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Phonetics

Phonetics

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Sections

  • ENglISh VowElS aNd CoNSoNaNTS (REVIEw)
  • 2.5. Rules of word stress in English
  • 2.6. Syllable Stress
  • 2.7. Sentence Stress
  • 2.8. Sentence rhythm
  • aCTIVITY
  • 3.1. assimilation
  • 3.2. Compounds and phrases
  • 3.3. double Consonant Sounds
  • 3.5. Elision
  • 3.6. R liaison
  • 3.7. Stress Shift
  • 3.8. T-voicing
  • 3.9. weak forms
  • 3.11. word linking
  • 4.1. Prosodic features: Intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length
  • 4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby
  • 4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, wh- question)
  • 4.2.4. Intonation 4. Tag questions
  • 5.1. definition
  • 5.2. Kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification
  • 5.3. The structure of the syllable (by Tuncer Can)
  • 5.4. Kinds of syllables according to its structure
  • 5.5 Syllabification
  • 5.6. Rules for Phonetic Syllabification
  • 5.7 Rules for orthographic syllabification
  • 5.9. Crescendo diphthongs
  • 5.10. Syllabic consonants
  • 5.11. articulation
  • 5.12. Co articulation
  • 5.13. Breaking
  • 6.1. gloBal ENglISh aNd ThE TEaChINg oF PRoNUNCIaTIoN
  • 6.2. RhYThM
  • 6.3. dEVEloPINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh SoNgS
  • 6.4. TEaChINg ThE SChwa
  • 6.5. INToNaTIoN
  • 6.6. woRd STRESS
  • 6.8. ENglISh SENTENCE STRESS
  • 6.9. INTEgRaTINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN INTo ClaSSRooM aCTIVITIES
  • 6.10. TEaChINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN wITh PhoNEMIC SYMBolS
  • 6.11. PRoNUNCIaTIoN ChaRT aCTIVITIES
  • 6.12. PRaCTICINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh PRoVERBS
  • BIBlIogRaPhY

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS

Universidad del Perú, DECANA DE AMÉRICA
FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN
Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin
Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera
Fonética y Fonología del
idioma inglés ii
Yony Cárdenas Cornelio


FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN
DECANO
Dr. Carlos Barriga Hernández
DIRECTORA ACADÉMICA
Dra. Elsa Barrientos Jiménez
DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATIVO
Prof. Enrique Pérez Zevallos
PROGRAMA DE LICENCIATURA PARA PROFESORES SIN
TÍTULO PEDAGÓGICO EN LENGUA EXTRANJERA
DIRECTORA
Mg. María Emperatriz Escalante López
COMITÉ DIRECTIVO
Dra. Edith Reyes de Rojas
Lic. Walter Gutiérrez Gutiérrez
Yoni Cárdenas Cornelio
Fonética y Fonología del Inglés II
Serie: Textos para el Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera
Primera edición
Lima, febrero de 2009
© Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera Facultad de Educación,
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
Av. Germán Amézaga s/n. Lima 1, Ciudad Universitaria de UNMSM- Pabellón Administrativo de la Facultad de Educación - 2.º
piso, ofcina 203
Teléfono: 619-7000 anexos 3021, 3022 / E-mail: prog_idiomas_edu@unmsm.edu.pe
Website: www.unmsm.edu.pe/educacion/licenciatura/index.htm
Ilustración de carátula: David A. Villanueva
Diseño, diagramación e impresión: Centro de Producción Editorial e Imprenta de la UNMSM
Este libro es propiedad del Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera de la
Facultad de Educación de La Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Ninguna parte de este libro puede ser reproducida
o utilizada por cualquier medio, sea éste electrónico, mecánico o cualquier otro medio inventado, sin permiso por escrito de
los editores.
Table of contents
INTRODUCTION. 7

Acknowledgments. 8
English vowels and consonants (Review). 9
UNIT I
Phonological processes
1.1. Assimilation. 15
1.2. Elision. 19
1.3. Dissimilation. 23
1.4. Insertion or epenphesis. 23
1.5. Neutralization. 24
1.6. Gemination. 24
ACTIVITY. 28
UNIT II
Stress, word stress, stressed syllable, sentence stress and English rhythm
2.1. Word stress. 33
2.2. Types of stress. 33
2.3. Word stress in English. 34
2.4. Importance of word stress. 35
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 4 -
2.5. Rules of word stress in English. 36
2.6. Syllable stress. 45
2.7. Sentence stress. 47
2.8. Sentence rhythm. 52
ACTIVITY. 57
UNIT III
Connected speech
3.1. Assimilation. 61
3.2. Compounds and phrases. 67
3.3. Double consonant sounds. 68
3.4. Double consonants letters. 67
3.5. Elision. 69
3.6. R Liaison. 71
3.7. Stress shift. 71
3.8. T-voicing. 72
3.9. Weak forms. 73
3.10. Weak vowels. 75
3.11. Word linking. 76
ACTIVITY. 80
UNIT IV
Suprasegmental Phonology
4.1. Prosodic features: intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length 85
4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby 94
4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh-question). 94
4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern (Yes / No question, request
for repetition, greetings). 97
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
- 5 -
4.2.3. Intonation 3: Combined patterns (pausing in the middle, lists, doubt,
apology, etc). 100
4.2.4. Intonation 4: Tag questions. 103
4.2.5. Weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1). 106
4.2.6. Weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and
rhythm (Review 2). 108
4.2.7. Stress, consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak
forms (Review 3). 111
4.2.8. Rhythm and jingles. American light verse: A contemporary selection. 114
ACTIvITy. 130
UNIT V
The english syllable
5.1. Definition. 135
5.2. Kinds of syllable in the process of syllabification. 135
5.3. The structure of the syllabe (by Turncer Cam). 136
5.4. Kinds of syllabes according to its structure. 137
5.5. Syllabification. 137
5.6. Rules for phonetic syllabification. 138
5.7. Rules for ortographic syllabification. 142
5.8. Diphthongs. 142
5.9. Crescendo diphthongs. 147
5.10. Syllabic consonants. 147
5.11. Articulation. 148
5.12. Co articulation. 149
5.13. Breaking. 149
ACTIVITY. 151
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
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UNIT VI
Selected reading
6.1. Global english and the teaching of pronunciation. 155
6.2. Rhythm. 158
6.3. Developing pronunciation through songs. 162
6.4. Teaching the schwa. 168
6.5. Intonation. 171
6.6. Word stress. 175
6.7. Connected speech (1 and 2). 180
6.8. English sentence stress. 188
6.9. Integrating pronunciation into classroom activities. 191
6.10. Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols. 195
6.11. Pronunciation chart activities. 199
6.12. Practicing pronunciation through proverbs. 204
KEY. 207
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 225
Introduction
This book aims at deepening the study of English Phonetics and Phonology
focusing on suprasegmental aspects of the language, phonological processes
and application of the theory in the classroom, in order to help teachers to speak
with appropriate stress and intonation and avoid being misunderstood..
In this anthology we have selected burning and attractive articles written by
different authors, all of them, well known all over the world. Among these
articles, we have included phonological processes such as assimilation,
elision, epenthesis or insertion, neutralization, germination and other important
processes considered in language learning.
Word stress, types of stress, importance of word stress, sentence stress and
rules for stressing correctly were considered in the second unit.
Different aspects such as elision, linking, assimilation, R liaison, stress shift,
T voicing and weak forms, all of them connected with spoken language were
considered in the third unit.
In the fourth unit we have considered basic information about suprasegmental
phonology (intonation, stress, tone pitch and length), then we concentrated
on kinds of intonation with lots of exercises, following mainly ideas found the
book “How now, Brown cow?, Written by Mimi Ponsonby.
In the fifth unit we have considered the study of the English syllable, its structure
and some rules for syllabification. We have also developed important aspects
related diphthongs, syllabic consonants, articulation and co articulation among
others.
Finally, in the sixth unit, we have considered basic and interesting reading
materials for deepening what we have been doing in the earlier chapters.
Most of these articles in chapter sixth are owned by the British Council BBC
and they were first published on the http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/tink/
articles website. Global English, Intonation, connected speech and rhythm
are some of these interesting materials that are used free of charge. Other
important websites were also used to prepare this anthology and they are at
the end of each unit and in the bibliography at the end of the book.
YonY Cárdenas Cornelio
Acknowledgements
First and foremost our thanks to our dear students from the specialty of English
who took the course of English Phonetics and Phonology at Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, classes of 96, 97 and 98, 99 regular and
upgrading courses. They were the ones who in a way made us think that
something else was needed in the course and this book is the result of it,
completing the practical aspect of the course. At the same time I would like
to give my deepest recognition to Peter Roach, Mimi Ponsonby, Anne Baker,
Joanne Kenworthy, Scott Thornbury, Michael Vaughan-Rees, Adrian Underhill,
Daniel Jones (“English Pronunciation Dictionary”, 91), J C Wells (“Longman
Pronunciation Dictionary”, 90), among others, for providing us clear theory on
this matter, and that allowed us to complete with the practical aspect of the
course, making it comprehensible and easy to be understood.
We would also like to thank our friends Carmen Caceda Cordoba, a colleague
of mine from whom I have learned to become a dedicated professional in
ELT, to the seniorest of all, Rosalyn Hurst, my English trainer, who is always
clarifying our doubts, to David Villanueva for always being ready to solve our
computer illiteracy, as well as for being in charge of the correction. To our
families, especially my husband Mr. Alfredo Villanueva for not complaining
and understanding the work even during holidays, to our friends who can not
be mentioned individually but who are always with us being sources of ideas.
Last but not least, to our university for supporting us in the developing of this
book as a way to improve the professional development of the ELT in Peru.
We also want to thank University of San Marcos professors Dr. Gustavo Solís
Fonseca, Dr. Félix Quesada and Dr. Aída Mendoza Cuba, and professors
Ricardo Floyd P., Angélika Marsch and Andrés Easthouse from Universidad
de Lima from whom we have learned a lot in the summer courses.
Special thanks to Mrs. Maria Escalante López, Director of the Foreign
Language School for giving us the chance of organising, reviewing, designing
and redesigning this specialised book, which is going to help English Teachers
in the Program of Lisenced of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Education, and
National University of San Marcos.
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
- 9 -

ENglISh VowElS aNd CoNSoNaNTS (REVIEw)
The vowels
long vowels Short vowels
i:
a:
u:
o:
s:
sheep
far
fool
horse
bird
I
æ
o
b
t
ship
hat
foot
sock (UK)
cup
e
e
a
s
head
above
mother (US)
worm (US)
The consonants
Voiced Voiceless
b
d
g
v
ð
z
¿
g
l
r
j
w
m
n
ŋ
book
day
give
very
the
zoo
vision
jump
look
run
yes
we
moon
name
sing
p
t
k
f
0
s
[
ç
pen
town
cat
fish
think
say
she
cheese
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
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diphthongs
eI
day
aI
eye
oI boy
ao
mouth
eo nose (UK)
oo
nose (US)
Ie ear (UK)
ee hair (UK)
oe pure (UK)
other symbols
h
/’hænd/
hand

~
b
/’kwæs.b/
croissant (UK)
i
/’hæp.’i/
happy
ţ
/’btţ.a/
butter (US)
u
/,In.flu’en.ze/
influenza
!
/’lIt.!/
little
e
l,
e
m,
e
n can be pronounced either: el or !, etc.:
r
<>
/’leI.b
e
l/ = /’leI.bel/ or /’leI.b!/
linking r is pronounced only before a vowel in British English:
fo:
r
: fo:ræp.!z
four : four apples

Main stress /,ek.spek’teI[
e
n/ expectation
,
secondary stress /,ri:’tel/ retell
.
syllable division /’sIs.tem/ system
Source: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/help/phonetics.ht
~
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
- 11 -
Before we star with our course, it is necessary to review the basic consonant and vowel
charts.
Table 1
Manner of
articulation
Point of articulation
Bilabial labiodental Interdental alveolar alveopalatal Velar
Stops
Voiceless
Voiced
/p/
/b/
. .
/t/
/d/
.
/k/
/g/
Fricatives
Voiceless
Voiced
.
/f/
/v/
/q/
/ð/
/s/
/z/
/[/
/¿/
/h/
affricates
Voiceless
Voiced
. . . .
/ç/
/g/
Nasals /m/ . . /n/ . /ŋ/
lateral . . . /l/ . .
Semivowels /w/ . . /r/ /j/ .
Table 2. Modern English Vowels.
Vowels diphthongs
Front Central Back /Ie/ ear /aI/ fly
high
/i:/
/i/ /o/
/u:/

/ee/
/oe/
air
insure
/oI/
/eo/
boy
go
Mid /e/ /e/ /s:/ /o:/ /eI/ way /ao/ now
low
/æ/
/t/ /a:/ /b/
(Rogers, 2000)
oBjECTIVES
1. Be aware of the principal phonological processes of assimilation and
elision.
2. Understand the processes of dissimilation, epenthesis or insertion
behind the connected speech.
3. Understand the process of neutralization and germination.
4. Have an overview about other phonological processes.
5. apply these rules into the exercises to understand the processes.
UNIT I
PhoNoLogICAL ProCEssEs
PhoNologICal PRoCESSES
There are different kinds of processes in all languages, but the most relevant in English and
for language teachers are:
assimilation /e,sIm.I’leI.[en/
Colleen Richey establishes (97) that assimilation is a phonological process where a phone
becomes similar to a nearby phone. It is found in all languages which cause speech sounds
to be modified in a way which makes them more similar to their neighbours. A well-known
example is that of English alveolar consonants such as /t, d, n/ which, when they are followed
by a consonant which does not have alveolar place of articulation, tend to adopt the place of
articulation of the following consonant.
Let’s take a look at the English prefix {–in}
[Im] [In] [Iŋ]
I[m]potent i[n]direct i[ŋ]conclusive
I[m]partial i[n]dependent i[ŋ]considerate
I[m]possible i[n]tolerance i[ŋ]correct
I[m]practical i[n]sufferable i[ŋ]complete
I[m]mature i[n]sufficient i[n]convenient
The nasal in the prefix in- has the same place of articulation as the following consonant:
[ m ] before [p, b, m] (bilabials)
[ n ] before [t, d, s] (alveolars)
[ ŋ ] before [k, g] (velars)
We say: the nasal assimilates in place of articulation to the following consonant.
Consider the following data:
I[ n ] advisable i[ n ]take
I[ n ]animate i[ n ]direct
I[ n ]ordinate i[ n ]secure
Based on these data, [in] occurs in the most environments: before vowels, t, d, and s.
Therefore, we want to say that the underlying form of the prefix is /In/
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
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/In/ → [Im] / ___ bilabial consonants
→ [Iŋ] / ___ velar consonants
→ [In] elsewhere
1.1.1. direction of assimilation
Assimilation is type of co articulation. It is the alteration of a speech sound to make it
more similar to its neighbours. Assimilation, then, is concerned with one sound becoming
phonetically similar to an adjacent sound.
a. There are two kinds of assimilation
Regressive assimilation. When the assimilation is backward, then the phone assimilates
to a preceding phone, this is, one segment influences another that precedes it.
The sound that changes is called the assimilated sound or the target.
The sound that causes the change is called the conditioning sound or trigger. Two
sounds that have the same place or articulation are called homorganic.
Assimilated sound ← Conditioning sound
/p/ /b/
‘football’ /fot.bo:l/ → /fop.bo:l/
1. Thus the /t/ at the end of the ‘foot’ /fot/ change to /p/ when followed by /b/ in the word
‘football’, giving the pronunciation /fop.bo:l/ .
‘football’ /fot.bo:l/ → /fop. bo:l/
/t/ → /p/ / - bilabial sounds
/t/ assimilates to /p/ before bilabial sounds.
Let’s see some regressive assimilation processes:
2. A similar case is the assimilation of /s/ to a following /[/ or /j/, resulting in the
pronunciation of ‘this ship’ as / ðI[’[Ip/ and this year as / ðI[’’jIer/. This assimilation
can be considered to be optional and is called regressive assimilation, this is, and
the fricative alveopalatal /[/ is passing its characteristics to the preceding sound
phoneme /s/, the same as the continuant alveopalatal /j/.
‘this ship’ /ðIs[Ip/ → /ðI[’[Ip/ and
‘this year’ /ðIs’jIer/ → /ðI[’’jIer/.
/s/ → / [ [ ] / - [
/s/ → / [ [ ] / - j
The /s/ is assimilated to / [ / before / [ / or / j /
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
- 17 -
3. The assimilation of /n/ is a rather special case: many English words begin with the
prefixes ‘in-‘ and ‘un-‘, and in a number of cases the /n/ of these prefixes is followed
by a consonant which is not alveolar. In some cases it seems to be normal that the
/n/ is regularly assimilated to the place of articulation of the following consonants
(e.g. ‘inquest’ / iŋ. kwest/), while in others this assimilation is optional (for example:
’incautious’ may be /in’ko:.[es/ or /iŋ’ko:.[es/. Where it is clear that the prefix is
attached to a word that exists independently, so that prefix and stem are easily
separable, the assimilation is normally treated as optional. When it seems more like
an integral part of the word, the assimilation is shown as obligatory. See the rules:
A) ‘incautious’ can be transcribed as /in’ko:.[es/ or /iŋ’ko:.[es/, being the assimilation
optional because the prefix and the stem are easily separable.
n → [ŋ or n] - k (optional)
- g
B) ‘inquest’ / /iŋ. kwest/. The prefix In is an integral part of the word.
n → [ŋ] / - k (obligatory)
In B the assimilation is obligatory because ‘in’ is an integral part of the word “Inquest”
/’iŋ.kwest/, that means an official attempt by the court to find out the cause on
someone’s death.
Source: Daniel Jones, “English Pronunciation dictionary”, 94
4. The alveolar consonants /t, d, n/ when they occur at the end of a word or syllable, can
optionally assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonant at the beginning of
the next syllable.
Thus /n/ can become bilabial m before the bilabials /p, b, m/ as in the examples:
ten men /,te[n] ‘men/ → /,te[m] ’men/
downbeat /‘dao[n] bi:t/ → /’dao[m] bi:t/
/n/ → [m] / ___m, b (bilabials) (optional)
5. In the same way d can change to b and g respectively, as in
red paint /,red ’peint / → /,reb ’peint/
admit /ed ’mIt / → /eb ’mIt/
bad guys /’bæd ,gaiz/ → /’bæg ,gaIz/
/d/ → [b] -p
-m
/d/ → [g] / -g
It is also possible for t to change to p and k respectively, though a more frequent
possibility is for t to be realized as glottal stop when followed by another
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
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consonant. / ? /. A glottal voiceless sound produced by the closure of the vocal
cords.
eight boys /,eit boiz/ → /,ei?boiz/ (,eip’boiz)
t → ? / - Consonant
6. In the same way s and z can change to [ and ¿ respectively, but only before [ or j at
the beginning of the next syllable. In you, you’re the j may disappear.
this shape /,ðIs’[eIp/ → [,ðI[’[eIp]
these shoes /,ði:z’[u:z/ → [,ði:¿’[u:z]
unless you… /,en’lesju/ → [,en’les[ju[
as you see /,æzju‘si: / → [,æ¿u‘si:]

B. Progressive assimilation
When assimilation is forward, this is rightward; the assimilation is to a following phone.
Conditioning sound → Assimilated sound
Assimilation can also operate in the other direction (progressive assimilation); that is,
alveolar consonants sometimes assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonants,
at the end of the preceding syllable. In English this applies only to syllabic n, changing it
to syllabic m or ŋ depending on the place of the preceding plosive.
ribbon /‘rIbn/ → [‘rIbm]
(Note that although ribbon /‘rIb en/ can also be pronounced /‘riben/, with a phonetic
vowel between the b and n, then, this assimilation can operate only if the two consonants
are in direct contact, without any phonetic e between them).
bacon /‘beik n/ → [beikŋ]
up and down /,tp n ‘daon/ → [,tp m ‘daon]
This kind of assimilation cannot apply when the following sound is a vowel.
happens ‘hæp nz → [‘hæp mz]
happen suddenly ,hæp n ‘std n li → [,hæp m ‘std n li]
happening [‘hæp n Iŋ] (cannot assimilate)
n → m / p-
More examples on assimilation
1. Yod coalescence (or coalescent assimilation) is the process which changes t or d plus j
into ç or g respectively. Across word boundaries, in standard accents it mainly affects
phrases involving you or your.
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
- 19 -
let you out ,let ju’aot → ,let[u’aot
would you try ,wodju’traI → ,wogu’traI
get your bags ,get jo: ‘bægz → ,get[o:’bægz
2. Within a word, the status of yod coalescence depends on whether the following vowel is
strong or weak.
-Where the vowel is strong I, e, u:, or oe, yod coalescence can frequently be heard in
Be E, although it is not considered standard. In AmE there is usually no j present, so the
possibility of assimilation does not arise.
tune tju:n → t[u:n
endure In’djoe → in’goe
factual ‘f æktjuel → ‘f æk[uel
educate ‘edjukeIt → ‘egukeIt
3. Historically, a process of yod coalescence is the origin of the ç used by all speakers in
words such as nature, and of the g in words such as religion.
Similarly, yod coalescence involving fricatives ( sj → [; zj → ¿) explains the [ in words
such as pressure, delicious patient, Russian, and the ¿ in words such as measure. For
example, delicious dI’lI [es came to English from Latin, via French delicieux delisjo; but
the sj coalesced into [ several centuries ago.
/’pre[.er, dI’lI[.es, ’peI.[ent, ’rt[.en, me¿e/
Source: Logman Pronunciation dictionary.
1.2. Elision /e’lI[en/
1. Elision is the omission (= deletion) of a sound that would otherwise be present. It is
particularly characteristic of rapid or casual speech. It is not random, but follows certain
rules, which differ from one language to another.
Elision, then, is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or
a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker
to pronounce. Sometimes, sounds may be elided for euphonic effect. (Pleasant or
harmonious sound). English does not often show elision in writing.
The elided form of a word or phrase may become a standard alternative for the full
form, if used often enough. In English, this is called a contraction, such as can’t from
cannot. Contraction differs from elision in that contractions are set forms that have
morphologized, but elisions are not.
Examples of elision in English.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
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comfortable: /’ktpfatebel/ → /’ktpftabel/
fifth: /’fIfθ/ → /’fIθ/
him: /hIm/ → /Im/
laboratory: /læ’boretori/ →
/’læbretori/ (American english),
/le’boretri/ (British english)
temperature: /’tsmperet[a/ → /’tsmpat[a/, /’tsmpret[a/
vegetable: /’vsd¿etebel/ → /’vsd¿tebel/
A synonym for elision is syncope /sIŋ.kepI/. This term is most often associated with the
elision of vowels between consonants.
e.g. Latin tabula → Spanish tabla.
e.g. Eng. He has → he’s.
The opposite of elision is epenthesis /e’pent.θesIs/, whereby sounds are inserted into
a word to ease pronunciation /i:¿/.
2. Some types of elision typically occur within a single syllable and therefore within a
word and they are represented by transcribing a second pronunciation. In English they
include.
2.1. The elision of t in st[ and of d in nd¿. Thus lunch /ltnç/ may be pronounced
/ltnç/ or, less commonly /ltn[/; strange streIng may be /streIng/ or,
less commonly, /streIn¿/ (Note that in a word such as enjoy /In’goI/, the
consonants are in different syllables and no elision is possible).
/ltnç/
lunch /ltnç/
/ltn[/
/estreIng/
strange /streIng/
/streIn¿/

