonation when we saw how meaning could be altered by shifting the Tonic. whom. whose. more important for communication than the correct pronunciation of individual sounds. hard /ha:d/. in which all the features of the other stressed syllables-movement. I thought I saw a burglar. It is also the syllable where most `movement´ occurs. wh.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Heart /ha:t/. which. the voice rising on each stressed syllable and then falling slightly below the pitch it was at before: ‘A farmer went trotting upon his grey mare’.94 - . rhythm and intonation are.question) Stress. lengthare present in an exaggerated form. The whole sentence seems to be dropping like a series of small towards the Tonic. A sentence with the Tonic at the end will look like this. . corn /k:n/. I bought some food. This is called the ‘rising-falling’ intonation pattern. why. This pattern is used (a) (b) for statements. the voice will slide from high to low within that syllable.1.2. If the Tonic is the last syllable in the sentence. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements. where. harm /ha:m/ (long vowel /a:/) Caught /k:t/ cord /k:d/. course /k:s/ (long vowel /:/) 4. The Tonic is the syllable of greatest stress an utterance.

lacking in enthusiasm.95 - . He’s going into politics. I think he’s an anthropologist. ‘Wh-’questions (a) What’s that? Where’s the tea? Which is yours? Who’s that girl? Whose are these? (b) What are you going? When did you get there? Where are you going? Why didn’t you tell me? How are the children? (c) When will you finish it? Which is the easiest? Who were you talking to? Why don’t we go to the cinema? How did you hurt yourself? C. I’ve killed him. Practice a. but remains flat and then falls either within the final syllable or on the following one: I feel sick. It’s snowing.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii There is also a plain ‘falling’ pattern. I’m ill. I put them down (b) Second –last syllable I`ve bought you a present. Statements (a) Final syllable I took the books. We`re going to church. My father’s a teacher. at the very least. I’m going away. B. . The difference between this and the first pattern is that if you use the second you will sound distinctly bored or. (c) Followed by several syllables I’ve dropped the thermometer. in which the voice does not rise on the Tonic. We’re going by taxi. Practice making a difference between rising-falling and falling intonation It’s raining.

between your feet. dear.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras dIalogUE: what time does the plane leave? ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: What’s the time? Ten past two. Why did we get here so early? Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents. Who is he? I don’t know. You were talking too much to hear. It won’t be leaving till five. How did he manage to hear it if we didn’t? Because he was listening. Where’s my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase? It’s there. Emily? . Which gentleman? That man over there with all the packages. Never mind. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement… Yes. The plane’s delayed.96 - . I was afraid so. dear. What do you mean. Emily! Where are you going? I’m going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the loudspeaker. I was talking too much? Oh dear. When does the plane leave? Not until a quarter to four. What time is it now.

You use this pattern to ask questions that require an answer of Yes or No. Be careful not to rise too sharply. implying. Hello. The intonation here usually expresses shock or anger. but in the question the voice continues to rise to the end of the sentence. but this time the voice falls on the Tonic and then rises. . in fact. and then. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern (Yes / No question. first as statement with a rising-falling pattern. especially if you have a lot to add after the Tonic.2. This pattern is the reverse of the one rising-falling pattern. and then in question form: (a) I bought some food. Jane! Good evening. Mrs. greetings).97 - . or you’ll end up in a squeak! /s’kwi:k/ (very high tone of voice). I don’t believe you. request for repetition. Baker! You also use this tune with ‘wh’ questions when you’re asking for information to be repeated. The main movement in the sentence is still on the Tonic syllable. A saw an alligator (b) Did you buy some food? Did you see a burglar? Did you see an alligator? Did you notice that the second pattern is. Did you see an alligator in the bath at the party last night? The fall-rise pattern is also used for greetings. Let’s look at three sentences. I saw a burglar.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. it stays at the same level. once the voice has fallen after the Tonic. on the name that follows falling a little more and rising again sharply.2. not the exact reverse of the first? In the statement. the voice rising and falling on the greeting.

Who was she with? Charlie Brown? PRaCTICE 1 (a) a. Peter. (b) C. am I being a nuisance? /’nju:sns/ (someone who annoys you and causes trouble) B. Mr Mumble.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras I saw your girlfriend at the cinema last night. Good morning. Good evening. everybody. greetings Hullo. Yes / no questions Are you alone? Can I come in? May I sit down? Do you mind if I smoke? Are you sure? Have you got an ashtray? May I borrow some matches? Would it be possible to have a cup of tea? Oh. Doctor. She was with Charlie Brown. Where did you see her? At the cinema. Requests for repetition What did you say? When was all this? Where did you say you found it? Which pills did you take? Who did you say you went with? Whose wife danced on the table? Why did you think it was me? How did you get in? . Good afternoon.98 - .

. actually. May I ask you a few questions? SERGEANT: Thank you. Oh yes. /’ketek/ (Someone who looks after a building) Vocabulary Popped out. Sergeant. SERGEANT: Thank you. Er. Someone who looks after a building.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dIalogUE: were you at home last night? SERGEANT: Good evening. Mr Holmes? HOLMES: HOLMES: HOLMES: HOLMES: HOLMES: Good evening. SERGEANT: The caretaker. officer. The caretaker said ‘good evening’. Go somewhere suddenly. the caretaker was murdered last night.99 - . yes. that’s right-John Holmes. I stayed in all evening-that is. /pa:pt’aut/. Yes. Won’t you come in? Yes. except for a few minutes when I popped out to post a letter. it was about-um-half past eight. I was. Yes. I don’t think so. just a minute. It’s about last night. No. Caretaker. Won’t you sit down? Yes. I wasn’t feeling very well. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend. Were you at home. Mr Holmes? SERGEANT: Were you alone? SERGEANT: Did you go out at all? SERGEANT: Do you remember what time this was? HOLMES: SERGEANT: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you. /’ketek/. Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes.erpopped out to post a letter. /pa:pt’aut/ (Go somewhere suddenly) HOLMES: No. of course. Sir.

Wednesday. or apology. he will stop on a rising tone to show you that he intends to continue. I was about to put my hands inside the box… when I heard a ticking noise. . you use the falling-rising pattern on the last item as well. Tuesday.2. Over to you. Thursday. or ‘That’s all for the moment’.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. doubt. the pattern is the ordinary risingfalling one of statements. /tkŋ/ (strong) In the first part of the sentence. Can I help you? Well… I’m sorry. Every item in your list will have its own pattern.) Intonation is one of the means a speakers uses to send signals to the listener. This falling-rising only on the Tonic is frequently used to express doubt. Wednesday… If your list is complete. etc. Tuesday. such as ‘don’t interrupt me’: ‘I haven’t finished yet’. Thursday…. Wednesday. apology. Intonation 3: Combined patterns. I think I’ve got it. up to the pause. lists. hesitation. If you want to show that you could go on but leave the rest to your listener’s imagination. It can also imply. too. each one on the same level as the last: Monday. Dr Mark’s secretary. until you come to the Tonic. when enumerating lists. indicating to your listener that it is the last element. (Pausing in the middle. if the speakers pauses in the middle of a sentence.3. which has the falling-rising tune. This is called a `closed´ list: I’m free on Monday. the final item will have the rise-fall pattern. Tuesday. You use the falling-rising tune. This is called an ‘open’ list: I’m free on Monday.100 - .

I don’t think so. I can offer you tea or coffee or hot chocolate. too: Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday? Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday…? Practice 1 a. (a) If you go to the India / you must see the Taj Mahal.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Implying that any day of the week is possible. This applies to questions. using the falling-rising intonation on the last item as well. I saw your uncle in the park/ but I don’t think he saw me (b) Yes. Did you see my cousin or my uncle or my aunt? Shall we go to the cinema or the pub or stay at home? (b) Open lists Now say the sentences in B (a) again. I’m sorry to bother you. Mandrake College. (a) Closed lists -statements and questions We went to Rome and Athens and Beirut and Cairo. No Excuse me. I’ve bought a painting / but now I don’t like it.101 - . . Williams’ Bakery. B.

I’m terribly sorry to bother you… Yes? That’s quite all right. Excuse me. I’m afraid. the beginning’s always a good place to start. I’m looking for a small. you see. port. There must be ! My hotel was near it. no. Or the area? I know it was not far from the Pier. oldfashioned hotel where I – if only I could remember the name! Or the name of the street? The street? Oh I’ve no idea. I don’t know the beginning. Did you say near the Pier? There’s no pier here. Or could that have been last year.I think. last year I went with Emily. of course! Eastbourne? But this is Seaford! Seaford! Really? I thought it seemed rather a long way! . I wonder? No. Well. Which pier? /p:t/ (port) Eastbourne Pier. /p:t/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras dIalogUE : I’m afraid I’m lost OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: Vocabulary Pier. But.102 - . Can’t I help you at all? I don’t know to begin.

(b) Although there’s a comma before the tag question you link if the question itself begins with a vowel: That’s the answer. am I? You said you wanted to go to Aden-didn’t you? . usually asking for confirmation of what has just been said. Intonation 4. didn’t you? In the second pattern the speaker is not at all sure of the truth of his statement. and so will the tag question: You didn’t eat it. isn’t it? I’m not going to fall. and so will the tag question: You’re learning English. as if an awful feeling of doubt in creeping in /’krpŋ/ (moving carefuly). did you? She will be there tonight.4. aren’t you? Yes. The tag question expresses this doubt with a falling-rising intonation: That’s my money-isn’t it? Two things to note (a) If the main sentence is in the affirmative.103 - . will have a rise –fall intonation pattern. The speaker seems certain that its true. If the main sentence is in the negative. I am The sentence. It’s really a question. Tag questions Tag questions are those little questions stuck at the end of a sentence. won’t she? The third pattern starts making a definite statement. In fact.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. the tag question is in the affirmative. the tag question is always in the negative. aren’t you? You killed Cock Robin.2. so it will have a fallingrising intonation. The tag question is not really asking a question –the speaker does not except anything but agreement. being a statement. though it has a statement form. In the first pattern the speaker makes a statement which he or she believes to be true. Then there comes a slight pause. You’re learning English.

didn’t you? So you know what’s going to happen to you. Tag question with special stress-rising-falling. won’t you? C. falling-rising You have got to buy the tickets –haven’t you’ I didn’t turn off the bath water –didn’t I? The hotel is in this street –isn’t it? You weren’t in the plane crash –were you? d.isn’t yours? .haven’t you? Mine’s a real diamond. I like pop music-don’t you? We’re going to the pub on Saturday -aren’t you? We’ve been invited to the Joneses.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Practice 1 a. will you? B. wont you? I’ll pick you up at two. Falling-rising You’ll come with me to the school fete.104 - . shall we? We won’t have to stay long. isn’t it? You know where I found it. Rising-falling This is your frog. Definite statement followed by doubt-rising-falling. don’t you? And you put it in my bed. falling-rising within the Stressed word. will we? You’ll come and some tea afterwards. don’t you? And you won’t do it again. shall I? And we’ll go by car.

You don’t mind if I sit down. too.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dIalogUE: Fish like a bit of silence. will you? I should like to. No many other people today. isn’t it? All right if you’re a duck. I do. Come fishing every Sunday. don’t they? Same as me. they like a bit of silence. not yet. does it? No.105 - . have you? No. are there? No there aren’t. I like a bit of peace. Come here regularly. don’t you? Yes. Ah. don’t you? . do you? My talking doesn’t disturb you. are there? Caught some fish already. don’t you? That’s right. don’t they? PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: Nasty weather. Stay here all day. but it seems to disturb the fish.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. ‘boiled beef’. You can’t fit a square peg into a round hole. There’s no smoke without fire. (b) We’ve decided to cover this part with glass. Practice 1 (4. did you? late. (d) These sheep are going to have their wool shorn off. grass. weak forms. B and C) a.5.106 - . ‘brown bread’. cucumber. Rising intonation of incomplete lists: tomatoes. peas and [n] carrots and [n] cabbage. which is s/he saying? (a) That sounds to me like a foul. linking and elision (Review 1) weak forms: linking: Elision: out of [v] the [ð] car. sitting  on  an  ant’s nest. Here today. drink and be merry. . lettuce. beetroot… Unit 4. :n/ take out the wool. A bull in a china shop. peppers.5. (c ) What a cat your cousin is! cad /kæd/ (a man who cannot be trusted) torn.2. A red rag to bull. couldn’(t) stay. vowel. Vocabulary Shear. /peg/ (a stick of wood). Few proverbs Eat.2. B. Check your answers in the answers key (B and C). gone tomorrow. detes(t) picnics. shorn /. Two consecutives stresses: ‘stop grumbling’. for tomorrow we die. (e) I didn’t realize it was so light. your bit  of beef. roas(t) pork.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii C.107 - . Mark the stresses syllables. (a) lemon [ ] (b) lettuce [ ] (c) almond [ ] (d) sultana [ ] (e) orange [ ] (f) sweetcorn [ ] (g) broad bean [ ] (h) asparagus [ ] (i) beetroot [ ] (j) artichoke [ ] (k) sprout [ ] (l) walnut [ ] (m) turnip [ ] (n) melon [ ] (o) currant [ ] (p) grapefruit [ ] (q) sugarbeet [ ] (r) gooseberry [ ] (s) apricot[ ] (t) carrot [ ] (u) cucumber [ ] [ ] (v) potato [ ] [ ] (w) onion [ ] [ ] (x) mushroom [ ] (y) cauliflower [ ] [ ] d. do you know how the ‘o’s and ‘u’s (either separately or in combination) are pronounced in the names of these fruit and vegetables? Put the correct phonetic symbol(s) after each one. detest basket indoors beautiful cabbage pudding perfect behind chicken salad tomatoes cucumber beetroot rabbit dumplings . listen to the dialogue.

It’s beautiful! I do like a proper Sunday dinner. do stop grumbling and get the basket out of the car.6. just joking. What I like is roast pork with apple sauce and gravy. Look. syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2). and treacle tart for pudding… /’tri:kl ta:rt/ (azúcar. linking. lettuce. intonation. falling-rising on ‘yes/ no’ question. peppers. aren’t you?. isn’t it?.108 - . We couldn’t stay indoors today.2. KATE: PAUL: KATE: PAUL: KATE: 4. we’ve got brown bread and butter and pâté and cold chicken… Blast! I’m sitting on an ant’s nest! Picnics! /blæst/ criticise very strongly) And the salad’s got tomatoes. beetroot… Rabbit food! Oh for a plate of boiled beef and dumplings! Oh dear! Paul. tag question. to [t] and so on. that’s  a. I do believe your bit of beef is coming this way! Isn’t that a Bull? weak forms. weak forms: linking: Tag question: You’re sitting in. cucumber. the plants. sort of. Good. can’t it? Intonation: rising-falling on statements and ‘wh-’ questions. sitting  in. peas and carrots and cabbage.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras dIalogUE: Bit of beef at the picnic PAUL: KATE: PAUL: Picnics! Detest picnics! Paul. of [v]. . melaza) Here’s a perfect spot! Spread the rug behind this bush.

A fool and his money are soon parted. Look after the pence and the pounds will look after themselves. Practice 2 (4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Syllable stress: make your voice higher and louder and hang on to the syllable a little longer on the stresses. Do you think this cream’s all right? green’s C. Not the same all the way through. Too many cooks spoil the broth.2. Rhythm: Feel it. which is s/he saying? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) How many lambs have you got this year? rams That’s a photograph of a marsh hare I took last spring. a dog and a walnut tree. Look after the sense and the sounds will look after themselves. B. which of these words rhyme with ‘funny’? Money Puny Many Monday Pony honey chutney journey sunny Sonny Sony Coney botany alimony Granny anemone runny Mummy . B. Unit 4. but regular within each phrase.109 - . Penny wise. Half a loaf is better than no bread Beggars can’t be choosers.6. C and d) A few more proverbs a. A woman. The more you beat ’em the better they be. Never look a gift horse in the month. Many hands make light work. pound foolish. march Don’t leave those boots lying about in the hall. books Water has to be transported by means of a long train. drain. like music.

Andrew! Plants can’t talk –everybody knows that. Cross my heart and hope to die. can it? golly /’ga:l/ Interj. Special sounds. listen to the dialogue. Colloq. Ram(s). Animals similar to rabbit but bigger. I did! How extraordinary! A very high-pitched squeaking! It can’t be the plants. if they aren’t audible. /mar/. hare. It’s a doctor stethoscope. ¡Caray¡ . Not even animal noises. you’re just joking. George. /br:θ/. Not noises like the ones human beings make. how do you know they make them? Come on. An area of soft wet land. But they make noises. aren’t you? I’m as serious as…as… Sunday. You can hardly hear them with the human ear. /her/. dIalogUE: listening to the plants talking (c) everybody (b) listening (l) pitched (e) especial (d) noises (g) aren’t (f) hear (i) serious (h) audible GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: Vocabulary That’s a funny sort of position you’re sitting in. What’s that thing that’s hanging round your neck? Looks like sort of a snake. isn’t it? I’m listening to the plants talking. how many syllables are there in these words? (a) position (k) Extraordinary (j) stethoscope Vocabulary Broth.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras d. A male sheep. /ræm/.110 - . Honestly. Marsh. Hear anything? Golly. Well. Lie down on the ground and put the stethoscope into your ears. A thin soup with a meat or vegetable flavour.

rich man. (b) (c) (d) . poor man. un’happy.7. Nothing venture. elision. ‘big ‘black ‘beard. (Review 3) Stress: no stress on negative prefixes: impo’lite. there’d be no need for tinkers. If wishes were horses. One good turn deserves another. Practice 3 (4. handsome [‘hænsm] Vocabulary: Dashing /’dæŋ/ (go somewhere in a hurry) Unit 4. service Have you ever seen such an awful sore before in all your life? shore chore jaw Great minds think alike Fools seldom differ. also within words: polite [p’la]. the shifting tonic. The shifting Tonic: are you a ‘mer’maid? Of ‘course I’m a ‘mer’maid. ‘mer’maid. which is s/he saying? (a) The brute! He pinched my shin! chin! gin! I just adore fresh bread.2. Tinkers /’tnkr/ (to make changes to repair something) B. beggarman. If ‘ifs’ and ‘ands’ were pots and pans. bi(g) black. seen  a: got  a Elision: hasn(‘t) got time. Tinker. tailor. then beggars would ride. Intonation: especially of questions. Stress: consecutive stress. Consecutive stresses: a ‘good ‘heavens. forgive [f’gv]. nothing gain. sailor.111 - . linking. /‘dfr/. han(d) some.C y d) a. thief. soldier. linking: are you  a. Still more proverbs Pride comes before a fall. handsome and [n] dashing.7 B.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. french I’ll find out if he ever came to the surface again. weak forms. weak forms: but [bt] are you.2.

cod cart card C) Underline the Tonic in each phrase or sentence in the following dialogue: I’m going to the Repton Show in October. I’ve lost the marvellous cot I got from Tom and Margaret. You never told me. That’s a boat show. Are you going to Repton alone? No. d) Mark the stressed syllables in these words before you practice the dialogue orally? Mermaid impolite before upset unhappy borrow handsome delighted actually unadventurous Check your answers to exercises b and c in the answer key. .112 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras (e) I’m so cross. too. Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter? Peter Blenkinsop. isn’t it? No. a motor show. Peter’s going. When did you tell me? It must have been someone else. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter.