2.2. The elision of p in mps, of t in nts, and of k in ŋks, ŋkt. Thus jumped gtmpt may
be pronounced gtmpt, less commonly, /gtmt/; lynx lIŋks may be lIŋks or, less
commonly, lIŋs.
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
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3. other types of elision occur only at syllable boundaries. This applies both within
words and between words. They include the elision of t and d when surrounded by other
consonants, and the elision of e before a liquid.
3.1. Elision of a t or d is usually possible when it is preceded by one of certain consonants
at the end of a syllable, if the next syllable (or word ) starts with a consonant.
Under these conditions
t may be elided in ft, st, and less commonly in pt, kt, t[t, θt, [t;
d may be elided in Id, nd and less commonly in bd, gd, d¿d, vd, ðd, zd, md, ŋd.
Additionally, t is sometimes elided in the contracted negative-n’t, no matter what
kind of sound follows.
- Next /nekst/ in isolation, or before a vowel sound, this word is Pronounced
/nekst/. But in a phrase such as next thing, next question it is often
pronounced /neks/, with elision of the t.
- Stand /stænd/ in Isolation, or before a vowel sound, this word is pronounced
stænd. But is a phrase such as stand clear, stand firm it is often pronounced
stæn, with elision of the d.
- didn’t /‘dident/ When followed by another word in a phrase this word is
sometimes pronounced /‘didn/, with elision of the t.
3.2. Elision of the e is often (though not always) possible when it is followed by a liquid
(= l or r) and then a weak vowel. This has the effect of making the liquid SYLLABIC.
unless COMPRESSION also occurs (in which case all trace of the e disappears).
See the example:
- Camera /‘kæm er e/ The full form is ‘kæmere. When e is elided, in the first
instance it makes the r syllabic: ‘kæm r e. This is usually compressed to give
‘kæmre. All these possibilities occur.
- Mother /‘mtðe/ / er In Br E r is usually inserted at the end of this word when
the following word begins with a vowel sound (R-liaison = non-rhothic accents,
when r is not pronounced). Hence mother and father becomes /,mtðer en
‘fa:ðe/.
The e of mother is now in a elision environment; hence the phrase can also be
pronounced /,mtð r en ‘fa:ðe/.
In AmE the full form is /,mtðr en ‘fa:ðer/, which can likewise become /,mtð ren
‘fa:ðr/ by compression. This compressed form of mother does not occur when
the word said is isolation.
4. In casual speech e is also sometimes elided in the first syllable of a word in which the second
syllable is stressed and begins with a liquid. The initial syllable then undergoes compression.
Thus terrific te’rIfIk sometimes become ‘trIfIk, or collide ke’laId becomes klaId.
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The same applies to cases of apparent elision of e in some speakers occasional
pronunciation of words such as incident ‘In,sedent, capacity Ke’pæsetI, where there
usually seems to be a compensatory lengthening of the preceding consonant, given the
effect of In’s:dent , Ke’pæs:tI.
5. Sometimes a pronunciation that was originally the result of elision has become the only
possibility for some speakers. Some people have ‘Kæmra as the only pronunciation for
camera, or pli:s as the only form for police.
For many English people it would feel very artificial to pronounce t in postman ‘peosmen.
The elision can be:
a. aphæresis or aphesis (Initial). Pronounced /e’fIerisIs/, when a consonant is
elided at the beginning of a word, as in ‘coon’ for ‘raccoon’ or ‘till’ for ‘until’. It
is the loss of one or more sounds from the beginning of a word, especially the loss
of an unstressed vowel.
[k]nife pronounced /’naIf/
a’cute > cute
[e]’gyptian > gyptian > gypsy
[a]’mend > mend
b. Syncope (Medial). Pronounced /‘sIŋkepI/. The loss of one or more sounds at the
interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
postman /‘peos. men/; o’er for over, heav’n for heaven, ‘fish ‘n’ chips’.
1. The loss of any sound
• old english hláford > english lord
• english worcester, pronounced [‘woste]
• english gloucester, pronounced [‘glbste]
2. Syncope in informal speech
Various sorts of colloquial reductions might be called “syncope”. Forms such
as “didn’t” that are written with an apostrophe are, however, generally called
contractions:
• english go[ing t]o > gonna
• english wa[nt t]o > wanna
• english did n[o]t > didn’t
• english do[n’t k]no[w] > dunno
• english I [woul]d [h]ave > I’d’ve
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c. apocope (Final). Pronounced /e’pbkepi/. It is the loss of one or more sounds from
the end of a word, and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
‘I don’t know’ /I duno/
postman /‘peos men/.
1.3. dissimilation /,dIsIm.I’leI.[en/
Dissimilation is a phonological process that involves one of two similar or identical sounds
within a word becoming less like the other or even disappearing entirely. Because r’s in
successive syllables are particularly difficult to pronounce, they frequently dissimilate. One
historical example of dissimilation is marble, from French marbre. In this case the second r
has dissimilated to l in order to prevent a repetition of the r and ease articulation.
marbre → marble
Other contemporary examples of dissimilation include enterprise, governor, impropriety,
prerogative, surprise, and thermometer, in which there is a tendency for the first r to drop
out of the pronunciation resulting in
enterprise [’en.te.praIz]
governor [’gtv.en.er]
impropriety [,im.pe-‘praI.e.tI]
prerogative [pe-‘rbg.e.tIv]
surprise [se ‘praIz]
thermometer [θe ‘mbm.I.te]
Note that other consonants besides r may be altered or omitted as a result of dissimilation,
such as n in government (‘gtv. en. ment].
Source: The American Heritage® Book of English Usage. Copyright © 1996 by Houghton
Mifflin Company. http://www.bartleby.com/64/C007/066.html
Dissimilation, then, is a phenomenon whereby similar consonant or vowel sounds in a word
becomes less similar. For example, when one /r/ sound occurs before another in the middle
of a word in rhotic dialects of English, the first tends to drop out, as in “beserk” for berserk,
“supprise” for surprise, “paticular” for particular, and “govenor” for governor (note this doesn’t
affect the pronunciation of government, which has only one /r/).
1.4. Insertion or epenthesis /ep’ent.θe.sIs, in’ss:[en/
The epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of
a word or initial position. (phonetics).
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It is also defined as the insertion of a phoneme, letter, or syllable into a word, usually to
satisfy the phonological constraints of a language or poetic context.
I speak english /aI es’pi:k iŋglI[/
He is a estudent /hi:z e es’tjudent/
1.5. Neutralization /,nju:trel.aI’zeI.[en/
Two phonemes (= sounds whose difference has the power of distinguishing words) may, in
certain phonetic environments, not be distinguishable. We call this neutralization.
1.5.1. In most environments English /p/ and /b/ are in opposition; that is, they carry a potential
difference in meaning. This can be seen in the pair pin /pIn/ and bin /bIn/, cup /ktp/
and cub /ktb/. Note, however, that after /s/ the opposition is neutralized (since p here
has no ASPIRATION).We conventionally write spin /spIn/ phonemically as spIn ; but
since there is no possible difference between /p/ and /b/ here we could just as well
write /sbIn/.
1.5.2. One type of neutralization is symbolized explicitly in Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary (LPD) by the use of symbols i and u. The opposition between i: and I
operates in most environments, as seen in green /gri:n/ and grin /grIn/, leap /li:p/
and lip /lIp/. But there are two environments in which it is neutralized:
• When the vowel is in a WEAK syllable at the end of a word ( or at the end of part
of a compound word of the stem) as in happy /’hæp.i/ valley /’væl.i/, babies
/‘beIbiz/.
• When the vowel is in a weak syllable before another vowel, as in radiation, /,reI.
di’eI.[
e
n/, glorious, /’glo:.ri.es/.
In these positions the traditional Received Pronunciation (Standard English) form is
I (a short vowel). But in fact some speakers use I, some use i: some, use something
intermediate or indeterminate, and some use fluctuate between the two possibilities.
The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (LPD) symbol i (a short vowel) reflects this.
Similarly, The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary LPD symbol /u/ represents the
neutralization of the opposition between u: and o. This neutralization is also found
in certain other weak syllables, for example in one pronunciation of stimulate /’stIm.
ju.leIt/ (also ‘stIm. je. leIt).
1.6. gemination /,gem.I’neI.[en/
N (Noun) Doubling, duplication, repetition. Phonetics. the doubling of a consonantal sound.
Rhetoric. the immediate repetition of a word, phrase, etc., for rhetorical effect.
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
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Summary of important phonological processes in English:
1. assimilation /e,sIm.I’leI.[en/. Sounds becoming more alike. These can be voicing,
manner or place. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound. Example:
/fop.bo:l/.
2. Elision /e’lI[en/. It is the omission of a segment. It could be:
2.1. aphæresis: deletion of first segment(s) of a word (initial). Example: around –
round.
2.2. Syncope: deletion of segment(s) from the middle of a word or end of the syllable:
suppose -- sppose. (medial)
2.3. apocope: deletion of last segment(s) of a word (final). Example: breakfast –
Breakfast.
3. Insertion (epenthesis) /in’ss:[en, ep’ent.θe.sIs/. Inserting segment(s) into a word:
example: [straik[ --[estraik].
4. Neutralization /nIutre’laIseI[en/. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the
two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this
case before /r/.
5. haplology /hæp’lbl. e. gI/. It is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two
consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. The phenomenon was identified by
American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20
th
century.
Conditions:
1) Syllables are both medial; and
2) The structure of the two syllables is similar.
Examples
English (colloquial):
• Engla land > England
• particularly > particuly
• pierced-ear earrings > pierced earrings
• probably > probly
6. gemination /gemi’ne I[en/. A segment, vowel or consonant, becomes double long like
the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie, the /s/ would
be shorter).
7. degemination /dIgemi’ne I[en/. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to
one single consonant, as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a
single /m/.
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8. Consonant harmony /’kbsenænt ’ha:menI/. One consonant becomes more like
another: often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog.
9. denasalization /dIneIzelaI’zeI[en/. Removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment
leaves you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Imagine talking with a
stuffy nose. Example: nut -- dut.
10. devoicing /dI’voIsIŋ/. A voiced segment becomes voiceless. Usually nothing else
changes as in ‘vote -- fote.
11. Metathesis /met’æθesIs/. It is responsible for the most common types of speech errors,
such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti, ask as /’æks/. Some other frequent
English pronunciations that display metathesis are:
/’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English)
/’æsterIks/ for asterisk
/’ktmfterbel/ for comfortable
/Inter’dju’s/ for introduce
/’Intregel/ for integral
/rsvelent/ for relevant
12. Nasalization /neIzelaI’zeI[en/. In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound
while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the
production of the sound by the mouth. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization
of the vowel /a/ in ‘pond’. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated
by printing a tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized
equivalent of [a], and [ ] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. The nasals consonants can
nasalize the vowels.
13. Palatalization /pæletelaI’zeI[en/. A sound, usually before a /j/ glide but often before a
high front vowel, is moved closer to the palat. miss you -- mishu or ‘make Eve -- [mejciv]
where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized, they
usually become africates.
14. Spirantization /spaIrentI’zeI[en/ /[en/. Stops become fricatives, usually between
vowels. example ata -- asa. Only the manner changes here. Note though that place might
also change. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English, when you spirantize a
[b] in english you often get [v].
15. Voicing assimilation /‘voIsIŋ asimi’leI [en/. Segment becomes like another usually
adjacent segment, in voicing. Example ‘ata’ -- [ada], have to -- hafta. vowel harmony:
Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel.
16. Vowel reduction /’vaolwl rI ‘dek [en/. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or
similar short lax vowel.
~
v
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
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Observe the excercises and the processes in the each one:
1. He estudies english Insertion
2. He waited till 7 o’clock Elision
3. They went to the fupbol Assimilation
4. Sorry, it is asks not aks Metathesis
5. It is the same to say happi: or happI Neutralization
BIBlIogRaPhY
Wells, J. C.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Jones Daniels
(1997) English Pronunciation Dictionary. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.
CUP.
Anne C. Newton, Editor.
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum,
a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV,
Number 4.
Underhill, Adrian
(1994) Sound foundations. Oxford, Heineman English Language Teaching.
Cambridge University Press
(1995) International Cambridge dictionary of english. Cambridge University Press.
Cunninghan, Sarah and Bowler, Bill
(1991) Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
(1993) Headway intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/english/courses/eng718/phonprocesses.html
http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elision
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissimilation
http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/m/a/mam1034/csd300.phonologicalprocesses.html
http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/Table3.htm
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aCTIVITY
1. Mention some phonological processes and give examples.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
2. Give the rule for the assimilation process of the English prefix in- . Consider the following
examples i[m]practical, i[n]sufferable and i[ŋ]complete.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
3. How many kinds of assimilation do we have? Give an example.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
4. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Why is it important in language
learning?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
5. Explain the phonological process of elision. Give some examples.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
6. Mention kinds of elision.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
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7. Explain the yod coalescence as a process.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
8. Explain the process of dissimilation.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
9. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
10. What do you understand by neutralization?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
11. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. Why is it important in language
learning?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
12. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English.
____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
13. What do you understand by neutralization?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
oBjECTIVES
1. Recognize the difference among word stress, syllable stress and
sentence stress.
2. Recognize types of stress.
3. Be aware of the importance of word stress and sentence stress.
4. Get familiar with rules of word stress in English.
5. Point out the importance of sentence stress and English rhythm.
UNIT II
sTrEss, sTrEssED syLLAbLE, worD sTrEss,
sENTENCE sTrEss AND ENgLIsh rhyThm
STRESS, STRESSEd SYllaBlE, woRd STRESS, SENTENCE STRESS aNd
ENglISh RhYThM
2.1. Word Stress is phonemic in English, this is the movement of stress in a word from
one position to another changes the meaning of the word. For example, the words desert
/’dez.et/ and dessert /dI.’zs:t/ are distinguished by stress, as are the noun a record /’rek.o:d/
and the verb to record /rI’ko:d/.
Stressed syllables in English are louder than non-stressed syllables, as well as being
longer and having a higher pitch. They also tend to have a fuller realization than unstressed
syllables.
Examples of stress in English words, using boldface to represent stressed syllables, are
holiday, alone, admiration, confidential, degree, and weaker.
Ordinarily, grammatical words (auxiliary verbs, prepositions, pronouns, etc.) do not receive
stress, whereas content or lexical words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) must have
at least one stressed syllable.
English is a stress-timed language. That is, stressed syllables appear at a roughly
steady tempo (approximately fixed tempo), and non-stressed syllables are shortened to
accommodate this.
(a) Stress-timed language (Rhythm). See the example.
Taken from http://members.tripod.com/chifenchen/rhythm.htm
2.2. Types of stress
Traditional approaches describe English as having three degrees of stress: Primary ( ’ ),
secondary ( , ) and unstressed. However, if stress is defined as relative respiratory force
(that is, it involves greater pressure from the lungs than unstressed syllables), as most
phoneticians argue, and is inherent in the word rather than the sentence (that is, it is lexical
rather than prosodic), then these traditional approaches combines two distinct processes:
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a) Stress on the one hand, and
b) vowel reduction on the other. In this case, primary stress is actually prosodic stress,
whereas secondary stress is simple stress in some positions, and an unstressed but not
reduced vowel in others. Either way, there is a three-way phonemic distinction: Either
three degrees of stress, or else stressed, unstressed, and reduced.
In languages, such as Russian and English, vowel reduction may occur when a vowel
changes from a stressed to an unstressed position. In English, many unstressed vowels
reduce to schwa-like vowels, though the details vary with dialect.
Unit 2. Practice 1
Degrees of stress
words
Sentence
pattern
Stressed and
unstressed syllable
Reduced syllable
(The unstressed syllable changes to schwa)
Janet
∎∙
janet ‘gænIt / ‘gænet
Elephant
■∙∙
Elephant ‘elIfent / ‘elefent
Jemina
∙■∙
JeMina gI‘maIna / ge‘maIna/
Mississipi
.∙∙■∙
MissiSSipi .misI‘sIpI / .mise‘sIpI
When a stressed syllable contains a pure vowel (rather than a diphthong), followed by a
single consonant and then another vowel, as in holiday, many native speakers feel that
the consonant belongs to the preceding stressed syllable, /’hbl.i.deI/. However, when
the stressed vowel is a diphthong, as in admiration or weaker, speakers agree that the
consonant belongs to the following syllable: /’ædmi’reI[en/. (Phonetically, the vowel in weak
is also a diphthong, [ij].)
2.3. word stress in English
The word Stress in English is the magic key to understanding spoken English. Native
speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they
do not even know they use it.
Non-native speakers, who speak English to native speakers without using word stress,
encounter two problems:
1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast.
2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.
To understand word stress helps to understand what syllable is. Every word is made
from syllables.
Each word has one, two, three or more syllables.
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word number of syllables
dog
dog
/dɒg/
1
green
green
/gri:n/
1
quite
quite
/kwáɪt/
1
quiet
qui-et
/’kwaɪ. ət/
2
orange
or-ange
/’or. ɪnʤ
2
table
ta-ble
/teɪ. bəl/
2
expensive
ex-pen-sive
/ek. ‘spen.sɪv/
3
interesting
in-ter-est-ing
/‘ɪn.tres. tɪŋ/
(3 in fast speech)
4
realistic
re-a-lis-tic
,rɪ. a. ‘lɪs. tɪk
4
unexceptional
un-ex-cep-tion-al
/, ʌn. ɪk.’sep. ʃən.l/
5
Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a, e, i,
o, or u) or vowel sound.

2.4. Importance of word stress
Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages, Japanese or French for example,
pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis. Other languages, English for example, use
word stress.
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Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want.
It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and
accurately, even in difficult conditions. If, for example, you do not hear a word clearly, you
can still understand the word because of the position of the stress.
Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. Now imagine that you
are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. You cannot hear clearly. In
fact, you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words, photo... Which word is it,
photograph or photographer? Of course, with word stress you will know immediately which
word it is because in reality you will hear either Photo... or phoTo... So without hearing the
whole word, you probably know what the word is ( Photo...graph or phoTo...grapher). It’s
magic! (Of course, you also have the ‘context’ of your conversation to help you.)
This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. There are many,
many other examples, because we use word stress all the time, without thinking about it.
Example:
Decide which stress pattern do the words belong to and write it in the space?
Unit 2. Practice 2
Stress pattern
■∙∙ ∙■∙ ∙∙■
1. Manchester
2. Anthony
3. Jemina
4. elephant
5. Morocco
6. Amazon
7. Carpenter
8. happiness
2.5. Rules of word stress in English
In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength in one word.
We accentuate ONE syllable, this is, we say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important)
and all the other syllables remain very quietly.
Let’s take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the
same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it
is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different.
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
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Shape Total syllables Stressed syllable
Pho To gRaPh
3 #1
Pho To gRaPh ER
4 #2
Pho To gRaPh IC
4 #3
This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer, JaPAN, CHINa, aBOVE,
converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCETera.
The syllables that are not stressed are weak or small or quiet. Native speakers of English
listen carefully for the STRESSED syllables, but not the weak syllables. If you use word
stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and
your comprehension.
Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - on the radio or in
films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it!
There are two very important rules about word stress:
1. one word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses,
you have heard two words, not one word).
2. The stress is always on a vowel.
There are some rules about which syllable to stress. But...the rules are rather complicated!
Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Listen carefully to spoken English and try
to develop a feeling for the “music” of the language.
When you learn a new word, you should also learn its stress pattern. If you keep a vocabulary
book, make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you do not know, you can look in a
dictionary. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. This is where they show which
syllable is stressed, usually with an apostrophe (‘) just before or just after the stressed syllable.
(The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used.) Look at this example for
the word plastic. There are 2 syllables. Syllable #1 is stressed. Which one is correct?
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Example
Phonetic spelling:
dictionary a
Phonetic spelling:
dictionary B
PLAS TIC
/plæs’tik/ /’plæs tik/
There are two very simple rules about word stress:
1. one word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two
stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can
be a “secondary” stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the
main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words).
2. we can only stress vowels, not consonants.
Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to
put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It
is better to try to “feel” the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.
Rule 1. Stress on first syllable
Rule Example
Most 2-syllable nouns
PRESent, EXport, CHIna, Table
Most 2-syllable adjectives
PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a
change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress the
frst syllable, it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress the
second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import,
contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the
frst or second syllable (www.englishclubtip.com).
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Unit 2. Practice 3
Pronounce the words and provide the stress appropriately.
Import, object, pencil, ruler, lotion, tiger, lemon, mirror and disco.
Quickly, rapid, slowly, heavy, silly, bony, early and stormy.

Rule 2. Stress on last syllable
Rule Example
Most 2-syllable verbs
To preSENT, to exPORT, to decide, to beGIN
Unit 2. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable)
Word stress. Read the words and pronounce them correctly providing the appropriate stress.
relax
destroy
depend
intent
collect
produce
invite
assist
repair
suggest
skate
research
survive
return
prefer
Rule 3. Phonemic stress.
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change
with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If
we stress the first syllable, it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent).
But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples:
the words export, import, contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending
on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable (www.englishclubtip.com).
Unit 2. Practice 5
Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress.
Stress in the first syllable Stress in the second syllable
‘Abstract (Adjevtive) abs’tract (Noun)
‘conduct (Noun) con’duct (verb)
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‘contract (noun) con’tract (verb)
‘contrast (noun) con’trast (verb)
‘desert (noun) de’ssert (noun)
‘import (noun) im’port (verb)
Rule 4. Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)
Rule Example
Words ending in –ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic
Words ending in –sion and –tion aTTENtion, revelation
Unit 2. Practice 6
Pronounce the words correctly and provide the right stress in A and B:
(penultimate = second from end)
a. Ending in ic
autographic
authentic
automatic
barbaric
boracic
autodidactic
autistic
axiomatic
basic
boric
acrylic
rhythmic
rubric
rustic
prosodic
B. Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end)
-sion
admission
passion
tension
permission
adquisition
-tion
action
promotion
simulation
deduction
relation
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Important note
For a few words, native English speakers don’t always ‘agree’ on where
to put the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsiom and others
say TELevison. Another example is CONtroversy and controversy (www.
englishclubtip.com).
Rule 5. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
Rule Example
Words ending in –cy, -ty, -phy and –gy
deMOcracy, dependaBIlity, photography,
geOLogy
Words ending in –al
CRItical, geoLOGical
Unit 2. Practice 7
A) Pronounce the words ending in –cy correctly and provide the appropriate stress
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
adequacy
aristocracy
consistency
constancy
competency
agency
autocracy
consonancy
consultancy
conveniency
absorbency
adequacy
agency
ascendancy
bureaucracy
accountancy
advertency
aristocracy
autocracy
clemency
B) Pronounce the words ending in –ty correctly and provide the appropriate stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
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ability
abnormality
absorbability
absurdity
audacity
austerity
automaticity
barbarity
bellicosity
benignity
bestiality
biodiversity
bioelectricity
biosafety
bisexuality
brutality
calamity
capability
carnality
catholicity
C) Pronounce the words ending in –phy correctly and provide the adequate stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
autography
biography
cardiography
cosmography
encephalography
bibliography
calligraphy
chronography
crystallography
historiography
geography
filmography
ethnography
idiography
mammography
mythography
oscillography
petrography
philosophy
radiography
d) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy correctly and provide the adequate
stress.
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
allergy
anthology
astrology
biotechnology
chronology
analogy
apology
astrobiology
cardiology
climatology
genealogy
histology
hydrology
ideology
immunology
laryngology
lexicology
monology
morphology
musicology
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E) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
abdominal
aboriginal
philosophical
acquisitional
additional
aesthetical
aeronautical
agrichemical
agricultural
alphabetical
analytical
compositional
computational
epidemiological
noninflectional
nonmarital
psychological
professional
monolitical
nonpractical
Rule 6. Compound words (words with two parts)
Rule Example
a) For compound nouns, the stress is
on the first part
BLACKbird, GREENhouse
b) For compound adjectives, the stress
is on the second part
bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned
c) For compound verbs, the stress is
on the second part
to understand, to overflow
Unit 2. Practice 8
A) For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird. Practice the words
loudly and provide the adequate stress.
blackboard
saucepan
saleswork
iceland
bedroom
bathroom
wallpaper
bathtub
housework
grasshopper
boyfriend
seafood
undercut
diningtable
blue-green
hwatermelon
highlight
fishtank
tumbledown
underworld
witchcraft
B) For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part: bad TEMpered.
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Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.
long-legged
three-headed
flowered-dress
masked man
six-sided
long-handled
green-eyed
staff-necked
baby-faced
short-tempered
thin-skinned
smooth-tongue
broken-hearted
light-footed
long-winded
tight-fisted
sure-footed
high-heeled
freckle-faced
stone-faced
kind-hearted
C) For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part: to understand, to overflow.
Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.
turn back (return) talk back (to) (answer rudely) Keep down (Do not vomit)
take charge (of)
(assume responsibility)
write down (make notes)
Kick around (Discuss)
look over (review) talk over (discuss):
Kick down
(Break something with your feet)
Bring back (return) highlighted let down (Disappoint)
Call back (telephone again)
Keep around
(Keep something near you)
lock down
(Make something very secure)
Unit 2. Practice 9
Now read the 4-syllable words and write them on the appropriate space
Stress pattern
∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙
1. Felicity
2. Afghanistan
3. Alexander
4. Wolverhampton
5. Rhinoceros
6. Mississipi
Taken from “Rhymes Rhythm, Michael Vaughan- Reeds
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2.6. Syllable Stress
In words of more than one syllable, the syllables do not all have equal stress. There is
usually one that has particularly strong stress. This means that on this syllable your voice is
louder and usually pitched higher, and you hang on to the syllable considerably longer than
on the other syllables of that word. Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or
make it completely unrecognisable.
So stressed syllables in English are usually held longer than unstressed syllables. They may
also be louder and higher in pitch.
Although all stressed vowels are long, stressed vowels at the end of a word or before a
voiced consonant are held somewhat longer than vowels before voiceless consonants.
long
Before a voiceless consonant
longer
Before a voiced consonant word end.
Seat
Shoot
Bet
Make
Rip
seed
shoe
bed
made
rib

An accent is the placement of intonation pitch-prominence (= higher or lower pitch than the
surroundings) on a word. Speakers choose to accent certain words (or to de-accent others)
because of the particular meaning they wish to convey in a particular situation. Accents
can fall only on stressed syllables. Thus to accent the word collapse ke’læps the pitch-
prominence goes on the syllables læps, but on tumble ‘tʌmbel on the syllable tʌm.
Summing up the rules
a) Always stress the syllable before one that’s pronounced [[n] –ssion/ -tion,
[ [s ] –cious/ -tions. [ [l ] –cial/-tial, etc., e. g. attention, spacious, artificial.
b) In words ending ‘-ic’, ‘-ical’, ‘-ically’, the stress is on the syllable before ‘-ic’, except
‘Árabic, a’rithmetic, ‘lunatic, ‘heretic, ‘politics, and ‘rhetoric (but adjectives: arith’metic,
he’retical, po’litical, rhe’torical).
c) Words ending in ‘-ese’ have the stress on this syllable (Chinése, journa’lese).
d) Do not stress the negative prefix attached to an adjective (‘possible, im’possible; ‘literate,
i’lliterate) except: ‘nowhere, ‘nothing, and ‘nobody, nonsense.
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PRaCTICE
A. Exaggerate the stressing as much as you can - i.e. Make the stressed syllable louder,
higher and longer than the unstressed ones.
a) Completion efficient invasion financial advantageous vivacious.
b) Photogenic scientific materialistic geographical musical technical.
c) psychology/psychologist meteorology/meteorologist ideology/ideologist.
d) Chinese Japanese Portuguese Cantonese Balinese Viernese.
e) Organised/disorganised complete/incomplete attractive/unattractive legal/illegal
where/nowhere sense/nonsense.
B. Practise shifting the stress
photograph politics competing analyse
photographer political competitor analysis
photographic politician competition analytical
C. Practise the words. Where are the stresses?
Photography develop photographic amateurs political
Institute photographs possibility politician competitive
Career technical competition distinguished politics
answers: C. pho’tography / ‘institute / ca’reer / de’velop / ‘photographs / ‘technical / photo’graphic / possi’bility /
compe’tition / ‘amateurs / poli’tician / dis’tinguished / po’litical / com’petitive / ‘politics
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dialogue: Photography or politics?
Diana: What have you decided to do after college, Jeremy?
Jeremy: I’m going to take up photography. Mr McKenzie’s recommended the course
at the Institute. He believes I could make a career as a photographer.
Diana: You’ll have to develop your own photographs. That requires technical
skill. Jeremy, you’re not a technician! And photographic materials are very
expensive.
Jeremy: Well, Diana, Mr McKenzie thinks there’s a possibility I might win the Observer
competition. I sent in four entries. All the competitors are amateurs, like
myself.
Diana: I detest competitions. I never agree with the decision of the judges! I’m going
to be a politician. I shall become the most distinguished woman on the political
scene!
Jeremy: I thought you hated competing! Don’t tell me politics isn’t competitive!
2.7. Sentence Stress
Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help
you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.
Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or “beat”. You remember that word stress
is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words
within a sentence.
In general, in any given English utterance there will be particular words that carry more
“weight” or “volume” (stress) than others. From a speaking perspective, sentence stress will
affect the degree to which an ESL student sounds “natural”. In terms of listening, it affects
how well a student can understand the utterances they hear.
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what is the difference between “word stress” and “sentence stress”?
Whereas sentence stress refers to the process whereby particular words are stressed
within an overall sentence. Word stress refers to the process whereby particular syllables
(or parts of words) are stressed within and overall word. In general, sentence stress is more
of a consideration for overall fluency - word stress tends to have more of a phonological and
morphemic importance
I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher whose MAIN INterest is to TAKE SPEcial,
BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that exHIBit ABstract MEANings in their
photoGRAPHic STRUCture.
Most sentences have two types of word:
• Content words – stressed
Content words
Main verbs go, talk, writing, dance, sell, give, employ
Nouns student, desk, book, car, music,
Adjectives big, clever, studious, red, big, interesting
Adverbs quickly, slowly, loudly, never, always, rarely
Negative aux. verbs can’t, don’t, aren’t, doesn’t, didn’t
Demonstratives this, that, those, these.
Question marks who, which, where, how, What
• Grammatical words- unstressed
Pronouns I, you, he , they, We, she, it
Prepositions On, under, with, behind, across
Articles The, a, some, an, any
Conjunctions But, and, so, because,
Auxiliary verbs Can, should, must, can, have, do
Verb to be Is, was, am
For example:
I am speaking to the young workers.
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You’re listening to the music, but you aren’t concentrated in the topic.
He is speaking quickly, so it is difficult for him to understand him.
Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry
the meaning or sense.
grammatical words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make
the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form or “structure”.
If you remove the grammatical words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the
sentence.
If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not understand the sentence. The
sentence has no sense or meaning.
Imagine that you receive this telegram message:
Will you SELL Me CAR because I’m GONE to FRANCE
This sentence is not complete. It is not a “grammatically correct” sentence. But you probably
understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car
for them because they have gone to France. We can add a few words:
Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE
The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more
correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically
correct sentence. But the information is basically the same:
Content Words
Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE.
Grammatical Words
In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed.
Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important because it adds “music” to the
language. It is the rhythm of the English language. It changes the speed at which we speak
(and listen to) the language. The time between each stressed word is the same.
In our sentence, there is 1 syllable between SELL and CAR and 3 syllables between CAR
and GONE. But the time (t) between SELL and CAR and between CAR and GONE is the
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same. We maintain a constant beat on the stressed words. To do this, we say “my” more
slowly, and “because I’ve” more quickly. We change the speed of the small structure words
so that the rhythm of the key content words stays the same.
Syllables
2 1 3 1
will you SEll my CaR because I’ve goNE to FRaNCE.
__________
t1
beat
_____
t1
beat
_____________
t1
beat
___
t1
beat
Rules for Sentence Stress in English
The basic rules of sentence stress are:
1. Content words are stressed
2. grammatical words are unstressed
3. The time between stressed words is always the same
Exceptions
The above rules are for what is called “neutral” or normal stress. But sometimes we can
stress a word that would normally be only a grammatical word, for example to correct
information. Look at the following dialogue:
“They’ve been to Mongolia, haven’t they?”
“No, ThEY haven’t, but wE have.
Note also that when “be” is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed (even though in this
case it is a content word).
Special STaIR Exercises
S.T.A. I. R stands for:
• S tress
• T iming
• a rticulation
• I ntonation
• R hythm
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These are the 5 essential components of good English pronunciation. Make sure people
can understand your English by using the interactive S.T.A.I.R exercises in Pronunciation
Power.
Sentence Stress Practice
Unit 2. Practice 10
Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.
These are the house that Jaqueline built
One Two Three Four
1. This is the house that Jack built
2. These are the houses that Jack built
3. These are the houses that Jaqueline built
4. This is the house that my mother designed
5. This is the bicycle Peter repaired
6. Those are the people we met in the park
7. That is the person I saw on the stairs
8. Those are the people we drove to the party
9. That is the gardener who works for my mother
10. Andrew is taller than Peter and Thomas
11. Tom’s not as tall as the rest of the family
12. What an amazingly lively production
13. How can we possibily get there in time
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B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please, turn off the television before you go out.
5. I can’t decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson’
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
2.8. Sentence rhythm
Sentence rhythm is a natural part of language development. Most children master the
intonation patterns and rhythms of language before they master the words.
Because the patterns and rhythms of our native language are so deeply ingrained, the best
way to review writing is to read it out loud. Any lapses in meaning or coherence can then be
seen easily.
It is important to remember that an English sentence will have a certain number of beats.
Stressed (content words always take up an entire ‘beat’, while unstressed grammatical
words fall between the beats. The time between beats is always the same. For this reason
grammatical words are often spoken faster and with less volume. They are literally being
squeezed into the gap between regular stressed beats. In the examples below, all the
grammatical words (or groups of grammatical words) take the same amount of time to
pronounce the number of sounds or syllables they include. Doing simple rhythmic clap or
thump in time to the spoken sentence demonstrate how this happens.
Rhythm is timing patterns among syllables.
There are basically two types of sentence rhythm in languages:
A) “Stress-timed rhythm” and B) “syllables-timed rhythm”. English has “stress-times rhythm
and Spanish, a syllable-time rhythm.
Stress-time rhythm has an alternation of stressed and unstressed.
Important Note: Negative words and negative “to-be, “to have”, and auxiliary verbs need to
be stressed: (e.g., no, never, isn’t, haven’t, can’t, don’t, won’t).
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Unit 2. Practice 11
Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. See the examples:

I am talking to the clever students
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3

You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us.
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4

He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
1. John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.
2. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.
3. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back
roads of France.
4. jack bought a new car last Friday.
5. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january.
6. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future.
7. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?
8. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging
experiment.
9. Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.
10. As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern.
Unit 2. Practice 12
Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder, longer, clearer,
and high-pitched.
1. john wants to be an actor, so he wants to live in hollywood.
2. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
3. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday.
4. After the movie, they went to a bar to have beer.
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Unit 2. Practice 13
Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. (Remember if you hear the “to-be”
or auxiliary verb is stressed, then the sentence is negative).
13. a.
1. I ______ understand your story. (can, can’t)
2. Tom _______ come to the party tonight. (can, can’t)
3. They _______ hear the speaker. (can, can’t)
4. We _______ told to do that. (were, weren’t)
5. They ________ doing the homework. (are, aren’t)
6. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. (were, weren’t)
13.B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please turn off the television before you go out.
5. I can’t decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson’.
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My Grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10 There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
here’s how we can improve our pronunciation:
1. Learn the following rules concerning pronunciation.
2. English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered
syllabic.
3. In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance
(there is stress, but each syllable has its own length).
4. English pronunciation focuses on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the
other, non-stressed, words.
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5. Stressed words are considered content words: Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter - (most)
principle verbs e.g. visit, construct - Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting - Adverbs e.g.
often, carefully
6. Non-stressed words are considered function words: Determiners e.g. the, a - Auxiliary
verbs e.g. am, were - Prepositions e.g. before, of - Conjunctions e.g. but, and - Pronouns
e.g. they, she
7. Read the following sentence aloud: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the
distance.
8. Read the following sentence aloud: He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn’t have
to do any homework in the evening.
9. Notice that the first sentence actually takes about the same time to speak well!
10. Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the
sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words in
each sentence.
11. Write down a few sentences, or take a few example sentences from a book or exercise.
12. First underline the stressed words, then read aloud focusing on stressing the underlined
words and gliding over the non-stressed words.
13. Be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves! By focusing on stressed words,
non-stressed words and syllables take on their more muted nature.
14. When listening to native speakers, focus on how those speakers stress certain words
and begin to copy this.
Tips:
1. Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often “swallowed” in English.
2. Always focus on pronouncing stressed words well, non-stressed words can be glided
over.
3. Don’t focus on pronouncing each word. Focus on the stressed words in each sentence.
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BIBlIogRaPhY
Anne C. Newton, Editor.
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum,
a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV,
Number 4.
J.C. Wells
(2006) English intonation: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
P. Ashby
(2005) Speech sounds. London: Routledge, Second edition.
A. Cruttenden
(2001) Gimson’s pronunciation of english. London: Edward Arnold. Sixth edition.
B. Collins and I. M. Mees
(2003) Practical phonetics and phonology. London: Routledge.
J.D. O’Connor
(1980) Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Second edition.
P. Roach
(2000) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge University Press. Third edition.
P. Roach, J. Hartman and J. Setter (ed.)
(2006) English pronouncing dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Seventeenth
edition.
J.C. Wells
(2000) Longman pronunciation dictionary. Longman.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-rules.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1.pdf
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.mp3
http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/Table3.htm
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aCTIVITY
1. Why is word stress phonemic?
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2. Indicate the traditional types of stress and the three degrees of stress.
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3. What are the problems non-native speakers face when they speak to native speakers?
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4. Why is word stress so important?
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5. What are the simple rules for word stress?
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6. Where are most 2-syllable nouns stressed? Give examples.
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7. Where are most 2-syllable verbs stressed? Give examples.
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8. Give examples of lexical entries where the stress is phonemic.
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9. What is the difference between word stress and sentence stress?
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10. What are the basic rules for sentence stress? Give examples.
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o

oBjECTIVES
1. Be aware of the different processes that take place in connected speech
in spoken language.
2. Get familiar with different changes as a result of assimilation.
3. Recognize compound words and how they are stressed.
4. Understand how double consonants are pronounced in connected speech.
5. Understand the importance of elision process in connected speech.
6. Learn how r is pronounced in isolation and in connected speech.
7. Understand how stress changes in connected speech.
8. Understand how /t/ can be pronounced as a voiced sound /d/ in connected
speech.
UNIT III
CoNNECTED sPEECh
CoNNECTEd SPEECh
When a word occurs in a phrase or sentence, its pronunciation may sometimes be different
from the pronunciation used when it is said in isolation.
Some of the characteristics of the phonetics of connected speech are discussed in this unit.
3.1. Assimilation
3.2. Compounds and phrases
3.3. Double consonant sounds
3.4. Double consonant letters
3.5. Elision
3.6. R liaison
3.7. Stress shift
3.8. T-voicing
3.9. Weak forms
3.10. Word linking
3.1. assimilation
It is a process in which one or more segments become adapted in one or more aspects to
a neighbouring segment.
Example: in English, the alveolar nasal of the prefix /in-/ changes to [l] in illegal (complete
convergence) and to [m] in input (partial convergence). In the latter case the change is from
alveolar to labial under influence of the neighbouring labial segment [p]. When assimilation
takes place between two vowels it is more commonly referred to as vowel harmony
(agreement among vowels in successive syllables in respect of one or more feautures:
bathtub → battered in a child).
Sounds tend to change as a result of assimilation. Let see some of this common
assimilations.
/ t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
/ d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
/ n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
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/ t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/
/ d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
/ n / changes to / ŋ / before / k / or / g /
/ s / changes to / [ / before / [ / or / j /
/ z / changes to / ¿ / before / [ / or / j /
/θ/ changes to / s / before / s /
1. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
basket maker mixed bag
best man mixed blessing
cat burglar mixed marriage
cigarette paper mixed metaphor
circuit borrad pocket money
coconut butter post mortem
court martial pot plant
direct method private property
dust bowl put back
fast motion put by
first base right pair
flight plan secret police
foot brake set point
front bench set back
front man set piece
fruit machine sheet metal
Great Britain sit back
/ -m /
/ t / → / p / / -b /
/ -p /
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2. / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
bad pain good cook
blood bank good morning
blood bath grand master
blood brother ground plan
blood poisoning head boy
blood pressure hold back
blood pudding lord mayor
broad bean mud bath
card punch mud pie
closed book old bailey
command module old boy
command post old man
custard pie old maid
custard powder old moon
dead beat oxford blue
food poisoning red bag
food processor second mate
gold plate sound barrier
gold medal stand by
gold mine united party
good man word blindness
/ -m /
/ d / → / b / / -b /
/ -p /
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3. / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
action planning iron man
american plan on me
brown paper one pair
brown bear open book
chicken breast open market
common market open prison
cold man pen pal
cotton belt pin money
cotton picker queen bee
down payment queen mother
fan belt question mark
fan mail roman mile
foreign minister sun bath
foreign mission sun blind
garden party tin plate
green belt town planning
green bean venetian blind
hen party virgen birth
human being wine box
in blue wine bar
/ -m /
/ n / → / m / / -b /
/ -p /
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4. / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/
cigarette card short cut
credit card smart card
cut glass street credibility
fat girl street cry
first class that cake
flan cap
5. / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
bad girl hard cash
bird call hard copy
closed game hard core
cold call hard court
cold cream highland cattle
field glasses red carpet
good cook sand castle
grand canyon second class
ground control second comino
ground cover second cousin
had come slide guitar
had gone
/ -k /
/ t / → / k /
/ -g /
/ -k /
/ d / → / g /
/ -g /
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6. / n / changes to /ŋ/ before / k / or / g
action group open court
common good roman calendar
common ground roman candle
garden cress roman catholic
golden gate tin can
golden goose tone control
human capital town clero
in camera town crier
iron curtain
7. / s / changes to / [ / before / [ / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound
bus shelter nice yacht
dress shop space shuttle
nice shoes
8. / z / changes to / ¿ / before / [ / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound
cheese shop where’s tours?
Rose show
these sheep
9. / θ / changes to / s / before / s /
bath salts earth science
bath seat fifth set
birth certificate fourth season
both sexes fourth summer
both sides north-south divide
Source: http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/assimilation.html#as04
/ -k /
/ n / → / ŋ /
/ -g /
/ -[
o / u
/
/ s / → / [ /
/ -j
o / u
/
/ -[
o / u
/
/ z / → / ¿ /
/ -j
o / u
/
/ θ / → / s / / / -s /