Oh dear! I didn’t mean to upset you. you see. . He’s so handsome and dashing with his big black beard and flashing eyes.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dIalogUE: Nobody wants a mermaid PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: Good heavens! Forgive me. I didn’t mean to be rude. He’s a sailor. borrow mine. He ought to be delighted –you can follow him out to sea. Here. but.are you a mermaid? Of course I’m a mermaid! You can see I m a mermaid. Who doesn’t love you? Haven’t you got a hankie? No. Have a good blow and tell me all about it. brilliant. of course not. unadventurous chap. /flæŋ/ Bright.like me? MERMAID: PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: Vocabulary dashing.113 - . Flashing. Ojos matadores. He doesn’t love me. there. It wasn’t you. Only I’ve never seen a mermaid before (weeping) Well. That’s right. Don’t you think you’d actually be happier with a nice. now you have. It’s just that I’m so unhappy. But he doesn’t want a mermaid. It’s most impolite to stare like that. I’m terribly sorry. quiet. /’dæŋ/ Hit somebody or someone violently. There. ordinary. How silly of me. He says he hasn’t got time for girls at sea.

yes. Rhythm and gingles. 5. Newton. now. american light Verse: a Contemporary Selection anne C. 2.2. Risposte Ah.8. That it will be a wee one. And yet in moments dank and grim . I think that whenever I see one. I wrote “The Purple Cow” – I’m sorry. Babies. The abominable Snowman I’ve never seen an abominable snowman. The purple cow I never saw a purple cow I never hope to see one. I wrote it¡ But I can tell you. if I do. I’d rather see than be one. I’ll kill you if you quote it. The hippopotamus Behold the hippopotamus¡ We laugh at how he looks to us. Bu I can tell you. Editor 1. 3. I’d rather have been than still be one. 4. I’m hoping not to see one. anyhow.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. anyhow. I’m also hoping.114 - .

“He never bungles¡” And sent him off to distant jungles. Professor Twist could not but smile. As you no doubt delight the eye Of other hippopotami. Except it hasn’t been peppered. The Camel The came has a single hump: The dromedary.115 - . Are You? 7. The Purist I give you now professor Twist. Been eaten by an alligator. 6. Should you behold a panther crouch Prepare to say Ouch. Or else the other way around. Don’t anther. She had. . thou hippopotamus¡ We really look all right to us. “You mean” he said. if called by a panther. peace. I’m never sure. A conscientious scientist. two. One day he missed his living bride. Trustees exclaimed.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii I wonder how we look to him. “a crocodile” 8. Camped on a tropic riverside. the guide informed him later. The panther The panther is lie a leopard. Peace. Better yet.

The witch’s face was cross and wrinkled. now I’ll eat you¡” Isabel. Isabel. He punched and he poked till he really shocked her.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 9. Isabel. adventures of Isabel Isabel met an enormous bear. didn’t care The bear was hungry. Isabel met a troublesome doctor. Once in a night as black as pitch. glad to meet you. The witch’s gums with teeth were sprinkled. Isabel didn’t scream or scurry. “I’ll turn you into an ugly toad¡” Isabel. She showed no range and she showed no rancor. Isabel¡” the old witch crowed. Isabel met a wicked old witch. didn’t worry. ho. Isabel.116 - . The bear’s big mouth was cruel and cavernous. “Ho. But she turned the witch into milk and drank her. . the bear was ravenous. The doctor’s talk was coughs and chills. “Isabel. Then Isabel quietly ate the bear up. How do. She washed her hands and She straightened her hair up. didn’t worry. The doctor said unto Isabel. Isabel. The bear said. Isabel. Isabel didn’t scream or scurry. And the doctor’s satchel bulged with pills.

didn’t worry. Hoping. The very height of contradiction. Reading Matter People say. at last. Or large and small. Isabel.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii “Swallow this. It’s not a thing I’m growing grey from. that it Depends on whom you are away from 11. or fact and fiction To reconcile them. And Isabel calmly cured the doctor. For I have found. it will make you well¡” Isabel. No more alike than black and white. with piercing look. She took those pills from the pill concocter. I’ve quit.” Whereupon I bow my head And submit to being read. They’re opposite as day and night. though. 10.117 - . They’re the kind who merely skims . with a hope quite grim. “I can read you like a book. distant views Two sayings that I’ve been inclined In puzzlement off times to ponder Are out of sight is out of mind And absence makes the heart grow fonder. Isabel didn’t scream or scurry.

. The wings of a bird and the fins of a fish. argument If you convinced me And I convinced you. wishful Thinking If I had the wings of a bird of the air And the fins of a fish of the sea. Etiquette The people tell the story of a sparrow and the cat. The feline thin and hungry and the bird exceeding fat. But I’d certainly look mighty queer. I could ramble the wide world free. I could travel with speed and abandon all care. 13. As well as the legs of a deer— I could fly. 15.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 12. Puss pounced upon the sparrow and prepared to make a meal. The sparrow never struggled when he knew that he was caught (If somewhat slow in action he was mighty quick of thought). Surplus Commodity The getting is easy. famished energy and claws of gripping steel. I could swim. With eager. The giving is nice. I could run as I wish. Would there not still be Two points of view? 14.118 - . The taking’s the tough part About advice.

And angrily I cried: “Perdition¡” Up from out of in under there¡” Correctness is my vade mecum. which seemed the proper things to do When. and then wash myself¡” and that’s the universal etiquette for educated cats. hopeless hunger at the sparrow on the bough Poor Tommy glowered longingly and vowed a solemn vow “Henceforth I’ll eat my dinner first. beneath my chair. (go with me) And straggling phrases I abhor. The naught prepositions I lately lost a preposition. chirruping derisively. He paused to lick his paws. And yet I wondered: “what should he come Up from out of in under for?” Morris Bishop . “No gentleman would ever eat before he washed his face¡” This hint against his manners wounded Tommy like a knife.119 - . away the sparrow flew¡ In helpless. Arthur Guiterman 16. I thought. It hid.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii But chirped in simple dignity that seemed to fit the case. For cats are great observers of the niceties of life.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

17. Favourite That poem is splendid thing, I love to ear you quote it. I like the thought, I like the swing, I like it all. (I wrote it) Mother goose Rhymes: a child’s literary heritage 1. Twinkle, Twinkle, little Star Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are¡ Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are¡ 2. humpty dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; All the king’s horses. And all the king’s men. Couldn’t put Humpty together again. 3. little Bo-Peep Little Bo-peep has lost her sheep And can’t tell where to find them. Leave them alone, and they will come home Bringing their tails behind them.

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4. little Boy Blue Little Boy Blue, Come blow your horn; The sheep’s in the meadow, The cow’s in the corn . Where’s the little boy That looks after the sheep? He’s under the haystack, Fast asleep. 5. ladybird, ladybird Ladybird, Ladybird, Fly away home. Your houses is on fire, Your children will burn. Fly to the east, Fly to the west, Fly to the one you love the best. 6. a dillar, a dollar A dillar, a dollar, A ten o’clock scholar What makes you come so soon? You used to come at ten o’clock, But now you come at noon. 7. jack and jill Jack and Jill Went up the hill. To fetch a pail of water.

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Jack fell down and broke his crown, And Jill came tumbling after. 8. little Polly Flinders Little Polly Flinders. Sat among the cinders, Warming her pretty little toes. Her mother came and caught her And spanked her little daughter. For spoiling her nice new clothes. 9. little Tommy Tucker Little Tommy Tucker Sings for his supper. What shall he eat? White bread and butter. How shall he cut it Without any knife? How shall he marry Without any wife? 10. The old woman in the shoe There was and old woman. Who lived in a shoe. She had so many children. She didn’t know what to do. She fed them some broth.

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Without any bread, Then spanked them all soundly and sent them to bed. 11. Mary had a little lamb Mary had a little lamb. Its fleece was white as snow; And everywhere that Mary went. The lamb was sure to go. It followed her to school one day, Which was against the rule; It made that children laugh and play To see a lamb at school. 12. hi, diddle, diddle Hi, diddle, diddle, The cat and the fiddle, The cow jumped over the moon. The little dog laughed To see such sport, And the dish ran away with the spoon. 13. Sing a Song of Sixpence Sing a song of sixpence, A pocketful of rye, Four-and-Twenty blackbirds Baked in a pie. When the pie was opened, The birds began to sing;

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Counting out his money.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Wasn’t that a dainty dish To set before the King¡ The king was in his countinghouse. Mary. And pretty maids all in row. Quite contrary Mary.124 - . I drooped it. Hanging out the clothes. a tasket. Mary. How does your garden grow? With silver bells. I wrote a letter to my love And on the way I dropped it. A green and yellow basket. And on the way I drooped it. a tasket A tisket. a tisket. I dropped it. Mary. Along came a blackbird And snipped off her nose¡ 14. The Queen was in the parlor. 15. And cockleshells. Quite contrary. The maid was in the garden. Eating bread and honey. .

This is the house that jack Built This is the house that Jack built. That worried the cat. That killed the rat. . That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. This is the cat. This is the cow with the crumpled horn. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That worried the cat. This is the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. This is the dog. That worried the cat. That killed the rat. That killed the rat.125 - . That killed the rat. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That tossed the dog. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That tossed the dog.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 16. This is the maiden all forlorn. This is the rat. This is the man all tattered and torn.

That married the man all tattered and torn. That worried the cat. That married the man all tattered and torn. That tossed the dog. That killed the rat.126 - . That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That worried the cat. That kept the cock that crowed in the morn. This is the cock that crowed in the morn. That killed the rat. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That killed the rat. That kissed the maiden all forlorn. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. That worried the cat. This is the priest all shaven and shorn. That kissed the maiden all forlorn. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. That tossed the dog. That waked the priest all shaven and shorn. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras That kissed the maiden all forlorn. That tossed the dog. This is the farmer sowing his corn. That waked the priest all shaven and shorn. That married the man all tattered and torn.

That worried the cat. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. Waiting for a buttered cake. B and C) a. come. Put a stress mark on the stressed syllables january february march april may june july august september october november december . come.2. Come. Practice 4 (4. That killed the rat. butter. butter. come! Peter stands at the gate. ¿how is the letter ‘a’ pronounced in English in the names of these places? France Japan Brazil Spain Wales China Nassau Arabia Holland Bulgaria Uganda Albania Portugal Malaysia Hungary Romania New Zealand South Africa Yugoslavia Australia C. Unit 4. That tossed the dog. a. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. butter. here are all the months of the year. do you know how these words are pronounced? although borough bough bought brought cough dough drought enough fought nought ought plough rough sought thorough caterpillar thought dizzy tough trough B. Come.127 - .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii That kissed the maiden all forlorn.8. Come butter come Come.

B) I haven’t got a cousin. A) Where? B) All over your face. listen to the teacher or the tape. Practice the intonation pattern. Vocabulary: Veil /vel/ (A thin piece of cloth worn over the woman’s head or face) A) How do you do? B) Dow do you do? A) Haven’t we met before? B) Have we? When? A) At your cousin’s party. ill? B) You’ve got spots. how are you? B) I’m very well. A) Who? B) You. B) Whose cousin? A) Your cousin. A) Hullo. what are they saying? Copy the sentences on your notebook E. A) What do you mean.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras d. A) You must have¡ we met there¡ B) Are you sure it was me? A) Well. A) What shall I do? B) You could always wear a veil. The speakers are speaking very fast.128 - . weak forms. But how are you? A) Why do you ask? B) I thought you looked ill. why don’t we have a cup of coffee and see if we can find out? . A) What spots? B) Sort of red spots.

San Diego Harcourt Brace Iovanovich. Harlow (Essex): Longman.htm . Oxford: Heinemann. A course in pronunciation of english. Teaching english pronunciation.com/englishsyllablestress.129 - .org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# http://www. Sound foundations: Living phonology. Ronalnd W. (1983) Underhill. Langacker.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii BIBlIogRaPhY Roach. Federici Foreword Eulalie Osgood Grover. Inc.ingilish. Hall International English Language Teaching Ltd.oupchina. (1987) Yolanda D. (1977) (1998) An introduction to discourse analysis. (1987) Coulthard.html http://www. London: Longman. (1988) http://iteslj.html http://www. J. Cambridge. M. Mother Gosse rymes.com. P. (1994) Kenworthy.uiowa.hk/dict/phonetic/home. English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mimi. American light verse. Ponsonby. A. How now Brown Cow. Fundamental of linguistic analysis. University of California.

What is an intonation unit’? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ .130 - . What are the four major types of stress identified? Give brief explanation. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras aCTIVITY 1. Define pitch and its classification. Give a definition of tone and mention the different kind of sentences according to the tone. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. mentioning sub classifications. What is intonation and what are the three important features about intonation? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. What can you understand by suprasegmental phonology? Mention the English suprasegmental elements.

Explain ‘tag question’ intonation pattern and give examples? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 13. What pattern do ‘request for repetition’ and ‘greetings’ follow? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 11. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 7. What do you know about length? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 8. Can you explain the rising-falling pattern? Give examples. What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘doubt’ and ‘apology’ follow? Give examples. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 12. How is intonation behind weak forms.131 - . What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘pausing in the middle’ and ‘making lists’ follow? Give examples. linking. elision and shifting tonic? Explain.

How and what exercises would you use to teach suprasegmental aspect of the language to your students in the classroom? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ o .132 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 14.

Syllable Onset Nucleus E. 4. Understand the concept of English syllable. Be aware of the syllabic consonants and its importance for Syllable division. co articulation. 6. 7. Get familiar with syllabification rules.UNIT V ENgLIsh syLLAbLE oBjECTIVES 1. 5. 3. Understand the structure of English Syllable. Find out the difference between phonetic syllable and orthographic syllable.g. Find out the difference between syllable and diphthongs. /k /sk æ i Rythme Coda t/ n/ ‘cat’ ‘skin’ . 2. and breaking in the syllable formation. Understand articulation.

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5. In some cases this may not exactly correspond to a phonetic syllable boundary. and the orthographic syllabification is hap. But the pronunciation has only a single p. /’hæp/ and /n/. The vowel itself may be a short vowel.ENglISh SYllaBlE 5. glad consists of one syllable: /glæd/ Coming consists of two syllables: /km/ and /ŋ/ So does valley: /’væl/ and // tobacco consists of three syllables: /t’bæk/ and // or /-o/ Each syllable contains one vowel. it may be combined with a nasal or liquid to give a SYLLABIC CONSONANT. In the word happen the spelling includes two p’s. The syllabification of entries can be shown by spacing between successive syllables or by a dot. definition In phonetics. Syllables carry the features of stress and intonation.g. It is a group of letters in spelling.lu:. it should be broken at an orthographic syllable boundary. and only one. This vowel may be preceded or followed by one or more consonants. if it is the weak vowel .2. E. a syllable is a group of sounds that are pronounced together. Kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification Phonetic (spoken) syllables must not be confused with orthographic (written) syllables a) Phonetic Syllable.n/. since the rhythm of a word or phrase is determined by the number and nature of the syllables it contains.pen. a long vowel. All four types appear in the example lubrication /. or. and the syllables are /’hæp/ and /n/. They are important in verse and metrics. Every English word consists of one or more complete syllables.1. B) Orthographic syllable.br’ke. /n/ (phonetic syllabification) .pen (orthographic syllabification) b) /’hæp/. Corresponds to syllables classification of the spoken language. The division of a word into syllables is its ‘syllabification’. a) hap. or a diphthong. When a word is split across two lines of writing.

f. and the velar nasal (the ‘/h/’ sound) can also be the nucleus of a syllable. CVV) this is open syllable but if it ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i. In case they have an onset. The consonant or consonant cluster which is following the peak (nucleus) of sonority is called the “coda”.w. the onset is in bold. t. English Syllables may start with 1. s.m.3. consonant clusters are not arbitrarily formed. [ n ].e. [ l ]. read flop strap The consonant clusters which constitute the coda are also not arbitrarily formed. Example: bets. s + (initial) p. The preceding consonant or consonants cluster is called the “onset”.e. Example: bump. Table 3. CVC. [ m ]. and the consonants that cluster around this central peak. There may be two kinds of Final Cluster: 1) Final cluster: /pre-final + final / final + post final. The peak of sonority is called the “nucleus”.r / s:pre-initial/others:initial s + other consonants + (post-initials) l.y. belt 2) Final cluster: /Post-finals (s. . The structure of the syllable (by Tuncer Can) First of all. Structural Properties of the syllable. l. Syllables of English can be “open” or “closed”. In English syllables. English syllables require a nucleus.j =pre-initial+initial+post-initials In the following words. which is usually a vowel. beds).l. VCC) this would be closed syllable. nasal. which are usually consonants or consonant clusters.n. n. they can be described as: ”any consonant except for h. although the consonants [ r ]. 2.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 5. j may be final consonant.w. r. The nucleus is a vowel in most cases. In the word “bar” “a” is the nucleus. z.CV. w. if a syllable ends with a vowel (i. 2 or 3 consonants. if we have a look at the structural properties of syllable we observe that syllable consists of a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel). /q/. their representation is as follows: Consonant Clusters: 1.t. d. For example. the “rt” cluster in the word “art” is the coda. the “b” in the word “bar” is the onset. Parts – onset – Nucleus – Coda description Initial segment of a syllable Central segment of a syllable Closing segment of a syllable optionality (Optional) Obligatory (Optional) As seen in Table 3. For example. and optionally onset or coda.r. Pre-finals (m.136 - . the rest underlined.k.

and must therefore be discussed. n. CVC.z. q = bets. Kinds of syllables according to its structure Syllables of English can be: “open” or closed” 1. This makes the transcription easier to read. l.5 Syllabification Syllable divisions are shown by pacing.e CV. but it cannot be ca-ndi.e.Pre-final + Final+ Post-final or (C) (C) (C) Onset V Nucleus (C) (C) (C) (C) Coda.137 - . 2. t. Final cluster / post final (s.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii So. the structural formula for the English Syllable can be drawn as: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C). s).final + final / final + post final. Closed syllable: If the syllable ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i. These two extracts indicate the complexity of syllabification (in English) and the consequent difficulty in finding rules: . beds). Final cluster / pre . 1. open syllable: If the syllable ends with a vowel (i. d. pre finals (m. or Onset + Rhyme (the rest of the syllable after the onset). VCC) this would be a closed syllable. nasal. with a maximal example being strengths (/strεŋkθs/.4. CVV) 2. Nevertheless the question of syllabification in English is controversial. Pre-initial + Initial + Post-initials -Vowel . since it is not possible initial consonant cluster in English. Rhyme can be divided as nucleus + coda. Hence we can argue whether candy is kan-di or cand-i. as well as making certain details of pronunciation more explicit. It is generally agreed that phonetic syllable divisions must be such as to avoid (as far as possible) creating consonants clusters which are not found in words in isolation. although it can be pronounced /strεŋθs/). 5. One tree diagram exemplifying this phenomenon is: σ rhyme onset nucleus coda 5.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written. In most languages, the actually spoken syllables are the basis of syllabification in writing too. However, due to the very weak correspondence between sounds and letters in the spelling of modern English, for example, written syllabification in English has to be based mostly on etymological i.e. morphological instead of phonetic principles. English “written” syllables therefore do not correspond to the actually spoken syllables of the living language. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllable#Syllabification As a result, most even native English speakers are unable to syllabify (or spell) words with any degree of accuracy without consulting a dictionary or using a word processor. The process is, in fact, so complicated that even schools usually do not provide much more advice on the topic than to consult a dictionary. Even the Internet does not seem to provide any general syllabification guide, explanation, or discussion not meant for experts. In addition, there are differences between British and US syllabification and even between dictionaries of the same kind of English. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllabification http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html

5.6. Rules for Phonetic Syllabification
Harley (2003) proposes fourteen rules to describe how English words are formed or framed. She describes this phenomenon through Phonotactics. She first defines phonotactics as “the rules that describe possible sequences of sounds for forming English words”. These rules are: 1. All phonological words must contain at least one syllable, and hence must contain at least one vowel. 2. Sequences of repeated consonants are not possible. 3. The velar nasal /ng/ never occurs in the onset of a syllable. 4. The glottal fricative /h/ never occurs in the coda of a syllable. 5. The affricates /ts/ and /dz/, and the glottal fricative /h/ do not occur in complex onsets. 6. The first consonant in a two-consonant onset must be an obstruent.(p,t,k, d, f, g). 7. The second consonant in a two-consonant onset must not be a voiced obstruent. 8. If the first consonant of a two-consonant onset is not an /s/, the second consonant must be a liquid or a glide – the second consonant must be /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/. 9. Every subsequence contained within a sequence of consonants must obey all the relevant phonotactic rules.