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3.2. Compounds and phrases
A two-element compound is typically pronounced with early stress: that is to say, its first
element has more stress than its second.
‘bedtime /‘bed taIm/
‘block
o
buster /‘blbk
o
btst e/ || /‘blo:k
o
btst
e
r/
Notice that, although many such compounds are written as single words, others are written
as two words.
‘christmas
o
card
‘visitors’ book
‘music
o
lessons
‘beauty
o
contest
3.2.1. On the other hand, a two-word phrase is typically pronounced with late stress: that is
to say, its second word has more stress than its first.
,next ‘time
,typed ‘cards
,several ‘books
,weekly ‘lessons
3.2.2. These, and all stress patterns, can be changed if the speaker wants to emphasize a
particular contrast.
,Not a
o
school 'boy, __ a ,school ’girl!
,Not
o
music ‘lessons, __ ,just
o
time to ’practise.
,Not ‘weekly
o
lessons, __ ’monthly ones!
3.2.3. Sometimes a compound has a different meaning from the corresponding phrase.
A ‘darkroom (a room developing photographs)
A ,dark ‘room (a room which is dark because there is little light in it)
A ‘yellow
o
hammer (a kind of bird)
A ,yellow ‘hammer (a hammer coloured yellow)
A ‘moving van (to carry furniture when one moves house)
A ,moving ‘van (a van that is motion).
3.2.4. Some expression, which are grammatically compounds, are nevertheless pronounced
with late stress (= as if they were phrases). There is no firm rule; that is why many
compounds and phrases are listed separately with their stress patterns.
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One group of expressions of this type comprises those where the first element names
the material or ingredient out of which a thing is made.
a ,rubber ’duck
,paper ’plates
,cheese ’sandwiches
,apple ’crumble’
a ,pork ’pie
Note, however, that expressions involving cake, juice, water take early stress.
‘almond cake
‘orange juice
‘barley
o
water
3.2.5. In names of English places, note that all take late (final stress) stress except street,
which takes early (beginning) stress.
,Melrose ‘Road
,Lavender ‘Crescent
,Oxford ‘Circus
,King’s ‘Avenue
but ‘Gower Street
3.3. double Consonant Sounds
Double consonant sounds (“geminates”) in English phonetic are found only across
grammatical boundaries: where two words occur next to one another in connected speech,
or in the two parts of a compound word, or a stem and an affix. They are always found in a
syllable boundary, too. Examples are a nice sight /e,nais’saIt/, midday, /mId’deI/, soulless
/’seol les/ || /‘sool les/ .
3.3.2. Although cases like these consist of two identical phonemes in succession, they are
not usually pronounced like two distinct complete sounds. The details depend upon
their manner of ARTICULATION.
• Fricatives, nasal, liquids: a geminate is pronounced like a single sound, except
that it lasts longer. In this set, /ðIs’set/ the two s’s come together to make a long
s: between the two vowels, straddling (being found) the syllable boundary. In ten
names, /ten ’neImz/we get a long n:
• Plosives: a geminate is pronounces like a single sound, with just one sequence
of approach-hold-release; but the hold is longer in a geminate. In big game,
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/,bIg’geIm/ there is a single phonetic g: between the two vowels, straddling the
syllable boundary. Exceptionally, because of the possibility of a GLOTTAL STOP,
a geminated t may consist phonetically of ?t: that time /,ðæt’taIm / but a single
long alveolar t: is also possible.
• affricates are the only case where two successive complete consonant sounds
are pronounced independently, one after the other. In rich choice /,rIt[ ’t[oIs/
the fricative part of the first ç can be separately heard before the beginning of the
second ç. In orange juice there are two separate g’s.
3.4. double consonants letters
3.4.1. Double consonant letters in English spelling normally correspond to a single
consonant sound in pronunciation. So happy is pronounced /’hæp.i/ (not /’hæppi/);
rabbit rhymes perfectly with habit, Ellen rhymes perfectly with helen.
3.4.2. The main exception arises in a few words with cc before i or e, for example succeed
/sek’si:d/.
The other import exception is where the two consonant letters in question belong to
two different parts of a compound word, or one to a stem and one to an affix. Then
the two letters most often correspond to two phonemes (DOUBLE CONSONANT
SOUNDS). Examples: parttime /,pa:t’ taIm/, unnamed /tn’ neImd/ meanness
/’mi:n.nes/ (however many adverbs in ly drop one I sound when attached to a stem
ending in l: fully /’foli/).
3.5. Elision
It is the omission or loss of a vowel, a consonant, a syllable, a segment, or segments in oral
speech.
The nature of elision may be stated quite simple: under certain circumstances sounds
disappear; one might express this in more technical language by saying that in certain
circumstances a phoneme may be realized as zero, or have zero realization. As with
assimilation, elision is typical of rapid, casual speech; the process of change in phoneme
realizations produced by changing the speed of speech is sometimes called gradation.
Producing elisions is something which foreign learners do not need to learn to do, but it is
important for them to be aware that when native speakers of English talk to each other, quite
a number of phonemes that the foreigner might expect to hear are not actually pronounced.
We will look at some example, though only a small numbers of the many possibilities can be
given here. Peter Roach (83). pp. 108-110.
3.5.1. loss of weak vowel after p, t, k.
In words like ‘potato’, ‘tomato’, ‘canary’, ‘perhaps’, ‘today’, the vowel in the first
syllable may disappear; the aspiration of the initial plosive takes up the whole
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of the middle portion of the syllable, resulting in these pronunciation, where h
indicates aspiration: /p
h
teIteo/, /t
h
ma:teo/, /k
h
neerI/, /p
h
h æ ps/, /t
h
deI/.
3.5.2. Weak vowel + n, l or r becomes syllabic consonant. Examples:
‘tonight’ /te’naIt/ → / ‘t ņait/;
‘police’ /pe’li:s/ → / ‘p!i:s/,
‘correct’ /ke’rekt/ → /krekt/.
3.5.3. Avoidance of complex consonant clusters.
It has been said that no normal English speaker would ever pronounce all the
consonants between the last two words of the following:
‘George the sixth’s throne’ /go:g ðe sIksθs θreon/. Though this is not impossible to
pronounce, something like /… sIks θreon is more likety. In clusters of three plosives
or two plosives plus a fricative, the middle plosive or two may disappear, so that the
following pronunciations result:
‘acts’ / æks/; ‘looked back’ /’lok bæk/; scripts / ‘skrIps/.
3.5.4. Loss of final v in ‘of’ before consonants. Examples : ‘lots of them’ / lbts e ðem/;
‘waste of time’ /weIst e mtnI/.
3.5.5. It is difficult to know whether contractions of grammatical words should be regarded
as examples of elision or not.
The fact that they are regularly represented with special spelling forms makes them
seem rather different from the above examples. The best known cases are:
• ‘had’, ‘would’ : spelt ‘d, pronounced d after vowels, ed after consonants.
• ‘Is’, ‘has’ spelt ‘s, pronounced s after fortis consonants (voiceless) , z after lenis
consonants (voiced) , except that after s, z, ¿, [, ¿ ç, g- is pronounced Iz and
‘has’ is pronounced Iz in contracted form.
• ‘Wil’: spelt ‘ll, pronounced l after vowels and syllabic ! after consonants.
• ‘Have’: spelt ‘ve, pronounced v after vowels, ev after consonants.
• ‘Not’: spelt ‘n’t, pronounced nt after vowels, syllabic ņt after consonants.
(There are also vowel changes associated with n’t; e.g. ‘can’ kæn- ‘can’t’ ka.nt,
‘do’ du:- ‘don’t deont).
• ‘Are’: spelt ‘re, pronounced e after vowels, usually with some change in the
preceding vowel, e.g. ‘you’ ju: - ‘you’re’ joe, ‘we’ wi:’ – ‘we’re’ wIe, ‘they’ ðeI
-‘they’re’ ðeI, linking r is used when a vowel follows. Contracted ‘are’ is also
pronounced as e or er when following a consonant.
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3.6. R liaison
3.6.1. In BrE (RP), and other non-rhotic accents, a word said in isolation never ends in r.
Nevertheless, in connected speech an r may be pronounced in some cases if the
next word begins with a vowel sound.
3.6.2. This typically happens with a word (syllable) that ends in one of the vowels e, o:, o:,
s:, Ie, ee, oe, when the following word (syllable) begins with a vowel sound.
Far /fa:
r
/ || /fa:r/ In isolation, or before a consonant sound, this word is, in RP,
pronounced /fa:/. But in phrases such as far away, far out it is usually pronounced
/fa:r/. (In Gen Am it is always /fa:r/, whatever the environment it occurs in).
Near /nIe/ || /nI
e
r/ In isolation, the RP form is /nIe/. But in a phrase such as near
enough it is usually pronounced /nI
e
r/.
3.6.3. Usually, as in the cases just mentioned, the spelling includes r. The inserted r-sound
is then known as linking r. It corresponds to a historical r, now lost before a consonant
or pause.
3.6.4. In RP (standard english), however, as in other non-rhotic accents, the insertion is
frequently made even if there is no r in the spelling. This intrusive /r/ does not
correspond to historical r, and there is no corresponding r in AmE.
Comma /’kbme/ || /’ko:me/ In isolation, the RP form is /’kbm.e/. But in a phrase
such as put a comma in, it is often pronounced /’kbm.er/ (In american english it is
always /’ko:me/, whatever the environment).
Thaw /0o:/ || /0o:/ In isolation, RP thaw is /0o:/. In the phrase thaw out, intrusive
r may be added, giving /0o:r’aot/ (In Gem Am there is no r). (Thaw: the period of
warmer weather that causes ice and snow to turn into water).
The dictionary does show r liaison within a word, whether linking or intrusive. The
linking r, being obligatory, is shown thus: storing /sto:rIŋ/. The intrusive r, being
optional, is shown thus: thawing /0o:
r
Iŋ/.
3.7. Stress Shift
3.7.1. Some words seem to change their stress patterns in connected speech. Although in
isolation we say fundamental with the main stress these on ment and japanese
with the main stress on /ni:z/, in connected speech these words often have a different
pattern. For example, there might be greater stress on ftnd than on ment, or greater
stress on /gæp/ than on /ni:z/. This phenomenon is known as stress shift.
3.7.2. A phrase usually receives late stress. The placing of primary stress on the last
element means that the basic stress of the first element is weakened by one degree:
combining weekly /’wi:.kli/ and lessons /’les.
e
nz/ gives the phrases weekly lessons
/,wi:
o
kli’ les.
e
nz/
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Hence one would expect that fundamental /,ftn.de’men.t
e
l/ plus mistake /mI’steIk/
would give /ftn,de’men.t
e
l mI’steIk/ and that japanese /,gæpe’ni:z/ plus language
/’læŋ.gwIg/would give /,gæpe,ni:z’ læŋ.gwIg/.
3.7.3. But these stress patterns are unbalanced. In fact, native speakers of English usually
switch round the stress levels in the first element, and say /,ftn.de,men.t
e
lmI’steIk/,
/,gæpeni:z’læŋ.gwIg/.
3.7.4. The same thing happens with a phrase such as that made by combining very lazy
/,veri’leI.zi/ with people ‘pi:p
e
l. The usual pattern involves stress shift, thus, verI,leI
zI ‘pi:p
e
l.
3.7.5. Stress shift potentially affects all words entered in the Longman Pronunciation
Dictionary that include the secondary stress-mark (,). In practice, though, it is likely
to apply only to those which are regularly followed in a phrase by a more strongly
stressed word: most adjectives, but only certain nouns.
3.8. T-voicing
For most Americans and Canadians the phoneme t is sometimes pronounced as a voiced
sound. Where this is the usual AmE pronunciation it is shown by the symbol /t/.
3.8.1. Phonetically, t is a voiced alveolar tap (flap). It sounds like a quick English d, and also
like the r of some languages. For many Americans, it is actually identical with their
d in the same environment, so that AmE shutter /’[tt.e
r
/ may sound identical with
shudder /’[td.e
r
/.
3.8.2. Learners of English as a foreign language who take AmE as their model are
encouraged to use t where appropriate.
3.8.3. After n, AmE t can optionally be elided (omitted). Accordingly, it is shown in italics, as
ţ. Thus AmE winter /’wInt
e
r/ can sound identical to winner /’wIne
r
/. Note, however,
that some speakers of AmE consider this pronunciation incorrect.
3.8.4. In connected speech, t at the end of a word may change to t if both the following
condition apply:
• the sound before the t is a vowel sound or r.
• the next word begins with a vowel sound and follows without a pause.
Thus in AmE right /raIt/ may pronounced /raIt/ in the phrase right away /,raIte’weI/,
right out /,raIt’aot/. But in right now /raIt’nao/ no t is possible: nor in left over
/,left’eo.ve
r
/.
3.8.5. Under the same condition, if the sound before a t at the end of a word is n, the t
change to t (and therefore possibly disappear): paint /peInt/, but paint it /’peIn t It/.
Again, some people consider this incorrect.
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘
˘ ˘
˘
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3.9. weak forms
3.9.1. Many English function words (grammatical words), such as articles, pronouns,
preposition, auxiliaries, modals etc, have more than one pronunciation. In particular,
they have a strong form, containing a strong vowel, and a weak form, containing a
weak vowel. An example is at, with strong form æt and weak form et.
3.9.2. The weak form is generally used if the word is unstressed (as is usually the case
with function or grammatical words). The strong form is used only when the word is
stressed for some reason.
Jim´s at lunch. He´ll be back at one. … /et/…/et/…
We say “at home “, not “in home”. ... /’æt/…
I´ll invite them round. … /ðem/…
They were delighted.… /we/ || /we
r
/
Tell me how they were. … /ws:/ || /’ws:
r
/
3.9.3. Nevertheless, the strong form is used even for certain unstressed functions words:
(i) Usually, in the case of a preposition followed by a pronoun at the end of a
sentence.
I´m looking at you… /ætjo/ or /etjo/.
(ii) Always, when a word is left exposed by a syntactic operation involving the
movement or deletion of the word on which it depends
Where does he come from? … (he comes from X) /’ktm frbm/ || /’ktm frtm/.
I can speak better than you can ( = than you can speak) /’oIken spi:k ... ’ju:
kæn/
It was aimed at but not achieved … (= they aimed at it ) /’eimd æt/
“Stranded” or “left” like this, the last word in each sentence or phrase has to be
strong.
3.9.4. It is important for learners of English to use weak forms appropriately. Otherwise,
listeners may think they are emphasizing a word where this is not really so. Equally,
native speakers should not be misled into supposing that careful or declamatory
speech demands strong forms throughout. One exception is in singing, where strong
forms are often used. Even here, though, articles are generally weak.
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UNIT 3. Practice 1
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs
The weak form (unstressed form) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or
in the middle of sentence.
The strong form (strong stress) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence.
auxiliary verb
weak form Strong form
do /de/ or /do/ /du:/
does /dez/ /dtz/
have /hev/ /hæv/
has /hez/ /hæz/
were /we/ /ws:/
was /wez/ /wbz/
can /ken/ /kæn/
Instruction. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is
Strong (S) or weak (W).
1. When was your birthday? (W)
It was in April. (W)
2. Have you got a good English dictionary? ( )
Yes, I have. ( )
3. Does your mother work in an office? ( )
Yes, she does. ( )
4. Where were your parents married? ( )
I think they were married in London. ( )
5. Has your father got dark hair? ( )
Yes, he has. ( )
6. Do you get the bus to work’? ( )
Yes, I do. ( )
7. How many languages can you speak? ( )
I can speak two - English and French ( )
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8. Does she live in the north of England? ( )
Yes, she does ( )
9. Can you speak English? ( )
Yes, she can. ( )
10. Has she got a job? ( )
Yes, she has, ( )
11. Have they got any children) ( )
Yes, they have. ( )
12. Do they share the housework? ( )
Yes, they do, ( )
13. Were they married in Japan? ( )
Yes, they were ( )
3.10. weak Vowels
3.10.1. Among unstressed syllables it is useful to distinguish between those that nevertheless
contain a strong vowel and those that have a weak vowel. This distinction has
implication for syllabification and sometimes for rhythm.
3.10.2. A stressed syllable (shown in words of more than one syllable by one of the marks
‘ (primary stress) , (secondary stress) = equal to primary or secondary stress, must
always contain a strong vowel. This may be any vowel or diphthong except e, i, u.
All the syllables in the following words, whether stressed or unstressed, are strong
- vowelled:
red /red/
hope /heop/ || /hoop/
bedtime /’bed, taIm/
undone /,tn’dtn/
acorn /’eIko:n/ || /’eIko:rn/
butane /’bju:teIn/
3.10.3. The vowels e, i ,u are always weak. So, too, is I in many cases, as well as o in
BrE and oo in AmE. The unstressed syllables in the following words are all weak-
vowelled:
allow /e’lao/
happy /’hæp.i/
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situation /,sIt[u’eI[
e
n/
carelessness /’keelesnes/ or /lIsnIs/
remember /rI’mem.be/ or /rI’memb
e
r/
standard /’stænded/ or /’stænd
e
rd/
stimulus /’stImjoles/ or /’stImjeles/
3.10.4. The weak vowels e may be realized in the form of a SYLLABIC CONSONANT
(some consonants such as ņ, ! can for the nucleus of a syllable), as in suddenly
/std
e
ņli/. Diphthongs arising from the COMPRESSION of weak syllables (the
capacity of sequence of sounds to be pronounced either as two separate syllables,
or compressed into a single syllable), as in annual / ‘ænjuel/, remain weak.
3.10.5. The distinction between weak /I/ and /e/ has the power of distinguishing word in
Received Pronunciation (RP), Standard English. For example, V. I Lenin is ’lenIn,
but Jhon Lennon is ’lenen. The words rabbit ´ræbIt and abbot ‘æbet do not rhyme.
In certain other kinds of English, however, this distinction may be neutralized.
(NEUTRALIZATION: the suppression of an opposition between phonemes operative
in other positions phonemes): either e is used instead of weak I in virtually all
positions, or the choice between I and e depends upon the phonetic context. So
rabbit at Longman Pronunciation Dictionary shows a secondary pronunciation
/´ræbet/.
3.10.6. Even in RP and other kinds of English that maintain the distinction between weak
I and e, many words may be heard with either pronunciation, and this is shown in
LPD. For example, carelessness, civil, private are nowadays usually pronounced
/’keelesnes/, /’sIv
e
l/, /’praIvet/. A conservative minority say /’keelIsnIs/, /’sIvIl/,
/’praIvIt/, and these are given in as secondary pronunciations.
3.11. word linking
It takes place when a word that begins with a vowel sound is linked to the consonant sound
at the end of the word before it.
Practice the sentence loudly making linking words appropriately.
1. The west End

2. Marble Arch
3. Gatwick Airport
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4. Heathrow Airport

/w/
5. The City of London

/j/
6. The Royal Albert Hall
7. The Houses of Parliament
8. The Tower of London
9. The London Underground
10. Then Bank of England

Unit 3: Practice 2
Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking.
1. She laughed at the joke.
..t..
2. She jumped over the wall
….
3. The pane crashed in the jungle
….
4. Columbus discovered America
….
5. The bomb destroyed a house
….
6. They traveled across Europe by train
….
7. He introduced Amanda to his friends
….
Source: Headway Pronunciation P-I. Bill Bowler. Sue Parminter. 2004.
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Unit 3. Practice 3
Read the sentences and say what form the prepositions are used in them: Strong or weak
form?
Prepositions weak form Strong form
to /te/ /tu:/
from /frem/ /frbm/
for /fe/ or /fer/ /fb:/
at /et/ /æt/
of /ev/ /bv/
B: Hello, Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny?
S: Speaking.
B: Hello. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz.
I am looking from (c) James Bond. We had a lunch appointment at (d). Isn’t he there?
S: I’m sorry, sir, but he’s gone to (e) Budapest.
B: I was afraid of (f) that. Where exactly?
S: He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal.
B: Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble.
S: He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days.
B: All right. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell him
I’m waiting for (m) his call.
S: Yes, sir.
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BIBlIogRaPhY
J.C. Wells
(2006) English intonation: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
(2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman,
Jones Daniel
(1997) English pronunciation dictionary. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.
CUP.
P. Ashby
(2005) Speech sounds. London: Routledge, Second edition.
A. Cruttenden
(2001) Gimson’s pronunciation of english. London: Edward Arnold. Sixth edition.
B. Collins & I. M. Mees
(2003) Practical phonetics and phonology. London: Routledge.
J.D. O’Connor
(1980) Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Second edition.
P. Roach
(2000) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge University Press. Third edition.
P. Roach, J. Hartman & J. Setter (ed.)
(2006) English pronouncing dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Seventeenth
edition.
http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/phonetics.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1.pdf
http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.mp3
http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/assimilation.html#as04
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aCTIVITY
1. What can you say about assimilation in connected speech?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Can you explain the assimilation of /t, d/ into /p, b/ before bilabial nasal and bilabial
stops? (Case 1, 2). Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Can you explain the assimilation alveolar nasal /n/ into bilabial nasal /m/? (Case 3)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Can you explain the assimilation of /t/ into voiceless velar /k/ (Case 4). Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What about the assimilation of alveolar stop voiced /d/ into velar stop voiced /g/? (Case 5)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. How is a compound word stressed? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. How are double consonant letters treated? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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8. Where are double consonants sounds found? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. Explain some cases of elision.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Explain the pronunciation of R-liaison briefly?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
11. What do you understand by Stress shift?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
12. Explain the phenomenon of T-voicing.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
13. What do you know about weak forms? Why is it so important in English language
learning?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Understand the components of the suprasegmental phonology: Intonation,
length and stress.
2. Get familiar with the rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh- question).
3. Understand and produce sentences following the fall-rise pattern.
(Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).
4. Produce sentences following combined patterns (pausing in the middle,
lists, doubt, apology, etc)
5. Be aware of the tag questions intonation pattern.
6. Be aware of the intonation pattern behind weak forms, linking, elision
and shifting tonic.
7. Practice the intonation, Length and stress through rhythm and jingles.
UNIT IV
sUPrAsEgmENTAL PhoNoLogy
SUPRaSEgMENTal PhoNologY
Suprasegmental phenomena are those that pertain to intonation, length and stress.
Suprasegmental phenomena, also called prosodic phenomena, are normally examined in
relation to individual lexical items or short phrases. However, many interesting prosodic
patterns can be described only in terms of major constituents or entire sentences. Moreover,
they are intimately connected with the syntactic and semantic properties of the sentences in
which they occur. The prosodic properties of entire sentences, particularly those pertaining
to pitch and stress, are referred to as intonation.
Intonational studies are not so well developed as those which deal with the suprasegmental
properties of individual lexical items, and we will restrict our attention to examples that
show the close relationship between intonation and the syntactic and semantic structure of
sentences (Langacker, 82).
Four major features in the teaching of English suprasegmentals will be introduced in this
chapter: 1) intonation units, 2) stress, 3) tone, 4) pitch range and 5) length by reviewing
relevant and current research (Mehmet Celik, University of Turkey).
4.1. Prosodic features: Intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length
Intonation
Intonation is the music of the language. In English, we use tone to signal emotion, questioning, and
parts of the sentence among many other things. It’s important to recognize the meaning behind the
tones used in everyday speech, and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings
between the speaker and the listener. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds
can be overlooked, but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression.
In English and many other languages, for example, questions answerable by ‘yes’ or ‘no’
occur with rising (or non-falling) intonation, while declaratives and other kinds of questions
occur with final falling intonation.
(1) Did Danny buy a cow? Ye, No.
(2) Danny bought a cow.
(3) What did Danny buy?
Rising intonation
Falling intonation
Falling intonation
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For Cruttenden (1986:35), intonation has three important features:
1) Division of a (dividing) a stream of speech into intonation units,
2) Selection of a syllable (of a word), which is assigned the ‘tonic’ status, and
3) Selection of a tone for the intonation unit To this list, another feature can be added:
pitch range, or key (Brazil et al., 1980).
Let’s study then the suprasegmental elements that characterized English Language:
1) intonation units, 2) stress, 3) tone, 4) pitch range and length by reviewing relevant and
current research (Mehmet Celik, University of Turkey.
1) Intonation Unit
An ‘intonation unit’ is a piece of utterance, a continuous stream of sounds, bounded by
a fairly perceptible pause. Pausing in some sense is a way of packaging the information
such that the lexical items put together in an intonation unit form certain psychological and
lexic~grammatical realities. Typical examples would be the inclusion of subordinate clauses
and prepositional phrases in intonation units.
Consider the example below, in which slashes correspond to pauses (Roach, 1983:146)
(see Halliday, 1967; Leech & Svartvik, 1975 for more): the meaning is given in brackets.
• Those who sold quickly / made a profit
(A profit is made by those who sold quickly.)
• Those who sold / quickly made a profit
(A profit was quickly made by those who sold.)
2) Stress
In every word in English, there is one main emphasized syllable. The vowel sound in this
syllable sounds higher in pitch, longer, and louder, and this is called stress. This helps
create the rhythm of the language, and knowing how to recognize the stressed syllable will
help you with comprehension. Placing the stress where it should be when you’re speaking
helps native speakers understand you better as well.
The stress is related to syllable stress, word stress and sentence stress, which were
developed in Unit II.
The stress is very important in English because in some cases the stress can also be
phonological because it will change the meaning of the word. Stress on the second syllable
will be a verb and on the first will be a noun or adjective, for example: ‘record and re’cord.
(Review unit II on stress)
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Four major types of stress are identified:
2.1. unmarked tonic stress
2.2. emphatic stress
2.3. contrastive stress
2.4. new information stress
Tonic stress. An intonation unit almost always has one peak of stress, which is called
‘tonic stress’, or ‘nucleus’. Because stress applies to syllables, the syllable that receives
the tonic stress is called ‘tonic syllable’. The term tonic stress is usually preferred to refer
to this kind of stress in referring, proclaiming, and reporting utterances. Tonic stress is
almost always found in a content word in utterance final position. Consider the following, in
which the tonic syllable is underlined:
1. I’m going.
2. I’m going to London.
3. I’m going to London for a holiday.
A question does arise as to what happens to the previously tonic assigned syllables. They
still get stressed, however, not as much as the tonic syllable, producing a three level stress
for utterances: the stressed, (content words) unstressed (grammatical words) and the
unmarked (going and holiday in the sentence).
I’m going to london for HOliday.
2.1. Unmarked tonic stress. It refers to the word that should be marked, but it is not because
another word was emphasized. Example:
I’m go into London for Holiday.
2.2. Emphatic stress. One reason to move the tonic stress from its utterance final position
is to assign an emphasis to a content word, which is usually a modal auxiliary, an intensifier,
an adverb, etc. Compare the following examples. The first two examples are adapted from.
Roach (1983: 144).
i. It was very BOring. (unmarked)
ii. It was VEry boring. (emphatic)
i. You mustn’t talk so LOUDly. (unmarked)
ii. You MUSTN’T talk so loudly. (emphatic)
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Some intensifying adverbs and modifiers (or their derivatives) that are emphatic by nature
are (Leech & Svartvik, 1.975:135): indeed, utterly, absolute, terrific, tremendous, awfully,
terribly, great, grand, really, definitely, truly, literally, extremely, surely, completely, barely,
entirely, very (adverb), very (adjective), quite, too, enough, pretty, far, especially, alone, only,
own, -self.
2.3. Contrastive Stress. In contrastive contexts, the stress pattern is quite different from
the emphatic and non-emphatic stresses in that any lexical item in an utterance can receive
the tonic stress provided that the contrastively stressed item can be contrastable in that
universe of speech. No distinction exists between content and function words regarding this.
The contrasted item receives the tonic stress provided that it is contrastive with some lexical
element (notion.) in the stimulus utterance. Examples:
a) Do you like this one or THAT one?
b) I like THIS one.
Consider the following sentences where we can find contrast.
C) She played the piano yesterday. (It was her who...)
D) She played the piano yesterday. (She only played (not. harmed) ...)
E) She played the piano yesterday. (It was the piano that...)
F) She played the piano yesterday. (It was yesterday...)
2.4. New Information Stress. In a response given to a wh-question, the information supplied,
naturally enough, is stressed. That is, it is pronounced with more breath force, since it is
more prominent against a background given information in the question. The concept of
new information is much clearer to students of English in responses to wh-questions than in
declarative statements.
a) What’s your NAME
b) My name’s GEORGE.
a) Where are you FROM?
b) I’m from WALES.
a) Where do you LIVE
b) I live in BONN
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The questions given above could also be answered in short form except for the last one, in
which case the answers are:
• George,
• Wales,
• in Bonn
In other words, ‘given’ information is omitted, not repeated. In the exchange:
a) What’s your name?
b) (My name’s) George.
The ‘new’ information in this response is ‘George.’ The part referring to his name is given in
the question, so it may be omitted.
Regarding the significance of new information declarative statements, Ladefoged (1982:100)
states: ‘In general, new information is more likely to receive a tonic accent than material that
has already been mentioned.
3) Tone
A unit of speech bounded by pauses has movement, of music and rhythm, associated with
the pitch of voice (Roach, 1983: 113). This certain pattern of voice movement is called ‘tone’.
A tone is a certain pattern, not an arbitrary one, because it is meaningful in discourse. By
means of tones, speakers signal whether to refer, agree, disagree, question or hesitate, or
indicate completion and continuation of turn-taking, in speech.
Tone allows identifying different kinds of sentences: a falling tone, rising tone, falling
rising tone, rising falling and a combination of them, etc. that will be seen later on.
What makes a tone a rising or failing or any other type of tone is the direction of the pitch
movement on the last stressed (tonic) syllable (Brown, 1977:45). If the tonic syllable is in
non-final position, the glide continues over the rest of the syllables. A fall in pitch on the tonic
syllable renders (provides) the tone as ‘fall’. A ‘rise’ tone is one in which the tonic syllable is
the start of an upward glide of pitch. This glide is of two kinds; if the upward movement is
higher, then it is ‘high rise’; if it is lower, then it is ‘low rise’. ‘Fall-rise’ has first a pitch fall and
then a rise.
3.1. Falling intonation: In statements, wh-questions, imperatives, requests, exclamations,
and Yes/No questions (when the speaker uses a falling intonation, we assume that he
already knows the answer).
Examples:
a) Statements: I’ll report you to the headmaster.
b) wh-questions: Where is the PENcil?
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c) Imperatives: Go and see a doCtor.
d) Requests: Please sit DOWN.
e) Exclamations: Watch OUT!
f) Yes/No questions: (when the speaker uses a falling intonation, we assume that the
speaker already knows the answer and he only needs confirmation).
a) Have you MET him?
b) YES.
3.2. Rising intonation
a) Yes/No questions when the speaker is sure that he does not know the answer and that
the addressee knows the answer. In this question we have three possible answers from
addressee:
A) Isn’t he NICE?
B) i) Yes.
ii) No.
iii) I don’t know.
3.3. high-Rising: Asking for repetition or clarification.
If the tonic stress is uttered with extra pitch height, as in the following intonation units, we
may think that the speaker is asking for a repetition or clarification, or indicating disbelief.
a) I’m taking up TAxidermy this autumn.
b) Taking up WHAT? (clarification).
a) She passed her DRIving test.
b) She PASSED? (disbelief).
3.4. Falling- Rising (Followed by a Fall) Sentential adverbs, compound sentences and so on.
Consider the following in which the former of the intonation units are uttered with a fallin-
rising tone (the slash indicates a pause):
Sentencial adverbs:
• Private enterPRISE / is always EFficient.
• A quick tour of the CIty / would be NICE.
• PreSUmably / he thinks he CAN.
• Usually / he comes on SUNday.
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Compound sentences: One of the most frequent complex clause types in English is one
that has dependent (adverbial or subordinate) clause followed by an independent (main)
clause. When such a clause has two intonation units, the first, non-final, normally has a
fall-rise while the second, final, has falling tone. Therefore, the tone observed in non-final
intonation units can be said to have a ‘dependency’ tone, which is falling-rising.
Consider the following:
• When I passed my REAding test / I was VEry happy.
non final (Fall-rise) final intonation (Falling)
(dependency tone)
• If you SEE him / give my MESsage.
When the order of complex clause is reversed, we may still observe the pattern fall-rise and
fall respectively, as in
• I WON’T deliver the goods / unless I receive the PAYment.
• The moon revolves around the EARTH / as we ALLknow.
4) Pitch
Pitch represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound
.
It is one of the three major
auditory attributes of sounds along with loudness and timbre. When the actual fundamental
frequency can be precisely determined through physical measurement, it may differ from
the perceived pitch because of overtones, also known as partials, harmonic or otherwise,
in the sound. The human auditory perception system may also have trouble distinguishing
frequency differences between notes under certain circumstances. According to acoustical
terminology, it is the auditory attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered
on a scale from low to high.
Pitch is one of the acoustic correlates of stress (Underhill 1994:57). From a physiological point
of view, ‘...pitch is primarily dependent on the rate of vibration of vocal cords... (Cruttenden,
1986:3). When the vocal cords are stretched, the pitch of voice increases. Pitch variations
in speech are realized by the alteration of the tension of vocal cords (Ladefoged, 1982:226).
The rate of vibration in vocal cords is increased by more air pressure from the lungs. In an
overwhelming majority of syllables that are stressed, a higher pitch is observed. Therefore,
loudness to a certain extent contributes to the make-up of pitch. That is, higher pitch is heard
louder than lower pitch.
The term ‘key’ can be described as utterance pitch; specific and/or meaningful sequences
of pitches in an intonation unit.
For a key to be significant:
1) It should be under speaker’s control,
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2) It should be perceptible to ordinary speakers, and
3) It should represent a contrast (Roach, 1983:113).
For each intonation unit, speaker must choose one of the three keys as required for the
conversation. Most of the speech for a speaker takes place at the mid (unmarked) pitch
(key), employed in normal and unemotional speech. In contrast, high and low pitches
(keys) are marked: high key is used for emotionally charged intonation units while use of
low key indicates an existence of equivalence (as in appositive expressions), and relatively
less significant contribution to the speech.
There are three kinds of keys (pitch): high, mid and low (Coulthard,1977) and speakers
make use of them depending on what and how they want to say the things.
1. Mid pitch. (unmarked) In denotative or declarative statements (affirmative or negative)
I wan to go to the market.
It is not raining today.
2. high pitch.
2.1. Exclamations:
High: She: Oh GOD¡
Mid:
Low: He:/have you GUESSED?/
2.2. Contrastivity:
High: DAVdi¡ /
Mid: / we’re going to MARgate this year /
Low:
High: YALE /
Mid: / I’m going to HARvard /
Low.
2.3. Echo/repeat:
a) 30 thousand dollars. (said Barney sadly)
b) 30 thousand dollars¡. Echo. (high).
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3. low pitch
3.1.Co-reference:
High:
Mid: / I TOLD you already /
Low: DUMmy / ( it refers back to you)
3.2. Non-defining relative clauses
High:
Mid: / my DOCtor / / is very WELL-known /
Low: who’s a neuROlogist
3.3. Statements of opinion.
High:
Mid: / the GOvernment / / will agree with our deMANDS
Low: I THINK
5. length
In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that are distinctively longer than
other sounds. There are short vowels as well as long consonants (the latter are often called
geminates).
Many languages do not have distinctive length. Among the languages that have distinctive
length, there are only a few that have both distinctive vowel length and distinctive consonant
length. It is more common that there is only one or that they depend on each other.
The languages that distinguish between different lengths have usually long and short sounds.
English distinguish between long and short vowels:
English short vowels: /I/, /e/, /æ/, /t/, /e/, /b/, /o/
English long vowels: /i:/, /3:/, /a:/, /o:/, /u:/.
Length may be distinctive for vowels, for consonants, or for both, although distinctive length
is more common with vowels than with consonants.
Phonetically, of course, considerable variation in length is possible. In English the length is
phonological because we can change the meaning of the word.
It –eat; leave, live; sheep, ship; heat, hit (short /I/and long /i:/)
Pull, pool; full, fool (short /o/ and log /u:/ )
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Heart /ha:t/; hard /ha:d/; harm /ha:m/ (long vowel /a:/)
Caught /ko:t/ cord /ko:d/; corn /ko:n/; course /ko:s/ (long vowel /o:/)
4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby
4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, wh- question)
Stress, rhythm and intonation are, if anything, more important for communication
than the correct pronunciation of individual sounds. We have looked at intonation
when we saw how meaning could be altered by shifting the Tonic.
The Tonic is the syllable of greatest stress an utterance. It is also the syllable where
most `movement´ occurs.
A sentence with the Tonic at the end will look like this, the voice rising on each
stressed syllable and then falling slightly below the pitch it was at before:
‘A farmer went trotting upon his grey mare’.