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10. No glides in syllable codas. 11. The second consonant in a two-consonant coda cannot be /ng/, /d/, /r/, /3/. 12. If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, the first consonant in the coda must also be voiced. 13. When a non-alveolar nasal is in a coda together with a non-alveolar obstruent, they msut have the same place of articulation, and obstruent must be a voiceless stop. 14. Two obstruents in a coda together must have the same voicing.

onset
The following syllable combinations can occur as the onset: All single consonant phonemes except /ŋ/ Plosive plus approximant other than /j/: /pl/, /bl/, /kl/, /gl/, /pr/, /br/, /tr/*, /dr/*, /kr/, /gr/, /tw/, /dw/, /gw/, /kw/ Voiceless fricative plus approximant other than /j/: /fl/, /sl/, /fr/, /θr/, /r/, /sw/, /θw/ Consonant plus /j/: /pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /gj/, /mj/, /nj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /lj/ /s/ plus voiceless plosive: /sp/, /st/, /sk/ /s/ plus nasal: /sm/, /sn/ /s/ plus voiceless fricative: /sf/ /s/ plus voiceless plosive plus approximant: /spl/, /spr/, /spj/, /smj/, /str/, /stj/, /skl/, /skr/, /skw/, /skj/

(Harley, H. 2003)

play, blood, clean, glove, prize, bring, tree, dream, crowd, green, twin, dwarf, language, quick floor, sleep, friend, three, shrimp, swing, thwart pure, beautiful, tube, during, cute, argue, music, new, few, view, thurifer, suit, Zeus, huge, lurid speak, stop, skill smile, snow sphere split, spring, spew, smew, street, student, sclerosis, scream, square, skewer

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Nucleus The following can occur as the nucleus: • • • All vowel sounds /m/, /n/ and /l/ in certain situations ( syllabic) /r/ in rhotic varieties of English () in certain situations (see below under word-level rules, syllabic)

Coda
The following can occur as the coda: The single consonant phonemes except /h/, /w/, /j/ and, in non-rhotic varieties, /r/ Lateral approximant + plosive: /lp/, /lb/, /lt/, /ld/, /lk/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + plosive: /rp/, /rb/, /rt/, /rd/, /rk/, /rg/ Lateral approximant + fricative or affricate: /lf/, /lv/, /lθ/, /ls/, /l/, /lt/, /l/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + fricative or affricate: /rf/, /rv/, /rθ/ /rs/, /r/, /rt/, /r/ Lateral approximant + nasal: /lm/, /ln/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + nasal or lateral: /rm/, /rn/, /rl/ Nasal + homorganic plosive: /mp/, /nt/, /nd/, /ŋk/ Nasal + fricative or affricate: /mf/, /mθ/ in non-rhotic varieties, /nθ/, /ns/, /nz/, /nt/, /n/, /ŋθ/ in some varieties Voiceless fricative + voiceless plosive: /ft/, /sp/, /st/, /sk/ Two voiceless fricatives: Two voiceless plosives: /fθ/ /pt/, /kt/ help, bulb, belt, hold, milk harp, orb, fort, beard, mark, morgue golf, solve, wealth, else, Welsh, belch, indulge dwarf, carve, north, force, marsh, arch, large film, kiln (oven) arm, born, snarl (gruñón) jump, tent, end, pink triumph, warmth, month, prince, bronze, lunch, lounge, length left, crisp, lost, ask fifth opt, act depth, lapse, eighth, klutz (torpe), width (ancho), box

Plosive + voiceless fricative: /pθ/, /ps/, /tθ/, /ts/, /dθ/, /dz/, /ks/

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Lateral approximant + two consonants: /lpt/, /lfθ/, /lts/, /lst/, /lkt/, /lks/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + two consonants: /rmθ/, /rpt/, /rps/, /rts/, /rst/, /rkt/

sculpt, twelfth, waltz, whilst, mulct, calx Warmth, excerpt, corpse, quartz, horst, infarct

Nasal + homorganic plosive + plosive or fricative: Prompt, glimpse, thousandth, /mpt/, /mps/, /ndθ/, /ŋkt/, /ŋks/, /ŋkθ/ in some varieties distinct, jinx, length Three obstruents: /ksθ/, /kst/ sixth, next
Source: http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm

Note: For some speakers, a fricative before /θ/ is elided so that these never appear phonetically: /ffθ/ becomes [fθ], /siksθ/ becomes [sikθ], /twelfθ/ becomes [twelθ]

Syllable-level rules
1. Both the onset and the coda are optional. 2. /j/ at the end of an onset (/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /mj/, /nj/, /lj/, /spj/, /stj/, /skj/) must be followed by /u:/ or // 3. Long vowels and diphthongs are usually not followed by /ŋ/ 4. // is rare in syllable-initial position 5. Stop + /w/ before /u:, , , a/ are excluded.

word-level rules • // does not occur in stressed syllables • // does not occur in word-initial position in native English words although it can occur syllable-initial, e.g. /tr(r)/ • /θj/ occurs in word-initial position in a few obscure words: thew, thurible, etc.; it is more likely to appear syllable initial, e.g. /nθjuz/ • /m/, /n/, /l/ and, in rhotic varieties, /r/ can be the syllable nucleus (ie a syllabic consonant) in an unstressed syllable following another consonant, especially /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/. • Certain short vowel sounds //, /æ/, // and // (Checked vowels) cannot occur without a coda in a single syllable word. In Standard English the checked (//, //, /æ/, //, //, and //) are those that usually must be followed by a consonant in a stressed syllable,
(up, bit, bet, but, put, but). while free vowels are those that may stand in a stressed open syllable with no following consonant. (bee, bay, boo, bra, buy, toe, cow, boy).
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonotactics

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ter Rule 8.142 - . fit i . el tax . it When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word. When a vowel is sounded alone in a word. be . ing nick . sin fe . Rule 12. ver ma . cab . side Rule 7. brush When two or more consonants come between two vowels in a word. jor Rule 10. o gra . The number of vowels sounds in a Word equals the number of syllables. fend ex . u . When two vowels come together in a word. nit un .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 5. ing =3 bell reach . de . A compound word is divided between the two words that make the compound word. ing A one syllable words is never divided. Home= 1 stop rest . When a word has a ck or an x in it. ra . gry When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word. but . el sub . tie Rule 11. Rule 2. in . de. in hab . Rule 5. they make a syllable of their own. it is usually divided after the consonant if the vowel is short. ject =2 feel bush . divide the word between the two vowels. the word is usually divided after the ck or x. pron miss . and are sounded separately. it forms a syllable itself. count di . ball tooth . ba .7 Rules for orthographic syllabification Rule 1. lish . lev . ex and re are at the beginning of a word. ate dis . Rule 6. er Rule 9. A word that has a prefix is divided between the root word and the prefix. i pub. ter hun . it is usually divided between the first two consonants. Consonant blends and digraphs are never separated. it is u s u a l l y divided before the consonant if the vowel is long. di . Rule 13. sis . came de . Rule 3. main . When be. foot . Rule 4. Every syllable has one vowel sound. hale re . et a . a u .

html .createdbyteachers. they make their own syllable. The hyphen (. kind . ble mid . ture. Rule 19. A word that has a suffix is divided between the root word and the suffix. al Rule 18. ed When a word or a syllable ends in al or el. tion pos . lev . lo . A word should be divided between syllables at the end of a line.) stays with the syllable at the end of the line.com/syllablerulescharts. el us . ing Rule 15. When –ed comes at the end of a word. the word is divided before that consonant. ple fum . fund . When ture and tion are at the end of a word. these letters usually form the last syllable. preceded by a consonant. it forms a syllable only when preceded by d or t.143 - . ful stuff . ness thank . ed Rule 17. pur . When a word ends in le. s tart .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Rule 14. u . dle Rule 16. Source: http://www.

O R / / \ | NC | | | [ w i n] ‘wind’ O R / / \ | NC | | | [d ou ] ‘dow (window)’ s O /|\ | | | | | | [st r R / \ N C | || || ŋk θ s ] O R / / \ | NC | | | [r i: d ] ‘read’ s O R / / \ | NC | | | [ r i: d ] ‘read’ s O R / / \ | NC | | | [w i n] ‘win’ ‘strengths’ s O R /\ / \ | | NC | | | | [ f l a p] ‘flap’ s S: syllable O: onset R: rhyme N: nucleus C: coda O R / / \ | NC | | | [ t o p] ‘top’ . Apply the rules to the word syllabification.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Application 1.144 - .

entertain 2. array 8. early 8. record 9. major 4. Autumn 6. aspect 3. defeat 2. below NoUNS 1. separate 6. deliver 5. bishop 2. sharpen 3. yellow 7. complete 3. carpet 5. conquer 8. object 7. polish 10. affair 4. elicit 7. alone 5. heavy 10. compete 8. adjetives and nouns using syllable tree representations. office 7. depend 6. pronounce 5. interrupt 6. petrol 9. Practice 1 a) Read the words loud out providing adequate stress. Two-syllable words VERBS 1. B) Represent the verbs. 1. collect 4. Easy 2. resurrect 3. imagine 9.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit V. determine 10. copy adjECTIVES 1. dentist 10. happy 9.145 - . Three syllable words VERBS 1. deceive 2. abandon 4. dirty .

fantastic 8. First element nominal. decimal 5. important 2.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras adjECTIVES 1. tomato Compound words a. enormous 3. First element adjectival. stress on the first element typewriter car-ferry sunrise suitcase tea-cup c.146 - . negative 9. stress on the second element loud-speaker bad-tempered head-quarters second-class three-wheeler b. accurate 10. abnormal 6. insolent 7. Mixture of type a and b long-surfing gunman shoelace red-blooded gear-box over-weight . veredic 4.

a syllable consists only of a consonant (or consonants). the sequences represented by /je/ and /w/ could be regarded as crescendo diphthongs. A vowel written in LPD (Longman pronunciation dictionary) as i or u is compressed with a following vowel (see COMPRENSSION). the second syllable consists of n alone. In the words yes /jes/ and win /wn/.147 - . Sometimes.ns/. crescendo diphthong may arise in one of two ways.2. (Compare CRESCENDO DIPHTHONGS).fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 5. there are actually two distinct possible outcomes (although admittedly it may be difficult to hear the difference between them).. If so. may be pronounced with a crescendo diphthong ŭ. in the usual pronunciation of suddenly /’sd. 5. in that the prominence decreases as we pass from the first element to the second: the /a/ part of /a/ is more prominent than the // part.n.1. 5. Several English vowel phonemes are diphthongal. . influence /’nflu. especially in AmE.10.9. diphthongs A diphthong is a complex vowel: a sequence of two vowel qualities within a single syllable.is awkward. this consonant (or one of them) is a nasal (usually n) or liquid (l or.9. though.8. Rather than changing all the way to the corresponding semivowel j (giving ‘li:n jnt). All English diphthongs phonemes are diminuendo (falling) diphthongs: in nice nais the prominence decreases as we pass from a to . Similarly. This is particularly likely if a semivowel give rise to a difficult sequence of consonants.10. the i may merely come to form the less prominent part of a crescendo diphthong ĭ. Ordinary diphthongs are diminuendo (or falling).ns/. thus ‘li:n ĭnt. as in glorious /’gl:ris/. Syllabic consonants 5. r). • 5. rather than becoming /’n. The /a/ of time /tam/. thus ‘Inflŭns.li/. Most syllables contain a vowel sound. No English phoneme has crescendo diphthong as its usual phonetic realization.1. for example. Such a consonant is called a syllabic consonant. involves a movement of the tongue from a starting-point /a/ towards an endpoint //. If lenient ‘li:niˇnt is compressed from three syllables to two.9. For example. Crescendo diphthongs 5.flw. Nevertheless. • A semivowel (j or w) is followed by a vowel. A crescendo (or rising) diphthongs is one in which the prominence increases as we pass from the first element to the second. An English diphthong has the same duration and rhythmic characteristics as a long vowel. Where –rj.

thus /’retnŋ/. 5. Thus it is possible. threatening /’retn.2.  are fricatives. Because lPd uses spaces to show syllabification. articulated with a complete obstruction of the mount passage entirely blocking the air flow for a moment. thus suddenly /’sdnli/.ņ. t. z. 5. thus distant /’dstnt/.10. Instead of syllabic consonant it is always possible to pronounce a vowel  plus an ordinary (non-syllabic) consonant. Hence this notation implies that lPd prefers bare n in the second syllable.ŋ/ may be pronounced with three syllables. The IPa (International Phonetic Alphabet) provides a special diacritic. to show a syllabic consonant.) 5.5.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 5. Syllabic consonants are also sometimes used where lPd shows italic  plus a nasal or liquid. d.li/ For AmE syllabic r. articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the air flow turbulent. (In fact. thus /’mdļ/ In father /’f:ð/ or /’f:ðr/ lPd (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary) recommends for AmE (American english) a pronunciation with syllabic r. k. w are semivowels. g are plosives. articulated by completely obstructing the mouth passage but allowing the air to pass out through the nose.10.10.4. with plain n. l are liquids articulated by diverting or modifying the air flow through the mouth.10. a syllabic consonant may arise from almost any sequence of  and a nasal or liquid.148 - . becoming plain non-syllabic consonants: see COMPRESSION. s. θ.10.3. lPd recommends `dIstnt. thus /’f:ð/. Longman Principle Dictionary `s regular principle is that a raised symbol indicates a sound whose insertion lPd does not recommend. though not usual. b. For example.  are affricates. 5. but functioning like consonants because they are not syllabic. . the n must be syllabic. r.6. 5. thus /’f:ð r/. including syllabic n. in some varieties of English or styles of speech. dr) obstruction and the a narrowing of the mouth passage (AFRICATES). to say /’sdnli/ rather than /’sdnli/. in middle /’mdļ/ lPd recommends pronunciations with syllabic l. Any nasal or liquid in a syllable in which there in no other vowel must automatically be syllabic. . while allowing it to pass through continuously. thus /’ret n ŋ/. Likely syllabic consonants are shown with the symbol . Similarly. articulated with firs a complete (and also usually tr. n. anticipatorily like vowels. thus ņ . /’sd. ð. Since there is then no proper vowel in this syllable. m.. articulation English consonants have the following typical manners of articulation: p. 5. it does not need these conventions. When followed by a weak vowel. the symbol  is sometimes used.11.7. but allowing it to pass through continuously without turbulence (see LIQUIDS) j. or compressed into two syllables.10. . ŋ are nasals. v. syllabic consonants may lose their syllabic quality. Although there is a possible pronunciation `dIst nt. f.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii

5.12. Co articulation
5.12.1. Speech sounds tend to be influenced by the speech sounds which surround them. Coarticulation is the retention of a phonetic feature that was present in a preceding sound, or the anticipation of a feature that will be needed for a following sound. Most allophonic variation – though not all – is coarticulatory). For example, a vowel or liquid that is adjacent to a nasal tends to be somewhat nasalized. This coarticulation of nasality applies to the vowels in money /’mni/ and to the l in elm /elm/. 5.12.2. The English “voiced” obstruents tend to be devoiced when adjacent to a voiceless consonant or to a pause, e.g. the consonants in good /gd/ when said in isolation, or in a phrase such as the first good thing. This is coarticulation of voicing. 5.12.3. Many consonants vary somewhat depending on which vowel comes after them. Thus the  in sheep /i:p/ is more i:-like, the  in short /:t/ us /:rt/more :like. This is coarticulation of place of articulation. Other examples are the d in dream /dri:m/ (post-alveolar because of the r) and the b in obvious ‘b viˇs || ‘:b- (sometimes labiodentals because of the v). 5.12.4. For cases where coarticulation is variable, and may lead to the use of what sounds like a different phoneme see ASIMILATION.

5.13. Breaking
When a vowel is followed in the same syllable by r or l, a glide sound  may develop before liquid. The vowel thus become a diphthong, and is said to undergo breaking. Two types of breaking are particularly frequent in English, are shown explicitly in LPD: 1. Feel /f:l/ Besides the traditional pronunciation /f:l/, the form /f:l/ (or fl/) is often to be heard, especially in BrE (British English). This happens when I follows i:, e, a, , and is termed pre-I breaking. 2. Fear /fl/ or /fr/. In AmE (American English), the usual pronunciation involves the phoneme I. (Unlike BrE, AmE has no phoneme ) However, this word may actually sound more like /fr/, especially if said slowly. This is due to pre-r breaking, which arises when r follows I, e, æ, particularly in a word of one syllable.

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Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

BIBlIogRaPhY
Roach, P. (1983) Underhill, A. (1994) Kenworthy, J. (1987) Coulthard, M. (1977) (1998) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman. “Fundamental of linguistic analysis”. University of California, San Diego Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall International English Language Teaching Ltd. Langacker, Ronalnd W. Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman. Sound foundations: Living Phonology. Oxford: Heinemann. English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ponsonby, Mimi. (1987)

http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jrubba/phon/syllables.html

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fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii

aCTIVITY
1. What is a syllable? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Explain the structure of a syllable. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Mention kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Mention kinds of syllables according to its structure. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What do you understand by syllabification? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Mention some phonic syllabification rules. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Mention some orthographic syllabification rules. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

8. What is a diphthong? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. What do you understand by crescendo diphthongs? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. What is a Syllabic consonant? Mention some of them. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. What is the difference between articulation and co articulation? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 8. What is breaking? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. Represent the words using a tree, similar to ones we have present earlier in the course: lunch, cooper, transatlantic, syllabic, rhyme, island, breakfast and book. lunch cooper transatlantic syllabic

rhyme

breakfast

book

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Deepen the information received. Reinforce the theory on suprasegmental phonology. Apply the theory into the classroom. 4. 2.UNIT VI sELECTED rEADINg oBjECTIVES 1. 3. Clarify certain concepts form another perspective. .

.

The findings from research 4. It is also spoken among non-native speakers within countries like India. This article presents my research into the pronunciation of global English and gives some teaching implications. What are the implications for pronunciation teaching? 1. we need to identify which pronunciation features are crucial for mutual understanding when a non-native speaker of English talks . and across speakers from different countries/first languages. English is no longer spoken only by its native speakers in the UK.1. lecturer in sociolinguistics and phonology at King’s College. Their argument is that native speaker accents are not necessarily the most intelligible or appropriate accents when a non-native speaker is communicating with another non-native speaker. and by those who learn English in order to communicate with native speakers. This last use of English is often referred to as ‘English as an International Language’ or EIL. As regards intelligible pronunciation for EIL. the Philippines and Singapore and internationally among non.5 billion. Australia and New Zealand. both among speakers within a particular country who share a first language. and it is this kind of English which we will focus on here as it is the largest group of English speakers. 2. gloBal ENglISh aNd ThE TEaChINg oF PRoNUNCIaTIoN Jennifer Jenkins. What is global English? 2.native speakers from a wide range of countries/first languages throughout the world. numbering around 1. What are the implications of EIL for pronunciation? 3. London The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the teaching of English. what is global English? The term ‘global English’ is being used increasingly nowadays. It is a means of demonstrating that English is spoken in every part of the world.6. what are the implications of EIl for pronunciation? The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the teaching of English. 1. North America.

For example.. where there is an added meaning (such as that another person known to the speaker and listener does not use a computer). The aim was to find out which features of British/American English pronunciation are essential for intelligible pronunciation.. ‘of’ and ‘from’ whose vowels are often pronounced as schwa instead of with their full quality. • • The ‘th’ sounds (see above) vowel quality. Other features of connected speech such as assimilation (where the final sound of a word alters to make it more like the first sound of the next word. that is. These are.156 - . Stress timing. not interactions between a native and non-native speaker of English. The contrast between long and short vowels is important. For example. Pitch movement.. the difference between the vowel sounds in ‘sit’ and seat’ Nuclear (or tonic) stress is also essential. ‘red paint’ becomes ‘reb paint’.g. e. These are often not the same features that are crucial and unimportant for a native speaker of English 3. there is a difference in meaning between ‘My son uses a computer’ which is a neutral statement of fact and ‘My SON uses a computer’. Weak forms such as the words ‘to’. • • • • • All these things are said to be important for a native speaker listener either because they aid intelligibility or because they are thought to make an accent more appropriate. • • On the other hand. For example. a German speaker may pronounce the ‘e’ in the word ‘chess’ more like an ‘a’ as in the word ‘cat’. This is to indicate that it is intended as a guide for lingua franca interactions. • • All the consonants are important except for ‘th’ sounds as in ‘thin’ and ‘this’ Consonant clusters are important at the beginning and in the middle of words. many other items which are regularly taught on English pronunciation courses appear not to be essential for intelligibility in EIL interactions. The main features of the Lingua Franca Core are. the cluster in the word ‘string’ cannot be simplified to ‘sting’ or ‘tring’ and remain intelligible. Word stress. and which are not. e. This is the stress on the most important word (or syllable) in a group of words. the difference between vowel sounds where length is not involved. The findings have been formed into a pronunciation core for teaching which is known as the Lingua Franca Core.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras to another non-native speaker and which are not at all important.. The findings from research In my research I analysed interactions between non-native speakers of English. .g. so that.

But for EIL communication. when students are learning English so that they can use it in international contexts with other non-native speakers from different first languages. they should be given the choice of acquiring a pronunciation that is more relevant to EIL intelligibility than traditional pronunciation syllabuses offer. For EIL. the goal of pronunciation teaching has been to enable students to acquire an accent that is as close as possible to that of a native speaker. UNMSM-EPG .uk. ”Global English and the teaching of pronunciation”. teaching.org. students should be given plenty of exposure in their pronunciation classrooms to other non-native accents of English so that they can understand them easily even if a speaker has not yet managed to acquire the core features. After all. this is much more important than having classroom exposure to native speaker accents. The non-core items are not only unimportant for intelligibility but also socially more appropriate. London. That is. So why should non-native speakers of an international language not be allowed to do the same? Finally. by Jennifer Jenkins.website. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge (2002). Lecturer in sociolinguistics and phonology at King’s College. this is not the most intelligible accent and some of the non-core items may even make them less intelligible to another non-native speaker. native speakers have different accents depending on the region where they were born and live. Up to now. what are the implications for pronunciation teaching? • Students should be given choice. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.157 - .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. • • Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6.2. RhYThM Steve Darn. The phonology of any language is a system. Sentence stress 2. Conclusion The system looks like this: Sounds Word stress Sentence stress Phonology Features of connected speech Intonations Rhythm English is a very rhythmical language. Izmir University of Economics Rhythm is both a feature of and product of the phonological structure of English. . Connected speech 3.158 - . so that a change in one part of the system will affect some or all of the other parts. 1. what happens to words when we put them in an utterance.e. Recognition 5. so that a learner who can maintain the rhythm of the language is more likely to sound both natural and fluent. Production 6. The two components of the system which have the greatest influence on rhythm are sentence stress and the various features of connected speech. Teaching rhythm 4. i.

sounds unnatural and does not help the listener to distinguish emphasis or meaning. they’ve. adjectives and adverbs). The remaining words are ‘grammatical’ words and are unstressed or ‘weak’ (conjunctions. Connected speech Speed is also a factor in fluency. of. In stress-timed languages. Turkish and West Indian English) in which syllables are produced at a steady rate which is unaffected by stress differences. we speak in groups of words which are continuous and may not have pauses between them. When we speak quickly. This causes changes to the ‘shape’ of words. won’t. An awareness-raising approach is often more profitable. pronouns. Sentence stress is an important factor in fluency. to. Unstressed words always sound different when used in a sentence as opposed to being said in isolation. the most common vowel sound in English. some words carry a stress. should’ve). These are the ‘strong’ or ‘lexical’ words (usually nouns. starting by asking students what happens to certain words when we put them in a sentence: . there is a roughly equal amount of time between each stress in a sentence. was. and because it is an important feature of weak forms.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Sentence stress In any sentence. articles). compared with a syllable-timed language (such as French. learners should be able to recognise and produce it. as English spoken with only strong forms has the wrong rhythm. some of which are acceptable in written English (can’t. The most common of these are: • • • Elision (losing sounds) linking (adding or joining sounds between words) assimilation (changing sounds) Added to these is the use of the schwa. were) and contractions. auxiliaries. prepositions.159 - . verbs. have. There is a temptation to try to teach the rules associated with these features. However. we often ignore other features which preserve rhythm and make the language sound natural. didn’t. ‘It’s the worst thing that you could do’ The rhythm produced by this combination of stressed and unstressed syllables is a major characteristic of spoken English and makes English a stress-timed language. using phonemic script to write examples. he’d. The most common features of connected speech are the weak forms of grammatical and some lexical words (and. I’ll. Many unstressed vowel sounds tend to become schwa.

“What’s the third / fifth / seventh word?” in the sentence. and highlighting these on the board. Teaching weak forms and contractions at the presentation stage. Integrate rhythm and other aspects of phonology into grammar. focusing either on rhythm as a whole or on contributing aspects. learners are often introduced first to written forms and then to the complexities of spelling. . is a product of sentence stress and what happens to the words and sounds between the stresses. Marking stresses and weak forms. Use natural language themselves in the classroom. Recognition • • • • • • • • • Speed dictations (the boys are good / the boy is good / the boy was good). Using recordings of deliberately ‘unnatural’ English. Teachers should remember to: • • • • • Provide natural models of new target language before introducing the written form. Ask. then. Learners whose mother tongue is phonemic or syllabletimed have particular problems. Teaching rhythm Rhythm. vocabulary and functional language lessons as well as listening and speaking activities.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras listen it’s upstairs one or two right kind why did you? unpopular first girl Christmas ask them four o’clock blue apple last Monday This might be followed by a categorisation task. Authentic listening. Dictogloss and other variations on dictation.160 - . Teach recognition before production. and divided into recognition and production activities. Unfortunately. Encourage learners to listen carefully to authentic speech. Using tapescripts. A number of useful teaching techniques are listed here. Matching phrases to stress patterns. from which rules or guidelines could be elicited. Ask students how many words they hear in a sentence (to practise recognising word boundaries).

Reading aloud (with plenty of rehearsal time) Focus on short utterances with distinctive stress and intonation patterns and a specific rhythm (long numbers. notes and memos (build the rhythm with content words. Poems. Focus on stress in short dialogues (can you? yes I can) Making short dialogues.org.UNMSM-EPG .161 - .uk.website. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. Attention to phonology begins at lower levels and builds up as learners progress towards fluency. jumping) in time to the rhythm of the sentence . clapping. Conclusion Because phonology is a system. functional and skills development. 2007 Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. This article published: 4th April.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Production • • • • • • • • • • • Drills (especially back-chaining). while most integrated syllabuses include pronunciation activities which run in parallel to structural. paying attention to stress and rhythm (How often do you speak English? Once in a while) Headlines. connected speech and intonation. (the rhythm of English lends itself to rock and pop music. while rap involves fitting words into distinct beat). There are specific phonology courses available. Izmir University of Economics British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. then add the rest) Reading out short sentences with only the stressed words (How…come…school?). football results) Jazz chants. then add the other words without slowing down. tapping.” Rhythm” by Steve Darn. ‘phone numbers. rhymes and tongue-twisters (limericks are good at higher levels). Above all it is important to remember that there is a place for phonology in nearly every lesson. learners cannot achieve a natural rhythm in speech without understanding the stress-timed nature of the language and the interrelated components of stress. Physical movement (finger-clicking. Songs. teaching.

Using songs to focus on connected speech 4. Songs are authentic and easily accessible examples of spoken English. Using songs to focus on words 3. you might already use songs in class. Using songs to focus on sounds Sounds are the smallest unit from which words are formed and can be categorised as vowels and consonants.3. Here. • However. dEVEloPINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh SoNgS Balbina Ebong & Marta J. They can be motivating for students keen to repeatedly listen to and imitate their musical heroes. and find that your students enjoy them. incorrectly pronounced sounds strain communication. The rhymes in songs provide listeners with repetition of similar sounds. we look at some aspects of pronunciation that can be focused on through songs. sometimes even changing a phrase’s meaning. But have you considered choosing songs specifically to work on pronunciation? Songs provide examples of authentic. students have to learn to ‘physically’ produce certain sounds previously unknown to them. Conclusion 1. Sabbadini. 1. Learners can find sounds difficult to pick out.162 - . memorable and rhythmic language. British Council. Using songs to focus on sounds 2. and may not see the point in focusing on them. Cameroon Like us. . we create activities based on songs’ rhymes. Why are they difficult? • As languages differ in their range of sounds. Students often choose to listen to songs time and again.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. How songs can help • • What we do To focus learners on particular sounds. indirectly exposing them to these sounds.

Students listen and fill the gaps. the number of syllables is not always identical.‘anger man . Words in songs fit the music. We write the pairs separately on cards and give out one set per group of four or five students. They then listen to the song and ‘grab’ the correct one. 2.mad (From ‘Imagine’ by John Lennon).163 - . using the song to guide them. activity 2 We choose six words from a song from which minimal pairs can be created heaven .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii activity 1 We replace some of the rhymes in the song. though students often find this hard to believe. Choices are then checked against the lyrics. with memorable rhythms.even hunger . How songs can help • . helping learners associate the number of syllables / stress in these words. with a gap. Why are they difficult? • • • Even when the same words exist in both languages. A word is uttered in syllables. with very complex ‘rules’ to guide learners. usually one emphasised syllable (the stress) and the rest weak (unstressed). Moreover. (From ‘An Englishman in New York. More analytically minded students can then categorise the words according to sounds. we highlight differences between sounds. using the lyrics to show how changing one sound can alter meaning (minimal pairs). focusing on these can result in over-emphasis (not weakening) of these syllables. Using songs to focus on words Words are combinations of sounds which form together to give meaning. Each English word has its own stress pattern.’ by Sting) talk New York walk : e day say one sun run  Alternatively. The students then match the pairs. Weak syllables are central to English.

linking together and emphasising certain words. especially those where the music makes the stress patterns clearer. without their realizing. Why is it difficult? • • • • Students normally learn words individually and. are full of contractions. Songs. especially at lower levels. We then drill these words and sing or chant the whole song through. checking their predictions. with students underlining the stressed syllable whilst listening.164 - . 3. in order to sing the song as they hear it. rather than each word standing alone. we repeat the activity. to the extent that the written form too is affected. only used in ‘slang’.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras • • The relaxed atmosphere songs create can expose students to this difficult pronunciation area. activity 3 We give out the lyrics. Students then listen. with certain words for students to guess the number of syllables. Using songs to focus on connected speech Connected speech is the natural way we speak. The music further emphasises the ‘flow’ of the words. helping to convince learners of the way English is pronounced. and especially the chorus. Songs contain endless examples of weak syllables. What we do To raise learners’ awareness of the number of syllables / word stress. provide real and ‘catchy’ examples of how whole phrases are pronounced often to the extent that students find it difficult to pick out individual words. like other spoken texts. Students can be keen to reproduce this. Songs. Students frequently misconceive contractions as being ‘incorrect’. tend to pronounce each word separately. our activities target specific words. How songs can help • • What we do We use songs that have numerous contracted words to convince learners that contractions are natural in English. At higher levels. Contractions (two words forming one) are an extreme example of the way we connect speech. leaving a space by each word to write the number in. . Not all words within a phrase carry the same weight.

However. Alternatively. they rewrite the words with the contractions ‘I’m wondering why’ ‘I can’t see’ • This works even with the lowest level classes. students then order the lines of the song on strips of paper by remembering the tune. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. and singing only these. To help learners hear how words flow in phrases. identifying the contracted words. • 4. activity 5 • • • We play each line of the chorus. Cameroon. depending on the area of pronunciation we are focusing on. replacing the rest with ‘mmm’. for example for a ‘song contest’. teaching. In groups.uk. likely to appeal to our learners (possibly songs they already know) and easy to create activities for.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii activity 4 • We rewrite the lyrics with the contractions in full form ‘I am wondering why’ ‘I cannot see’ • Students listen. Finally. for learners to hum back until they get the rhythm. we choose catchy tunes for learners to fit words to. a word of warning: songs are creative works.165 - . On a second listening. more creative groups could write their own words to fit the tune. students can practise and present their singing. Sabbadini.org. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. we try to choose songs that are clear (use quality recordings where possible). so be ready to justify the occasional ‘mis-pronunciation’ to your students! This article published: 21st June. Finally.” Developing English through songs” by Balbina Ebong & Marta J.UNMSM-EPG . Conclusion There are no ‘standard’ songs for teaching pronunciation. memorable. British Council. not too fast. Any song can be an example of different pronunciation aspects. Other activities can focus on highlighting the strong words in phrases. 2006.website.

166 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Using songs to focus on connected speech SONgS ‘Imagine’ by John Lennon Imagine there’s no Heaven It’s easy if you try No hell below us Above us only sky Imagine all the people Living for today Imagine there’s no countries It isn’t hard to do Nothing to kill or die for And no religion too Imagine all the people Living life in peace You may say that I’m a dreamer But I’m not the only one I hope someday you’ll join us And the world will be as one Imagine no possessions I wonder if you can No need for greed or hunger A brotherhood of man Imagine all the people Sharing all the world You may say that I’m a dreamer But I’m not the only one I hope someday you’ll join us And the world will live as one .

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii ‘An Englishman in New York. sobriety are rare in this society At night a candle’s brighter than the sun Takes more than combat gear to make a man Takes more than a license for a gun Confront your enemies.167 - .’ by Sting I don’t drink coffee I take tea my dear I like my toast done on one side And you can hear it in my accent when I talk I’m an Englishman in New York See me walking down Fifth Avenue A walking cane here at my side I take it everywhere I walk I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York If. “Manners maketh man” as someone said Then he’s the hero of the day It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile Be yourself no matter what they say I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York . “Manners maketh man” as someone said Then he’s the hero of the day It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile Be yourself no matter what they say I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York Modesty. avoid them when you can A gentleman will walk but never run If. propriety can lead to notoriety You could end up as the only one Gentleness.

While stressed syllables maintain the full vowel sound. nouns.4. main verbs. 1. banana. make sure it’s the most common English sound . and are reduced to keep the stress pattern regular. why I teach the schwa To understand the concept of word or sentence stress. For example. articles. adjectives and adverbs. experiment. Conclusion 1. which include the occurrence of the schwa. . especially when listening to native speakers. are normally stressed in connected speech. often becoming a schwa Listen to these two examples of the same question. and the vowel sounds lose their purity. colour. This means that they are said faster and at a lower volume than stressed syllables. leading to mistakes such as. they may fail to recognise known language. stresses occur at regular intervals. “What you do?’” and “They coming now”. Why I teach the schwa 3. if learners expect to hear the full pronunciation of all vowel sounds. excellent. linkers and prepositions are not usually stressed. “ Whát kínd of músic dó yóu líke?” “ Whatkín of músic doyoulíke?” (slowly) (fast) The same thing happens with individual words. Even if they understand. TEaChINg ThE SChwa Catherine Morley. How I teach the schwa 4. unstressed syllables are weakened. 2. sister. British Council. Mexico If you only learn or teach one phoneme. The words which are most important for communication of the message.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. why the schwa is the most common sound In stress-timed languages such as English. picture. button. The first is with every word stressed and the second is faster and more natural with vowels being reduced. but it will raise their awareness of an important feature of spoken English. Helping your students to notice the schwa won’t necessarily lead to an immediate improvement in listening skills or natural-sounding pronunciation. that is. learners also need to be aware of the characteristics of ‘unstress’. students often do not notice unstressed auxiliaries. pronouns. the letters in bold in the following words can all be pronounced with a schwa (depending on the speaker’s accent): support. Grammar words such as auxiliary verbs. In addition.168 - .the schwa. Why the schwa is the most common sound 2.

and that you will not repeat anything. you can drill the sentences. and ask learners which words are stressed. Read the first sentence again and ask learners to identify the schwa sounds. Warn students that you are going to dictate at normal speaking speed. although again there is some variation between accents. Try to maintain natural sentence stress when drilling.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. while others offer corrections. The teacher can correct any final mistakes that other learners do not notice. as it also recycles grammar and vocabulary. it can be repeated several times with the same group of students. Say the first sentence again naturally. This is where the sentence is drilled starting from the end. I used these questions with Pre-Intermediate level students. gradually adding more words. My students found the following. even if it’s only one word.169 - . Once this is done. invite individual learners to write the sentences on the board. following revision of present simple questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) How many brothers and sisters have you got? How often do you play tennis? What kind of music do you like? What time do you usually get up? How much does it cost? After reading the sentences. . perhaps by ‘backchaining’. Repeat the sentence naturally until students are able to do this. Next. Tell them to write what they hear. Then read again. Then point to the schwa on the phonemic chart and make a schwa sound. Then read out some sentences or questions including language recently studied in class. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) How many brothers and sisters have you got? How often do you play tennis? What kind of music do you like? What time do you usually get up? How much does it cost? I normally get learners to write the schwa symbol underneath the alphabetic script. For example. while students make changes and additions. until learners are able to correctly identify the stressed syllables. However. trying to keep stress and intonation consistent. before a final comparison with their partner(s). A danger of focusing on the schwa is that it can be given too much emphasis. how I teach the schwa Fast dictation I find this activity useful for introducing the schwa in context. Ask them to identify the stress and schwas in the other sentences. working in pairs or groups. Get students to repeat. allow students to compare in pairs or groups. Repeat the sentence. so correct this tendency if it occurs in individual and choral repetitions.