The whole sentence seems to be dropping like a series of small towards the Tonic,
in which all the features of the other stressed syllables-movement, loudness, length-
are present in an exaggerated form.
This is called the ‘rising-falling’ intonation pattern. If the Tonic is the last syllable in
the sentence, the voice will slide from high to low within that syllable.
I bought some food. Jane’s away.
If there are one or more unstressed syllables after the Tonic, the voice drops on the
following syllable and there is no further movement until the end of the phrase or
sentence.
I thought I saw a burglar. I thought I saw an alligator.
This pattern is used
(a) for statements.
(b) for ‘wh’ questions (what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why, and
how).
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There is also a plain ‘falling’ pattern, in which the voice does not rise on the Tonic, but
remains flat and then falls either within the final syllable or on the following one:
I feel sick. It’s snowing.
The difference between this and the first pattern is that if you use the second you
will sound distinctly bored or, at the very least, lacking in enthusiasm.
Practice
a. Statements
(a)
Final syllable
I took the books.
I put them down
We`re going to church.
(b)
Second –last syllable
I`ve bought you a present.
My father’s a teacher.
We’re going by taxi.
(c)
Followed by several syllables
I’ve dropped the thermometer.
He’s going into politics.
I think he’s an anthropologist.
B. ‘Wh-’questions
(a)
What’s that?
Where’s the tea?
Which is yours?
Who’s that girl?
Whose are these?
(b)
What are you going?
When did you get there?
Where are you going?
Why didn’t you tell me?
How are the children?
(c)
When will you finish it?
Which is the easiest?
Who were you talking to?
Why don’t we go to the cinema?
How did you hurt yourself?
C. Practice making a difference between rising-falling and falling intonation
It’s raining.
I’m going away.
I’m ill.
I’ve killed him.
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dIalogUE: what time does the plane leave?
ROBERT: What’s the time?
EMILY: Ten past two, dear.
ROBERT: When does the plane leave?
EMILY: Not until a quarter to four.
ROBERT: Why did we get here so early?
EMILY: Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.
ROBERT: Where’s my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?
EMILY: It’s there, dear, between your feet.
ROBERT: Emily! Where are you going?
EMILY: I’m going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the
loudspeaker.
ROBERT: Which gentleman?
EMILY: That man over there with all the packages.
ROBERT: Who is he?
EMILY: I don’t know. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement…
Yes, I was afraid so. The plane’s delayed. It won’t be leaving till five.
ROBERT: How did he manage to hear it if we didn’t?
EMILY: Because he was listening. You were talking too much to hear.
ROBERT: What do you mean, I was talking too much?
EMILY: Oh dear. Never mind.
ROBERT: What time is it now, Emily?

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4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern
(Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).
This pattern is the reverse of the one rising-falling pattern. The main movement in
the sentence is still on the Tonic syllable, but this time the voice falls on the Tonic
and then rises. You use this pattern to ask questions that require an answer of Yes
or No.
Let’s look at three sentences, first as statement with a rising-falling pattern, and
then in question form:

(a) I bought some food. (b) Did you buy some food?
I saw a burglar. Did you see a burglar?
A saw an alligator Did you see an alligator?
Did you notice that the second pattern is, in fact, not the exact reverse of the first?
In the statement, once the voice has fallen after the Tonic, it stays at the same level,
but in the question the voice continues to rise to the end of the sentence. Be careful
not to rise too sharply, especially if you have a lot to add after the Tonic, or you’ll end
up in a squeak! /s’kwi:k/ (very high tone of voice).
Did you see an alligator in the bath at the party last night?
The fall-rise pattern is also used for greetings, the voice rising and falling on the
greeting, and then, on the name that follows falling a little more and rising again
sharply.
Hello, Jane! Good evening, Mrs. Baker!
You also use this tune with ‘wh’ questions when you’re asking for information to be
repeated. The intonation here usually expresses shock or anger, implying, I don’t
believe you.
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I saw your girlfriend at the cinema last night.
Where did you see her?
At the cinema. She was with Charlie Brown.
Who was she with? Charlie Brown?
PRaCTICE 1
(a)
a. Yes / no questions
Are you alone?
Can I come in?
May I sit down?
Do you mind if I smoke?
Are you sure?
Have you got an ashtray?
May I borrow some matches?
Would it be possible to have a cup of tea?
Oh, am I being a nuisance? /’nju:sens/
(someone who annoys you and causes trouble)
(b)
C. Requests for repetition
What did you say?
When was all this?
Where did you say you found it?
Which pills did you take?
Who did you say you went with?
Whose wife danced on the table?
Why did you think it was me?
How did you get in?
B. greetings
Hullo, Peter.
Good morning, Doctor.
Good afternoon, Mr Mumble.
Good evening, everybody.
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dIalogUE: were you at home last night?
SERGEANT: Good evening, Sir. Mr Holmes?
HOLMES: Good evening, officer. Yes, that’s right-John Holmes. Won’t you come in?
SERGEANT: Thank you. May I ask you a few questions?
HOLMES: Yes, of course. Won’t you sit down?
SERGEANT: Thank you. It’s about last night. Were you at home, Mr Holmes?
HOLMES: Yes, Sergeant, I was, actually. I wasn’t feeling very well.
SERGEANT: Were you alone?
HOLMES: Er, yes. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend.
SERGEANT: Did you go out at all?
HOLMES: No, I stayed in all evening-that is, except for a few minutes when I
popped out to post a letter.
SERGEANT: Do you remember what time this was?
HOLMES: Yes, it was about-um-half past eight.
SERGEANT: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you- er-
popped out to post a letter. /pa:pt’aut/ (Go somewhere suddenly)
HOLMES: No, I don’t think so. Oh yes, just a minute. The caretaker said ‘good evening’.
SERGEANT: The caretaker, Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes, the caretaker was murdered last
night. /’keeteIke/ (Someone who looks after a building)
Vocabulary
Popped out. /pa:pt’aut/. Go somewhere suddenly.
Caretaker. /’keeteIke/. Someone who looks after a building.
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4.2.3. Intonation 3: Combined patterns. (Pausing in the middle, lists, doubt, apology,
etc.)
Intonation is one of the means a speakers uses to send signals to the listener, such
as ‘don’t interrupt me’: ‘I haven’t finished yet’, or ‘That’s all for the moment’. Over to
you, if the speakers pauses in the middle of a sentence, he will stop on a rising tone
to show you that he intends to continue.

I was about to put my hands inside the box… when I heard a ticking noise.
/tIkIŋ/ (strong)
In the first part of the sentence, up to the pause, the pattern is the ordinary rising-
falling one of statements, until you come to the Tonic, which has the falling-rising
tune. This falling-rising only on the Tonic is frequently used to express doubt,
hesitation, or apology. It can also imply, Can I help you?
Well… I’m sorry. I think I’ve got it. Dr Mark’s secretary.

You use the falling-rising tune, too, when enumerating lists. Every item in your list
will have its own pattern, each one on the same level as the last:

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday…

If your list is complete, the final item will have the rise-fall pattern, indicating to your
listener that it is the last element. This is called a `closed´ list:
I’m free on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday.
If you want to show that you could go on but leave the rest to your listener’s
imagination, you use the falling-rising pattern on the last item as well. This is called
an ‘open’ list:
I’m free on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday….
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Implying that any day of the week is possible. This applies to questions, too:
Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday?
Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday…?
Practice 1
a. (a) If you go to the India / you must see the Taj Mahal.
I’ve bought a painting / but now I don’t like it.
I saw your uncle in the park/ but I don’t think he saw me
(b) Yes. No Excuse me. Williams’ Bakery.
I don’t think so. I’m sorry to bother you. Mandrake College.
B. (a) Closed lists -statements and questions
We went to Rome and Athens and Beirut and Cairo.
I can offer you tea or coffee or hot chocolate.
Did you see my cousin or my uncle or my aunt?
Shall we go to the cinema or the pub or stay at home?

(b) Open lists
Now say the sentences in B (a) again, using the falling-rising intonation on the last item
as well.
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dIalogUE : I’m afraid I’m lost
OLD LADY: Excuse me. I’m terribly sorry to bother you…
POLICEMAN: Yes? That’s quite all right. Can’t I help you at all?
OLD LADY: I don’t know to begin.
POLICEMAN: Well, the beginning’s always a good place to start.
OLD LADY: But, you see, I don’t know the beginning. I’m looking for a small, old-
fashioned hotel where I – if only I could remember the name!
POLICEMAN: Or the name of the street?
OLD LADY: The street? Oh I’ve no idea. I’m afraid.
POLICEMAN: Or the area?
OLD LADY: I know it was not far from the Pier. Or could that have been last year. I
wonder? No, no, last year I went with Emily- I think.
POLICEMAN: Did you say near the Pier? There’s no pier here.
OLD LADY: There must be ! My hotel was near it.
POLICEMAN: Which pier? /po:t/ (port)
OLD LADY: Eastbourne Pier, of course!
POLICEMAN: Eastbourne? But this is Seaford!
OLD LADY: Seaford! Really? I thought it seemed rather a long way!
Vocabulary
Pier. /po:t/. port.
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4.2.4. Intonation 4. Tag questions
Tag questions are those little questions stuck at the end of a sentence, usually
asking for confirmation of what has just been said.
In the first pattern the speaker makes a statement which he or she believes to be
true. The tag question is not really asking a question –the speaker does not except
anything but agreement.
You’re learning English, aren’t you?
Yes, I am
The sentence, being a statement, will have a rise –fall intonation pattern, and so will
the tag question:
You’re learning English, aren’t you? You killed Cock Robin, didn’t you?
In the second pattern the speaker is not at all sure of the truth of his statement. In
fact, though it has a statement form. It’s really a question, so it will have a falling-
rising intonation, and so will the tag question:
You didn’t eat it, did you? She will be there tonight, won’t she?
The third pattern starts making a definite statement. The speaker seems certain
that its true. Then there comes a slight pause, as if an awful feeling of doubt in
creeping in /’krIpIŋ/ (moving carefuly). The tag question expresses this doubt with
a falling-rising intonation:
That’s my money-isn’t it? You said you wanted to go to Aden-didn’t you?
Two things to note
(a) If the main sentence is in the affirmative, the tag question is always in the negative.
If the main sentence is in the negative, the tag question is in the affirmative.
(b) Although there’s a comma before the tag question you link if the question itself
begins with a vowel:

That’s the answer, isn’t it? I’m not going to fall, am I?

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Practice 1
a. Rising-falling
This is your frog, isn’t it?
You know where I found it, don’t you?
And you put it in my bed, didn’t you?
So you know what’s going to happen to you, don’t you?
And you won’t do it again, will you?
B. Falling-rising
You’ll come with me to the school fete, wont you?
I’ll pick you up at two, shall I?
And we’ll go by car, shall we?
We won’t have to stay long, will we?
You’ll come and some tea afterwards, won’t you?
C. Definite statement followed by doubt-rising-falling, falling-rising
You have got to buy the tickets –haven’t you’
I didn’t turn off the bath water –didn’t I?
The hotel is in this street –isn’t it?
You weren’t in the plane crash –were you?
d. Tag question with special stress-rising-falling, falling-rising within the Stressed
word.
I like pop music-don’t you?
We’re going to the pub on Saturday -aren’t you?
We’ve been invited to the Joneses- haven’t you?
Mine’s a real diamond- isn’t yours?
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dIalogUE: Fish like a bit of silence, don’t they?
PASSER-BY: Nasty weather, isn’t it?
FISHERMAN: All right if you’re a duck.
PASSER-BY: Come here regularly, don’t you?
FISHERMAN: Yes, I do.
PASSER-BY: Come fishing every Sunday, don’t you?
FISHERMAN: That’s right.
PASSER-BY: No many other people today, are there?
FISHERMAN: No there aren’t, are there?
PASSER-BY: Caught some fish already, have you?
FISHERMAN: No, not yet.
PASSER-BY: Stay here all day, will you?
FISHERMAN: I should like to.
PASSER-BY: You don’t mind if I sit down, do you?
My talking doesn’t disturb you, does it?
FISHERMAN: No, but it seems to disturb the fish.
PASSER-BY: Ah, they like a bit of silence, don’t they?
Same as me. I like a bit of peace, too, don’t you?
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4.2.5. weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1)
weak forms: out of [ev] the [ðe] car; peas and [en] carrots and [en] cabbage.
linking: sitting
¸
on
¸
an
¸
ant’s nest; your bit
¸
of beef.
Elision: detes(t) picnics; couldn’(t) stay; roas(t) pork.
Two consecutives stresses: ‘stop grumbling’; ‘brown bread’; ‘boiled beef’.
Rising intonation of incomplete lists:
tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot…
Unit 4. Practice 1 (4.2.5. B and C)
a. Few proverbs
Eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Here today, gone tomorrow.
A red rag to bull. A bull in a china shop.
There’s no smoke without fire.
You can’t fit a square peg into a round hole. /peg/ (a stick of wood).
B. which is s/he saying?
(a) That sounds to me like a foul.
vowel.
(b) We’ve decided to cover this part with glass.
grass.
(c ) What a cat your cousin is!
cad /kæd/ (a man who cannot be trusted)
(d) These sheep are going to have their wool shorn off.
torn.
(e) I didn’t realize it was so light, did you?
late,
Vocabulary
Shear, shorn /[Ie, [o:n/ take out the wool.
Check your answers in the answers key (B and C).
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C. do you know how the ‘o’s and ‘u’s (either separately or in combination) are
pronounced in the names of these fruit and vegetables? Put the correct phonetic
symbol(s) after each one.
(a) lemon [ ] (g) broad bean [ ] (m) turnip [ ] (s) apricot[ ]
(b) lettuce [ ] (h) asparagus [ ] (n) melon [ ] (t) carrot [ ]
(c) almond [ ] (i) beetroot [ ] (o) currant [ ] (u) cucumber [ ] [ ]
(d) sultana [ ] (j) artichoke [ ] (p) grapefruit [ ] (v) potato [ ] [ ]
(e) orange [ ] (k) sprout [ ] (q) sugarbeet [ ] (w) onion [ ] [ ]
(f) sweetcorn [ ] (l) walnut [ ] (r) gooseberry [ ] (x) mushroom [ ]
(y) cauliflower [ ] [ ]
d. listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses syllables.
detest beautiful perfect salad beetroot
basket cabbage behind tomatoes rabbit
indoors pudding chicken cucumber dumplings
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dIalogUE: Bit of beef at the picnic
PAUL: Picnics! Detest picnics!
KATE: Paul, do stop grumbling and get the basket out of the car. We couldn’t stay
indoors today. It’s beautiful!
PAUL: I do like a proper Sunday dinner. What I like is roast pork with apple sauce and
gravy, peas and carrots and cabbage, and treacle tart for pudding… /’tri:kel
ta:rt/ (azúcar, melaza)
KATE: Here’s a perfect spot! Spread the rug behind this bush. Good. Look, we’ve got
brown bread and butter and pâté and cold chicken…
PAUL: Blast! I’m sitting on an ant’s nest! Picnics! /blæst/ criticise very strongly)
KATE: And the salad’s got tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot…
PAUL: Rabbit food! Oh for a plate of boiled beef and dumplings!
KATE: Oh dear! Paul, I do believe your bit of beef is coming this way! Isn’t that a
Bull?

4.2.6. weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and rhythm
(Review 2).

weak forms: of [ev], to [te] and so on.
linking: that’s
¸
a; sort of; sitting
¸
in.
Tag question:

You’re sitting in, isn’t it?; just joking, aren’t you?; the plants, can’t it?

Intonation: rising-falling on statements and ‘wh-’ questions, falling-rising on ‘yes/
no’ question.
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Syllable stress: make your voice higher and louder and hang on to the syllable a
little longer on the stresses.
Rhythm: Feel it, like music. Not the same all the way through, but regular within
each phrase.
Unit 4. Practice 2 (4.2.6. B, C and d)
A few more proverbs
a. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Many hands make light work.
Look after the pence and the pounds will look after themselves.
Look after the sense and the sounds will look after themselves.
A fool and his money are soon parted. Penny wise, pound foolish.
Never look a gift horse in the month. Half a loaf is better than no bread
A woman, a dog and a walnut tree. Beggars can’t be choosers.
The more you beat ’em the better they be.
B. which is s/he saying?

(a) How many lambs have you got this year?
rams
(b) That’s a photograph of a marsh hare I took last spring.
march
(c) Don’t leave those boots lying about in the hall.
books
(d) Water has to be transported by means of a long train.
drain.
(e) Do you think this cream’s all right?
green’s
C. which of these words rhyme with ‘funny’?
Money Monday chutney Sonny botany anemone
Puny Pony journey Sony alimony runny
Many honey sunny Coney Granny Mummy
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d. listen to the dialogue. how many syllables are there in these words?
(a) position (c) everybody (e) especial (g) aren’t (i) serious
(k) Extraordinary (b) listening (d) noises (f) hear (h) audible
(j) stethoscope (l) pitched
Vocabulary
Broth. /bro:θ/. A thin soup with a meat or vegetable flavour.
Ram(s). /ræm/. A male sheep.
hare. /her/. Animals similar to rabbit but bigger.
Marsh. /mar[/. An area of soft wet land.
dIalogUE: listening to the plants talking
GEORGE: That’s a funny sort of position you’re sitting in, isn’t it?
ANDREW: I’m listening to the plants talking.
GEORGE: Andrew! Plants can’t talk –everybody knows that.
ANDREW: But they make noises. Not noises like the ones human beings make. Not even
animal noises. Special sounds. You can hardly hear them with the human ear.
GEORGE: Well, if they aren’t audible, how do you know they make them? Come on,
you’re just joking, aren’t you?
ANDREW: I’m as serious as…as… Sunday. Honestly, George. Cross my heart and hope
to die.
GEORGE: What’s that thing that’s hanging round your neck? Looks like sort of a snake.
ANDREW: It’s a doctor stethoscope. Lie down on the ground and put the stethoscope
into your ears. Hear anything?
GEORGE: Golly. I did! How extraordinary! A very high-pitched squeaking! It can’t be the
plants, can it?
Vocabulary
golly /’ga:lI/ Interj. Colloq. ¡Caray¡
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4.2.7. Stress: consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak forms.
(Review 3)
Stress: no stress on negative prefixes: impo’lite; un’happy.
Consecutive stresses: a ‘good ‘heavens; ‘big ‘black ‘beard; ‘mer’maid.
The shifting Tonic: are you a ‘mer’maid? Of ‘course I’m a ‘mer’maid.
Intonation: especially of questions.
linking: are you ¸ a; seen ¸ a: got ¸ a
Elision: hasn(‘t) got time; han(d) some; bi(g) black.
weak forms: but [bet] are you; handsome and [en] dashing. also within words:
polite [pe’laI]; forgive [fe’gIv]; handsome [‘hænsem]
Vocabulary: Dashing /’dæ[Iŋ/ (go somewhere in a hurry)
Unit 4. Practice 3 (4.2.7 B,C y d)
a. Still more proverbs
Pride comes before a fall. Great minds think alike
One good turn deserves another. Fools seldom differ. /‘dIfer/,
If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.
Nothing venture, nothing gain.
If ‘ifs’ and ‘ands’ were pots and pans, there’d be no need for tinkers.
Tinker, tailor, soldier, sailor, rich man, poor man, beggarman, thief.
Tinkers /’tInker/ (to make changes to repair something)
B. which is s/he saying?
(a) The brute! He pinched my shin!
chin!
gin!
(b) I just adore fresh bread.
french
(c) I’ll find out if he ever came to the surface again.
service
(d) Have you ever seen such an awful sore before in all your life?
shore
chore
jaw
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(e) I’m so cross. I’ve lost the marvellous cot I got from Tom and Margaret.
cod
cart
card
C) Underline the Tonic in each phrase or sentence in the following dialogue:
I’m going to the Repton Show in October.
That’s a boat show, isn’t it?
No, a motor show.
Are you going to Repton alone?
No, Peter’s going, too.
Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter?
Peter Blenkinsop. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter.
When did you tell me? It must have been someone else. You never told me.
d) Mark the stressed syllables in these words before you practice the dialogue
orally?
Mermaid before unhappy handsome actually
impolite upset borrow delighted unadventurous
Check your answers to exercises b and c in the answer key.
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dIalogUE: Nobody wants a mermaid
PASSER-BY: Good heavens! Forgive me, but- are you a mermaid?
MERMAID: Of course I’m a mermaid! You can see I m a mermaid. It’s most impolite
to stare like that.
PASSER-BY: I’m terribly sorry. I didn’t mean to be rude. Only I’ve never seen a mermaid
before
MERMAID: (weeping) Well, now you have.
PASSER-BY: Oh dear! I didn’t mean to upset you.
MERMAID: It wasn’t you. It’s just that I’m so unhappy. He doesn’t love me.
PASSER-BY: Who doesn’t love you? Haven’t you got a hankie? No, of course not. How
silly of me. Here, borrow mine. That’s right. Have a good blow and tell me
all about it.
MERMAID: He’s a sailor, you see. He’s so handsome and dashing with his big black
beard and flashing eyes. But he doesn’t want a mermaid.
PASSER-BY: There, there. He ought to be delighted –you can follow him out to sea.
MERMAID: He says he hasn’t got time for girls at sea.
PASSER-BY: Don’t you think you’d actually be happier with a nice, quiet, ordinary,
unadventurous chap- like me?
Vocabulary
dashing. /’dæ[Iŋ/ Hit somebody or someone violently. Ojos matadores.
Flashing. /flæ[Iŋ/ Bright, brilliant.
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4.2.8. Rhythm and gingles.
american light Verse: a Contemporary Selection
anne C. Newton, Editor

1. The purple cow
I never saw a purple cow
I never hope to see one;
Bu I can tell you, anyhow,
I’d rather see than be one.
2. The abominable Snowman
I’ve never seen an abominable snowman,
I’m hoping not to see one;
I’m also hoping, if I do,
That it will be a wee one.
3. Babies.
I think that whenever I see one,
I’d rather have been than still be one.
4. Risposte
Ah, yes, I wrote “The Purple Cow” –
I’m sorry, now, I wrote it¡
But I can tell you, anyhow,
I’ll kill you if you quote it.
5. The hippopotamus
Behold the hippopotamus¡
We laugh at how he looks to us,
And yet in moments dank and grim
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I wonder how we look to him.
Peace, peace, thou hippopotamus¡
We really look all right to us,
As you no doubt delight the eye
Of other hippopotami.
6. The Camel
The came has a single hump:
The dromedary, two;
Or else the other way around.
I’m never sure. Are You?
7. The Purist
I give you now professor Twist,
A conscientious scientist.
Trustees exclaimed, “He never bungles¡”
And sent him off to distant jungles.
Camped on a tropic riverside,
One day he missed his living bride.
She had, the guide informed him later,
Been eaten by an alligator.
Professor Twist could not but smile.
“You mean” he said, “a crocodile”
8. The panther
The panther is lie a leopard,
Except it hasn’t been peppered.
Should you behold a panther crouch
Prepare to say Ouch.
Better yet, if called by a panther,
Don’t anther.
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9. adventures of Isabel
Isabel met an enormous bear;
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t care
The bear was hungry, the bear was ravenous.
The bear’s big mouth was cruel and cavernous.
The bear said, “Isabel, glad to meet you.
How do, Isabel, now I’ll eat you¡”
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t worry;
Isabel didn’t scream or scurry.
She washed her hands and
She straightened her hair up,
Then Isabel quietly ate the bear up.
Once in a night as black as pitch,
Isabel met a wicked old witch.
The witch’s face was cross and wrinkled;
The witch’s gums with teeth were sprinkled.
“Ho, ho. Isabel¡” the old witch crowed.
“I’ll turn you into an ugly toad¡”
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t worry;
Isabel didn’t scream or scurry.
She showed no range and she showed no rancor,
But she turned the witch into milk and drank her.
Isabel met a troublesome doctor;
He punched and he poked till he really shocked her.
The doctor’s talk was coughs and chills,
And the doctor’s satchel bulged with pills.
The doctor said unto Isabel,
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“Swallow this; it will make you well¡”
Isabel, Isabel, didn’t worry;
Isabel didn’t scream or scurry.
She took those pills from the pill concocter,
And Isabel calmly cured the doctor.
10. distant views
Two sayings that I’ve been inclined
In puzzlement off times to ponder
Are out of sight is out of mind
And absence makes the heart grow fonder.
They’re opposite as day and night,
The very height of contradiction,
No more alike than black and white,
Or large and small, or fact and fiction
To reconcile them, though, I’ve quit;
It’s not a thing I’m growing grey from,
For I have found, at last, that it
Depends on whom you are away from
11. Reading Matter
People say, with piercing look,
“I can read you like a book.”
Whereupon I bow my head
And submit to being read,
Hoping, with a hope quite grim,
They’re the kind who merely skims
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12. wishful Thinking
If I had the wings of a bird of the air
And the fins of a fish of the sea,
I could travel with speed and abandon all care,
I could ramble the wide world free.
The wings of a bird and the fins of a fish,
As well as the legs of a deer—
I could fly, I could swim, I could run as I wish,
But I’d certainly look mighty queer.
13. argument
If you convinced me
And I convinced you,
Would there not still be
Two points of view?
14. Surplus Commodity
The getting is easy,
The giving is nice;
The taking’s the tough part
About advice.