British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. There will probably be differences. They then listen or watch and compare their version with the recording. Conclusion Many of my students have seemed fascinated by the insight that English is not spoken as they thought. prepositions). Do stressed syllables ever contain schwa? (No). with every vowel being given its full sound. Before listening or watching. I ask learners some awareness-raising questions: • • • • What kinds of words are stressed? (Content words. British Council.” Teaching the Schwa” by Catherine Morley. that learners are tempted to pronounce the full vowel sound in unstressed syllables. main verbs. 2006).UNMSM-EPG . even when drilling.e. adjectives. This recycles vocabulary. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. a gentle reminder You may still find.uk. Do you think this is more important for listening or speaking? (Students will often say ‘speaking’ but in fact this is more important for what Underhill calls ‘receptive pronunciation’: learners will still be understood if they give all vowel sounds their full value. but this can lead to a useful discussion. and after an initial introduction to the schwa start to look for it themselves in other words and sentences. I give my students a gentle reminder that schwa is the ‘Friday afternoon’ sound. raising issues such as variations in the use of schwa between accents. i. word stress and schwa I often ask learners to identify word stress and schwa in multiple-syllable words recently studied in class. ask learners to identify the stressed syllables and schwas. i.170 - . and illustrates the point that schwa does not occur in stressed syllables.org. and to rehearse speaking the text. and emphatic stress to correct what someone else has said. auxiliary verbs. adverbs). articles.e. but in either case their expectations of how English sounds will have changed (This article published 21ts march. More ambitious students take every opportunity to practise this ‘native-speaker’ feature. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. nouns. Mexico. while others revert to the full vowel sound after drilling. teaching.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras After doing this activity for the first time. pronouns. It also helps with aural comprehension as well as correct pronunciation of these words. Stress and schwa prediction Take a short section of tape or video script (a short dialogue or a few short paragraphs of spoken text). What kinds of words are generally not stressed? (‘Grammar words’. but it’s worth practising these features orally to help learners ‘develop an ear’ for them). Slumping in the chair and looking exhausted while saying schwa normally gets a laugh! 4. linkers.website.

It has the following features: • • It’s divided into phrases. Listen to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words: the ‘melody’ you hear is the intonation. The pitch moves up and down. Sabbadini. The tonic-syllable is usually a high-content word. Everybody has their own pitch range. Conclusion 1. and as such.5. Changing the intonation can completely change the meaning. Without intonation. Cameroon Intonation is crucial for communication. the pitch movement (a rise or fall in tone. we find ways of making the language accessible to our learners. It’s no surprise that many teachers don’t feel confident about tackling it in the classroom. • • . what is intonation? Intonation is about how we say things. it’s impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words. a complex aspect of pronunciation. or a combination of the two) takes place on the most important syllable known as the ‘tonic-syllable’. INToNaTIoN Marta J. How I help my students: • • • • Awareness-raising Intonation and grammar Intonation and attitudes Intonation and discourse 5. British Council. also known as ‘tone-units’. In each tone unit. rather than what we say. English has particularly wide pitchrange.171 - . too. within a ‘pitch range’. When teaching grammar or lexis. These patterns of pitch variation are essential to a phrase’s meaning. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation? 4. Languages. Example: Say: ‘It’s raining’. What is intonation? 2. How then to do this with intonation? 1. Why teach intonation? 3. differ in pitch range. near the end of the unit.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. It’s also a largely unconscious mechanism.

However. Let students compare two examples of the same phrase.this is what gives movement to our voices. Are there students whose language is ‘correct’. is greater awareness of intonation to facilitate their speaking and listening. why teach intonation? Intonation exists in every language. but giving it different meaning. or ‘How annoying!’. point out that the difference is made by intonation . 3. Some examples are: . Ask students to have a 2-minute conversation in pairs as ‘robots’ (elicit the word using a picture if necessary). Get students to imitate my intonation. Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings. visualise the melody in your head. So it makes sense to approach it together with other factors. ex: varied/flat intonation. learners are often so busy finding their words that intonation suffers. English / L1. Yet intonation can be as important as word choice . I see these as starting-points. ‘seeing’ how it’s divided into tone-units. When they then go back to speaking ‘normally’. focus on your students’ intonation. speakers losing interest or even taking offence! Though it’s unlikely our learners will need native-speaker-level pronunciation. or ‘That’s great!’. rather than rules. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation? It’s difficult to hear our own intonation.don’t be afraid to exaggerate your intonation. You could say it to mean ‘What a surprise!’. what they do need. but something doesn’t sound right? Do they come across as boring or insincere? It may well be their pitch range isn’t varied enough. Next time you do a class speaking activity.172 - . Intonation and grammar Where patterns associating intonation and grammar are predictable. how I help my students awareness-raising Some techniques I find useful for raising learners’ awareness of intonation: Provide learners with models . so the concept we’re introducing isn’t new. 2. just humming.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras - Now say it again using the same words.we don’t always realise how much difference intonation makes: • • Awareness of intonation aids communication. There are many possibilities. i. I highlight these to my students. Intonation doesn’t exist in isolation. 4. but without words. with no intonation. Choose somebody to listen to closely: as you listen.e.

‘relieved’. Students make notes about what they think each person’s job is. even if it’s difficult to provide rules here. Anything else? Yes. One chocolate (fall-rise) ice-cream. they greet the class with that character’s voice. For younger learners.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Wh-word questions: falling intonation Yes / No questions: rising Statements: falling Question . ‘shared’ knowledge = ‘fall-rise’. For example. one strawberry (fall). I say ‘bananas’ for these. and one vanilla (fall-rise). rising.) Each student is allocated a character and. The first thing is for learners to recognise the effect of intonation changes. Here. ‘check’ .Tags: ‘chat’ . etc. ‘bored’. Students then do the same in pairs. the class identify each person’s attitude. ‘surprised’. Intonation and attitude It’s important that students are aware of the strong link between intonation and attitude. .falling. then ‘uninterested’ (flat). We then brainstorm attitudes. I use ‘Mr Men’ characters (Miss Happy. Question-Tags: Students in groups are assigned jobs to mime to each other. At the end. Students identify the two and describe the difference. we can give our learners clearer guidelines: ‘new’ information = fall tone. A simple shopping dialogue demonstrates this: SK: C: SK: C: SK: C: Can I help you? I’d like a chocolate (fall) ice-cream. At the end. Anything else? One strawberry (fall) ice-cream. one strawberry (fall).firstly with an ‘interested’ intonation (varied tone). I say the word ‘bananas’ . aren’t you?’. This can be developed by asking students to ‘greet’ everybody with a particular attitude. One chocolate (fall). They then have to check they’ve understood the jobs: Students use rising/falling intonation question-tags depending how sure they are: ‘You’re a pilot. Miss Frightened. falling When practising these constructions.173 - . as above. guessing each other’s attitude. rising.rising Lists: rising. students confirm their jobs. such as ‘enthusiastic’. I include activities focusing specifically on intonation. Mr Grumpy. Intonation and discourse Learners’ also need awareness of intonation in longer stretches of language. One chocolate (fall).

org. Use a consistent system for marking intonation on the board for example: arrow for tone. I use my hands to indicate it (fall = hand pointing down. Help students find patterns / rules-of-thumb. Although I don’t refer to intonation directly. wherever possible. teaching. 2006.” Intonation” by Marta J. Cameroon British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. and makes interesting remedial/revision work. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. tonic-syllable in CAPITALS. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. Keep it positive and don’t expect perfection. UNMSM-EPG . Avoid going into theory. we memorise the dialogue together. 5. The last thing I’d want is to make my students so anxious about their intonation that they stop speaking! This article published: 16th March. Students then prepare their own dialogues. double lines ( // ) for tone-unit boundaries. Provide realistic and clear contexts.website. British Council.uk. and then practice reading accordingly.174 - . fall-rise = down then up).Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Higher level students can identify the ‘new’ / ‘shared’ information. With lower level students. Remember that students don’t always have to ‘know’ we’re focusing on intonation: every time I drill phrases they’re hearing intonation models. I’ve found my learners pick up these patterns very quickly. Conclusion When working on intonation in the classroom: Remember that intonation is relevant to any speaking activity. Sabbadini.

. preferably in different ways. woRd STRESS Emma Pathare. Why word stress is important 2.” Now reverse the stress patterns for the two words and you should be able to make sense of the sentence! “I carried the bottle to the hotel. why word stress is important Mistakes in word stress are a common cause of misunderstanding in English.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. Trainer. for example. In the classroom 6. How I help my students 5. Teacher.175 - .” oO desert* Oo desert** Oo hottle Think about the grammatical difference between desert* and desert**. Here are the reasons why: Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word very difficult to hear and understand.6. Dubai A major benefit of focusing students on how words are stressed is the extra mental engagement with the word that it gives. in order to really learn it . What word stress is 3. try saying the following words: oO b’tell And now in a sentence: “I carried the b’tell to the hottle.” Stressing a word differently can change the meaning or type of the word: “They will desert* the desert** by tomorrow.identifying and practising word stress can provide one or two of those engagements. 1. Conclusion 1. Some ‘rules’ of word stress 4. A language learner needs to engage with a word many times.

com p-u-ter It is loUdER . These three reasons tell me that word stress is an important part of the English language. Listen to yourself. It uses larger facial movements . It is said more clearly -The vowel sound is purer. Say it out loud.Look in the mirror when you say the word. The pitch of a stressed syllable is usually higher. we use a combination of different features. mistakes with word stress can make the listener feel irritated.comPUTer It has a change in pitch from the syllables coming before and afterwards. Some ‘rules’ of word stress There are patterns in word stress in English but.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras I will look at this in more detail later. Look at your jaw and lips in particular. and it is something I should help my students with. What are you doing so that the listener can hear that stress? A stressed syllable combines five features: It is l-o-n-g-e-r .176 - . Even if the speaker can be understood. The second syllable of the three is stressed. Here are some general tendencies for word stress in English: . it is dangerous to say there are fixed rules. what word stress is When we stress syllables in words. and could prevent good communication from taking place. Exceptions can usually be found. It is equally important to remember that the unstressed syllables of a word have the opposite features of a stressed syllable! 3. or perhaps even amused. Compare the first and last vowel sounds with the stressed sound. Experiment now with the word computer. as a rule (!). 2.

Patterns can usually be found. for example: Oo Final Neutral o O oo Finality Neutrality Ooo Finalise Neutralise oooOo finalisation neutralisation There are some recognised differences in word stress which depend on the variety of English being used.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii word apple table happy Type of word two-syllable nouns and adjectives Tendency stress on the first syllable oo apple Exceptions hotel lagoon suspect import insult the noun has stress on the first syllable oo “You are the suspect!” words which can be used as both the verb has stress on the second nouns and verbs syllable oo “I suspect you. how I help my students Students can be alarmed when they meet words which are similar but have different stress patterns: Oo Equal o O oo Equality Ooo Equalise oooOo Equalisation A useful thing you can do is to help students see connections with other word families.” fairly equally balanced but with stronger stress on the first part oo hairbrush respect witness hairbrush football compound nouns 4.177 - . for example: OoOo Caribbean aluminium (British English) OOoo Caribbean aluminium (American English) .

unhappy). It is very easy to see and has the added advantage of identifying the number of syllables in the word. Build students’ confidence by drawing their attention to the tendencies and patterns in word stress that do exist. If words like these come up in class. 5. Instead. Students also need to be aware of the way dictionaries usually mark stress . Some learners love to learn about the ‘technical’ side of language. The students build the words using different blocks to represent stressed and unstressed syllables. These will help to raise the students’ awareness of word stress and its importance.small circle (O o) method. Quickly and simply elicit the stress pattern of the word from the students (as you would the meaning) and mark it on the board.g. Try to use a variety of approaches: helping students to engage with English in different ways will help them in their goal to become more proficient users of the language. ‘apple. and then a section for the pattern o o. In the classroom Raise awareness & build confidence You can use the same questions with your students that I have used in this article. hospital) and o o o (computer. (Children’s small building blocks are a good substitute!) Integrate word stress into your lessons You don’t need to teach separate lessons on word stress. small coloured blocks are great for helping students to ‘see’ the word stress. The ideal time to focus students’ attention on it is when introducing vocabulary. students will be able to check word stress independently. Meaning and spelling are usually clarified for students but the sound and stress of the word can all too often be forgotten. By knowing this.with a mark before the stressed syllable. you can integrate it into your normal lessons.this will heighten awareness and interest. hearing the music of word stress or seeing the shapes of the words. . e.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras These differences are noted in good learner dictionaries. Cuisenaire rods These different sized. point them out to students. I use the big circle . Drill it too! Students can use stress patterns as another way to organise and sort their vocabulary. Three syllable words can be sorted into o o o (Saturday. Ask if there are similar cases of differences in word stress in their own language . For example. Mark the stress Use a clear easy-to-see way of marking stress on the board and on handouts for students.178 - . in their vocabulary books they can have a section for nouns with the pattern o o. as well as the stressed syllable. while others like to ‘feel’ or ‘see’ the language more.

uk.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Remember what I noted before: The more times students mentally engage with new vocabulary. .the first or second?” “Is it Emma or Emma?” Then you can question students about their own names .” Word Stress” by Emma Pathare. By hearing the word stressed incorrectly. really exaggerating the stressed syllable and compressing the unstressed ones. A useful strategy is to focus on one word putting the stress on its different syllables in turn. Engaging students through word stress helps to reinforce the learning of the words. Ask the students which version of the word sounds ‘the best’ or ‘the most natural’. I introduce word stress with my name: “How many parts/syllables are there in my name?” “Which is the strongest . Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. A personalised and effective way of getting students to hear the importance of correct word stress is by using people’s names as examples. students can more easily pick out the correct version. DubaiBritish Council BBC and It is used free of charge. teaching.website. For example: oo0 Computer 0oo Computer o0o Computer Say the word in the different ways for the students. many students (and teachers!) find it difficult to hear word stress.this will give them a personalised connection to the issue of words stress. Trainer. Teacher.org. Troubleshooting Initially.UNMSM-EPG. but working on word stress can be fun and over time will help your students to be better understood and more confident speakers (this article published 21th february 2005). with a word they will never forget! Conclusion Any work on aspects of pronunciation can take a long time to show improvements and be challenging for both the students and the teacher. the more they are likely to actually learn it. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.179 - .

without clear-cut borderlines between each word. however. Working on weak forms 5. we assume we hear words with which we are familiar within that context. is that speech is a continuous stream of sounds. Aspects of connected speech 4. phonetically ambiguous pairs like “ a new display” / “ a nudist play”. How this affects native and non-native speakers 3. are rarely a problem as we are actively making predictions about which syntactic forms and lexical items are likely to occur in a given situation. Non-native speakers. Recently however. In real life interaction. Thus. we have various devices for dealing with indistinct utterances caused by connected speech. and often from those at an advanced level. 2. that is to say. which may be more important in terms of overall intelligibility. certain words are lost. how this affects native and non-native speakers As native speakers. where ignorance of the vocabulary used is not the reason for their lack of comprehension. We take account of the context. they have no trouble comprehending. what connected speech is? “English people speak so fast” is a complaint I often hear from my students. Conclusion 1. When students see a spoken sentence in its written form. What connected speech is? 2. Why is this? The reason. are rarely able to predict which lexical item may or may not appear in a particular situation. CoNNECTEd SPEECh Connected speech 1 Vanessa Steele Teaching pronunciation used to involve little more than identifying and practicing the sounds of which a language is composed.7. and certain phonemes linked together as we attempt to get our message across.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. They tend to depend almost solely on the sounds .180 - . there has been a shift of focus towards the other systems operating within phonology. it seems. In spoken discourse. its phonemes. we adapt our pronunciation to our audience and articulate with maximal economy of movement rather than maximal clarity. 1.

particularly for those whose language is syllable timed. but also to use them themselves when speaking English.) 3.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii which they hear. I have. conjunctions. . Some examples of words which have weak forms are. pronouns. auxiliaries and articles are often lost. to give the phrase rhythm. this is not the case with weak forms. (full) Should Well.) of A pint of beer That´s the last of the wine! have Have you finished? (weak) Yes. the degree to which connected speech contributes towards “naturalness” or “intelligibility”. Thus. and in trying to make the intervals between stressed syllables equal. This. (Both”should” and “have” are weak here) The relevance of certain features of connected speech to students’ needs is often debated. This is because English is a stressed timed language. and fish and chips (fish´n chips) a chair and a table (a chair ´n a table) Can She can speak Spanish better than I can (The first “can” is the weak form. we tend to swallow non-essential words.” (Brown 1990. is a useful starting point from which to measure the value to students of the different features of connected speech. the second the full form. with too many stressed forms making it difficult for the listener to identify the points of focus. Learners whose instruction has focused heavily on accuracy suffer a “devastating diminuation of phonetic information at the segmental level when they encounter normal speech. Learners must come to not only recognise and cope with the weak forms they hear. causing comprehension problems for students. However. prepositions. If they do not their language will sound unnatural and over formalised. you should have told me. aspects of connected speech So what is it that we do when stringing words together that causes so many problems for students? Weak Forms There are a large number of words in English which can have a “full” form and a “weak” form.181 - .

and to reveal one at a time. discussing reasons for the changes the groups have made. who should then work in pairs to try to make the speech more natural sounding. the weak form in phrases with “of” (a loaf of bread. . Conduct a general feedback session at the end of the activity.182 - . and ask students to listen and write down the number of words they hear. a can of coke ). working on weak forms Here are some ways in which we can attempt to help our students with weak forms. play them several times to the students. Try not to fall into the text book trap of dividing language up into isolated chunks. 5. like speech. then pronunciation and so on. or a group of sentences. When you have a few sentences.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. and the “full” form of “to” with the linking “w” sound before the vowel. or record themselves using a more natural pronunciation. To obtain “unnatural speech”. A good way of doing this is to put the words onto flash cards. so the reader gives each word its full pronunciation. Integrate weak forms into grammar work. Integrating Integrate pronunciation into vocabulary work. How many words do you hear? Play a short dialogue. and students will benefit from learning the weak forms and stress patterns of new words from the start. for example. the teacher can write on the board examples such as. They can then either use graphics to show the points they would change. One lesson on grammar. practising. Conclusion Pronunciation work should be seen as an integral part of what goes on in the classroom. record someone reading a sentence as if it were just a list of words. rather than in a remedial lesson months later. Go over each phrase to check whether they could identify all the words and then to see if they can accurately produce what they heard. Go on holiday Earn more money Buy a car Ask different students to read these phrases as a sentence with “going to”. pointing out that the full version is often more difficult to pronounce. a cup of coffee. or take turns reading out their different versions. If practising “going to” for example. Contrast the weak or natural version with the full version. the next on vocabulary. Unnatural speech Activities built around “unnatural speech” are an enjoyable way of working on weak forms and rhythm. All language. is connected. Listen for and highlight the weak form of “to” before the consonant sounds.

but can often sound over formal and at times stilted.183 - . is the first step towards helping your learners to speak a little more naturally. Conclusion 1. and the different aspects of connected speech help to explain why written English is so different from spoken English. aspects of connected speech Speech is a continuous stream of sounds. Elision 4. what is it that native speakers do when stringing words together that causes so many problems for students? 2. Even if they do not assimilate these forms at first.. Intrusion and linking 3.”) Connected speech 2 Vanessa Steele An advanced student of mine speaks both clearly and usually correctly.“How to Teach Pronunciation. Working on connected speech 5. Aspects of connected speech 2. In normal social interaction though. the simple awareness of their existence can help enormously in enabling students to better understand the language they hear.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Raising students awareness of these forms. be insistent or threatening. a conscious choice if we want to emphasize a point. His delivery is an attempt at a precise version of every sound. With native speakers.” ( Gerald Kelly. Integrating work on connected speech 6. “. this is not usually the case and articulatory imprecision is the more natural and functional option. For example: . without clear-cut borderlines between them. / w / or / r / . we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a / j /. He has learnt his English “through the eye” and has trouble interpreting the utterances of native speakers who do not monitor their output. So. articulatory precision is a stylistic device.. whenever they arise. 1.in many cases. a device referred to as intrusion. to mark the transition sound between the two vowels. Intrusion and linking When two vowel sounds meet.

lib(a)ry. For example. the sound may disappear altogether. (notatall) It´s no joke.184 - . especially when they appear in a consonant cluster. a native speaker’s aim in connecting words is maxium ease and efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across. Intruding /j/ I /j/ agree. (geton) Not at all. we weaken our articulation. Law(r)and order.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Intruding /r/ The media /r/ are to blame. it is / t / and / d / which are most commonly elided. a process known as elision. It is the vowels from unstressed syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation. t(o)night. (snow joke) 3. Word boundaries involving a consonant and a vowel are also linked. sim(i)lar. / t / and / d / With consonants. They /j/ are here! Intruding /w/ I want to /w/ eat. For example: Get on. Elision As I have mentioned. diff(e)rent. as we tend to drag final consonants to initial vowels or vice versa. Please do /w/ it. In minimizing our efforts. chris(t)mas san(d)wich . int(e)rest. If articulation is weakened too much. Common sound deletions A syllable containing the unstressed “schwa” or is often lost. For example.

185 - . or read them yourself. once using the elided forms. and ask the learners to listen again and write down how many sounds they hear. then again in a more clipped. like this: 3 you 4 must 4 tell 3 him Now play a recording of the phrases. Prompt them if necessary. working on connected speech If your learners have not worked on these forms before. • Drill the phrases then ask the students to practise these phrases themselves. • . Highlight that the features of connected speech not only make the phrase more natural sounding but that it is also easier to pronounce the words in this way. for example. you might wish to set some lesson time aside to work specifically on these features of connected speech. For example. emphatic manner. and write the numbers which they give you on the board above the words. for example. you shouldn´t (h)ave tell (h)im.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii The same process can occur across word boundaries. the “t” is really pronunced twice between “must” and “tell”. Then ask the class to count the number of sounds in each word. You could also read out the phrases. For example: That´s an interesting idea. You must tell him. Try if possible to use language you have recently been working on in the classroom. Are you coming out tonight? It´s the tallest building. or only once. asking if. 4. mus(t) be the firs(t) three you an(d) me we stopp(ed) for lunch /h/ The / h / sound is also often deleted. One way of introducing them to sound deletions could be to write a few short phrases on the board. Ask the learners which sounds more natural.

Students might like to write their own general knowledge quiz. Phrasal verbs can also be used to show how we tend to link final consonants and initial vowels across word boundaries. • Superlatives. 5. provide practise of sound deletions. using questions such as. chorally and individually. don´t focus solely on the form of the words. Drill the phrases. for example.186 - . you could write a few phrases on the board: The Nile is the longest river in the world. The Vatican is the smallest country in the world. / w / and / j / is when studying phrasal verbs. make sure they elide the final “t” (unless of course. Do/ w /up Play / j / up Go/ w /away Go/ w /out • Drill the verbs chorally and individually before providing a more personalized practice activity in which students ask each other questions using the verbs you are focusing on. and they highlight the importance of listening to words rather than relying on their written forms. Anything which you have recently been working on in class can be used as a basis for pronunciation work. • Such exercises provide practice of both grammatical form and pronunciation. Get out (getout) Put on (puton) Come out (cumout) .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Exercises like this help to show learners the differences between written and spoken English. and the repetition helps students to begin using these features of connected speech in a natural manner. draw attention to the way they are pronounced in natural conversation. For example. the next word begins with a vowel). Integrating work on connected speech It is a good idea to try and integrate work on connected speech into everyday lessons. • • Ask the students to listen to the sounds while you repeat the phrases a few times and see if they can spot the disappearance of the “t” on the superlative adjective. When studying grammar for example. a useful way of practising the intruding sounds / r /. “Which is the tallest building in the world?” As they read their questions.

This article published: 28th February.website. that by simply drawing students attention to these forms. However. Research does suggest though.” Connected Speech 1.org.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. by Vanessa Steele. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge.uk. as well as valuable. they will need time and confidence in order to assimilate the features of connected speech and to make them their own. UNMSM-EPG .2. teaching. Conclusion Students often find pronunciation work fun and stimulating. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. 2005 Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.187 - . you are givng them considerable help towards making sense of the language they hear.

British Council. Speaking activities 6. Spain Sentence stress is a difficult area to work on for learners and teachers alike. Conclusion English is a stress timed language The English language is often referred to as stress-timed. This means that stress in a spoken sentence occurs at regular intervals and the length it takes to say something depends on the number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself. In other languages. For this reason it’s also an area which is often neglected. ENglISh SENTENCE STRESS Lynn Gallacher. Listening 3. listening In a recent class I discussed with my students the reasons they found listening difficult in English.8. but this aspect of the language can cause problems for learners in both their speaking and perhaps more importantly listening. 1. English is a stress timed language 2. Some comments were: “The words come too fast” “I panic when I don’t understand every word” “Some words are swallowed” .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. which are not stress-timed the stress would fall more equally on each word and syllable. Speaking 5. Listening activities 4. Try saying or listening to the sentences below: 1 1 and 1 and a 1 and then a 2 2 and 2 and a 2 and then a 3 3 and 3 and a 3 and then a 4 4 4 4 The four sentences take the same length of time to say and you will notice the numbers are stressed and the unstressed words in between are said much more quickly in order to keep the rhythm of the language.188 - .

Speaking Stress timing can help speakers communicate meaning. I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. The important conclusion being it is not necessary to understand every word. students write down the important (stressed) words they hear. Play a fairly short listening extract. Learners need to be made aware of the fact that the way they say something can affect it’s meaning. Play the tape to check the predictions. listening activities Here are some activities I’ve done in class with students of all levels to raise awareness of stress time in English and help them overcome the difficulties it causes during listening. You can hear that the meaning changes. I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. amongst other things. I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. . Read to the sentence below with the stress on different words. nouns and adjectives. is the stress-timed aspect of English. and using their knowledge of the language to build meaning. Students mark on the tape script the words that are stressed. taking note of the important words. Emphasise that this isn’t a dictation exercise you don’t want students to try to write down every word. Not using stress-time can also make students sound laboured when they speak and can cause irritation on the part of the listener. Compare the students’ version with the original. give the students the tape script and play a very short extract. They will usually be the words that give meaning: verbs. Discuss with students the aim of this activity . After completing a listening comprehension task in class. You can play the tape several times. usually stressed ones. I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. Discuss the kinds of words that are stressed. maybe a paragraph in length. In groups ask the students to try and recreate the listening extract using the words they have and their knowledge of the English language.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii I think what students are referring to here. The activities below are designed to practise stress-time and increase students’ fluency.to show how native speakers listen and understand the language.189 - . Give the students the tape script to a listening before they hear it and ask them to predict which words they think will be stressed.

who the speaker is talking to and the context they are speaking in.website. Next we used the cassette from the course book they were using. The students in groups then try writing one. 2005). and chose a two-person dialogue to listen to. so don’t expect instant results (this article published 17th january. There once was a lady named Lynn Who was so uncommonly thin. she slipped through the straw and fell in! I read the limericks aloud and checked the students understand them. Recently I was working with 2 advanced students who were about to take the speaking part of the Proficiency exam. The students.” English Sentence Stress”. Next we mark the stressed syllables and the students read the limericks out. They spoke very deliberately and gave words equal stress. Spain. It’s also quite a difficult area for students to work on.teaching. trying to keep to the rhythm.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Speaking activities Stress timing is most noticeable in patterned language such as poetry and limericks. using the tape-script. And the smile on the face of the tiger. British Council. Conclusion In this article I have outlined the difficulty my students have with listening and speaking in relation to English as a stress-timed language and suggested some ways to help students. I asked them to record themselves speaking and then listen to the recording. recorded themselves again and again until the dialogue sounded as close as possible to the original. that when she essayed to drink lemonade.uk. Speech rhythms change according to the meaning the speaker wants to convey. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. After the ride She was inside. UNMSM-EPG . British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. Here are some limericks I’ve used with my students: There was a young lady from Niger. by Lynn Gallacher.190 - . Who smiled as she rode on a tiger. They were aware they didn’t sound fluent but still didn’t know what to do about it. It’s fun to use the names of the students in the class to start the limerick. Their grammar and vocabulary was fine but when they spoke English they didn’t sound fluent.org. It should be noted that stress-time is only one of many factors that influence how we say something.

This includes diphthongs. In my work as a teacher trainer I have been surprised at how often experienced teachers are reluctant to tackle pronunciation issues in class. the activity also serves to work on students’ accuracy through the feedback we give them on their use of language. Sentence stress 7. and secondly the fact that isolated exercises once a month do not seem to have much of an effect. Spain. INTEgRaTINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN INTo ClaSSRooM aCTIVITIES Barney Griffiths. grammar and lexis. which means integrating it into daily classroom procedures. Using student talk to teach pronunciation 2.191 - . however. set phrases…and within the former I will include notes on any area of pronunciation that leads to miscommunication. like all other areas of language teaching. When my students do such a group or pair work activity at any level I listen in and take notes which are divided into three areas of language: pronunciation. 1. word stress and sentence stress. Teacher trainer. Within the latter. However. Conclusion 1. This is not surprising. Word stress 3. vowel sounds (including weak forms). Materials writer.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. as well as unknown lexis I will also include areas such as register. Vowel sounds 4. Pronunciation work has traditionally taken a secondary role in language teaching to work on grammar and more recently lexis. consonant sounds. Whenever students do a freer speaking activity. the lack of clear guidelines and rules available in course books. I can think of at least two reasons why pronunciation tends to be neglected: firstly. Using student talk to teach pronunciation Pronunciation work can be kept simple and employ exercises which are both accessible and enjoyable for students. . Weak forms 6. I find that addressing issues regularly during the language feedback or group correction stage of a lesson helps to focus learners’ attention on its importance and lead to more positive experiences. Diphthongs 5.9. whatever their level. the main aim is usually for them to develop their spoken fluency in the language. All of these areas can be dealt with quickly and efficiently by having some simple exercises ready which require nothing more than the board and a basic knowledge of the phonemic chart. function. Teacher. pronunciation needs constant attention for it to have a lasting affect on students.

which I accept as correct before asking for verbs only. ‘ea’. ‘bed’. I then ask for examples of words which rhyme with this. In this column I write the word ‘dead’ and have students repeat it. This is why all students should be encouraged to copy the list into their notebooks. Vowel sounds I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘Not now because he is did (dead)’. The listener doesn’t understand because of the mispronunciation and asks the other student to repeat until finally they write it down and we see what the word was. the second much larger. ‘lead’. giving myself some thinking time. on the board I draw a column with the heading /e/.e. I write ‘suppose’ under the bubbles and drill it before asking students to think of other two syllable words with second-syllable stress. In this case. I put students in pairs or groups to think of words. for example. 3. I either ask them to think of examples that contradict their rule to give myself time to consider it or I tell them we will look at rules for this the following lesson. ‘below’ and ‘behind’. which students find easy (‘red’. depending on the level I will get ‘head’. it can be introduced from beginner level and students are quick to appreciate its value. I then get ‘accept’. Once your students get used to the exercises.192 - . word stress Here is a simple exercise I repeat regularly for work on word stress and individual sounds. in this case ‘Do all 2-syllable verbs have this stress pattern?’. After the activity. rather than their simply revising the lists. on the board I put a column with two bubbles to represent word stress. ‘today’. pronunciation work becomes even more efficient and dare I say it. effective. ‘read’. ‘bread’. .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras If learners are introduced to the phonemic chart one phoneme at a time. however.). I then ask for words which rhyme and have the same vowel spelling. i. writing them down and their organisation into columns that helps learners retain sounds and spellings. etc. I do not write these. ‘forget’…. It is the cognitive work of trying to think of similar words.… and we end up with an extendable list of words with the same spelling and sound. 2. I get ‘outside’. ‘believe’. If a student asks for rules during this exercise. I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘I suppose (pronounced with stress on first syllable) I will see her tonight’. After the activity. A rule for when ‘ea’ is pronounced /e/ (head) and when it is pronounced /i:/ (bead) will not necessarily aid production. too. the first small.and these go in the same column. whereas the activities I propose here will. As a general rule I find that this procedure encourages learner autonomy by having learners form their own hypotheses which are then confirmed or disproved by the teacher in the following lesson.

marking the word stress. but avoid adding more so as not to overwhelm students at this level. ‘buy’. The only way to learn these fundamental pronunciation points is to notice them. particularly if it is a strange or different spelling. etc. I accept these without writing them and then encourage students to think of other words spelt like ‘find’. but probably not ‘rind’ or ‘hind’). I make a column with a schwa. /e/ ‘ea’ Dead Head ‘ai’ Said . I note that this is also an opportunity to work on word stress. for example.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii If the classroom allows it. I add to the list ‘comfortable’ and ‘presentable’ as further examples. ‘e’ Bed Pen 4. ‘eye’. such as students’ confusion at the lack of a steadfast rule or the non-uniformity of the examples. and drill ‘vegetable’. weak forms I hear an elementary learner say: ‘I will buy vegetables (pronouncing ‘table’ at the end)’.193 - . I get ‘mind’ and ‘kind’. it’s also a great idea to have students pin posters with sound columns up on the wall and add to them whenever a new item comes up for that sound. 5. diphthongs I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘I didn’t find (pronounced / f i: n d /) it anywhere’. If I have thought of any other words myself I add them to the column. drill ‘find’ and my students give me ‘fight’. For the second example I point out that the stress is on the second syllable. With an elementary class there is a case for simply teaching this point rather than eliciting known words. so I point out the number of syllables and the stress on the beginning of the word. In my experience this approach is not a useful one. for the sound. explaining that this makes the final syllable weak and not pronounced as the word ‘table’. ‘my’. ‘bike’. ensuring that they are not obscure words or too high for this particular level (in this case I might choose to introduce ‘bind’ and ‘grind’. The idea is to get a basic poster with a phoneme at the top and various columns with different spellings. note them down and practise them regularly. I make a column with /ai/. There may be only one or two for any given pattern. but to cater to this merely serves to reinforce students’ belief that a language always obeys a strict set of rules. I can think of objections teachers have made to my suggesting this.

I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘He told me I couldn’t have a holiday’ (bold words are stressed). the pronouns. students do seem to internalise how English stress differs from their own language and helps overcome what in later stages of learning becomes a fossilised way of speaking. but if highlighted early on and practised relatively often. or grammar words. The activity is simply a choral drill. Using gesture like the conductor of an orchestra or tapping on the board to show the rhythm is especially helpful for students who cannot hear it easily.e. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. Regular work in this area helps learners to develop their own hypotheses and gut-feeling for English pronunciation. I have attempted to provide a couple of very simple exercises here to help teachers integrate pronunciation into their classes on a regular basis. Conclusion One of the beauties of using student speech for pronunciation work is that it directly addresses students problems. teaching. ‘He told me I couldn’t have a holiday’. Think in terms of modelling a rhythm. Spain . but keep the stress and rhythm natural. Teacher. but of the whole sentence and maintaining an English rhythm. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. rather than a stress pattern.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6.uk. Admittedly.website.UNMSM-EPG . 7. by Barney Griffiths. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. Teacher trainer. something experts and researchers have long emphasised as an essential skill of a good language learner (this article published 8th november. This causes confusion due to the stress being placed on the wrong words in the sentence.org. Sentence stress I use fluency drills to work on sentence stress. as opposed to the content words. i. this latter exercise on sentence stress does seem to take longer to have an effect. The trick here is not to over-exaggerate on the stressed words.194 - . Materials writer. Sentence stress causes more communication problems for a fluent speaker than any number of grammatical errors. 2004).” Integrating pronunciation in the classroom”.

Knowing phonemic symbols enables students to get the maximum information from dictionaries. Here are five good reasons why students should know phonemic symbols. Why use phonemic symbols? 2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols? 3. Don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols? 1. Students can use dictionaries effectively. Using them can be a valuable tool to improving your students’ pronunciation. like g in got) How many syllables are there in ‘chocolate’? (3) Here a few challenging questions to put to your students: The letters of the alphabet can be a poor guide to pronunciation.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. why use phonemic symbols? The alphabet which we use to write English has 26 letters but (British) English has 44 sounds.195 - . What is more. 1. English spelling is not a reliable guide to pronunciation because • • • • • • Some letters have more than one sound Sometimes letters are not pronounced at all The same sound may be represented by different letters Sometimes syllables indicated by the spelling are not pronounced at all How do you pronounce gh in ‘enough’. They can find out the pronunciation of a word by themselves without asking the teacher. Which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn? 6. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols? 4. Each symbol represents one sound consistently. TEaChINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN wITh PhoNEMIC SYMBolS Alan Stanton. The second bit of information in dictionaries for English language learners is the word in phonemic symbols. Students can become independent learners. What is the best way to learn phonemic symbols? 5. It comes right after the word itself. not pronounced. If they cannot use phonemic . 1.10. Phonemic symbols. ‘through’ and ‘ghost’? (like f in fun. they can write down the correct pronunciation of a word that they hear.1.2. in contrast. 1. teacher trainer and materials writer Phonemic symbols represent the sounds of the English language. Inevitably. are a totally reliable guide.

such as ‘pet’. then they are using the sense of touch as well. Students can learn these symbols by themselves and one day you might meet a student who asks you to write a word on the board using phonemic symbols.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras symbols for this. Students can see that two words differ. Just as they have a dictionary for vocabulary and a grammar book for grammar. there is still a limited and clearly defined set of things to learn. yes. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols? To be frank. Moreover. It is a very small learning load.5. individual sounds and include linking. 3. That leaves just 25 to learn. you will be able to name every bone in the human body. For example they can see that ‘son’ and sun’ must be pronounced the same because the phonemic symbols are the same. The chart is a map of English sounds. 19 of the 44 symbols have the same sound and shape as letters of the alphabet. because they are unlikely to have been exposed to any . Anyone who can drive is able to recognise more than 25 symbols giving information about road conditions. Phonemic symbols are a visual aid. If you are a doctor.3. 1. then you know phonemic symbols. are part of every student’s armoury of learning resources. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols? Absolutely not. Even with a map. Compare that with the hundreds of different pieces of information in a grammar book or the thousands of words in even a small dictionary. Even if we go beyond separate. 2. They can use their eyes to help their ears and if they are able to hold and manipulate cards with the symbols on. you can get lost but you are better off with a map than without one. Even if they have not mastered all of them. the better they will learn. Here is another question to ask students: How many different sounds are there in English? Usually. which most people don’t.4. arranged in a chart.196 - . Phonemic symbols on the wall in a classroom remind them that there are 44. they know what the target is and where the problems are. in pronunciation. key words that show the sound of each symbol. look the same whether written with phonemic symbols or letters of the alphabet. 4. Every profession has specialist knowledge that is not widely known outside the profession. This means that some words. The more senses students use. If you are a language teacher. or are the same. knowledge of how the language works is still of great value. elision and assimilation. 1. which most people can’t do. Phonemic symbols. what is the best way to learn phonemic symbols? Most native-speaker teachers of English learn grammar from the textbooks they use when they first start teaching. students do not know. so they need reference materials for pronunciation: the phonemic symbols and simple. It is best to be prepared. Although speaking a language is a performance skill. it is visual and shapes are easy to remember. they will use the sound values of letters in their own language and this will perpetuate pronunciation errors. 1.