15. Etiquette
The people tell the story of a sparrow and the cat,
The feline thin and hungry and the bird exceeding fat,
With eager, famished energy and claws of gripping steel,
Puss pounced upon the sparrow and prepared to make a meal.
The sparrow never struggled when he knew that he was caught
(If somewhat slow in action he was mighty quick of thought),
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But chirped in simple dignity that seemed to fit the case,
“No gentleman would ever eat before he washed his face¡”
This hint against his manners wounded Tommy like a knife,
For cats are great observers of the niceties of life;
He paused to lick his paws, which seemed the proper things to do
When, chirruping derisively, away the sparrow flew¡
In helpless, hopeless hunger at the sparrow on the bough
Poor Tommy glowered longingly and vowed a solemn vow
“Henceforth I’ll eat my dinner first, and then wash myself¡”
and that’s the universal etiquette for educated cats.
Arthur Guiterman
16. The naught prepositions
I lately lost a preposition;
It hid, I thought, beneath my chair.
And angrily I cried: “Perdition¡”
Up from out of in under there¡”
Correctness is my vade mecum. (go with me)
And straggling phrases I abhor;
And yet I wondered: “what should he come
Up from out of in under for?”
Morris Bishop
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17. Favourite
That poem is splendid thing,
I love to ear you quote it.
I like the thought, I like the swing,
I like it all. (I wrote it)
Mother goose Rhymes:
a child’s literary heritage
1. Twinkle, Twinkle, little Star
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are¡
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are¡
2. humpty dumpty
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;
All the king’s horses.
And all the king’s men.
Couldn’t put Humpty together again.
3. little Bo-Peep
Little Bo-peep has lost her sheep
And can’t tell where to find them.
Leave them alone, and they will come home
Bringing their tails behind them.
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4. little Boy Blue
Little Boy Blue,
Come blow your horn;
The sheep’s in the meadow,
The cow’s in the corn .
Where’s the little boy
That looks after the sheep?
He’s under the haystack,
Fast asleep.
5. ladybird, ladybird
Ladybird, Ladybird,
Fly away home.
Your houses is on fire,
Your children will burn.
Fly to the east,
Fly to the west,
Fly to the one you love the best.
6. a dillar, a dollar
A dillar, a dollar,
A ten o’clock scholar
What makes you come so soon?
You used to come at ten o’clock,
But now you come at noon.
7. jack and jill
Jack and Jill
Went up the hill.
To fetch a pail of water.
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Jack fell down
and broke his crown,
And Jill came tumbling after.
8. little Polly Flinders
Little Polly Flinders.
Sat among the cinders,
Warming her pretty little toes.
Her mother came and caught her
And spanked her little daughter.
For spoiling her nice new clothes.
9. little Tommy Tucker
Little Tommy Tucker
Sings for his supper.
What shall he eat?
White bread and butter.
How shall he cut it
Without any knife?
How shall he marry
Without any wife?
10. The old woman in the shoe
There was and old woman.
Who lived in a shoe.
She had so many children.
She didn’t know what to do.
She fed them some broth.
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Without any bread,
Then spanked them all soundly
and sent them to bed.
11. Mary had a little lamb
Mary had a little lamb.
Its fleece was white as snow;
And everywhere that Mary went.
The lamb was sure to go.
It followed her to school one day,
Which was against the rule;
It made that children laugh and play
To see a lamb at school.
12. hi, diddle, diddle
Hi, diddle, diddle,
The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon.
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And the dish ran away with the spoon.
13. Sing a Song of Sixpence
Sing a song of sixpence,
A pocketful of rye,
Four-and-Twenty blackbirds
Baked in a pie.
When the pie was opened,
The birds began to sing;
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Wasn’t that a dainty dish
To set before the King¡
The king was in his countinghouse,
Counting out his money;
The Queen was in the parlor,
Eating bread and honey;
The maid was in the garden,
Hanging out the clothes;
Along came a blackbird
And snipped off her nose¡
14. Mary, Mary, Quite contrary
Mary, Mary,
Quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
With silver bells,
And cockleshells,
And pretty maids all in row.
15. a tisket, a tasket
A tisket, a tasket,
A green and yellow basket,
I wrote a letter to my love
And on the way I dropped it.
I dropped it, I drooped it,
And on the way I drooped it.
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16. This is the house that jack Built
This is the house that Jack built.
This is the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the man all tattered and torn,
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That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cock that crowed in the morn,
That waked the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the farmer sowing his corn,
That kept the cock that crowed in the morn,
That waked the priest all shaven and shorn,
That married the man all tattered and torn,
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That kissed the maiden all forlorn,
That milked the cow with the crumpled horn,
That tossed the dog,
That worried the cat,
That killed the rat,
That ate the malt
That lay in the house that Jack built.
Come butter come
Come, butter, come,
Come, butter, come!
Peter stands at the gate,
Waiting for a buttered cake;
Come, butter, come.

Unit 4. Practice 4 (4.2.8. a, B and C)
a. do you know how these words are pronounced?
although bought dough fought plough thorough dizzy
borough brought drought nought rough caterpillar tough
bough cough enough ought sought thought trough
B. ¿how is the letter ‘a’ pronounced in English in the names of these places?

France Wales Holland Portugal New Zealand
Japan China Bulgaria Malaysia South Africa
Brazil Nassau Uganda Hungary Yugoslavia
Spain Arabia Albania Romania Australia

C. here are all the months of the year. Put a stress mark on the stressed syllables
january march may july september november
february april june august october december
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d. weak forms. listen to the teacher or the tape. The speakers are speaking very fast.
what are they saying? Copy the sentences on your notebook
E. Practice the intonation pattern.
A) Hullo, how are you? A) How do you do?
B) I’m very well. But how are you? B) Dow do you do?
A) Why do you ask? A) Haven’t we met before?
B) I thought you looked ill. B) Have we? When?
A) What do you mean, ill? A) At your cousin’s party.
B) You’ve got spots. B) Whose cousin?
A) Who? A) Your cousin.
B) You. B) I haven’t got a cousin.
A) What spots? A) You must have¡ we met there¡
B) Sort of red spots. B) Are you sure it was me?
A) Where? A) Well, why don’t we have a cup of coffee and
see if we can find out?
B) All over your face.
A) What shall I do?
B) You could always wear a veil.
Vocabulary: Veil /veIl/ (A thin piece of cloth worn over the woman’s head or face)
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BIBlIogRaPhY

Roach, P.
(1983) English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Underhill, A.
(1994) Sound foundations: Living phonology. Oxford: Heinemann.
Kenworthy, J.
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman.
Coulthard, M.
(1977) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman.
Langacker, Ronalnd W.
(1998) Fundamental of linguistic analysis. University of California, San Diego -
Harcourt Brace Iovanovich, Inc.
Ponsonby, Mimi.
(1987) How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
Yolanda D. Federici Foreword Eulalie Osgood Grover.
(1988) Mother Gosse rymes. American light verse.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
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aCTIVITY
1. What can you understand by suprasegmental phonology? Mention the English supra-
segmental elements.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. What is intonation and what are the three important features about intonation?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. What is an intonation unit’?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. What are the four major types of stress identified? Give brief explanation.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Give a definition of tone and mention the different kind of sentences according to the
tone, mentioning sub classifications.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Define pitch and its classification.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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7. What do you know about length?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Can you explain the rising-falling pattern? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What pattern do ‘request for repetition’ and ‘greetings’ follow?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘pausing in the middle’ and ‘making
lists’ follow? Give examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
11. What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘doubt’ and ‘apology’ follow? Give
examples.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
12. Explain ‘tag question’ intonation pattern and give examples?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
13. How is intonation behind weak forms, linking, elision and shifting tonic? Explain.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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14. How and what exercises would you use to teach suprasegmental aspect of the language
to your students in the classroom?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

o

oBjECTIVES
1. Understand the concept of English syllable.
2. Understand the structure of English Syllable.
3. Get familiar with syllabification rules.
4. Find out the difference between phonetic syllable and orthographic
syllable.
5. Find out the difference between syllable and diphthongs.
6. Be aware of the syllabic consonants and its importance for Syllable
division.
7. Understand articulation, co articulation, and breaking in the syllable
formation.
UNIT V
ENgLIsh syLLAbLE
Syllable
Onset
Rythme
Nucleus
E.g.
/k æ
i n/
t/
‘cat’
/sk
‘skin’
Coda
ENglISh SYllaBlE
5.1. definition
In phonetics, a syllable is a group of sounds that are pronounced together. Every English
word consists of one or more complete syllables.
glad consists of one syllable: /glæd/
Coming consists of two syllables: /ktm/ and /Iŋ/
So does valley: /’væl/ and /I/
tobacco consists of three syllables: /te’bæk/ and /eo/ or /-oo/
Each syllable contains one vowel, and only one. This vowel may be preceded or followed by
one or more consonants. The vowel itself may be a short vowel, a long vowel, or a diphthong;
or, if it is the weak vowel e, it may be combined with a nasal or liquid to give a SYLLABIC
CONSONANT. All four types appear in the example lubrication /,lu:.brI’keI.[
0
n/.
Syllables carry the features of stress and intonation. They are important in verse and metrics,
since the rhythm of a word or phrase is determined by the number and nature of the syllables
it contains. The division of a word into syllables is its ‘syllabification’. The syllabification of
entries can be shown by spacing between successive syllables or by a dot.
5.2. Kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification
Phonetic (spoken) syllables must not be confused with orthographic (written)
syllables
a) Phonetic Syllable. Corresponds to syllables classification of the spoken language.
E.g. /’hæp/ and /en/.
B) Orthographic syllable. It is a group of letters in spelling. When a word is split across
two lines of writing, it should be broken at an orthographic syllable boundary.
In some cases this may not exactly correspond to a phonetic syllable boundary. In the
word happen the spelling includes two p’s, and the orthographic syllabification is
hap.pen. But the pronunciation has only a single p. and the syllables are /’hæp/ and
/en/.
a) hap.pen (orthographic syllabification)
b) /’hæp/, /en/ (phonetic syllabification)
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5.3. The structure of the syllable (by Tuncer Can)
First of all, if we have a look at the structural properties of syllable we observe that syllable
consists of a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel), and the consonants that cluster
around this central peak.
The preceding consonant or consonants cluster is called the “onset”. For example, the “b” in
the word “bar” is the onset. The consonant or consonant cluster which is following the peak
(nucleus) of sonority is called the “coda”. For example, the “rt” cluster in the word “art” is
the coda. The peak of sonority is called the “nucleus”. In the word “bar” “a” is the nucleus.
The nucleus is a vowel in most cases, although the consonants [ r ], [ l ], [ m ], [ n ], and the
velar nasal (the ‘/h/’ sound) can also be the nucleus of a syllable.
Table 3. Structural Properties of the syllable.
Parts description optionality
– onset
Initial segment of a syllable (Optional)
– Nucleus
Central segment of a syllable Obligatory
– Coda
Closing segment of a syllable (Optional)

As seen in Table 3. English syllables require a nucleus, which is usually a vowel, and
optionally onset or coda, which are usually consonants or consonant clusters. In case they
have an onset, English Syllables may start with 1, 2 or 3 consonants. In English syllables,
consonant clusters are not arbitrarily formed, their representation is as follows:
Consonant Clusters:
1. s + (initial) p,t,k,f,m,n,w,l,y,r / s:pre-initial/others:initial
2. s + other consonants + (post-initials) l,r,w,j =pre-initial+initial+post-initials
In the following words, the onset is in bold; the rest underlined.
read flop strap
The consonant clusters which constitute the coda are also not arbitrarily formed, they can
be described as: ”any consonant except for h, r, w, j may be final consonant. There may be
two kinds of Final Cluster:
1) Final cluster: /pre-final + final / final + post final, Pre-finals (m, n, nasal, l, s. Example:
bump, belt
2) Final cluster: /Post-finals (s, z, t, d, /q/. Example: bets, beds).
Syllables of English can be “open” or “closed”, if a syllable ends with a vowel (i.e.CV, CVV)
this is open syllable but if it ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i.e. CVC, VCC)
this would be closed syllable.
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So, the structural formula for the English Syllable can be drawn as: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C),
with a maximal example being strengths (/strεŋkθs/, although it can be pronounced /strεŋθs/).
1. Final cluster / pre - final + final / final + post final, pre finals (m, n, nasal, l, s).
2. Final cluster / post final (s,z, t, d, q = bets, beds).
Pre-initial + Initial + Post-initials -Vowel - Pre-final + Final+ Post-final
or (C) (C) (C) V (C) (C) (C) (C)
Onset Nucleus Coda, or
Onset + Rhyme (the rest of the syllable after the onset). Rhyme can be divided as nucleus
+ coda. One tree diagram exemplifying this phenomenon is:
σ
rhyme
onset nucleus coda
5.4. Kinds of syllables according to its structure
Syllables of English can be: “open” or closed”
1. open syllable: If the syllable ends with a vowel (i.e CV, CVV)
2. Closed syllable: If the syllable ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i.e.
CVC, VCC) this would be a closed syllable.
5.5 Syllabification
Syllable divisions are shown by pacing. This makes the transcription easier to read, as
well as making certain details of pronunciation more explicit. Nevertheless the question of
syllabification in English is controversial, and must therefore be discussed.
It is generally agreed that phonetic syllable divisions must be such as to avoid (as far as
possible) creating consonants clusters which are not found in words in isolation. Hence we
can argue whether candy is kan-di or cand-i, but it cannot be ca-ndi, since it is not possible
initial consonant cluster in English.
These two extracts indicate the complexity of syllabification (in English) and the consequent
difficulty in finding rules:
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Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written. In
most languages, the actually spoken syllables are the basis of syllabification in writing
too. However, due to the very weak correspondence between sounds and letters in
the spelling of modern English, for example, written syllabification in English has to be
based mostly on etymological i.e. morphological instead of phonetic principles. English
“written” syllables therefore do not correspond to the actually spoken syllables of the
living language.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllable#Syllabification
As a result, most even native English speakers are unable to syllabify (or spell) words
with any degree of accuracy without consulting a dictionary or using a word processor.
The process is, in fact, so complicated that even schools usually do not provide much
more advice on the topic than to consult a dictionary. Even the Internet does not seem
to provide any general syllabification guide, explanation, or discussion not meant
for experts. In addition, there are differences between British and US syllabification
and even between dictionaries of the same kind of English.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllabification
http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html
5.6. Rules for Phonetic Syllabification
Harley (2003) proposes fourteen rules to describe how English words are formed or framed. She
describes this phenomenon through Phonotactics. She first defines phonotactics as “the rules
that describe possible sequences of sounds for forming English words”. These rules are:
1. All phonological words must contain at least one syllable, and hence must contain at
least one vowel.
2. Sequences of repeated consonants are not possible.
3. The velar nasal /ng/ never occurs in the onset of a syllable.
4. The glottal fricative /h/ never occurs in the coda of a syllable.
5. The affricates /ts/ and /dz/, and the glottal fricative /h/ do not occur in complex onsets.
6. The first consonant in a two-consonant onset must be an obstruent.(p,t,k, d, f, g).
7. The second consonant in a two-consonant onset must not be a voiced obstruent.
8. If the first consonant of a two-consonant onset is not an /s/, the second consonant must
be a liquid or a glide – the second consonant must be /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/.
9. Every subsequence contained within a sequence of consonants must obey all the
relevant phonotactic rules.
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10. No glides in syllable codas.
11. The second consonant in a two-consonant coda cannot be /ng/, /d/, /r/, /3/.
12. If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, the first consonant in the coda must
also be voiced.
13. When a non-alveolar nasal is in a coda together with a non-alveolar obstruent, they msut
have the same place of articulation, and obstruent must be a voiceless stop.
14. Two obstruents in a coda together must have the same voicing.
(Harley, H. 2003)
onset
The following syllable combinations can occur as the onset:
All single consonant phonemes except /ŋ/
Plosive plus approximant other than /j/:
/pl/, /bl/, /kl/, /gl/,
/pr/, /br/, /tr/*, /dr/*, /kr/, /gr/,
/tw/, /dw/, /gw/, /kw/
play, blood, clean, glove, prize,
bring, tree, dream, crowd,
green, twin, dwarf, language,
quick
Voiceless fricative plus approximant other than /j/:
/fl/, /sl/,
/fr/, /θr/, /[r/,
/sw/, /θw/
floor, sleep, friend, three,
shrimp, swing, thwart
Consonant plus /j/:
/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /gj/,
/mj/, /nj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/,
/sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /lj/
pure, beautiful, tube, during,
cute, argue, music, new, few,
view, thurifer, suit, Zeus, huge,
lurid
/s/ plus voiceless plosive:
/sp/, /st/, /sk/
speak, stop, skill
/s/ plus nasal:
/sm/, /sn/
smile, snow
/s/ plus voiceless fricative:
/sf/
sphere
/s/ plus voiceless plosive plus approximant:
/spl/, /spr/, /spj/, /smj/,
/str/, /stj/,
/skl/, /skr/, /skw/, /skj/
split, spring, spew, smew, street,
student, sclerosis, scream,
square, skewer
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Nucleus
The following can occur as the nucleus:
• All vowel sounds
• /m/, /n/ and /l/ in certain situations ( syllabic)
• /r/ in rhotic varieties of English () in certain situations (see below under word-level rules,
syllabic)
Coda
The following can occur as the coda:
The single consonant phonemes except /h/, /w/, /j/
and, in non-rhotic varieties, /r/

Lateral approximant + plosive:
/lp/, /lb/, /lt/, /ld/, /lk/
help, bulb, belt, hold, milk
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + plosive:
/rp/, /rb/, /rt/, /rd/, /rk/, /rg/
harp, orb, fort, beard, mark,
morgue
Lateral approximant + fricative or affricate:
/lf/, /lv/, /lθ/, /ls/, /l[/, /lt[/, /lg/
golf, solve, wealth, else, Welsh,
belch, indulge
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + fricative or affricate:
/rf/, /rv/, /rθ/ /rs/, /r[/, /rt[/, /rg/
dwarf, carve, north, force, marsh,
arch, large
Lateral approximant + nasal:
/lm/, /ln/
film, kiln (oven)
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + nasal or lateral:
/rm/, /rn/, /rl/
arm, born, snarl (gruñón)
Nasal + homorganic plosive:
/mp/, /nt/, /nd/, /ŋk/
jump, tent, end, pink
Nasal + fricative or affricate:
/mf/, /mθ/ in non-rhotic varieties, /nθ/, /ns/, /nz/, /nt[/,
/ng/, /ŋθ/ in some varieties
triumph, warmth, month, prince,
bronze, lunch, lounge, length
Voiceless fricative + voiceless plosive:
/ft/, /sp/, /st/, /sk/
left, crisp, lost, ask
Two voiceless fricatives: /fθ/ fifth
Two voiceless plosives: /pt/, /kt/ opt, act
Plosive + voiceless fricative:
/pθ/, /ps/, /tθ/, /ts/, /dθ/, /dz/, /ks/
depth, lapse, eighth, klutz (torpe),
width (ancho), box
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Lateral approximant + two consonants:
/lpt/, /lfθ/, /lts/, /lst/, /lkt/, /lks/
sculpt, twelfth, waltz, whilst, mulct,
calx
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + two consonants:
/rmθ/, /rpt/, /rps/, /rts/, /rst/, /rkt/
Warmth, excerpt, corpse, quartz,
horst, infarct
Nasal + homorganic plosive + plosive or fricative:
/mpt/, /mps/, /ndθ/, /ŋkt/, /ŋks/, /ŋkθ/ in some varieties
Prompt, glimpse, thousandth,
distinct, jinx, length
Three obstruents: /ksθ/, /kst/ sixth, next
Source: http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
Note: For some speakers, a fricative before /θ/ is elided so that these never appear
phonetically: /fIfθ/ becomes [fIθ], /siksθ/ becomes [sikθ], /twelfθ/ becomes [twelθ]
Syllable-level rules
1. Both the onset and the coda are optional.
2. /j/ at the end of an onset (/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /mj/,
/nj/, /lj/, /spj/, /stj/, /skj/) must be followed by /u:/ or /oe/
3. Long vowels and diphthongs are usually not followed by /ŋ/
4. /o/ is rare in syllable-initial position
5. Stop + /w/ before /u:, o, t, ao/ are excluded
.
word-level rules
• /e/ does not occur in stressed syllables
• /¿/ does not occur in word-initial position in native English words although it can occur
syllable-initial, e.g. /trs¿e(
r
)/
• /θj/ occurs in word-initial position in a few obscure words: thew, thurible, etc.; it is more
likely to appear syllable initial, e.g. /snθjuz/
• /m/, /n/, /l/ and, in rhotic varieties, /r/ can be the syllable nucleus (ie a syllabic consonant)
in an unstressed syllable following another consonant, especially /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/.
• Certain short vowel sounds /s/, /æ/, /b/ and /t/ (Checked vowels) cannot occur without
a coda in a single syllable word. In Standard English the checked (/I/, /s/, /æ/, /o/, /b/,
and /t/) are those that usually must be followed by a consonant in a stressed syllable,
(up, bit, bet, but, put, but). while free vowels are those that may stand in a stressed
open syllable with no following consonant. (bee, bay, boo, bra, buy, toe, cow, boy).
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonotactics
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5.7 Rules for orthographic syllabification
Rule 1. Every syllable has one vowel sound.
Rule 2. The number of vowels sounds in a Word equals the number of syllables.
Home= 1 sub . ject =2 pub. lish . ing =3
Rule 3. A one syllable words is never divided.
stop feel bell
Rule 4. Consonant blends and digraphs are never separated.
rest . ing bush . el reach . ing
Rule 5. When a word has a ck or an x in it, the word is usually divided after the ck or x.
nick . el tax . i
Rule 6. A compound word is divided between the two words that make the compound
word.
in . side foot . ball tooth . brush
Rule 7. When two or more consonants come between two vowels in a word, it is usually
divided between the first two consonants.
sis . ter but . ter hun . gry
Rule 8. When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word, it is usually
divided after the consonant if the vowel is short.
lev . er cab . in hab . it
Rule 9. When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word, it is u s u a l l y
divided before the consonant if the vowel is long.
ba . sin fe . ver ma . jor
Rule 10. When two vowels come together in a word, and are sounded separately, divide
the word between the two vowels.
ra . di . o di . et i . de . a
Rule 11. When a vowel is sounded alone in a word, it forms a syllable itself.
gra . u . ate a . pron u . nit
Rule 12. A word that has a prefix is divided between the root word and the prefix.
dis . count miss . fit un . tie
Rule 13. When be, de, ex and re are at the beginning of a word, they make a syllable of
their own.
be . came de . fend ex . hale re . main
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Rule 14. A word that has a suffix is divided between the root word and the suffix.
kind . ness thank . ful stuff . ing
Rule 15. When a word ends in le, preceded by a consonant, the word is divided before
that consonant.
pur . ple fum . ble mid . dle
Rule 16. When –ed comes at the end of a word, it forms a syllable only when preceded
by d or t.
s tart . ed fund . ed
Rule 17. When a word or a syllable ends in al or el, these letters usually form the last
syllable.
lev . el us . u . al
Rule 18. When ture and tion are at the end of a word, they make their own syllable.
lo . tion pos . ture.
Rule 19. A word should be divided between syllables at the end of a line. The hyphen (.)
stays with the syllable at the end of the line.
Source: http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html
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Application
1. Apply the rules to the word syllabification.
s
O R
/ \ / \
| | N C
| | | |
[ f l a p ]
‘flap’
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ r i: d ]
‘read’
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ t o p ]
‘top’
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ w i n ]
‘win’
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ w i n ]
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ d ouǾ ]
‘wind’ ‘dow (window)’
O R
/ | \ / \
| | | N C
| | | | | | | |
[ s t r ǡ ŋk θ
s ]
s
O R
/ / \
| N C
| | |
[ r i: d ]
‘read’
‘strengths’
S: syllable
O: onset
R: rhyme
N: nucleus
C: coda
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Unit V. Practice 1
a) Read the words loud out providing adequate stress.
B) Represent the verbs, adjetives and nouns using syllable tree representations.
1. Two-syllable words
VERBS
1. deceive 6. object
2. sharpen 7. conquer
3. collect 8. record
4. pronounce 9. polish
5. copy 10. depend
adjECTIVES
1. Easy 6. yellow
2. complete 7. early
3. major 8. happy
4. alone 9. heavy
5. below 10. dirty
NoUNS
1. bishop 6. office
2. aspect 7. array
3. affair 8. petrol
4. carpet 9. dentist
5. defeat 10. Autumn
2. Three syllable words
VERBS
1. entertain 6. elicit
2. resurrect 7. compete
3. abandon 8. imagine
4. deliver 9. determine
5. interrupt 10. separate
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adjECTIVES
1. important 6. insolent
2. enormous 7. fantastic
3. veredic 8. negative
4. decimal 9. accurate
5. abnormal 10. tomato

Compound words
a. First element adjectival, stress on the second element
loud-speaker
bad-tempered
head-quarters
second-class
three-wheeler
b. First element nominal, stress on the first element
typewriter
car-ferry
sunrise
suitcase
tea-cup
c. Mixture of type a and b
long-surfing
gunman
shoelace
red-blooded
gear-box
over-weight
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5.8. diphthongs
A diphthong is a complex vowel: a sequence of two vowel qualities within a single
syllable.
Several English vowel phonemes are diphthongal. The /aI/ of time /taIm/, for example,
involves a movement of the tongue from a starting-point /a/ towards an endpoint /I/.
Ordinary diphthongs are diminuendo (or falling), in that the prominence decreases as we
pass from the first element to the second: the /a/ part of /aI/ is more prominent than the /I/
part. (Compare CRESCENDO DIPHTHONGS).
An English diphthong has the same duration and rhythmic characteristics as a long vowel.
5.9. Crescendo diphthongs
5.9.1. A crescendo (or rising) diphthongs is one in which the prominence increases as
we pass from the first element to the second.
5.9.2. All English diphthongs phonemes are diminuendo (falling) diphthongs: in nice
nais the prominence decreases as we pass from a to I. No English phoneme has
crescendo diphthong as its usual phonetic realization. Nevertheless, crescendo
diphthong may arise in one of two ways.
• A semivowel (j or w) is followed by a vowel. In the words yes /jes/ and win /wIn/,
the sequences represented by /je/ and /wI/ could be regarded as crescendo
diphthongs.
• A vowel written in LPD (Longman pronunciation dictionary) as i or u is
compressed with a following vowel (see COMPRENSSION). If lenient ‘li:ni
ˇ
ent
is compressed from three syllables to two, there are actually two distinct possible
outcomes (although admittedly it may be difficult to hear the difference between
them). Rather than changing all the way to the corresponding semivowel j
(giving ‘li:n jent), the i may merely come to form the less prominent part of a
crescendo diphthong ĭ, thus ‘li:n ĭent. Similarly, influence /’Influ.ens/, rather
than becoming /’In.flw.ens/, may be pronounced with a crescendo diphthong
ŭe, thus ‘Inflŭens,. This is particularly likely if a semivowel give rise to a difficult
sequence of consonants, as in glorious /’glo:ries/. Where –rj- is awkward.
5.10. Syllabic consonants
5.10.1. Most syllables contain a vowel sound. Sometimes, though, a syllable consists
only of a consonant (or consonants). If so, this consonant (or one of them) is a
nasal (usually n) or liquid (l or, especially in AmE, r). For example, in the usual
pronunciation of suddenly /’std.
0
n.li/, the second syllable consists of n alone. Such
a consonant is called a syllabic consonant.
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5.10.2. Instead of syllabic consonant it is always possible to pronounce a vowel e plus
an ordinary (non-syllabic) consonant. Thus it is possible, though not usual, to say
/’stdenli/ rather than /’stdnli/.
5.10.3. Likely syllabic consonants are shown with the symbol
e
, thus suddenly /’std
e
nli/.
Longman Principle Dictionary `s regular principle is that a raised symbol indicates
a sound whose insertion lPd does not recommend. Hence this notation implies
that lPd prefers bare n in the second syllable. Since there is then no proper vowel
in this syllable, the n must be syllabic.
5.10.4. Similarly, in middle /’mId
e
ļ/ lPd recommends pronunciations with syllabic l, thus /’mIdļ/
In father /’fo:ðe/ or /’fo:ð
e
r/ lPd (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary) recommends
for AmE (American english) a pronunciation with syllabic r, thus /’fo:ð r/.
5.10.5. The IPa (International Phonetic Alphabet) provides a special diacritic, to show
a syllabic consonant, thus ņ , /’std.
e
.ņ.li/ For AmE syllabic r, the symbol a is
sometimes used, thus /’fo:ð
s
/. Because lPd uses spaces to show syllabification, it
does not need these conventions. Any nasal or liquid in a syllable in which there in
no other vowel must automatically be syllabic.
5.10.6. Syllabic consonants are also sometimes used where lPd shows italic e plus a nasal
or liquid, thus distant /’dIs
e
tnt/. Although there is a possible pronunciation `dIst nt,
lPd recommends `dIstent. (In fact, in some varieties of English or styles of speech, a
syllabic consonant may arise from almost any sequence of e and a nasal or liquid.)
5.10.7. When followed by a weak vowel, syllabic consonants may lose their syllabic quality,
becoming plain non-syllabic consonants: see COMPRESSION. For example,
threatening /’0ret
e
n.Iŋ/ may be pronounced with three syllables, including syllabic
n, thus /’0ret n Iŋ/; or compressed into two syllables, with plain n, thus /’0retnIŋ/.
5.11. articulation
English consonants have the following typical manners of articulation:
p, t, k, b, d, g are plosives, articulated with a complete obstruction of the mount passage
entirely blocking the air flow for a moment.
f, v, θ, ð, s, z, [, ¿ are fricatives, articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make
the air flow turbulent, while allowing it to pass through continuously.
ç, g are affricates, articulated with firs a complete (and also usually tr, dr) obstruction and
the a narrowing of the mouth passage (AFRICATES).
m, n, ŋ are nasals, articulated by completely obstructing the mouth passage but allowing the
air to pass out through the nose.
r, l are liquids articulated by diverting or modifying the air flow through the mouth, but allowing
it to pass through continuously without turbulence (see LIQUIDS) j, w are semivowels,
anticipatorily like vowels, but functioning like consonants because they are not syllabic.
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5.12. Co articulation
5.12.1. Speech sounds tend to be influenced by the speech sounds which surround them.
Coarticulation is the retention of a phonetic feature that was present in a preceding
sound, or the anticipation of a feature that will be needed for a following sound.
Most allophonic variation – though not all – is coarticulatory).
For example, a vowel or liquid that is adjacent to a nasal tends to be somewhat
nasalized. This coarticulation of nasality applies to the vowels in money /’mtni/
and to the l in elm /elm/.
5.12.2. The English “voiced” obstruents tend to be devoiced when adjacent to a voiceless
consonant or to a pause, e.g. the consonants in good /god/ when said in isolation,
or in a phrase such as the first good thing. This is coarticulation of voicing.
5.12.3. Many consonants vary somewhat depending on which vowel comes after them.
Thus the [ in sheep /[i:p/ is more i:-like, the [ in short /[o:t/ us /[o:rt/more o:-
like. This is coarticulation of place of articulation. Other examples are the d in
dream /dri:m/ (post-alveolar because of the r) and the b in obvious ‘bb vi
ˇ
es ||
‘o:b- (sometimes labiodentals because of the v).
5.12.4. For cases where coarticulation is variable, and may lead to the use of what sounds
like a different phoneme see ASIMILATION.
5.13. Breaking
When a vowel is followed in the same syllable by r or l, a glide sound e may develop before
liquid. The vowel thus become a diphthong, and is said to undergo breaking.
Two types of breaking are particularly frequent in English, are shown explicitly in LPD:
1. Feel /fI:
e
l/ Besides the traditional pronunciation /fI:l/, the form /fI:el/ (or fIel/) is often to
be heard, especially in BrE (British English). This happens when I follows i:, eI, aI, oI,
and is termed pre-I breaking.
2. Fear /fIel/ or /fI
e
r/. In AmE (American English), the usual pronunciation involves the
phoneme I. (Unlike BrE, AmE has no phoneme Ie) However, this word may actually
sound more like /fIer/, especially if said slowly. This is due to pre-r breaking, which
arises when r follows I, e, æ, particularly in a word of one syllable.
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BIBlIogRaPhY