it is best to start by teaching students a large number of consonant symbols and a small number of easy vowel symbols such as /e/ and /i/. so it needs special attention. it is easy and you never forget. however. Note. There is not just one perfect way to say each sound . which is a very effective way of learning. each one occupies a box. 6. Think of the pieces in a game of chess.197 - . an accent which is not frequently heard nowadays. 5. They learn by teaching. Experience shows that students are very likely to make mistakes with the symbol /j/. The point is that words such as ‘ship’. Simply knowing that the symbol : indicates a long sound can be very helpful. depending on the influence of other sounds and on individual ways of speaking. ‘sip’ and ‘seep’ should sound different from each other. not the initial sound of ‘judge’. You just need to keep one symbol ahead of the students. This indicates that the real sound that you actually hear can vary up to certain limits. When the symbols are arranged in a chart.there is an acceptable range of pronunciations. because most of them have the same form as a letter of the alphabet (17 out of 24). sheep’. that the sound /j/ represents the initial sound of ‘yellow’. shape and appearance but we can always recognise a knight because it behaves like a knight and not like a king. There is no end to our study of grammar and vocabulary but phonemic symbols are limited. Most native-speaker teachers do not have this accent but still use phonemic symbols. . Learning phonemic symbols will help students to understand the importance of length and voicing.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii formal study of English grammar. They can vary considerably in size. They may seem challenging at first but it is like learning to swim or ride a bicycle. It is possible to learn phonemic symbols in the same way. It is true that the 44 phonemes in British English are based on the sounds of Received Pronunciation. not that each sound is pronounced exactly like the sounds of RP. Once you can do it. visual and physical. which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn? The consonants are the easiest. Therefore. don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols? Not at all.

org. BBC and It is used free of charge.website.” Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols”. teaching.Unvoiced and voiced pairs 1 Unvoiced Voiced Consonants . teacher trainer and materials writer. by Alan Stanton. UNMSM-EPG .uk.198 - . Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. 2002) Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.Unvoiced and voiced pairs 2 Unvoiced Voiced other consonants f v  ð s z   m n ŋ h l r w j (this article published 5th march.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras PhoNEMIC SYMBolS i: Vowel sounds u:  : æ a:  :  a   e diphthongs  e  a k g    p b  e t d Consonants .

which the teacher confirms or rejects. Individual learners prepare a recently learned word in phonemic script. you could restrict the number of vowel sounds used. They then have to write the words in alphabetic script.g. you can download and copy the chart for them to use with their homework. British Council. Learners in groups identify the mistake and replace it with the correct phoneme. clicking on the ‘correct’ sound for each word. Give the students a list of recently learned words in phonemic script. then give its alphabetic spelling.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. 4. • • . Other learners have to identify the word. PRoNUNCIaTIoN ChaRT aCTIVITIES Catherine Morley. at the same time as revising the phonemic symbols. Sound and spelling correspondence. 3. This can be made more learner-centred if.11. Using the chart for autonomous learning. All these activities assume that learners have had at least some initial introduction to the phonemic alphabet. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols. the chart can be used in class to recycle and reinforce recently learned vocabulary. Mexico These activities are designed for use with the teaching English interactive phonemic chart. They can come and click on these sounds on the board or computer to check. Voiced and unvoiced consonants. and give learners the options they have to choose from. In groups. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols If you have a computer with a projector. They come to the board or computer and spell it out. learners choose 5 recently learned words and write them in phonemic script for homework. A variation on both the above activities is for you or the learners to prepare phonemic transcriptions of vocabulary with a deliberate mistake. To make the activity easier. after some work in class on the phonemic alphabet. In the next class they exchange books and use the chart to help them work out the words. one of the vowel sounds. one student can stand at the board or sit at the computer. If your students have access to computers at home. • Give the students a list of recently learned words with a specific sound underlined. They can send a group member to the board or the computer to click on sounds to help them check. When checking with the whole class.199 - . 2. The learners then categorise the words into the different vowel sounds. e. they have to work out what the words are. and any mistakes in the phonemic transcription. 1. 1.

with s or z? (The answer should be z). They then write the name of a favourite famous person in phonemic script on a piece of paper (an English name. The teacher gives one learner a word. You can help learners with this by getting them to make the ‘bee’ sounds for z.g. why they like this person. the main difference between the pair is whether the consonant is voiced or unvoiced. do the same and put your fingers on your throat. You could then give them a list of words and ask them to categorise the underlined consonant sound into these two categories. indicating that the learners should do the same. The class as a whole has to work out who it is using their existing knowledge of the phonemic chart. while other learners identify it. Tom Cruise. • . and the other team calls out a word (you could specify a subject area. they can find the person who wrote it and ask some more questions. Begin by asking learners what noise a bee makes. or leave the choice of words open). Make the sounds with your fingers on your throat. He taps it out on the board. As they make a buzzing noise. recently learned vocabulary. • • 2. the teacher gives one learner a word in phonemic script. and the other team gets a point for giving the correct spelling. with the teacher having the final say.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras • Learners work in two teams. As a variation. Tell them that this is the main difference between the two sounds. Learners have to work out who this person is . This will allow them to feel the vibrations of the vocal chords that occur with voiced consonant sounds. Then focus on a voiced / unvoiced pair such as s and z. not Enrique Iglesias). what films they’ve been in etc. e. With /s/ and /z/. One team member stands at the board or sits at the computer. • This discovery activity can be used to help learners notice the difference between voiced and unvoiced consonants. written alphabetically. Ask them when they feel the vocal chords vibrate .g. and the sound a snake is supposed to make for s. The team member has to spell out the word on the chart.200 - . whether or not the vocal chords vibrate when making this sound. and receives a point for a correct answer. In this list the sound being focused on is the final sound in each case. and that z is voiced while s is unvoiced. you might choose to include some third person singular verb and plural endings. Write the name of your favourite famous person in phonemic script on the board. Voiced and unvoiced consonants Certain pairs of consonants can be problematic for some learners.they can take turns in clicking on the sounds on the board or the computer to check individual sounds. indicating that they should do likewise. Once they’ve worked out the name. that is. In some cases. The teacher collects these and redistributes them. The class is the judge. Ask them if they can feel the vibrations. e. The learner has to tap out the word in phonemic script.

It also helps learners to become conscious of the muscle movements involved in voicing a consonant. All of this will be useful in future classes if problem arise in the discrimination or production of voiced / unvoiced consonant pairs. focusing on initial consonant sounds.e. with their fingers on their throat to check if it is voiced or unvoiced. you could do a minimal pairs activity using some voiced / unvoiced pairs. learners could do this in pairs. the teacher or a learner could click on sounds while the rest of the class repeat them and categorise them into voiced or unvoiced. They listen to a sound and repeat it. After each word learners have to say voiced or unvoiced. the fingers on the throat. and a shared gesture that learners and the teacher can use in class to indicate that a sound is voiced or unvoiced. i. In class with the computer and a projector. They can then test each other in pairs. In a computer lab.201 - . . depending on which of the pair they hear. Display this list or something similar on the board and say a word from each pair. As a follow up.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii /s/ cups speaks gets puts tents plants bags looks stops rice place • /z/ pens reads goes lives cars sees hears learns rise rose plays Learners then use the chart to decide which of the other consonant sounds are voiced and which are unvoiced. Voiced ben do gone van gin zoo Unvoiced pen to con fan chin sue • • This activity has the advantage of establishing the voiced / unvoiced distinction.

given that 80% of English words do fit into regular patterns.202 - . • • . you could give learners the following list of words including the letter a. Learners will have at least some idea of how these words are pronounced. Italian or Japanese where there is a very high correspondence between sound and spelling may need to have their attention drawn to the different possibilities for pronunciation in English. (It makes the vowel sound ‘say its name’. which they categorise according to how the as are pronounced. using the chart to help them. banana. the ‘a’ in ‘cape’ sounds like the letter A as it is said in the alphabet. normally a vowel or vowels. take. capital. One way of doing this is to give them a list of known words where the same letter or combination of letters. i. practice. For example. give the students the phonemic symbols for the different possible pronunciations of e.e. For example. represent different sounds. checking with a dictionary if necessary. understand. underline which a you want them to use to make their categorisations. To make the activity easier. Sound and spelling correspondence The chart can also be used to highlight both patterns and variations in sound and spelling correspondence.) It is not advisable to over-emphasise the irregularity of English spelling. The teacher then asks them to formulate a general ‘rule’ for the effect of adding an ‘e’ to the end of a word. before holding a final class check. art. However. Where the word contains more than one a with different sounds. car. speakers of languages such as Spanish. make.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 3. as a discovery activity to help learners notice the effect of adding an ‘e’ to the end of a word. average. Spanish. you could give the learners some of the words from the following list: cap mat pin not pet kit sit win hat cut • cape mate pine note pete kite site wine hate cute Learners use the chart to help them write the phonemic transcription for each word. and can categorise the words according to the sound represented.

Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. in the next class. which learners can check using the online chart before bringing to class. for example with the sounds /i:/ and /I/. both in and out of class. Depending on their level.UNMSM-EPG . they might come up with something like this: /I/ sit hit hill mill bin ship • /i:/ seat heat wheel meal been sheep They can use these to test their classmates’ ability to discriminate between these sounds. This is particularly useful for learners who are not yet fully familiar with all the sounds on the chart. • you can also set homework related to pronunciation.” Pronunciation Chart Activities”. and say one of the words. Encourage your learners to record the pronunciation of new words they meet. in their vocabulary notebooks. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. as well as their own pronunciation. teaching. in the list above. BBC and It is used free of charge. if student A says ‘seat’.uk. Mexico.org. to be used to test their classmates. by Catherine Morley. your learners could prepare their own ‘minimal pairs’.203 - . They simply show the two lists of words to a partner. student B will (hopefully) respond ‘right’ (this article published 17th january. ask them to find 5 words including that sound and write them in phonemic script. With a little training.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. As mentioned above. you could ask them to write 5 new words from the class in phonemic script for homework.website. Similarly. The partner responds ‘left’ or ‘right’. 2005). they can use the chart together with a dictionary to check the pronunciation of new words they meet in their own reading. For example. if you want to focus on a sound which is problematic for your learners. British Council. Using the chart for autonomous learning If learners have access to a computer outside class.

For example. and thus very suitable for pronunciation exercises (For instance: Practice makes perfect.12. Well begun is half done. students will prefer reading “No pains. Haste makes waste.204 - . He who has an art has everywhere a part. / The early bird catches the worm. rhyme and repetition. New lords. Kind words are the music of the world. A little pot is soon hot. Finders keepers. however. will give fun. new laws. A drowning man will catch at a straw. Vowels • • • • • • • • • • • • • A friend in need is a friend indeed. / Where there is a will. Many proverbs contain the rhetorical devices related to sound such as alliteration. The following is a list of proverbs that can be used for pronunciation exercises. and some symbols may be distorted on the internet. . Every bullet has its billet. there is a way.) Repeating a sound two or more times in a short sentence can give the student a deeper impression. no gains” to some monotonous sentences such as “He looks pale today. / Walls have ears. Sounds are marked with boldface instead of being represented by phonetic symbols because the American and British symbols are different. / A spot is most seen on the finest cloth. / East and west. PRaCTICINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh PRoVERBS Yi Yang Practicing pronunciation can be very tedious. He laughs best who laughs last. when practicing “a”. Proverbs.” Sentences with several words involving the same sound are good materials for practicing that sound. and the euphonic rhythm can keep the boredom away. A good wife and health is a man’s best wealth.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. another man catches the bird. losers weepers. home is best. One man beats the bush.

Everybody has his merits and faults. pound foolish. / Birds of a feather flock together. / More haste. A lazy youth. There is nothing which has been bitter before being ripe. Something is better than nothing. Even the weariest river winds somewhere safe to sea. / Do on the hills as you would do in the hall. Every jack has his jill. less speed.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii • • • • • Little strokes fell great oaks. An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of learning. No sunshine but hath some shadow. / Birds of a feather flock together. / As you sow you shall mow. / Every dog has his day. soonest mended. It is hard to be high and humble. Fair feathers make fair fowls. No joy without annoy. Try before you trust. Care killed the cat.205 - . Good advice is beyond price. Labor is often the father of leisure. / Might makes right. Constant dripping wears away a stone. There is no royal road to learning. Do not count your chickens before they are hatched. Time and tide wait for no man. Work has bitter root but sweet fruit./ Practice makes perfect. No garden without its weeds. Consonants • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Penny wise. a lousy age. . Least said. A bird in hand is worth two in the wood. A good name is better than a golden girdle. / Better be sure than sorry.

vol.harvard. march 1999 URL: http://iteslj.html o . / Many a little makes a mickle. A stitch in time saves nine. / where there is a will. Students could later be asked to interpret the meaning of the proverbs orally or in writing. A miss is as good as a mile. N.org/Lessons/Yang-Proverbs. / A cracked bell can never sound well. / Everything must have a beginning. Seeing is believing. which will lead the pronunciation activity naturally to a speaking or writing activity. look before you leap. v. yangyi@gse.º 3.206 - . willful waste makes woeful want.edu The Internet TESL Journal. Source: Yi Yang.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras • • • • • • Better be drunk than drowned. there is a way.

Elision: /e’ln/. Example: probably-probly. 2. 2. Insertion (epenthesis): /in’s:n. aphæresis or aphesis: (Initial). These can be voicing./. 3. Examples of English (colloquial): Engla land > England 6. 2. as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a single /m/. Deletion of last segment(s) of a word. /’frss/ and /’æfiss/. Example: around – round. Conditions: 1) Syllables are both medial. Deletion of some segments in different positions. /‘sŋkp/. Syllable or part of a syllable (usually vc or cv) is deleted when there is an identical one nearby. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound. Pronounced /hæp’ll. (there are two [ab] combinations and one is deleted). vowel or consonant. 4. degemination.ss/. apocope: (Final).3. .KEY Unit I. haplology. /’pkpi/. the /s/ would be shorter). Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to one single consonant. Inserting segment(s) into a word: example: [straik[ --[estraik]. (medial). Practice 1 Summary of the phonological processes 1. 7.’le. assimilation: /.sppose. (Medial). Neutralization: nutr’lasen/..2. /demi’nen/.sm. 5. and 2) The structure of the two syllables is similar. Sounds becoming more alike. becomes double long like the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. Example: breakfast – Breakfast.n/. A segment. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this case before /r/. manner or place. gemination: /emi’nen/. Could be: 2. Elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. Deletion of first segment(s) of a word. ep’ent. Syncope. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie.θe.1. Deletion of segment(s) at the middle of a word or end of the syllable: suppose -.

ask as /’æks/.asa. Nasalization: /nezla’zen/ In phonetics. 14. is moved closer to the palat. and [v] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. Only the manner changes here. Usually nothing else changes as in ‘vote .[ada]. usually before a /j/ glide but often before a high front vowel. 11.mishu or ‘make Eve -.208 - . nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered. 15. Vowel reduction: /’valwl r ‘dk n/. 9. Imagine talking with a stuffy nose. such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization of the vowel /a/ in ‘pond’.dut.[mejciv] where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 8. in voicing. Palatalization: /pæltla’zen/. a sound. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English. Voicing assimilation: /‘v sŋ asimi’le n/ Segment becomes like another usually adjacent segment. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or similar short lax vowel. so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth. usually between vowels. Some other frequent English pronunciations that display metathesis are: /’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English) /’æstrks/ for asterisk /’kmftrbl/ for comfortable /ntr’dju’s/ for introduce /’ntrgl/ for integral /rvlnt/ for relevant 12. denasalization:/dnezla’zen/ removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment leaves you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. when you spirantize a [b] in english you often get [v]. 10. have to -. miss you -. Metathesis: /met’æθss/ is responsible for the most common types of speech errors. The nasals consonants can nasañize the vowels. . vowel harmony: Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel. Spirantization: /sparnt’zen / n/ Stops become fricatives. 13. they usually become africates. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized. Example ‘ata’ -. devoicing: / d’vsŋ/ a voiced segment becomes voiceless.fote. example ata -. Example: nut -. Note though that place might also change. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated by printing a tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized equivalent of ~ [a]. Consonant harmony: /’knsnnt ‘ha:mn / consonant becomes more like another: often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog.hafta.

mirror and disco. bony. object. rapid.misɪ’sɪpɪ / . pencil. lemon. heavy. 34) Degrees of Stress words Janet Elephant Jemina Mississipi Sentence pattern ■∙ ■∙∙ ∙■∙ . Practice 1 (p. elephant 5. Morocco 6. 36) Stress pattern 1. Practice 3 (p. tiger. happiness ■∙∙ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ∙■∙ ■ ■ ∙∙■ Unit 2. Manchester 2. silly. Amazon 7.209 - . ruler. Import. Anthony 3. 39) Pronounce the words stress appropriately. carpenter 8. early and stormy. slowly. Quickly. lotion. Practice 2 (p. .∙∙ ■∙ Stressed and unstressed syllable Janet Elephant Jemina Mississipi Reduced syllable (The unstressed syllable changes to schwa) ‘ʤænɪt / ‘ʤænət ‘elɪfənt / ‘eləfənt ʤɪ’maɪna / ʤə’maɪna .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2. Jemina 4.misə’sɪpɪ Unit 2.

Read the words and pronounce them correctly. 39) Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress. Stress in the first syllable ‘abstract (adjective) ‘conduct (noun) ‘contract (noun) ‘contrast (noun) ‘dessert (noun) ’import (noun) Stress in the second syllable abs‘tract (noun) con‘duct (verb) con‘tract (verb) con‘trast (verb) de‘sert (noun) im’port (verb) skate re’search sur’vive re’turn pre’fer Unit 2. Practice 6 (p. re’lax des’troy de’pend in’tent co’llect pro’duce in’vite a’ssist re’pair su’ggest Unit 2.210 - . 39) Word stress. Practice 5 (p.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. 40) Pronounce the words correctly: (penultimate = second from end) A. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable) (p. Ending in -ic auto‘graphic au‘thentic auto‘matic bar‘baric bo‘racic autodi’dactic au’tistic axio’matic ‘basic ‘boric a’crylic rhythmic ‘rubric ‘ustic pro’sodic .

Pronounce the words correctly ending in –ty (p. 41) A.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii B. 40) -sion a’dmission ‘passion ‘tension pe’rmission ad’mission -tion ‘action pro’motion simu’lation de’duction re’lation Unit 2. Practice 7 (p. 42) stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) a’bility abnor’mality absorba’bility ab’surdity au’dacity aus’terity automa’ticity bar’barity belli’cosity be’nignity bes’tiality biodi’versity bioelec’tricity bio’safety bisex’uality bru’tality ca’lamity capa’bility car’nality catho’licity . Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end) (p. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –cy Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) a’dequacy aris’tocracy con’sistency ‘constancy com’petency ‘agency au’tocracy con’sonancy con’sultancy con’veniency ab’sorbency a’dequacy ‘agency as’cendancy bu’reaucracy a’ccountancy ad’vertency aris’tocracy au’tocracy ‘clemency B.211 - .

212 - . 43) Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) abd’ominal abo’riginal philo’sophical acqui’sitional a’dditional aes’thetical aero’nautical agri’chemical agri’cultural alpha’betical ana’lytical compo’sitional compu’tational epidemio’logical non’inflectional non’marital psycho’logical pro’fessional monol’itical non’practical . 42) Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) ’allergy an’thology as’trology biotech’nology chro’nology a’nalogy a’pology astro’biology car’diology cli’matology ge’nealogy his’tology hy’drology i’deology immu’nology laryn’gology lexicology mo’nology mor’phology musi’cology E. 42) Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) au’tography ’biography car’diography cos’mography encepha’lography bi’bliography ca’lligraphy chro’nography crysta’llography histo’riography ’geography fil’mography eth’nography i’diography ma’mmography my’thography osci’llography pe’trography phi’losophy ra’diography D.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras C. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –phy (p. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al (p. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy (p.

For compound verbs. For compound adjectives. the stress is on the second part: bad-TEMpered (p. Practice 8 (p.213 - . For compound nouns. the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird. 44). to overflow (p. 43) A. 44). the stress is on the second part: to understand. turn ’back (return) take ’charge (of) (assume responsibility) look ’over (review) bring ’back (return) call ’back (telephone again) talk ’back (to) (answer rudely) write ’down (make notes) talk ’over (discuss) high’lighted keep ’around (keep something near you) keep ’down (do not vomit) kick ’around (discuss) kick ’down (break something with your feet) let ’down (disappoint) lock ’down (make something very secure) .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2. ’blackboard ’saucepan ’saleswork ’iceland ’bedroom ’bathroom ’wallpaper ’bathtub ’housework ’grasshopper ’boyfriend ’seafood ’undercut ’diningtable ’blue-green ’watermelon ’highlight ’fishtank ’tumbledown ’underworld ’witchcraft B. long-’legged three-’headed flowered-’dress masked’ man six-’sided long-’handled green-’eyed staff-’necked baby-’faced short-’tempered thin-’skinned smooth-’tongue broken-’hearted light-’footed long-’winded ’tight-fisted sure-’footed high-’heeled freckle-’faced stone-’faced kind-’hearted C.

52). 44) Now read the 4-syllable words and write on the appropriate space. rhinoceros 6. These are the 4. Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence. 51) A. Felicity 2. These are the one 1. That is the 10. Repeat the sentences loudly (p. what an 13. Wolverhampton 5. Afghanistan 3. Tom’s not as 12. 1. I want to take a photography class? . These are the 3.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. how can we house that Two house that houses that houses that house that my bicycle people we person I people we gardener who taller than tall as the amazingly possibily jaqueline Three jack jack jaqueline mother Peter met in the saw on the drove to the works for my Peter and rest of the lively get there in built built built designed repaired park stairs party mother Thomas family production time built Four ∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙ B. This is the 6. This is the 5. Those are the 7. That is the 8. andrew is 11. Mississipi Unit 2. Stress pattern 1. Practice 10 (p.214 - . Practice 9 (p. Alexander 4. This is the 2. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2. Those are the 9.

53) Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat. he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern. Unit 2. Sparky is a very happy puppy. beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 1.215 - . 9. China is the place where I was born. 3. 10. Please turn off the television before you go out. 4. I can’t decide which book to borrow. 10. 6. 5. 9. 2. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment. John is coming over tonight. 5. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. Do you understand this lesson’ 7. 8. As you might have expected. beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future. 4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. . Practice 11 (p. See the examples: I am talking to the clever students beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us. We are going to work on our homework together. jack bought a new car last Friday. It is critical that you finish your essay. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back roads of France. 7. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess? 8. moving poetry. Shakespeare wrote passionate. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january. 6.

It is critical that you finish your essay. 53) Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder.A. Practice 12 (p. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. I want to take a photography class? 3. weren’t) (are. Repeat the sentences loudly 1. I can’t decide which book to borrow. 2. can’t) (were. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. Sparky is a very happy puppy. weren’t) 13 B. 54) 13. john wants to be an actor. longer. Unit 2. 1. 4. can’t) (can. 2. so he wants to live in hollywood. 5. 3. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday. 6. China is the place where I was born. clearer and high-pitched.216 - . 4. They _are_____ doing the homework. Do you understand this lesson’ 7. I __can____ understand your story. Please turn off the television before you go out. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat. 6. then the sentence is negative). can’t) (can. 3. . 8. After the movie. We __weren’t____ told to do that. Tom __can_____ come to the party tonight. 5. Practice 13 (p. 10. aren’t) (were. 1. Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. 9. they went to a bar to have beer. They __can’t_____ hear the speaker. (can. 4. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. (Remember if you hear the “to-be” or auxiliary verb is stressed.

2.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 3. or stressed. she does. 5. Does your mother work in an office? Yes. I have. 7. Have you got a good English dictionary? Yes. 1. Where were your parents married? I think they were married in London. Has your father got dark hair? Yes. she does (W) (W) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (W) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (W) (W) (S) . 3. Does she live in the north of England? Yes. 74) Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs. he has.217 - . 6. Practice 1 (p. Do you get the bus to work’ Yes. and when it is not stressed. auxiliary verb do does have has were was can weak form /d/ or /d/ /dz/ /hv/ /hz/ /w/ /wz/ /kn/ Strong form /du:/ /dz/ /hæv/ /hæz/ /w :/ /wz/ /kæn/ Instruction. How many language can you speak? I can speak two – English and French 8. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is Strong (S) or weak (w). I do. The strong form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence. The weak form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of sentence. 4. When was your birthday? It was in April.

they do. The van crashed in the jungle t 4.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 9. They traveled across Europe by train d 7. Do they share the housework? Yes. 13. Practice 2 (p. they have. 77) Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking. she can. t 2. He introduced Amanda to his friends t . She jumped over the wall t 3. 12. she has. they were (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (S) Unit 2.218 - . 11. 10. 1. Have they got any children) Yes. She laughed at the joke. The bomb destroyed ahouse d 6. Can you speak English? Yes. Has she got a job? Yes. Columbus discovered America d 5. Were they married in Japan? Yes.

78) Key: The prepositions because the come in the middle of sentences and are not stressed are pronounced with weak pronunciation. sir.5. linking and elision (Review 1) B.219 - . Prepositions to from for at of B: S: B: weak form /t/ /frm/ /f/ or /fr/ /t/ /v/ Strong form /tu:/ /frm/ /f:/ /æt/ /v/ S: B: S: B: S: B: S: Hello. Hello. Oh.4. Yes. (a) [ə] (b) [ɪ] (c) [ə] (b) glass (g) [ɔ:] (h) [ə] (i) [u:] (c) cat (m) [ɜ:] (n) [ə] (o) [ʌ] (d) shorn (s) [ɒ] (t) [ə] (u) [ju:] [ʌ] (e) light . Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny? Speaking. (a) vowel C. Unit 4. Practice 1 (4. I was afraid of (f) that. but he’s gone to (e) Budapest. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz. Where exactly? He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal. All right. sir. I am looking from (c) James Bond. Isn’t he there? I’m sorry.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 3. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Practice 3 (p. He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days. Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble.2. Weak forms. We had a lunch appointment at (d). C and d) 4. B. and you can tell him I’m waiting for (m) his call.2.

2. Practice 2 (4. Stress. honey. ‘borrow. C and d) 4. money. You never told me. (Review 3) B. When did you tell me? It must have been someone else. up’set. intonation. B. D. Sonny. consecutive stress. a motor show. linking. impo’lite. runny D. weak forms. unad’venturous. . the shifting tonic.2. (a) gin (b) French (c) service (d) shore (e) cod C. de’test ‘cabbage ‘chicken ‘beetroot ‘basket ‘pudding ‘salad ‘rabbit in’doors ‘perfect to’matoes ‘dumplings ‘beautiful be’hind ‘cucumber Unit 4. C and d) 4. That’s a boat show.6. peter’s going. B. Weak forms. (a) rams (b) marsh (c) books (d) drain (e) cream’s C. Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter? Peter Blenkinsop. isn’t it’ No.7. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter.2.2. B. Parctice 3 (4. un’happy. de’lighted ‘actually. ‘mermaid.6.7. too. ‘handsome.220 - . I’m going to the Repton Show in October. syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2). tag question.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras (d) [ʊ] (e) [ɒ] (f) [ɔ:] (j) [əʊ] (k) [aʊ] (l) [ʌ] (p) [u:] (q) [ʊ] (r) [ʊ] (v) [ə] [əʊ] (w) [ʌ] [ə] (x) [ʌ] [ʊ] (y) [ɒ] [aʊə] D. linking. elision. Are you going to Repton alone? No. (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 2 (f) 1 (g) 1 (h) 3 (i) 3 (j) 3 (k) 3 (l) i Unit 4. be’fore. sunny.

æ ] [ ] [e] [e] [] [æ . C and d) 4. Ju’ly.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 4. [:lð] [‘br] [ba] [b:t] [br:t] [kf ] [d] [drat] [inf] [s’kbr:] [] [e .] C. De’cember.] [æ . B.] [pla] [rf] [s:t ] [θr] [ð] [θ:t] [θru:] [tf] [trf] [‘brbrid] [‘lfbr] B.:] [ . ‘May. [:] [ .e .] [f:t] [n:t] [:t] [sl] [] [ .’Feb(r)u(a)ry.2.] [i: . ‘June. (b) I bought you some more oranges and a pound of bananas at the greengrocer’s that’s just opened at the corner of Earl’s Court Gardens. No’vember.] [æ . a. Sep’tember.2. ‘Apr(i)l. ‘August.] [: . . (c) You can see from her early work that there’s a certain sense of purpose. almost of urgency. Oc’tober. He said he would have asked the Templetons to introduce us. but he hadn’t seen them for ages and didn’t know what had happened to them.e .8.8.] [] [e .] [ . Practice 4 (4. A few more rhymes and jingles A. ‘March. ‘Janu(a)ry. (a) I thought you were one of the ones who won an award at the bazaar on Thursday.] [æ .e . (e) There was an extraordinary man at your party who said that for years and years he’d had been wanting to meet us. Rhythm and gingles. which she appears to have lost as soon as she started to be accepted as a serious artist.e . (d) More than a thousand representatives from the whole of the Third World were presents at the concert given in the park yesterday afternoon to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Ernest Hurlingham.221 - .

iŋ/ /.en. de’ceive 2. ‘carpet 5.n/ /k ’lekt/ /‘kp/ 6. ‘interrupt /. t’rpt/ 6.’sv/ /’a:p. ‘petrol 9. z/ /km ‘pli:t/ /‘me. r.t/ /km. resurr’ect 3. de’feat /’b. Practice 1 (a.‘re/ /‘pet. Two-syllable words VERBS 1. ‘office 7.’k:d/ /’p. com’plete 3. com’peting 8. ‘ten/ /rez. p.tn/ /’i: . de’pend /’b. de’termine 10 ‘separate / ’ls.l/ /d./ /’d:t/ /d.’pend/ 4. re’cord 10. ‘copy ADJECTIVES 1. ‘happy 9. ‘major 4. mn/ /’sep.l/ /’hæp. ‘sharpen 3.’mæ. 145) 1. ‘dirty /‘jel. ‘rekt/ / ’bæn. ‘autumn /‘f.222 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit V. ‘easy 2.rl/ /‘den. e’licit 7. ‘dentist 10./ /’:.s/ / ./ / ‘ln/ /b ‘la/ 6. . r/ /‘n. ‘bishop 2. enter’tain 2. Three syllable words VERBS 1. Read the words lout out providing the adequate stress. ekt/ /’fe/ /’ka:p. ‘conquer 8. ‘object 7. et/ .p/ /’æsp. de’liver 5. t.kt/ /’kŋk.n/ /d ’t:. be’low NOUNS 1. a’lone 5. pro’nounce /pr’nans/ 9.A. ‘yellow 7. ‘aspect 3. a’rray 8. (r)/ /r. co’llect 5. ‘polish 2. I’magine 9. 1. ‘pi:t. ‘heavy 10. dn/ /d ’lv. ‘early 8./ /’hev. a’ffair 4.tst/ /‘:. a’bandon 4.t/ /d’fi:t/ 6.

dk/ /’des . e’normous /’n:..kes/ /’ti:.surfing 2.ferry 3.fer. .cup 1.kp/ /.k/ /bæd ‘tem.t. .tz/ /. second-‘class 5.lace 4. ‘type.writer 2.k/ /’neg. ‘tea-.ŋ/ /’gn. ‘negative 9.man 3.ms b) First element nominal.raz/ /‘su:t .case 5.t/ 2.lŋ ’s:f. ‘insolent 7.mæn/ /’u:.nt/ /fæn ‘tæst. ‘suit.d/ /’g.rise 4. ‘long-. ‘gun .. ‘accurate 10.223 - .. ‘sun. to’mato /’n.les/ /.p/ /hed ‘kw:. ‘gear-. ab’normal Compound words a) First element adjectival.ml/ /æb ’n:.v/ /‘æk.nt/ /’ver..v.ra. veredic 4.sl.ml/ 6.lr/ /’tap ./ /‘sn. three-‘wheeler 1. bad-‘tempered 3.t(r)/ /’ka: .jr. stress on the first element c) Mixture of type a and b . over-‘weight /.bks/ /. nd ‘kla:s/ /θri: ‘hwi:. ‘shoe .box 6.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii ADJECTIVES 1.t/ /t ‘ma:.sek. ‘wet/ /m ‘p:t. ‘decimal 5.. head’quarters 4.red-‘blooded 5. stress on the second element 1. im’portant 3. loud’speaker 2.red ‘bld.la ‘spi:. fan’tastic 8. ‘car-.

using syllable trees representations.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 5. 145) 1. s / \ O R / \ N C | | | s / \ O R / \ NC | [ s Object / s / \ O R / \ NC | | [ Polish /p / / O s \ R / \ NC | s / \ O R / \ NC | [p ] [ s / \ O R / \ NC | | | ] | ] | ] | [ ŋk] [ ] | s / \ O R / \ N C | | [ ] | ] . Represent the verbs.B. p. n/ s / \ O R / \ NC | | [ s [d | | ] | | | v] | / O \ R / \ NC | | ] p] [ Collect / le / \ R / \ NC | [k ] / O s / O s \ R / \ NC | | Pronounce /pr / O /\ | | | | [p r s \ R / \ NC | ] / O s \ R / \ N C | | ] | [ | ] | [ Copy /k / \ O R / \ NC | [k Conquer /k ŋk.224 - . Deceive /d s v/ / O \ R / \ NC s / \ O R / \ NC [s s Sharpen / a:p . Practice 1 (B. adjectives and nouns in exercise 1.

UK. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Cambridge. Bill (1991) (1993) .BIBlIogRaPhY Baker. Sue (1992) Cambridge University Press (1996) Clifford. New Jersey. Sarah and Bowler. Cambridge University Press. Manual of american english pronunciation. Headway pre intermediate pronunciation. UK. Oxford. Collins Birmingham University. UK. Introducing english pronunciation. Oxford. Sara (1983) Cunninghan. Oxford University Press. UK. New York. Bowler. a teacher´s guide to three or tree? or ship or sheep? Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Suffolk.B. C. UK. Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Prator & Wallace Betty (1995) Collins (1997) Crowell Trager. Cambridge University Press. Headway intermedial pronunciation. second edition. Ann (1982a) (1982b) (1990) Tree or three? An elementary pronunciation course. fourth edition. Ship or sheep? An Intermedial Pronunciation Course. Collins cobuild english language dictionary. Edith & Cook Henderson. International Cambridge dictionary of english. Oxford University Press. Bill and Parminter. Pds pronunciation drills for learners of english. Cambridge. Cambridge. Prentice Hall Regents.S College Publishing. UK. Cambridge University Press. UK.

Peter (1989) Scott. The Oxford spanish-english english-spanish dictionary. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge University Press. Scott Foresman and Company. Peter (1996) Headway elementary pronunciation. New York. Les Oxford University Press (1994) Ponsonby. Cambridge. Oxford. Oxford. Sarah and Moor. Advanced dictionary. Cambridge. Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. Hall International English Language Teaching Ltd. Illinois. Essex. Harper Collins Ltd.226 - . Harper Collins spanish-english dictionary. Kenworthy. Harper Collins Ltd. Mary & Dangerfield. Language activator. Alan Spratt. The world’s first production dictionary. Essex. Matthews. Jack. a division of Hodder & Stoughton. Oxford University Press. How now brown cow. English phonetics and phonology. Oxford University Press. Longman Group UK Limited. Longman dictionary of contemporary english. Edward Arnold. Cambridge University Press. London. Cambridge. Hubbard Jones Thorton Wheeler (1990) Jones. Oxford University. Teaching english pronunciation. Joanne Longman Group UK Limited A training course for TEFL. Daniel (2007) (1987) (1993) (1995) (1990) English pronunciation dictionary. eighth printing. Mimi (1987) Richards. Platt. New York. Longman Group Limited. Longman Group Ltd. Heidi (1985) Roach. At the Chalkface.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Cunningham. practical techniques in language teaching. Longman Group Ltd. New York. Foresman (1983) . Essex. John & Weber.

htm http://www.pe/search?hl=es&q=+elision+in+english&meta= http://www. a poem based course for english pronunciation.html http://www. Rhymes and rhythm. Sound foundations.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Sheeler. A journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates.telefonica.uiowa. W. Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Vaughan-Rees. Adrian (1994) (1994) Wells. Essex.com. American light verse: A contemporary selection. Heineman English Language Teaching. and Markley.google. second edition. Phonological theory: The essential readings.227 - . R.hk/dict/phonetic/home.net/web2/eseducativa/alphabet_mp3.ar/omphonetics/contenidotematico. J.ompersonal.html http://www. The University of Chicago Press.com. Chicago.org/capacitar/FONETICA/cursos/cursoafricadas.sil. C. (1991) Sounds and rhythm. Goldsmith John A. Newton (Editor).PDF . Volumen XV. English teaching forum. W. A course in phonology.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# http://www. New Jersey. The sounds of english and spanish.oupchina.com. a pronunciation course. D. Michael otras fuentes para consultar Carr Phillip (1999) (1996) (1999) (1999) English phonetics and phonology: An Introduction. (1997) (1997) Anne C. The handbook of phonological theory. Nº 4. Robert (1965) Underhill. Johnsin Wyn http://www. Roca Iggy. Oxford. Prentice Hall Regents. Pronunciation dictionary. Stockwell.

teLéfono: 619-7000 anexos: 6009 / fax: 6015.CEPREDIM en eL mes de febrero de se terminó de imPrimir 2009 centro de Producción editoriaL e imPrenta de La universidad nacionaL mayor de san marcos jr. 6016 e-maiL: ventas. Lima 1.Pe tiraje: 1000 ejemPLares en Los taLLeres gráficos deL .edu.cePredim@unmsm. Paruro 119.

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