Roach, P.
(1983) English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Underhill, A.
(1994) Sound foundations: Living Phonology. Oxford: Heinemann.
Kenworthy, J.
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman.
Coulthard, M.
(1977) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman.
Langacker, Ronalnd W.
(1998) “Fundamental of linguistic analysis”. University of California, San Diego -
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Ponsonby, Mimi.
(1987) How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm
http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jrubba/phon/syllables.html
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aCTIVITY
1. What is a syllable?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Explain the structure of a syllable.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Mention kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Mention kinds of syllables according to its structure.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. What do you understand by syllabification?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Mention some phonic syllabification rules.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. Mention some orthographic syllabification rules.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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8. What is a diphthong?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
9. What do you understand by crescendo diphthongs?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
6. What is a Syllabic consonant? Mention some of them.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
7. What is the difference between articulation and co articulation?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8. What is breaking?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Represent the words using a tree, similar to ones we have present earlier in the course:
lunch, cooper, transatlantic, syllabic, rhyme, island, breakfast and book.
lunch cooper transatlantic syllabic
rhyme breakfast book
oBjECTIVES
1. Reinforce the theory on suprasegmental phonology.
2. Deepen the information received.
3. Clarify certain concepts form another perspective.
4. Apply the theory into the classroom.
UNIT VI
sELECTED rEADINg
6.1. gloBal ENglISh aNd ThE TEaChINg oF PRoNUNCIaTIoN
Jennifer Jenkins, lecturer in sociolinguistics and phonology at King’s College, London
The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has caused
a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the
teaching of English. This article presents my research into the pronunciation of global
English and gives some teaching implications.
1. What is global English?
2. What are the implications of EIL for pronunciation?
3. The findings from research
4. What are the implications for pronunciation teaching?
1. what is global English?
The term ‘global English’ is being used increasingly nowadays. It is a means of
demonstrating that English is spoken in every part of the world, both among speakers
within a particular country who share a first language, and across speakers from different
countries/first languages.
English is no longer spoken only by its native speakers in the UK, North America, Australia
and New Zealand, and by those who learn English in order to communicate with native
speakers. It is also spoken among non-native speakers within countries like India, the
Philippines and Singapore and internationally among non- native speakers from a wide
range of countries/first languages throughout the world. This last use of English is often
referred to as ‘English as an International Language’ or EIL, and it is this kind of English
which we will focus on here as it is the largest group of English speakers, numbering
around 1.5 billion.
2. what are the implications of EIl for pronunciation?
The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has
caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation
models in the teaching of English. Their argument is that native speaker accents are
not necessarily the most intelligible or appropriate accents when a non-native speaker is
communicating with another non-native speaker.
As regards intelligible pronunciation for EIL, we need to identify which pronunciation
features are crucial for mutual understanding when a non-native speaker of English talks
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to another non-native speaker and which are not at all important. These are often not the
same features that are crucial and unimportant for a native speaker of English
3. The findings from research
In my research I analysed interactions between non-native speakers of English. The aim
was to find out which features of British/American English pronunciation are essential
for intelligible pronunciation, and which are not. The findings have been formed into
a pronunciation core for teaching which is known as the Lingua Franca Core. This is
to indicate that it is intended as a guide for lingua franca interactions, not interactions
between a native and non-native speaker of English. The main features of the Lingua
Franca Core are...
• All the consonants are important except for ‘th’ sounds as in ‘thin’ and ‘this’
• Consonant clusters are important at the beginning and in the middle of words. For
example, the cluster in the word ‘string’ cannot be simplified to ‘sting’ or ‘tring’ and
remain intelligible.
• The contrast between long and short vowels is important. For example, the difference
between the vowel sounds in ‘sit’ and seat’
• Nuclear (or tonic) stress is also essential. This is the stress on the most important
word (or syllable) in a group of words. For example, there is a difference in meaning
between ‘My son uses a computer’ which is a neutral statement of fact and ‘My SON
uses a computer’, where there is an added meaning (such as that another person
known to the speaker and listener does not use a computer).
On the other hand, many other items which are regularly taught on English pronunciation
courses appear not to be essential for intelligibility in EIL interactions. These are...
• The ‘th’ sounds (see above)
• vowel quality, that is, the difference between vowel sounds where length is not
involved, e.g. a German speaker may pronounce the ‘e’ in the word ‘chess’ more like
an ‘a’ as in the word ‘cat’.
• Weak forms such as the words ‘to’, ‘of’ and ‘from’ whose vowels are often pronounced
as schwa instead of with their full quality.
• Other features of connected speech such as assimilation (where the final sound of
a word alters to make it more like the first sound of the next word, so that, e.g. ‘red
paint’ becomes ‘reb paint’.
• Word stress.
• Pitch movement.
• Stress timing.
All these things are said to be important for a native speaker listener either because they
aid intelligibility or because they are thought to make an accent more appropriate.
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4. what are the implications for pronunciation teaching?
• Students should be given choice. That is, when students are learning English so
that they can use it in international contexts with other non-native speakers from
different first languages, they should be given the choice of acquiring a pronunciation
that is more relevant to EIL intelligibility than traditional pronunciation syllabuses
offer. Up to now, the goal of pronunciation teaching has been to enable students
to acquire an accent that is as close as possible to that of a native speaker. But for
EIL communication, this is not the most intelligible accent and some of the non-core
items may even make them less intelligible to another non-native speaker.
• The non-core items are not only unimportant for intelligibility but also socially more
appropriate. After all, native speakers have different accents depending on the region
where they were born and live. So why should non-native speakers of an international
language not be allowed to do the same?
• Finally, students should be given plenty of exposure in their pronunciation classrooms
to other non-native accents of English so that they can understand them easily even
if a speaker has not yet managed to acquire the core features. For EIL, this is much
more important than having classroom exposure to native speaker accents.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website. ”Global English and the teaching of pronunciation”, by Jennifer Jenkins, Lecturer in sociolinguistics
and phonology at King’s College, London, British Council BBC and It is used free of charge (2002).
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.2. RhYThM
Steve Darn, Izmir University of Economics
Rhythm is both a feature of and product of the phonological structure of English. The
phonology of any language is a system, so that a change in one part of the system will affect
some or all of the other parts.
1. Sentence stress
2. Connected speech
3. Teaching rhythm
4. Recognition
5. Production
6. Conclusion
The system looks like this:


English is a very rhythmical language, so that a learner who can maintain the rhythm of the
language is more likely to sound both natural and fluent. The two components of the system
which have the greatest influence on rhythm are sentence stress and the various features of
connected speech, i.e. what happens to words when we put them in an utterance.
Sounds Word stress
Sentence
stress
Phonology
Features of
connected
speech
Intonations Rhythm
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Sentence stress
In any sentence, some words carry a stress. These are the ‘strong’ or ‘lexical’ words (usually
nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs). The remaining words are ‘grammatical’ words and
are unstressed or ‘weak’ (conjunctions, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries, articles).
‘It’s the worst thing that you could do’
The rhythm produced by this combination of stressed and unstressed syllables is a
major characteristic of spoken English and makes English a stress-timed language. In
stress-timed languages, there is a roughly equal amount of time between each stress in a
sentence, compared with a syllable-timed language (such as French, Turkish and West
Indian English) in which syllables are produced at a steady rate which is unaffected by
stress differences. Sentence stress is an important factor in fluency, as English spoken with
only strong forms has the wrong rhythm, sounds unnatural and does not help the listener to
distinguish emphasis or meaning.
Connected speech
Speed is also a factor in fluency. When we speak quickly, we speak in groups of words which
are continuous and may not have pauses between them. This causes changes to the ‘shape’
of words. Unstressed words always sound different when used in a sentence as opposed to
being said in isolation.
The most common features of connected speech are the weak forms of grammatical and
some lexical words (and, to, of, have, was, were) and contractions, some of which are
acceptable in written English (can’t, won’t, didn’t, I’ll, he’d, they’ve, should’ve). However, we
often ignore other features which preserve rhythm and make the language sound natural.
The most common of these are:
• Elision (losing sounds)
• linking (adding or joining sounds between words)
• assimilation (changing sounds)
Added to these is the use of the schwa, the most common vowel sound in English.
Many unstressed vowel sounds tend to become schwa, and because it is an
important feature of weak forms, learners should be able to recognise and produce it.
There is a temptation to try to teach the rules associated with these features, using phonemic
script to write examples. An awareness-raising approach is often more profitable, starting by
asking students what happens to certain words when we put them in a sentence:
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listen
it’s upstairs
one or two
right kind
why did you?
unpopular
first girl
Christmas
ask them
four o’clock
blue apple
last Monday
This might be followed by a categorisation task, from which rules or guidelines could be
elicited.
Teaching rhythm
Rhythm, then, is a product of sentence stress and what happens to the words and sounds
between the stresses. Unfortunately, learners are often introduced first to written forms and
then to the complexities of spelling. Learners whose mother tongue is phonemic or syllable-
timed have particular problems. Teachers should remember to:
• Provide natural models of new target language before introducing the written form.
• Use natural language themselves in the classroom.
• Encourage learners to listen carefully to authentic speech.
• Teach recognition before production.
• Integrate rhythm and other aspects of phonology into grammar, vocabulary and functional
language lessons as well as listening and speaking activities.
A number of useful teaching techniques are listed here, focusing either on rhythm as a whole
or on contributing aspects, and divided into recognition and production activities.
Recognition
• Speed dictations (the boys are good / the boy is good / the boy was good).
• Dictogloss and other variations on dictation.
• Ask students how many words they hear in a sentence (to practise recognising word
boundaries).
• Ask; “What’s the third / fifth / seventh word?” in the sentence.
• Teaching weak forms and contractions at the presentation stage, and highlighting these
on the board.
• Matching phrases to stress patterns.
• Using tapescripts. Marking stresses and weak forms.
• Using recordings of deliberately ‘unnatural’ English.
• Authentic listening.
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Production
• Drills (especially back-chaining).
• Physical movement (finger-clicking, clapping, tapping, jumping) in time to the rhythm of
the sentence .
• Focus on stress in short dialogues (can you? yes I can)
• Making short dialogues, paying attention to stress and rhythm (How often do you speak
English? Once in a while)
• Headlines, notes and memos (build the rhythm with content words, then add the rest)
• Reading out short sentences with only the stressed words (How…come…school?), then
add the other words without slowing down.
• Reading aloud (with plenty of rehearsal time)
• Focus on short utterances with distinctive stress and intonation patterns and a specific
rhythm (long numbers, ‘phone numbers, football results)
• Jazz chants.
• Poems, rhymes and tongue-twisters (limericks are good at higher levels).
• Songs. (the rhythm of English lends itself to rock and pop music, while rap involves fitting
words into distinct beat).
Conclusion
Because phonology is a system, learners cannot achieve a natural rhythm in speech without
understanding the stress-timed nature of the language and the interrelated components
of stress, connected speech and intonation. Attention to phonology begins at lower levels
and builds up as learners progress towards fluency. There are specific phonology courses
available, while most integrated syllabuses include pronunciation activities which run in
parallel to structural, functional and skills development. Above all it is important to remember
that there is a place for phonology in nearly every lesson.
This article published: 4th April, 2007
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Rhythm” by Steve Darn, Izmir University of Economics British Council BBC and It is used free of
charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.3. dEVEloPINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh SoNgS
Balbina Ebong & Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon
Like us, you might already use songs in class, and find that your students enjoy them. But
have you considered choosing songs specifically to work on pronunciation?
Songs provide examples of authentic, memorable and rhythmic language. They can be
motivating for students keen to repeatedly listen to and imitate their musical heroes. Here,
we look at some aspects of pronunciation that can be focused on through songs.
1. Using songs to focus on sounds
2. Using songs to focus on words
3. Using songs to focus on connected speech
4. Conclusion
1. Using songs to focus on sounds
Sounds are the smallest unit from which words are formed and can be categorised as
vowels and consonants.
Why are they difficult?
• As languages differ in their range of sounds, students have to learn to ‘physically’
produce certain sounds previously unknown to them.
Learners can find sounds difficult to pick out, and may not see the point in focusing
on them.
• However, incorrectly pronounced sounds strain communication, sometimes even
changing a phrase’s meaning.
How songs can help
• Songs are authentic and easily accessible examples of spoken English. The rhymes
in songs provide listeners with repetition of similar sounds.
• Students often choose to listen to songs time and again, indirectly exposing them to
these sounds.
What we do
To focus learners on particular sounds, we create activities based on songs’ rhymes.
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activity 1
We replace some of the rhymes in the song, with a gap. Students listen and fill the gaps,
using the song to guide them. More analytically minded students can then categorise the
words according to sounds. (From ‘An Englishman in New York,’ by Sting)
o: eI t
talk
New York
walk
day
say
one
sun
run
Alternatively, we highlight differences between sounds, using the lyrics to show how
changing one sound can alter meaning (minimal pairs).
activity 2
We choose six words from a song from which minimal pairs can be created
heaven - even
hunger - ‘anger
man - mad (From ‘Imagine’ by John Lennon),
We write the pairs separately on cards and give out one set per group of four or five
students. The students then match the pairs. They then listen to the song and ‘grab’ the
correct one. Choices are then checked against the lyrics.
2. Using songs to focus on words
Words are combinations of sounds which form together to give meaning. A word is
uttered in syllables, usually one emphasised syllable (the stress) and the rest weak
(unstressed).
Why are they difficult?
• Even when the same words exist in both languages, the number of syllables is not
always identical.
• Each English word has its own stress pattern, with very complex ‘rules’ to guide
learners.
• Weak syllables are central to English, though students often find this hard to believe.
Moreover, focusing on these can result in over-emphasis (not weakening) of these
syllables.
How songs can help
• Words in songs fit the music, helping learners associate the number of syllables /
stress in these words, with memorable rhythms.
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• The relaxed atmosphere songs create can expose students to this difficult
pronunciation area, without their realizing.
• Songs contain endless examples of weak syllables, helping to convince learners of
the way English is pronounced.
What we do
To raise learners’ awareness of the number of syllables / word stress, our activities target
specific words, especially those where the music makes the stress patterns clearer.
activity 3
We give out the lyrics, with certain words for students to guess the number of syllables,
leaving a space by each word to write the number in. Students then listen, checking their
predictions.
At higher levels, we repeat the activity, with students underlining the stressed syllable
whilst listening. We then drill these words and sing or chant the whole song through.
3. Using songs to focus on connected speech
Connected speech is the natural way we speak, linking together and emphasising certain
words, rather than each word standing alone. Contractions (two words forming one) are
an extreme example of the way we connect speech, to the extent that the written form
too is affected.
Why is it difficult?
• Students normally learn words individually and, especially at lower levels, tend to
pronounce each word separately.
• Students frequently misconceive contractions as being ‘incorrect’, only used in
‘slang’.
• Not all words within a phrase carry the same weight.
How songs can help
• Songs, and especially the chorus, provide real and ‘catchy’ examples of how whole
phrases are pronounced often to the extent that students find it difficult to pick out
individual words. The music further emphasises the ‘flow’ of the words.
• Songs, like other spoken texts, are full of contractions.
• Students can be keen to reproduce this, in order to sing the song as they hear it.
What we do
We use songs that have numerous contracted words to convince learners that contractions
are natural in English.
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activity 4
• We rewrite the lyrics with the contractions in full form
‘I am wondering why’
‘I cannot see’
• Students listen, identifying the contracted words. On a second listening, they rewrite
the words with the contractions
‘I’m wondering why’
‘I can’t see’
• This works even with the lowest level classes.
To help learners hear how words flow in phrases, we choose catchy tunes for learners to
fit words to.
activity 5
• We play each line of the chorus, for learners to hum back until they get the rhythm.
• In groups, students then order the lines of the song on strips of paper by remembering
the tune.
• Other activities can focus on highlighting the strong words in phrases, and singing
only these, replacing the rest with ‘mmm’. Finally, students can practise and present
their singing, for example for a ‘song contest’.
• Alternatively, more creative groups could write their own words to fit the tune.
4. Conclusion
There are no ‘standard’ songs for teaching pronunciation. Any song can be an example
of different pronunciation aspects. However, we try to choose songs that are clear (use
quality recordings where possible), not too fast, memorable, likely to appeal to our
learners (possibly songs they already know) and easy to create activities for, depending
on the area of pronunciation we are focusing on.
Finally, a word of warning: songs are creative works, so be ready to justify the occasional
‘mis-pronunciation’ to your students!
This article published: 21st June, 2006.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Developing English through songs” by Balbina Ebong & Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council,
Cameroon. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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Using songs to focus on connected speech
SONgS
‘Imagine’ by John Lennon
Imagine there’s no Heaven
It’s easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today

Imagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace

You may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as one

Imagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world

You may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will live as one
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‘An Englishman in New York,’ by Sting

I don’t drink coffee I take tea my dear
I like my toast done on one side
And you can hear it in my accent when I talk
I’m an Englishman in New York
See me walking down Fifth Avenue
A walking cane here at my side
I take it everywhere I walk
I’m an Englishman in New York

I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York

If, “Manners maketh man” as someone said
Then he’s the hero of the day
It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile
Be yourself no matter what they say

I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York

Modesty, propriety can lead to notoriety
You could end up as the only one
Gentleness, sobriety are rare in this society
At night a candle’s brighter than the sun

Takes more than combat gear to make a man
Takes more than a license for a gun
Confront your enemies, avoid them when you can
A gentleman will walk but never run

If, “Manners maketh man” as someone said
Then he’s the hero of the day
It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile
Be yourself no matter what they say
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
I’m an alien I’m a legal alien
I’m an Englishman in New York
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6.4. TEaChINg ThE SChwa
Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico
If you only learn or teach one phoneme, make sure it’s the most common English sound
- the schwa.
1. Why the schwa is the most common sound
2. Why I teach the schwa
3. How I teach the schwa
4. Conclusion
1. why the schwa is the most common sound
In stress-timed languages such as English, stresses occur at regular intervals. The words
which are most important for communication of the message, that is, nouns, main verbs,
adjectives and adverbs, are normally stressed in connected speech. Grammar words
such as auxiliary verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers and prepositions are not usually
stressed, and are reduced to keep the stress pattern regular.
This means that they are said faster and at a lower volume than stressed syllables, and
the vowel sounds lose their purity, often becoming a schwa
Listen to these two examples of the same question. The first is with every word stressed
and the second is faster and more natural with vowels being reduced.
“ Whát kínd of músic dó yóu líke?” (slowly)
“ Whatkín of músic doyoulíke?” (fast)
The same thing happens with individual words. While stressed syllables maintain the
full vowel sound, unstressed syllables are weakened. For example, the letters in bold in
the following words can all be pronounced with a schwa (depending on the speaker’s
accent): support, banana, button, excellent, experiment, colour, sister, picture.
2. why I teach the schwa
To understand the concept of word or sentence stress, learners also need to be aware of
the characteristics of ‘unstress’, which include the occurrence of the schwa. In addition,
if learners expect to hear the full pronunciation of all vowel sounds, they may fail to
recognise known language, especially when listening to native speakers. Even if they
understand, students often do not notice unstressed auxiliaries, leading to mistakes such
as, “What you do?’” and “They coming now”.
Helping your students to notice the schwa won’t necessarily lead to an immediate
improvement in listening skills or natural-sounding pronunciation, but it will raise their
awareness of an important feature of spoken English.
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3. how I teach the schwa
Fast dictation
I find this activity useful for introducing the schwa in context. However, it can be repeated
several times with the same group of students, as it also recycles grammar and vocabulary.
Warn students that you are going to dictate at normal speaking speed, and that you will
not repeat anything. Tell them to write what they hear, even if it’s only one word. Then
read out some sentences or questions including language recently studied in class. For
example, I used these questions with Pre-Intermediate level students, following revision
of present simple questions:
1) How many brothers and sisters have you got?
2) How often do you play tennis?
3) What kind of music do you like?
4) What time do you usually get up?
5) How much does it cost?
After reading the sentences, allow students to compare in pairs or groups. Then read again,
while students make changes and additions, before a final comparison with their partner(s).
Next, invite individual learners to write the sentences on the board, while others offer
corrections. The teacher can correct any final mistakes that other learners do not notice.
Say the first sentence again naturally, and ask learners which words are stressed. Repeat
the sentence, trying to keep stress and intonation consistent, until learners are able to
correctly identify the stressed syllables. Then point to the schwa on the phonemic chart
and make a schwa sound. Get students to repeat. Read the first sentence again and
ask learners to identify the schwa sounds. Repeat the sentence naturally until students
are able to do this. Ask them to identify the stress and schwas in the other sentences,
working in pairs or groups. My students found the following, although again there is some
variation between accents.
1) How many brothers and sisters have you got?
2) How often do you play tennis?
3) What kind of music do you like?
4) What time do you usually get up?
5) How much does it cost?
I normally get learners to write the schwa symbol underneath the alphabetic script.
Once this is done, you can drill the sentences, perhaps by ‘backchaining’. This is where
the sentence is drilled starting from the end, gradually adding more words.
Try to maintain natural sentence stress when drilling. A danger of focusing on the schwa
is that it can be given too much emphasis, so correct this tendency if it occurs in individual
and choral repetitions.
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After doing this activity for the first time, I ask learners some awareness-raising questions:
• What kinds of words are stressed? (Content words, i.e. nouns, main verbs, adjectives,
adverbs).
• What kinds of words are generally not stressed? (‘Grammar words’, i.e. auxiliary
verbs, pronouns, articles, linkers, prepositions).
• Do stressed syllables ever contain schwa? (No).
• Do you think this is more important for listening or speaking? (Students will often say
‘speaking’ but in fact this is more important for what Underhill calls ‘receptive pronuncia-
tion’: learners will still be understood if they give all vowel sounds their full value, but it’s
worth practising these features orally to help learners ‘develop an ear’ for them).
Stress and schwa prediction
Take a short section of tape or video script (a short dialogue or a few short paragraphs of
spoken text). Before listening or watching, ask learners to identify the stressed syllables
and schwas, and to rehearse speaking the text. They then listen or watch and compare
their version with the recording. There will probably be differences, but this can lead
to a useful discussion, raising issues such as variations in the use of schwa between
accents, and emphatic stress to correct what someone else has said.
word stress and schwa
I often ask learners to identify word stress and schwa in multiple-syllable words recently
studied in class. This recycles vocabulary, and illustrates the point that schwa does not
occur in stressed syllables. It also helps with aural comprehension as well as correct
pronunciation of these words.
a gentle reminder
You may still find, even when drilling, that learners are tempted to pronounce the full
vowel sound in unstressed syllables. I give my students a gentle reminder that schwa is
the ‘Friday afternoon’ sound. Slumping in the chair and looking exhausted while saying
schwa normally gets a laugh!
4. Conclusion
Many of my students have seemed fascinated by the insight that English is not spoken as
they thought, with every vowel being given its full sound, and after an initial introduction
to the schwa start to look for it themselves in other words and sentences. More ambitious
students take every opportunity to practise this ‘native-speaker’ feature, while others
revert to the full vowel sound after drilling, but in either case their expectations of how
English sounds will have changed (This article published 21
ts
march, 2006).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Teaching the Schwa” by Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico. British Council BBC and It is
used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.5. INToNaTIoN
Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon
Intonation is crucial for communication. It’s also a largely unconscious mechanism, and
as such, a complex aspect of pronunciation. It’s no surprise that many teachers don’t feel
confident about tackling it in the classroom. When teaching grammar or lexis, we find ways
of making the language accessible to our learners. How then to do this with intonation?
1. What is intonation?
2. Why teach intonation?
3. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation?
4. How I help my students:
• Awareness-raising
• Intonation and grammar
• Intonation and attitudes
• Intonation and discourse
5. Conclusion
1. what is intonation?
Intonation is about how we say things, rather than what we say. Without intonation,
it’s impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words.
Listen to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words: the ‘melody’ you
hear is the intonation. It has the following features:
• It’s divided into phrases, also known as ‘tone-units’.
• The pitch moves up and down, within a ‘pitch range’. Everybody has their own
pitch range. Languages, too, differ in pitch range. English has particularly wide pitch-
range.
• In each tone unit, the pitch movement (a rise or fall in tone, or a combination of the
two) takes place on the most important syllable known as the ‘tonic-syllable’. The
tonic-syllable is usually a high-content word, near the end of the unit.
• These patterns of pitch variation are essential to a phrase’s meaning. Changing the
intonation can completely change the meaning.
Example:
- Say: ‘It’s raining’.
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- Now say it again using the same words, but giving it different meaning. You could
say it to mean ‘What a surprise!’, or ‘How annoying!’, or ‘That’s great!’. There are
many possibilities.
2. why teach intonation?
Intonation exists in every language, so the concept we’re introducing isn’t new. However,
learners are often so busy finding their words that intonation suffers. Yet intonation can be as
important as word choice - we don’t always realise how much difference intonation makes:
• Awareness of intonation aids communication.
• Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even
taking offence!
Though it’s unlikely our learners will need native-speaker-level pronunciation, what they
do need, is greater awareness of intonation to facilitate their speaking and listening.
3. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation?
It’s difficult to hear our own intonation. Choose somebody to listen to closely: as you
listen, visualise the melody in your head, ‘seeing’ how it’s divided into tone-units. Next
time you do a class speaking activity, focus on your students’ intonation. Are there
students whose language is ‘correct’, but something doesn’t sound right? Do they come
across as boring or insincere? It may well be their pitch range isn’t varied enough.
4. how I help my students
awareness-raising
Some techniques I find useful for raising learners’ awareness of intonation:
Provide learners with models - don’t be afraid to exaggerate your intonation.
Let students compare two examples of the same phrase, ex: varied/flat intonation,
English / L1.
Ask students to have a 2-minute conversation in pairs as ‘robots’ (elicit the word using
a picture if necessary), i.e. with no intonation. When they then go back to speaking
‘normally’, point out that the difference is made by intonation - this is what gives movement
to our voices.
Get students to imitate my intonation, but without words, just humming.
Intonation doesn’t exist in isolation. So it makes sense to approach it together with other
factors.
Intonation and grammar
Where patterns associating intonation and grammar are predictable, I highlight these to
my students. I see these as starting-points, rather than rules. Some examples are:
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Wh-word questions: falling intonation
Yes / No questions: rising
Statements: falling
Question - Tags: ‘chat’ - falling; ‘check’ - rising
Lists: rising, rising, rising, falling
When practising these constructions, I include activities focusing specifically on intonation.
For example, Question-Tags: Students in groups are assigned jobs to mime to
each other. Students make notes about what they think each person’s job is.
They then have to check they’ve understood the jobs: Students use rising/falling
intonation question-tags depending how sure they are: ‘You’re a pilot, aren’t you?’.
At the end, students confirm their jobs.
Intonation and attitude
It’s important that students are aware of the strong link between intonation and attitude,
even if it’s difficult to provide rules here.
The first thing is for learners to recognise the effect of intonation changes.
I say the word ‘bananas’ - firstly with an ‘interested’ intonation (varied tone); then
‘uninterested’ (flat). Students identify the two and describe the difference. We then
brainstorm attitudes, such as ‘enthusiastic’, ‘bored’, ‘surprised’, ‘relieved’. I say ‘bananas’
for these. Students then do the same in pairs, guessing each other’s attitude.
This can be developed by asking students to ‘greet’ everybody with a particular attitude.
At the end, the class identify each person’s attitude. For younger learners, I use ‘Mr Men’
characters (Miss Happy, Mr Grumpy, Miss Frightened, etc.) Each student is allocated a
character and, as above, they greet the class with that character’s voice.
Intonation and discourse
Learners’ also need awareness of intonation in longer stretches of language. Here, we
can give our learners clearer guidelines: ‘new’ information = fall tone; ‘shared’ knowledge
= ‘fall-rise’.
A simple shopping dialogue demonstrates this:
SK: Can I help you?
C: I’d like a chocolate (fall) ice-cream.
SK: One chocolate (fall-rise) ice-cream. Anything else?
C: One strawberry (fall) ice-cream.
SK: One chocolate (fall), one strawberry (fall). Anything else?
C: Yes. One chocolate (fall), one strawberry (fall), and one vanilla (fall-rise).
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Higher level students can identify the ‘new’ / ‘shared’ information, and then practice
reading accordingly.
With lower level students, we memorise the dialogue together. Although I don’t refer to
intonation directly, I use my hands to indicate it (fall = hand pointing down; fall-rise =
down then up). Students then prepare their own dialogues. I’ve found my learners pick
up these patterns very quickly.
5. Conclusion
When working on intonation in the classroom:
Remember that intonation is relevant to any speaking activity, and makes interesting
remedial/revision work.
Remember that students don’t always have to ‘know’ we’re focusing on intonation: every
time I drill phrases they’re hearing intonation models.
Provide realistic and clear contexts.
Avoid going into theory.
Help students find patterns / rules-of-thumb, wherever possible.
Use a consistent system for marking intonation on the board for example: arrow for tone;
tonic-syllable in CAPITALS; double lines ( // ) for tone-unit boundaries.
Keep it positive and don’t expect perfection. The last thing I’d want is to make my students
so anxious about their intonation that they stop speaking!
This article published: 16th March, 2006.
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Intonation” by Marta J. Sabbadini, British Council, Cameroon British Council BBC and It is used
free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.6. woRd STRESS
Emma Pathare, Teacher, Trainer, Dubai
A major benefit of focusing students on how words are stressed is the extra mental
engagement with the word that it gives. A language learner needs to engage with a word
many times, preferably in different ways, in order to really learn it - identifying and practising
word stress can provide one or two of those engagements.
1. Why word stress is important
2. What word stress is
3. Some ‘rules’ of word stress
4. How I help my students
5. In the classroom
6. Conclusion
1. why word stress is important
Mistakes in word stress are a common cause of misunderstanding in English. Here are
the reasons why:
Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word very difficult to hear and
understand; for example, try saying the following words:
o O O o
b’tell hottle
And now in a sentence:
“I carried the b’tell to the hottle.”
Now reverse the stress patterns for the two words and you should be able to make sense
of the sentence!
“I carried the bottle to the hotel.”
Stressing a word differently can change the meaning or type of the word:
“They will desert* the desert** by tomorrow.”
o O O o
desert* desert**
Think about the grammatical difference between desert* and desert**.
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I will look at this in more detail later.
Even if the speaker can be understood, mistakes with word stress can make the listener
feel irritated, or perhaps even amused, and could prevent good communication from
taking place.
These three reasons tell me that word stress is an important part of the English language,
and it is something I should help my students with.
2. what word stress is
When we stress syllables in words, we use a combination of different features. Experiment
now with the word computer. Say it out loud. Listen to yourself. The second syllable of
the three is stressed. What are you doing so that the listener can hear that stress?
A stressed syllable combines five features:
It is l-o-n-g-e-r - com p-u-ter
It is loUdER - comPUTer
It has a change in pitch from the syllables coming before and afterwards. The pitch of
a stressed syllable is usually higher.
It is said more clearly -The vowel sound is purer. Compare the first and last vowel
sounds with the stressed sound.
It uses larger facial movements - Look in the mirror when you say the word. Look at
your jaw and lips in particular.
It is equally important to remember that the unstressed syllables of a word have the
opposite features of a stressed syllable!
3. Some ‘rules’ of word stress
There are patterns in word stress in English but, as a rule (!), it is dangerous to say there
are fixed rules. Exceptions can usually be found.
Here are some general tendencies for word stress in English:
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word Type of word
Tendency
Exceptions
apple
table
happy
two-syllable nouns
and adjectives
stress on the first syllable
o o
apple
hotel
lagoon
suspect
import
insult
words which can be
used as both
nouns and verbs
the noun has stress on the first syllable
o o
“You are the suspect!”
the verb has stress on the second
syllable
o o
“I suspect you.”
respect
witness
hairbrush
football
compound nouns
fairly equally balanced but with stronger
stress on the first part
o o
hairbrush
4. how I help my students
Students can be alarmed when they meet words which are similar but have different
stress patterns:
O o o O oo O o o o o o O o
Equal Equality Equalise Equalisation
A useful thing you can do is to help students see connections with other word families.
Patterns can usually be found, for example:
O o o O oo O o o o o o O o
Final Finality Finalise finalisation
Neutral Neutrality Neutralise neutralisation
There are some recognised differences in word stress which depend on the variety of
English being used, for example:
O o O o O O o o
Caribbean Caribbean
aluminium (British English) aluminium (American English)
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These differences are noted in good learner dictionaries. If words like these come up in
class, point them out to students. Ask if there are similar cases of differences in word
stress in their own language - this will heighten awareness and interest.
5. In the classroom
Raise awareness & build confidence
You can use the same questions with your students that I have used in this article.
These will help to raise the students’ awareness of word stress and its importance. Some
learners love to learn about the ‘technical’ side of language, while others like to ‘feel’
or ‘see’ the language more, hearing the music of word stress or seeing the shapes of
the words. Try to use a variety of approaches: helping students to engage with English
in different ways will help them in their goal to become more proficient users of the
language. Build students’ confidence by drawing their attention to the tendencies and
patterns in word stress that do exist.
Mark the stress
Use a clear easy-to-see way of marking stress on the board and on handouts for students.
I use the big circle - small circle (O o) method. It is very easy to see and has the added
advantage of identifying the number of syllables in the word, as well as the stressed
syllable.
Students also need to be aware of the way dictionaries usually mark stress - with a mark
before the stressed syllable, e.g. ‘apple. By knowing this, students will be able to check
word stress independently.
Cuisenaire rods
These different sized, small coloured blocks are great for helping students to ‘see’ the
word stress. The students build the words using different blocks to represent stressed
and unstressed syllables. (Children’s small building blocks are a good substitute!)
Integrate word stress into your lessons
You don’t need to teach separate lessons on word stress. Instead, you can integrate
it into your normal lessons. The ideal time to focus students’ attention on it is when
introducing vocabulary. Meaning and spelling are usually clarified for students but the
sound and stress of the word can all too often be forgotten.
Quickly and simply elicit the stress pattern of the word from the students (as you would
the meaning) and mark it on the board. Drill it too!
Students can use stress patterns as another way to organise and sort their vocabulary.
For example, in their vocabulary books they can have a section for nouns with the
pattern o o, and then a section for the pattern o o. Three syllable words can be
sorted into o o o (Saturday, hospital) and o o o (computer, unhappy).
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Remember what I noted before: The more times students mentally engage with new
vocabulary, the more they are likely to actually learn it. Engaging students through word
stress helps to reinforce the learning of the words.
Troubleshooting
Initially, many students (and teachers!) find it difficult to hear word stress. A useful strategy
is to focus on one word putting the stress on its different syllables in turn. For example:
o o 0 0 o o o 0 o
Computer Computer Computer
Say the word in the different ways for the students, really exaggerating the stressed
syllable and compressing the unstressed ones. Ask the students which version of the
word sounds ‘the best’ or ‘the most natural’.
By hearing the word stressed incorrectly, students can more easily pick out the correct
version.
A personalised and effective way of getting students to hear the importance of correct
word stress is by using people’s names as examples. I introduce word stress with my
name:
“How many parts/syllables are there in my name?”
“Which is the strongest - the first or second?”
“Is it Emma or Emma?”
Then you can question students about their own names - this will give them a personalised
connection to the issue of words stress, with a word they will never forget!
Conclusion
Any work on aspects of pronunciation can take a long time to show improvements and
be challenging for both the students and the teacher, but working on word stress can be
fun and over time will help your students to be better understood and more confident
speakers (this article published 21
th
february 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Word Stress” by Emma Pathare, Teacher, Trainer, DubaiBritish Council BBC and It is used free of
charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG.
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6.7. CoNNECTEd SPEECh
Connected speech 1
Vanessa Steele
Teaching pronunciation used to involve little more than identifying and practicing the sounds
of which a language is composed, that is to say, its phonemes. Recently however, there has
been a shift of focus towards the other systems operating within phonology, which may be
more important in terms of overall intelligibility.
1. What connected speech is?
2. How this affects native and non-native speakers
3. Aspects of connected speech
4. Working on weak forms
5. Conclusion
1. what connected speech is?
“English people speak so fast” is a complaint I often hear from my students, and often
from those at an advanced level, where ignorance of the vocabulary used is not the
reason for their lack of comprehension. When students see a spoken sentence in its
written form, they have no trouble comprehending. Why is this?
The reason, it seems, is that speech is a continuous stream of sounds, without clear-cut
borderlines between each word. In spoken discourse, we adapt our pronunciation to our
audience and articulate with maximal economy of movement rather than maximal clarity.
Thus, certain words are lost, and certain phonemes linked together as we attempt to get
our message across.
2. how this affects native and non-native speakers
As native speakers, we have various devices for dealing with indistinct utterances caused
by connected speech. We take account of the context; we assume we hear words with
which we are familiar within that context. In real life interaction, phonetically ambiguous
pairs like “ a new display” / “ a nudist play”, are rarely a problem as we are actively
making predictions about which syntactic forms and lexical items are likely to occur in a
given situation.
Non-native speakers, however, are rarely able to predict which lexical item may or may
not appear in a particular situation. They tend to depend almost solely on the sounds
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which they hear. Learners whose instruction has focused heavily on accuracy suffer
a “devastating diminuation of phonetic information at the segmental level when they
encounter normal speech.” (Brown 1990.)
3. aspects of connected speech
So what is it that we do when stringing words together that causes so many problems for
students?
Weak Forms
There are a large number of words in English which can have a “full” form and a “weak”
form. This is because English is a stressed timed language, and in trying to make the
intervals between stressed syllables equal, to give the phrase rhythm, we tend to swallow
non-essential words. Thus, conjunctions, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries and articles
are often lost, causing comprehension problems for students, particularly for those whose
language is syllable timed. Some examples of words which have weak forms are;
and
fish and chips (fish´n chips)
a chair and a table (a chair ´n a table)
Can
She can speak Spanish better than I can (The first “can” is the weak form, the second the
full form.)
of
A pint of beer
That´s the last of the wine!
have
Have you finished? (weak)
Yes, I have. (full)
Should
Well, you should have told me. (Both”should” and “have” are weak here)
The relevance of certain features of connected speech to students’ needs is often
debated. However, this is not the case with weak forms. Learners must come to not only
recognise and cope with the weak forms they hear, but also to use them themselves when
speaking English. If they do not their language will sound unnatural and over formalised,
with too many stressed forms making it difficult for the listener to identify the points of
focus. This, the degree to which connected speech contributes towards “naturalness” or
“intelligibility”, is a useful starting point from which to measure the value to students of
the different features of connected speech.
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4. working on weak forms
Here are some ways in which we can attempt to help our students with weak forms.
How many words do you hear?
Play a short dialogue, or a group of sentences, and ask students to listen and write
down the number of words they hear. Go over each phrase to check whether they could
identify all the words and then to see if they can accurately produce what they heard.
Contrast the weak or natural version with the full version, pointing out that the full version
is often more difficult to pronounce.
Unnatural speech
Activities built around “unnatural speech” are an enjoyable way of working on weak
forms and rhythm. To obtain “unnatural speech”, record someone reading a sentence
as if it were just a list of words. A good way of doing this is to put the words onto flash
cards, and to reveal one at a time, so the reader gives each word its full pronunciation.
When you have a few sentences, play them several times to the students, who should
then work in pairs to try to make the speech more natural sounding. They can then
either use graphics to show the points they would change, or take turns reading out their
different versions, or record themselves using a more natural pronunciation. Conduct a
general feedback session at the end of the activity, discussing reasons for the changes
the groups have made.
Integrating
Integrate pronunciation into vocabulary work, practising, for example, the weak form in
phrases with “of” (a loaf of bread, a cup of coffee, a can of coke ).
Integrate weak forms into grammar work. If practising “going to” for example, the teacher
can write on the board examples such as;
Go on holiday
Earn more money
Buy a car
Ask different students to read these phrases as a sentence with “going to”. Listen for and
highlight the weak form of “to” before the consonant sounds, and the “full” form of “to”
with the linking “w” sound before the vowel.
5. Conclusion
Pronunciation work should be seen as an integral part of what goes on in the classroom.
Try not to fall into the text book trap of dividing language up into isolated chunks. One
lesson on grammar, the next on vocabulary, then pronunciation and so on. All language,
like speech, is connected, and students will benefit from learning the weak forms and stress
patterns of new words from the start, rather than in a remedial lesson months later.
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Raising students awareness of these forms, whenever they arise, is the first step towards
helping your learners to speak a little more naturally. Even if they do not assimilate
these forms at first, “...in many cases, the simple awareness of their existence can help
enormously in enabling students to better understand the language they hear.” ( Gerald
Kelly- “How to Teach Pronunciation.”)
Connected speech 2
Vanessa Steele
An advanced student of mine speaks both clearly and usually correctly, but can often sound
over formal and at times stilted. He has learnt his English “through the eye” and has trouble
interpreting the utterances of native speakers who do not monitor their output. His delivery is
an attempt at a precise version of every sound. With native speakers, articulatory precision
is a stylistic device, a conscious choice if we want to emphasize a point, be insistent or
threatening. In normal social interaction though, this is not usually the case and articulatory
imprecision is the more natural and functional option.
1. Aspects of connected speech
2. Intrusion and linking
3. Elision
4. Working on connected speech
5. Integrating work on connected speech
6. Conclusion
1. aspects of connected speech
Speech is a continuous stream of sounds, without clear-cut borderlines between them,
and the different aspects of connected speech help to explain why written English is so
different from spoken English.
So, what is it that native speakers do when stringing words together that causes so many
problems for students?
2. Intrusion and linking
When two vowel sounds meet, we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a
/ j /, / w / or / r / , to mark the transition sound between the two vowels, a device referred
to as intrusion. For example:
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Intruding /r/
The media /r/ are to blame.
Law(r)and order.
Intruding /j/
I /j/ agree.
They /j/ are here!
Intruding /w/
I want to /w/ eat.
Please do /w/ it.
Word boundaries involving a consonant and a vowel are also linked, as we tend to drag
final consonants to initial vowels or vice versa. For example:
Get on. (geton)
Not at all. (notatall)
It´s no joke. (snow joke)
3. Elision
As I have mentioned, a native speaker’s aim in connecting words is maxium ease and
efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across. In minimizing our
efforts, we weaken our articulation. If articulation is weakened too much, the sound
may disappear altogether, a process known as elision. It is the vowels from unstressed
syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation.
Common sound deletions
A syllable containing the unstressed “schwa” or is often lost. For example,
int(e)rest,
sim(i)lar,
lib(a)ry,
diff(e)rent,
t(o)night.
/ t / and / d /
With consonants, it is / t / and / d / which are most commonly elided, especially when they
appear in a consonant cluster. For example,
chris(t)mas
san(d)wich
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The same process can occur across word boundaries, for example,
mus(t) be
the firs(t) three
you an(d) me
we stopp(ed) for lunch
/ h /
The / h / sound is also often deleted. For example,
you shouldn´t (h)ave
tell (h)im.
4. working on connected speech
If your learners have not worked on these forms before, you might wish to set some
lesson time aside to work specifically on these features of connected speech. One way
of introducing them to sound deletions could be to write a few short phrases on the
board. For example:
That´s an interesting idea.
Are you coming out tonight?
It´s the tallest building.
You must tell him.
Try if possible to use language you have recently been working on in the classroom.
Then ask the class to count the number of sounds in each word, and write the numbers
which they give you on the board above the words, like this:
3 4 4 3
you must tell him
Now play a recording of the phrases, or read them yourself, and ask the learners to listen
again and write down how many sounds they hear. Prompt them if necessary, asking
if, for example, the “t” is really pronunced twice between “must” and “tell”, or only
once.
• Drill the phrases then ask the students to practise these phrases themselves.
You could also read out the phrases, once using the elided forms, then again in a
more clipped, emphatic manner.
• Ask the learners which sounds more natural. Highlight that the features of connected
speech not only make the phrase more natural sounding but that it is also easier to
pronounce the words in this way.
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Exercises like this help to show learners the differences between written and spoken
English, and they highlight the importance of listening to words rather than relying on
their written forms.
5. Integrating work on connected speech
It is a good idea to try and integrate work on connected speech into everyday lessons.
When studying grammar for example, don´t focus solely on the form of the words, draw
attention to the way they are pronounced in natural conversation.
• Superlatives, for example, provide practise of sound deletions. you could write a few
phrases on the board:
The Nile is the longest river in the world.
The Vatican is the smallest country in the world.
• Ask the students to listen to the sounds while you repeat the phrases a few times and
see if they can spot the disappearance of the “t” on the superlative adjective.
• Drill the phrases, chorally and individually. Students might like to write their own
general knowledge quiz, using questions such as, “Which is the tallest building in the
world?”
• As they read their questions, make sure they elide the final “t” (unless of course, the
next word begins with a vowel).
Such exercises provide practice of both grammatical form and pronunciation, and the
repetition helps students to begin using these features of connected speech in a natural
manner.
Anything which you have recently been working on in class can be used as a basis
for pronunciation work. For example, a useful way of practising the intruding sounds
/ r /, / w / and / j / is when studying phrasal verbs.
Do/ w /up
Play / j / up
Go/ w /away
Go/ w /out
• Drill the verbs chorally and individually before providing a more personalized practice
activity in which students ask each other questions using the verbs you are focusing on.
Phrasal verbs can also be used to show how we tend to link final consonants and initial
vowels across word boundaries.
Get out (getout)
Put on (puton)
Come out (cumout)
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6. Conclusion
Students often find pronunciation work fun and stimulating, as well as valuable. However,
they will need time and confidence in order to assimilate the features of connected
speech and to make them their own. Research does suggest though, that by simply
drawing students attention to these forms, you are givng them considerable help towards
making sense of the language they hear.
This article published: 28th February, 2005
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Connected Speech 1,2, by Vanessa Steele, British Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.8. ENglISh SENTENCE STRESS
Lynn Gallacher, British Council, Spain
Sentence stress is a difficult area to work on for learners and teachers alike. For this reason
it’s also an area which is often neglected, but this aspect of the language can cause problems
for learners in both their speaking and perhaps more importantly listening.
1. English is a stress timed language
2. Listening
3. Listening activities
4. Speaking
5. Speaking activities
6. Conclusion
English is a stress timed language
The English language is often referred to as stress-timed. This means that stress in a spoken
sentence occurs at regular intervals and the length it takes to say something depends on the
number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself.
Try saying or listening to the sentences below:
1 2 3 4
1 and 2 and 3 and 4
1 and a
2 and a 3 and a 4
1 and then a
2 and then a 3 and then a 4
The four sentences take the same length of time to say and you will notice the numbers are
stressed and the unstressed words in between are said much more quickly in order to keep
the rhythm of the language. In other languages, which are not stress-timed the stress would
fall more equally on each word and syllable.
listening
In a recent class I discussed with my students the reasons they found listening difficult in
English. Some comments were:
“The words come too fast”
“I panic when I don’t understand every word”
“Some words are swallowed”
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I think what students are referring to here, amongst other things, is the stress-timed aspect
of English.
listening activities
Here are some activities I’ve done in class with students of all levels to raise awareness of
stress time in English and help them overcome the difficulties it causes during listening.
After completing a listening comprehension task in class, give the students the tape script
and play a very short extract. Students mark on the tape script the words that are stressed.
Discuss the kinds of words that are stressed. They will usually be the words that give
meaning: verbs, nouns and adjectives.
Give the students the tape script to a listening before they hear it and ask them to predict
which words they think will be stressed. Play the tape to check the predictions.
Play a fairly short listening extract, maybe a paragraph in length, students write down the
important (stressed) words they hear. You can play the tape several times.
Emphasise that this isn’t a dictation exercise you don’t want students to try to write down
every word.
In groups ask the students to try and recreate the listening extract using the words they
have and their knowledge of the English language. Compare the students’ version with the
original.
Discuss with students the aim of this activity - to show how native speakers listen and
understand the language, taking note of the important words, usually stressed ones, and
using their knowledge of the language to build meaning.
The important conclusion being it is not necessary to understand every word.
Speaking
Stress timing can help speakers communicate meaning. Learners need to be made aware of
the fact that the way they say something can affect it’s meaning. Read to the sentence below
with the stress on different words. You can hear that the meaning changes.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses.
Not using stress-time can also make students sound laboured when they speak and can
cause irritation on the part of the listener. The activities below are designed to practise
stress-time and increase students’ fluency.
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Speaking activities
Stress timing is most noticeable in patterned language such as poetry and limericks.
Here are some limericks I’ve used with my students:
There was a young lady from Niger,
Who smiled as she rode on a tiger.
After the ride
She was inside,
And the smile on the face of the tiger.

There once was a lady named Lynn
Who was so uncommonly thin,
that when she essayed
to drink lemonade,
she slipped through the straw and fell in!
I read the limericks aloud and checked the students understand them. The students in
groups then try writing one. It’s fun to use the names of the students in the class to start the
limerick. Next we mark the stressed syllables and the students read the limericks out, trying
to keep to the rhythm.
Recently I was working with 2 advanced students who were about to take the speaking part of
the Proficiency exam. Their grammar and vocabulary was fine but when they spoke English
they didn’t sound fluent. They spoke very deliberately and gave words equal stress.
I asked them to record themselves speaking and then listen to the recording. They were
aware they didn’t sound fluent but still didn’t know what to do about it.
Next we used the cassette from the course book they were using, and chose a two-person
dialogue to listen to. The students, using the tape-script, recorded themselves again and
again until the dialogue sounded as close as possible to the original.
Conclusion
In this article I have outlined the difficulty my students have with listening and speaking in relation
to English as a stress-timed language and suggested some ways to help students. It should be
noted that stress-time is only one of many factors that influence how we say something. Speech
rhythms change according to the meaning the speaker wants to convey, who the speaker is
talking to and the context they are speaking in. It’s also quite a difficult area for students to work
on, so don’t expect instant results (this article published 17
th
january, 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on
the www.teaching,org.uk.website.” English Sentence Stress”, by Lynn Gallacher, British Council, Spain, British
Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.9. INTEgRaTINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN INTo ClaSSRooM aCTIVITIES
Barney Griffiths, Teacher trainer, Teacher, Materials writer, Spain.
Pronunciation work has traditionally taken a secondary role in language teaching to work on
grammar and more recently lexis. In my work as a teacher trainer I have been surprised at
how often experienced teachers are reluctant to tackle pronunciation issues in class. I can
think of at least two reasons why pronunciation tends to be neglected: firstly, the lack of clear
guidelines and rules available in course books, and secondly the fact that isolated exercises
once a month do not seem to have much of an effect. This is not surprising, however; like
all other areas of language teaching, pronunciation needs constant attention for it to have a
lasting affect on students, which means integrating it into daily classroom procedures. I find
that addressing issues regularly during the language feedback or group correction stage
of a lesson helps to focus learners’ attention on its importance and lead to more positive
experiences.
1. Using student talk to teach pronunciation
2. Word stress
3. Vowel sounds
4. Diphthongs
5. Weak forms
6. Sentence stress
7. Conclusion
1. Using student talk to teach pronunciation
Pronunciation work can be kept simple and employ exercises which are both accessible
and enjoyable for students, whatever their level. Whenever students do a freer speaking
activity, the main aim is usually for them to develop their spoken fluency in the language.
However, the activity also serves to work on students’ accuracy through the feedback we
give them on their use of language.
When my students do such a group or pair work activity at any level I listen in and
take notes which are divided into three areas of language: pronunciation, grammar
and lexis. Within the latter, as well as unknown lexis I will also include areas such as
register, function, set phrases…and within the former I will include notes on any area of
pronunciation that leads to miscommunication. This includes diphthongs, vowel sounds
(including weak forms), consonant sounds, word stress and sentence stress. All of these
areas can be dealt with quickly and efficiently by having some simple exercises ready
which require nothing more than the board and a basic knowledge of the phonemic
chart.
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If learners are introduced to the phonemic chart one phoneme at a time, it can be
introduced from beginner level and students are quick to appreciate its value. A rule
for when ‘ea’ is pronounced /e/ (head) and when it is pronounced /i:/ (bead) will not
necessarily aid production, whereas the activities I propose here will. Once your students
get used to the exercises, pronunciation work becomes even more efficient and dare I
say it, effective.
2. word stress
Here is a simple exercise I repeat regularly for work on word stress and individual
sounds.
I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘I suppose (pronounced with stress on first syllable)
I will see her tonight’. The listener doesn’t understand because of the mispronunciation
and asks the other student to repeat until finally they write it down and we see what the
word was.
After the activity, on the board I put a column with two bubbles to represent word stress,
the first small, the second much larger. I write ‘suppose’ under the bubbles and drill it
before asking students to think of other two syllable words with second-syllable stress.
I get ‘outside’, ‘today’, ‘below’ and ‘behind’, which I accept as correct before asking for
verbs only. I then get ‘accept’, ‘believe’, ‘forget’….and these go in the same column.
If a student asks for rules during this exercise, in this case ‘Do all 2-syllable verbs have
this stress pattern?’, for example, I either ask them to think of examples that contradict
their rule to give myself time to consider it or I tell them we will look at rules for this
the following lesson. As a general rule I find that this procedure encourages learner
autonomy by having learners form their own hypotheses which are then confirmed or
disproved by the teacher in the following lesson.
3. Vowel sounds
I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘Not now because he is did (dead)’.
After the activity, on the board I draw a column with the heading /e/.
In this column I write the word ‘dead’ and have students repeat it. I then ask for examples
of words which rhyme with this, which students find easy (‘red’, ‘bed’, etc.).
I do not write these, however. I then ask for words which rhyme and have the same vowel
spelling, i.e. ‘ea’. I put students in pairs or groups to think of words, giving myself some
thinking time, too. In this case, depending on the level I will get ‘head’, ‘bread’, ‘read’, ‘lead’,…
and we end up with an extendable list of words with the same spelling and sound.
It is the cognitive work of trying to think of similar words, writing them down and their
organisation into columns that helps learners retain sounds and spellings, rather than
their simply revising the lists. This is why all students should be encouraged to copy the
list into their notebooks.
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If the classroom allows it, it’s also a great idea to have students pin posters with sound
columns up on the wall and add to them whenever a new item comes up for that sound,
particularly if it is a strange or different spelling.
The idea is to get a basic poster with a phoneme at the top and various columns with
different spellings.
/e/
‘e’ ‘ea’ ‘ai’
Bed Dead Said
Pen Head
4. diphthongs
I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘I didn’t find (pronounced / f i: n d /) it anywhere’.
I make a column with /ai/, drill ‘find’ and my students give me ‘fight’, ‘bike’, ‘buy’, ‘eye’,
‘my’, etc. for the sound.
I accept these without writing them and then encourage students to think of other words
spelt like ‘find’. I get ‘mind’ and ‘kind’.
There may be only one or two for any given pattern. If I have thought of any other words
myself I add them to the column, ensuring that they are not obscure words or too high
for this particular level (in this case I might choose to introduce ‘bind’ and ‘grind’, but
probably not ‘rind’ or ‘hind’).
5. weak forms
I hear an elementary learner say: ‘I will buy vegetables (pronouncing ‘table’ at the end)’.
I note that this is also an opportunity to work on word stress.
I make a column with a schwa, and drill ‘vegetable’, marking the word stress.
With an elementary class there is a case for simply teaching this point rather than eliciting
known words, so I point out the number of syllables and the stress on the beginning of
the word, explaining that this makes the final syllable weak and not pronounced as the
word ‘table’.
I add to the list ‘comfortable’ and ‘presentable’ as further examples, but avoid adding
more so as not to overwhelm students at this level.
For the second example I point out that the stress is on the second syllable. I can think of
objections teachers have made to my suggesting this, such as students’ confusion at the
lack of a steadfast rule or the non-uniformity of the examples, for example, but to cater to
this merely serves to reinforce students’ belief that a language always obeys a strict set
of rules. In my experience this approach is not a useful one. The only way to learn these
fundamental pronunciation points is to notice them, note them down and practise them
regularly.
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6. Sentence stress
I use fluency drills to work on sentence stress. I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘He
told me I couldn’t have a holiday’ (bold words are stressed). This causes confusion
due to the stress being placed on the wrong words in the sentence, i.e. the pronouns, or
grammar words, as opposed to the content words.
The activity is simply a choral drill, but of the whole sentence and maintaining an English
rhythm. ‘He told me I couldn’t have a holiday’.
The trick here is not to over-exaggerate on the stressed words, but keep the stress and
rhythm natural. Think in terms of modelling a rhythm, rather than a stress pattern. Using
gesture like the conductor of an orchestra or tapping on the board to show the rhythm is
especially helpful for students who cannot hear it easily.
Admittedly, this latter exercise on sentence stress does seem to take longer to have
an effect, but if highlighted early on and practised relatively often, students do seem to
internalise how English stress differs from their own language and helps overcome what
in later stages of learning becomes a fossilised way of speaking. Sentence stress causes
more communication problems for a fluent speaker than any number of grammatical
errors.
7. Conclusion
One of the beauties of using student speech for pronunciation work is that it directly
addresses students problems. I have attempted to provide a couple of very simple
exercises here to help teachers integrate pronunciation into their classes on a regular
basis. Regular work in this area helps learners to develop their own hypotheses and
gut-feeling for English pronunciation, something experts and researchers have long
emphasised as an essential skill of a good language learner (this article published 8
th

november, 2004).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Integrating pronunciation in the classroom”, by Barney Griffiths, Teacher trainer, Teacher, Materials
writer, Spain , British Council BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.10. TEaChINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN wITh PhoNEMIC SYMBolS
Alan Stanton, teacher trainer and materials writer
Phonemic symbols represent the sounds of the English language. Using them can be a
valuable tool to improving your students’ pronunciation.
1. Why use phonemic symbols?
2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols?
3. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols?
4. What is the best way to learn phonemic symbols?
5. Which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn?
6. Don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols?
1. why use phonemic symbols?
The alphabet which we use to write English has 26 letters but (British) English has 44
sounds. Inevitably, English spelling is not a reliable guide to pronunciation because
• Some letters have more than one sound
• Sometimes letters are not pronounced at all
• The same sound may be represented by different letters
• Sometimes syllables indicated by the spelling are not pronounced at all
Here a few challenging questions to put to your students:
• How do you pronounce gh in ‘enough’, ‘through’ and ‘ghost’? (like f in fun, not
pronounced, like g in got)
• How many syllables are there in ‘chocolate’? (3)
The letters of the alphabet can be a poor guide to pronunciation. Phonemic symbols, in
contrast, are a totally reliable guide. Each symbol represents one sound consistently.
Here are five good reasons why students should know phonemic symbols.
1.1. Students can use dictionaries effectively. The second bit of information in dictionaries
for English language learners is the word in phonemic symbols. It comes right after
the word itself. Knowing phonemic symbols enables students to get the maximum
information from dictionaries.
1.2. Students can become independent learners. They can find out the pronunciation
of a word by themselves without asking the teacher. What is more, they can write
down the correct pronunciation of a word that they hear. If they cannot use phonemic
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symbols for this, they will use the sound values of letters in their own language and
this will perpetuate pronunciation errors.
1.3. Phonemic symbols are a visual aid. Students can see that two words differ, or are
the same, in pronunciation. For example they can see that ‘son’ and sun’ must be
pronounced the same because the phonemic symbols are the same. They can use
their eyes to help their ears and if they are able to hold and manipulate cards with
the symbols on, then they are using the sense of touch as well. The more senses
students use, the better they will learn.
1.4. Phonemic symbols, arranged in a chart, are part of every student’s armoury of
learning resources. Just as they have a dictionary for vocabulary and a grammar
book for grammar, so they need reference materials for pronunciation: the phonemic
symbols and simple, key words that show the sound of each symbol.
1.5. Although speaking a language is a performance skill, knowledge of how the
language works is still of great value. Here is another question to ask students:
How many different sounds are there in English? Usually, students do not know.
Phonemic symbols on the wall in a classroom remind them that there are 44. Even
if they have not mastered all of them, they know what the target is and where the
problems are. The chart is a map of English sounds. Even with a map, you can get
lost but you are better off with a map than without one.
2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols?
To be frank, yes. Every profession has specialist knowledge that is not widely known
outside the profession. If you are a doctor, you will be able to name every bone in the
human body, which most people can’t do. If you are a language teacher, then you know
phonemic symbols, which most people don’t. Students can learn these symbols by
themselves and one day you might meet a student who asks you to write a word on the
board using phonemic symbols. It is best to be prepared.
3. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols?
Absolutely not. 19 of the 44 symbols have the same sound and shape as letters of the
alphabet. This means that some words, such as ‘pet’, look the same whether written with
phonemic symbols or letters of the alphabet. That leaves just 25 to learn. Compare that
with the hundreds of different pieces of information in a grammar book or the thousands
of words in even a small dictionary. It is a very small learning load. Moreover, it is visual
and shapes are easy to remember. Anyone who can drive is able to recognise more than
25 symbols giving information about road conditions. Even if we go beyond separate,
individual sounds and include linking, elision and assimilation, there is still a limited and
clearly defined set of things to learn.
4. what is the best way to learn phonemic symbols?
Most native-speaker teachers of English learn grammar from the textbooks they use
when they first start teaching, because they are unlikely to have been exposed to any
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formal study of English grammar. They learn by teaching, which is a very effective way
of learning. It is possible to learn phonemic symbols in the same way. You just need to
keep one symbol ahead of the students.
5. which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn?
The consonants are the easiest, because most of them have the same form as a letter
of the alphabet (17 out of 24). Therefore, it is best to start by teaching students a large
number of consonant symbols and a small number of easy vowel symbols such as /e/
and /i/. Note, however, that the sound /j/ represents the initial sound of ‘yellow’, not the
initial sound of ‘judge’. Experience shows that students are very likely to make mistakes
with the symbol /j/, so it needs special attention.
6. don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols?
Not at all. It is true that the 44 phonemes in British English are based on the sounds
of Received Pronunciation, an accent which is not frequently heard nowadays. Most
native-speaker teachers do not have this accent but still use phonemic symbols. When
the symbols are arranged in a chart, each one occupies a box. This indicates that the
real sound that you actually hear can vary up to certain limits, depending on the influence
of other sounds and on individual ways of speaking. There is not just one perfect way
to say each sound - there is an acceptable range of pronunciations. Think of the pieces
in a game of chess. They can vary considerably in size, shape and appearance but we
can always recognise a knight because it behaves like a knight and not like a king. The
point is that words such as ‘ship’, sheep’, ‘sip’ and ‘seep’ should sound different from
each other, not that each sound is pronounced exactly like the sounds of RP. Learning
phonemic symbols will help students to understand the importance of length and voicing.
Simply knowing that the symbol : indicates a long sound can be very helpful.
There is no end to our study of grammar and vocabulary but phonemic symbols are
limited, visual and physical. They may seem challenging at first but it is like learning to
swim or ride a bicycle. Once you can do it, it is easy and you never forget.
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PhoNEMIC SYMBolS
i: u: s: a: o:
Vowel sounds
e b t æ e o I
diphthongs
Ie eI oe oI eo ee aI ao
Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 1
Unvoiced p t ç k
Voiced b d g g
Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 2
Unvoiced f 0 s [
Voiced v ð z ¿
other consonants
m n ŋ h l r w j
(this article published 5
th
march, 2002)

Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols”, by Alan Stanton, teacher trainer and materials
writer, BBC and It is used free of charge.
Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. UNMSM-EPG
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6.11. PRoNUNCIaTIoN ChaRT aCTIVITIES
Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico
These activities are designed for use with the teaching English interactive phonemic
chart.
If your students have access to computers at home, you can download and copy the chart
for them to use with their homework.
1. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols.
2. Voiced and unvoiced consonants.
3. Sound and spelling correspondence.
4. Using the chart for autonomous learning.
1. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols
If you have a computer with a projector, the chart can be used in class to recycle and
reinforce recently learned vocabulary, at the same time as revising the phonemic symbols.
All these activities assume that learners have had at least some initial introduction to the
phonemic alphabet.
• Give the students a list of recently learned words with a specific sound underlined,
e.g. one of the vowel sounds. The learners then categorise the words into the different
vowel sounds. To make the activity easier, you could restrict the number of vowel
sounds used, and give learners the options they have to choose from. They can
come and click on these sounds on the board or computer to check. When checking
with the whole class, one student can stand at the board or sit at the computer,
clicking on the ‘correct’ sound for each word, which the teacher confirms or rejects.
• Give the students a list of recently learned words in phonemic script. In groups, they
have to work out what the words are. They can send a group member to the board
or the computer to click on sounds to help them check. They then have to write the
words in alphabetic script. This can be made more learner-centred if, after some work
in class on the phonemic alphabet, learners choose 5 recently learned words and
write them in phonemic script for homework. In the next class they exchange books
and use the chart to help them work out the words.
• Individual learners prepare a recently learned word in phonemic script. They come to
the board or computer and spell it out. Other learners have to identify the word, and
any mistakes in the phonemic transcription, then give its alphabetic spelling.
A variation on both the above activities is for you or the learners to prepare phonemic
transcriptions of vocabulary with a deliberate mistake. Learners in groups identify the
mistake and replace it with the correct phoneme.
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• Learners work in two teams. One team member stands at the board or sits at the
computer, and the other team calls out a word (you could specify a subject area,
recently learned vocabulary, or leave the choice of words open). The team member
has to spell out the word on the chart, and receives a point for a correct answer. The
class is the judge, with the teacher having the final say.
• The teacher gives one learner a word, written alphabetically. The learner has to tap
out the word in phonemic script, while other learners identify it. As a variation, the
teacher gives one learner a word in phonemic script. He taps it out on the board, and
the other team gets a point for giving the correct spelling.
• Write the name of your favourite famous person in phonemic script on the board.
The class as a whole has to work out who it is using their existing knowledge of the
phonemic chart. They then write the name of a favourite famous person in phonemic
script on a piece of paper (an English name, e.g. Tom Cruise, not Enrique Iglesias).
The teacher collects these and redistributes them. Learners have to work out who
this person is - they can take turns in clicking on the sounds on the board or the
computer to check individual sounds. Once they’ve worked out the name, they can
find the person who wrote it and ask some more questions, e.g. why they like this
person, what films they’ve been in etc.
2. Voiced and unvoiced consonants
Certain pairs of consonants can be problematic for some learners. In some cases, the
main difference between the pair is whether the consonant is voiced or unvoiced, that is,
whether or not the vocal chords vibrate when making this sound.
• This discovery activity can be used to help learners notice the difference between
voiced and unvoiced consonants. Begin by asking learners what noise a bee makes.
As they make a buzzing noise, do the same and put your fingers on your throat,
indicating that they should do likewise. This will allow them to feel the vibrations of
the vocal chords that occur with voiced consonant sounds. Ask them if they can feel
the vibrations.
• Then focus on a voiced / unvoiced pair such as s and z. Make the sounds with your
fingers on your throat, indicating that the learners should do the same. You can help
learners with this by getting them to make the ‘bee’ sounds for z, and the sound a
snake is supposed to make for s. Ask them when they feel the vocal chords vibrate
- with s or z? (The answer should be z). Tell them that this is the main difference
between the two sounds, and that z is voiced while s is unvoiced. You could then give
them a list of words and ask them to categorise the underlined consonant sound into
these two categories. With /s/ and /z/, you might choose to include some third person
singular verb and plural endings. In this list the sound being focused on is the final
sound in each case.
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/s/ /z/
cups pens
speaks reads
gets goes
puts lives
tents cars
plants sees
bags hears
looks learns
stops rise
rice rose
place plays
• Learners then use the chart to decide which of the other consonant sounds are voiced
and which are unvoiced. In a computer lab, learners could do this in pairs. They listen
to a sound and repeat it, with their fingers on their throat to check if it is voiced or
unvoiced. In class with the computer and a projector, the teacher or a learner could click
on sounds while the rest of the class repeat them and categorise them into voiced or
unvoiced.
• As a follow up, you could do a minimal pairs activity using some voiced / unvoiced
pairs, focusing on initial consonant sounds. Display this list or something similar on
the board and say a word from each pair. After each word learners have to say voiced
or unvoiced, depending on which of the pair they hear. They can then test each other
in pairs.
Voiced Unvoiced
ben pen
do to
gone con
van fan
gin chin
zoo sue
• This activity has the advantage of establishing the voiced / unvoiced distinction, and
a shared gesture that learners and the teacher can use in class to indicate that a
sound is voiced or unvoiced, i.e. the fingers on the throat. It also helps learners to
become conscious of the muscle movements involved in voicing a consonant. All of
this will be useful in future classes if problem arise in the discrimination or production
of voiced / unvoiced consonant pairs.
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3. Sound and spelling correspondence
The chart can also be used to highlight both patterns and variations in sound and spelling
correspondence.
For example, as a discovery activity to help learners notice the effect of adding an ‘e’ to
the end of a word, you could give the learners some of the words from the following list:
cap cape
mat mate
pin pine
not note
pet pete
kit kite
sit site
win wine
hat hate
cut cute
• Learners use the chart to help them write the phonemic transcription for each word,
checking with a dictionary if necessary. The teacher then asks them to formulate a
general ‘rule’ for the effect of adding an ‘e’ to the end of a word. (It makes the vowel
sound ‘say its name’, i.e. the ‘a’ in ‘cape’ sounds like the letter A as it is said in the
alphabet.)
• It is not advisable to over-emphasise the irregularity of English spelling, given that
80% of English words do fit into regular patterns. However, speakers of languages
such as Spanish, Italian or Japanese where there is a very high correspondence
between sound and spelling may need to have their attention drawn to the different
possibilities for pronunciation in English.
• One way of doing this is to give them a list of known words where the same letter
or combination of letters, normally a vowel or vowels, represent different sounds.
Learners will have at least some idea of how these words are pronounced, and can
categorise the words according to the sound represented, using the chart to help
them, before holding a final class check. For example, you could give learners the
following list of words including the letter a, which they categorise according to how
the as are pronounced. Where the word contains more than one a with different
sounds, underline which a you want them to use to make their categorisations.
Spanish, capital, make, art, car, understand, average, banana, take, practice.
To make the activity easier, give the students the phonemic symbols for the different
possible pronunciations of e.
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4. Using the chart for autonomous learning
If learners have access to a computer outside class, they can use the chart together with
a dictionary to check the pronunciation of new words they meet in their own reading. This
is particularly useful for learners who are not yet fully familiar with all the sounds on the
chart. Encourage your learners to record the pronunciation of new words they meet, both
in and out of class, in their vocabulary notebooks.
• you can also set homework related to pronunciation, which learners can check using
the online chart before bringing to class. As mentioned above, you could ask them
to write 5 new words from the class in phonemic script for homework, to be used to
test their classmates. Similarly, if you want to focus on a sound which is problematic
for your learners, ask them to find 5 words including that sound and write them in
phonemic script. With a little training, your learners could prepare their own ‘minimal
pairs’, for example with the sounds /i:/ and /I/. Depending on their level, they might
come up with something like this:
/I/ /i:/
sit seat
hit heat
hill wheel
mill meal
bin been
ship sheep
• They can use these to test their classmates’ ability to discriminate between these
sounds, as well as their own pronunciation, in the next class. They simply show the
two lists of words to a partner, and say one of the words. The partner responds ‘left’ or
‘right’. For example, in the list above, if student A says ‘seat’, student B will (hopefully)
respond ‘right’ (this article published 17
th
january, 2005).
Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.
teaching,org.uk.website.” Pronunciation Chart Activities”, by Catherine Morley, British Council, Mexico, BBC and It is used free
of charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.UNMSM-EPG
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6.12. PRaCTICINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh PRoVERBS
Yi Yang
Practicing pronunciation can be very tedious. Proverbs, however, will give fun. For example,
when practicing “a”, students will prefer reading “No pains, no gains” to some monotonous
sentences such as “He looks pale today.”
Sentences with several words involving the same sound are good materials for practicing that
sound. Many proverbs contain the rhetorical devices related to sound such as alliteration,
rhyme and repetition, and thus very suitable for pronunciation exercises (For instance:
Practice makes perfect. / Where there is a will, there is a way.) Repeating a sound two or
more times in a short sentence can give the student a deeper impression, and the euphonic
rhythm can keep the boredom away.
The following is a list of proverbs that can be used for pronunciation exercises. Sounds
are marked with boldface instead of being represented by phonetic symbols because the
American and British symbols are different, and some symbols may be distorted on the
internet.
Vowels
• A friend in need is a friend indeed.
• Every bullet has its billet.
• A good wife and health is a man’s best wealth. / East and west, home is best.
• A drowning man will catch at a straw.
• He laughs best who laughs last.
• He who has an art has everywhere a part.
• A little pot is soon hot. / A spot is most seen on the finest cloth.
• New lords, new laws. / Walls have ears.
• One man beats the bush, another man catches the bird.
• Well begun is half done.
• Finders keepers, losers weepers.
• Kind words are the music of the world. / The early bird catches the worm.
• Haste makes waste.
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• Little strokes fell great oaks. / As you sow you shall mow.
• Good advice is beyond price. / Might makes right.
• An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of learning.
• No joy without annoy.
• Constant dripping wears away a stone.
Consonants
• Penny wise, pound foolish./ Practice makes perfect.
• There is nothing which has been bitter before being ripe.
• Time and tide wait for no man.
• A bird in hand is worth two in the wood. / Every dog has his day.
• Care killed the cat.
• A good name is better than a golden girdle.
• Fair feathers make fair fowls. / Birds of a feather flock together.
• Even the weariest river winds somewhere safe to sea.
• Something is better than nothing. / Birds of a feather flock together.
• Least said, soonest mended. / More haste, less speed.
• A lazy youth, a lousy age.
• No sunshine but hath some shadow. / Better be sure than sorry.
• Labor is often the father of leisure.
• Work has bitter root but sweet fruit.
• There is no royal road to learning.
• It is hard to be high and humble. / Do on the hills as you would do in the hall.
• Everybody has his merits and faults.
• No garden without its weeds.
• Do not count your chickens before they are hatched.
• Every jack has his jill.
• Try before you trust.
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• Better be drunk than drowned.
• A miss is as good as a mile. / Many a little makes a mickle.
• A stitch in time saves nine.
• Seeing is believing. / Everything must have a beginning.
• look before you leap. / A cracked bell can never sound well.
• willful waste makes woeful want. / where there is a will, there is a way.
Students could later be asked to interpret the meaning of the proverbs orally or in writing,
which will lead the pronunciation activity naturally to a speaking or writing activity.
Source: Yi Yang, yangyi@gse.harvard.edu
The Internet TESL Journal, vol. v, N.º 3, march 1999
URL: http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Yang-Proverbs.html

o

K E Y
Unit I. Practice 1
Summary of the phonological processes
1. assimilation: /e,sIm.I’leI.[en/. Sounds becoming more alike. These can be voicing,
manner or place. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound.
2. Elision: /e’lI[en/. Deletion of some segments in different positions.
Could be:
2.1. aphæresis or aphesis: (Initial). /e’fIerIsIs/ and /’æfisIs/. Deletion of first
segment(s) of a word. Example: around – round.
2.2. Syncope. (Medial). /‘sIŋkepI/. Deletion of segment(s) at the middle of a word or
end of the syllable: suppose -- sppose. (medial).
2.3. apocope: (Final). /e’pbkepi/. Deletion of last segment(s) of a word. Example:
breakfast – Breakfast.
3. Insertion (epenthesis): /in’ss:[en, ep’ent.θe.sIs/. Inserting segment(s) into a word:
example: [straik[ --[estraik].
4. Neutralization: nIutre’laIseI[en/. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the
two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this
case before /r/.
5. haplology. Pronounced /hæp’lbl.e.gI/. Elimination of a syllable when two consecutive
identical or similar syllables occur. Syllable or part of a syllable (usually vc or cv) is
deleted when there is an identical one nearby. Example: probably-probly. (there are two
[ab] combinations and one is deleted).
Conditions:
1) Syllables are both medial; and
2) The structure of the two syllables is similar.
Examples of English (colloquial):
Engla land > England
6. gemination: /gemi’neI[en/. A segment, vowel or consonant, becomes double long like
the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie, the /s/ would
be shorter).
7. degemination. /dIgemi’neI[en/. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to
one single consonant, as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a
single /m/.
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8. Consonant harmony: /’kbnsenent ‘ha:men / consonant becomes more like another:
often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog.
9. denasalization:/dIneIzelaI’zeI[en/ removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment leaves
you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Imagine talking with a stuffy
nose. Example: nut -- dut.
10. devoicing: / dI’vosIoŋ/ a voiced segment becomes voiceless. Usually nothing else
changes as in ‘vote - fote.
11. Metathesis: /met’æθesIs/ is responsible for the most common types of speech errors,
such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti, ask as /’æks/. Some other frequent
English pronunciations that display metathesis are:
/’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English)
/’æsterIks/ for asterisk
/’ktmfterbel/ for comfortable
/Inter’dju’s/ for introduce
/’Intregel/ for integral
/rsvelent/ for relevant
12. Nasalization: /neIzelaI’zeI[en/ In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound
while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production
of the sound by the mouth. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization of the vowel
/a/ in ‘pond’. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated by printing a
tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized equivalent of
[a], and [v] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. The nasals consonants can nasañize the
vowels.
13. Palatalization: /pæletelaI’zeI[en/, a sound, usually before a /j/ glide but often before a
high front vowel, is moved closer to the palat. miss you -- mishu or ‘make Eve -- [mejciv]
where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized, they
usually become africates.
14. Spirantization: /spaIrentI’zeI[en / [en/ Stops become fricatives, usually between
vowels. example ata -- asa. Only the manner changes here. Note though that place might
also change. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English, when you spirantize a
[b] in english you often get [v].
15. Voicing assimilation: /‘vo IsIŋ asimi’leI [en/ Segment becomes like another usually
adjacent segment, in voicing. Example ‘ata’ -- [ada], have to -- hafta. vowel harmony:
Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel.
Vowel reduction: /’vaolwl rI ‘dek [en/. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or
similar short lax vowel.
~
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
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Unit 2. Practice 1 (p. 34)
Degrees of Stress
words Sentence pattern
Stressed and
unstressed
syllable
Reduced syllable
(The unstressed syllable
changes to schwa)
Janet ■∙ Janet ‘ʤænɪt / ‘ʤænət
Elephant ■∙∙ Elephant ‘elɪfənt / ‘eləfənt
Jemina ∙■∙ Jemina ʤɪ’maɪna / ʤə’maɪna
Mississipi .∙∙ ■∙ Mississipi .misɪ’sɪpɪ / .misə’sɪpɪ
Unit 2. Practice 2 (p. 36)
Stress pattern
■∙∙ ∙■∙ ∙∙■
1. Manchester

2. Anthony

3. Jemina

4. elephant

5. Morocco

6. Amazon

7. carpenter

8. happiness

Unit 2. Practice 3 (p. 39)
Pronounce the words stress appropriately.
Import, object, pencil, ruler, lotion, tiger, lemon, mirror and disco.
Quickly, rapid, slowly, heavy, silly, bony, early and stormy.
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Unit 2. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable) (p. 39)
Word stress. Read the words and pronounce them correctly.
re’lax pro’duce skate
des’troy in’vite re’search
de’pend a’ssist sur’vive
in’tent re’pair re’turn
co’llect su’ggest pre’fer
Unit 2. Practice 5 (p. 39)
Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress.
Stress in the first syllable Stress in the second syllable
‘abstract (adjective) abs‘tract (noun)
‘conduct (noun) con‘duct (verb)
‘contract (noun) con‘tract (verb)
‘contrast (noun) con‘trast (verb)
‘dessert (noun) de‘sert (noun)
’import (noun) im’port (verb)

Unit 2. Practice 6 (p. 40)
Pronounce the words correctly: (penultimate = second from end)
A. Ending in -ic
auto‘graphic autodi’dactic a’crylic
au‘thentic au’tistic rhythmic
auto‘matic axio’matic ‘rubric
bar‘baric ‘basic ‘ustic
bo‘racic ‘boric pro’sodic
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B. Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end) (p. 40)
-sion -tion
a’dmission ‘action
‘passion pro’motion
‘tension simu’lation
pe’rmission de’duction
ad’mission re’lation

Unit 2. Practice 7 (p. 41)
A. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –cy
Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
a’dequacy ‘agency ab’sorbency a’ccountancy
aris’tocracy au’tocracy a’dequacy ad’vertency
con’sistency con’sonancy ‘agency aris’tocracy
‘constancy con’sultancy as’cendancy au’tocracy
com’petency con’veniency bu’reaucracy ‘clemency

B. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –ty (p. 42)
stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
a’bility aus’terity bes’tiality bru’tality
abnor’mality automa’ticity biodi’versity ca’lamity
absorba’bility bar’barity bioelec’tricity capa’bility
ab’surdity belli’cosity bio’safety car’nality
au’dacity be’nignity bisex’uality catho’licity
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C. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –phy (p. 42)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
au’tography bi’bliography ’geography my’thography
’biography ca’lligraphy fil’mography osci’llography
car’diography chro’nography eth’nography pe’trography
cos’mography crysta’llography i’diography phi’losophy
encepha’lography histo’riography ma’mmography ra’diography
D. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy (p. 42)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
’allergy a’nalogy ge’nealogy laryn’gology
an’thology a’pology his’tology lexicology
as’trology astro’biology hy’drology mo’nology
biotech’nology car’diology i’deology mor’phology
chro’nology cli’matology immu’nology musi’cology
E. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al (p. 43)

Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)
abd’ominal aes’thetical ana’lytical non’marital
abo’riginal aero’nautical compo’sitional psycho’logical
philo’sophical agri’chemical compu’tational pro’fessional
acqui’sitional agri’cultural epidemio’logical monol’itical
a’dditional alpha’betical non’inflectional non’practical
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Unit 2. Practice 8 (p. 43)
A. For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird.
’blackboard ’bathtub ’blue-green
’saucepan ’housework ’watermelon
’saleswork ’grasshopper ’highlight
’iceland ’boyfriend ’fishtank
’bedroom ’seafood ’tumbledown
’bathroom ’undercut ’underworld
’wallpaper ’diningtable ’witchcraft
B. For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part: bad-TEMpered (p. 44).
long-’legged staff-’necked long-’winded
three-’headed baby-’faced ’tight-fisted
flowered-’dress short-’tempered sure-’footed
masked’ man thin-’skinned high-’heeled
six-’sided smooth-’tongue freckle-’faced
long-’handled broken-’hearted stone-’faced
green-’eyed light-’footed kind-’hearted
C. For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part: to understand, to overflow (p. 44).
turn ’back
(return)
talk ’back (to)
(answer rudely)
keep ’down
(do not vomit)
take ’charge (of)
(assume responsibility)
write ’down
(make notes)
kick ’around
(discuss)
look ’over
(review)
talk ’over
(discuss)
kick ’down
(break something with your feet)
bring ’back
(return)
high’lighted
let ’down
(disappoint)
call ’back
(telephone again)
keep ’around
(keep something near you)
lock ’down
(make something very secure)
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Unit 2. Practice 9 (p. 44)
Now read the 4-syllable words and write on the appropriate space.
Stress pattern
∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙
1. Felicity
2. Afghanistan
3. Alexander
4. Wolverhampton
5. rhinoceros
6. Mississipi
Unit 2. Practice 10 (p. 51)
A. Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.

These are the house that jaqueline built
one Two Three Four
1. This is the house that jack built
2. These are the houses that jack built
3. These are the houses that jaqueline built
4. This is the house that my mother designed
5. This is the bicycle Peter repaired
6. Those are the people we met in the park
7. That is the person I saw on the stairs
8. Those are the people we drove to the party
9. That is the gardener who works for my mother
10. andrew is taller than Peter and Thomas
11. Tom’s not as tall as the rest of the family
12. what an amazingly lively production
13. how can we possibily get there in time
B. Repeat the sentences loudly (p. 52).
Can 1. you pass me a plastic knife?
I 2. want to take a photography class?
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China 3. is the place where I was born.
Please t 4. urn off the television before you go out.
I can’t 5. decide which book to borrow.
Do you 6. understand this lesson’
Sparky 7. is a very happy puppy.
It is 8. critical that you finish your essay.
My 9. grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. 10.
Unit 2. Practice 11 (p. 53)
Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. See the examples:
I am talking to the clever students
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3
You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us.
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4
1. John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.
2. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.
3. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back
roads of France.
4. jack bought a new car last Friday.
5. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january.
6. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future.
7. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?
8. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment.
9. Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.
10. As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern.
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Unit 2. Practice 12 (p. 53)
Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder, longer, clearer
and high-pitched.
1. john wants to be an actor, so he wants to live in hollywood.
2. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me.
3. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday.
4. After the movie, they went to a bar to have beer.
Unit 2. Practice 13 (p. 54)
13.A. Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. (Remember if you hear the
“to-be” or auxiliary verb is stressed, then the sentence is negative).

1. I __can____ understand your story. (can, can’t)
2. Tom __can_____ come to the party tonight. (can, can’t)
3. They __can’t_____ hear the speaker. (can, can’t)
4. We __weren’t____ told to do that. (were, weren’t)
5. They _are_____ doing the homework. (are, aren’t)
6. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. (were, weren’t)
13 B. Repeat the sentences loudly
1. Can you pass me a plastic knife?
2. I want to take a photography class?
3. China is the place where I was born.
4. Please turn off the television before you go out.
5. I can’t decide which book to borrow.
6. Do you understand this lesson’
7. Sparky is a very happy puppy.
8. It is critical that you finish your essay.
9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.
10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.
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Unit 3. Practice 1 (p. 74)
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs.
The weak form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of
sentence, and when it is not stressed. The strong form is used when the auxiliary verb is at
the end of a sentence, or stressed.
auxiliary verb weak form Strong form
do /de/ or /do/ /du:/
does /dez/ /dtz/
have /hev/ /hæv/
has /hez/ /hæz/
were /we/ /w s:/
was /wez/ /wbz/
can /ken/ /kæn/
Instruction. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is
Strong (S) or weak (w).
1. When was your birthday? ( W )
It was in April. ( W )
2. Have you got a good English dictionary? ( W )
Yes, I have. ( S )
3. Does your mother work in an office? ( W )
Yes, she does. ( S )
4. Where were your parents married? ( W )
I think they were married in London. ( W )
5. Has your father got dark hair? ( W )
Yes, he has. ( S )
6. Do you get the bus to work’ ( W )
Yes, I do. ( S )
7. How many language can you speak? ( W )
I can speak two – English and French ( W )
8. Does she live in the north of England? ( W )
Yes, she does ( S )
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9. Can you speak English? ( W )
Yes, she can. ( S )
10. Has she got a job? ( W )
Yes, she has, ( S )
11. Have they got any children) ( W )
Yes, they have. ( S )
12. Do they share the housework? ( W )
Yes, they do, ( S )
13. Were they married in Japan? ( W )
Yes, they were ( S )
Unit 2. Practice 2 (p. 77)

Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking.
1. She laughed at the joke.
t
2. She jumped over the wall
t
3. The van crashed in the jungle
t
4. Columbus discovered America
d
5. The bomb destroyed ahouse
d
6. They traveled across Europe by train
d
7. He introduced Amanda to his friends
t
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Unit 3. Practice 3 (p. 78)
Key: The prepositions because the come in the middle of sentences and are not stressed
are pronounced with weak pronunciation.
Prepositions weak form Strong form
to /te/ /tu:/
from /frem/ /frbm/
for /fe/ or /fer/ /fo:/
at /et/ /æt/
of /ev/ /bv/
B: Hello, Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny?
S: Speaking.
B: Hello. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz.
I am looking from (c) James Bond. We had a lunch appointment at (d). Isn’t he
there?
S: I’m sorry, sir, but he’s gone to (e) Budapest.
B: I was afraid of (f) that. Where exactly?
S: He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal.
B: Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble.
S: He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days.
B: All right. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell
him I’m waiting for (m) his call.
S: Yes, sir.
Unit 4. Practice 1 (4.2.5. B, C and d)
4.2.4. Weak forms, linking and elision (Review 1)
B. (a) vowel (b) glass (c) cat (d) shorn (e) light
C. (a) [ə] (g) [ɔ:] (m) [ɜ:] (s) [ɒ]
(b) [ɪ] (h) [ə] (n) [ə] (t) [ə]
(c) [ə] (i) [u:] (o) [ʌ] (u) [ju:] [ʌ]
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(d) [ʊ] (j) [əʊ] (p) [u:] (v) [ə] [əʊ]
(e) [ɒ] (k) [aʊ] (q) [ʊ] (w) [ʌ] [ə]
(f) [ɔ:] (l) [ʌ] (r) [ʊ] (x) [ʌ] [ʊ]
(y) [ɒ] [aʊə]

D. de’test ‘basket in’doors ‘beautiful
‘cabbage ‘pudding ‘perfect be’hind
‘chicken ‘salad to’matoes ‘cucumber
‘beetroot ‘rabbit ‘dumplings
Unit 4. Practice 2 (4.2.6. B, C and d)
4.2.6. Weak forms, linking, tag question, intonation, syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2).
B. (a) rams (b) marsh (c) books (d) drain (e) cream’s
C. money, honey, sunny, Sonny, runny
D. (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 2 (f) 1 (g) 1 (h) 3 (i) 3 (j) 3 (k) 3 (l) i
Unit 4. Parctice 3 (4.2.7. B, C and d)
4.2.7. Stress, consecutive stress, the shifting tonic, linking, elision, weak forms. (Review 3)
B. (a) gin (b) French (c) service (d) shore (e) cod
C. I’m going to the Repton Show in October. That’s a boat show, isn’t it’ No, a motor show.
Are you going to Repton alone? No, peter’s going, too. Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter?
Peter Blenkinsop. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter. When did you tell me? It
must have been someone else. You never told me.
D. ‘mermaid, impo’lite, be’fore, up’set, un’happy, ‘borrow, ‘handsome, de’lighted ‘actually,
unad’venturous.
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Unit 4. Practice 4 (4.2.8. a, B, C and d)
4.2.8. Rhythm and gingles. A few more rhymes and jingles
A. [o:lðeo] [bo:t] [deo] [fo:t] [plao] [θtre] [θru:]
[‘btre] [bro:t] [draot] [no:t] [rtf] [ðeo] [ttf]
[bao] [kbf ] [intf] [o:t] [so:t ] [θo:t] [trbf]
[‘btrebrid¿] [‘ltfbre] [s’kobr:e] [sloo]
B. [o:] [eI] [e] [o] [i: - e]
[e - æ ] [e] [ee - e] [e - eI - e] [æ - e]
[e ] [æ - o:] [æ - e] [e] [o: - e]
[eI] [e - eI - e] [æ - eI - e] [eI - e] [b - eI - e]
C. ‘Janu(a)ry, ‘March, ‘May, Ju’ly, Sep’tember, No’vember,’Feb(r)u(a)ry, ‘Apr(i)l, ‘June,
‘August, Oc’tober, De’cember.
(a) I thought you were one of the ones who won an award at the bazaar on Thursday.
(b) I bought you some more oranges and a pound of bananas at the greengrocer’s
that’s just opened at the corner of Earl’s Court Gardens.
(c) You can see from her early work that there’s a certain sense of purpose, almost of
urgency, which she appears to have lost as soon as she started to be accepted as
a serious artist.
(d) More than a thousand representatives from the whole of the Third World were
presents at the concert given in the park yesterday afternoon to commemorate the
anniversary of the birth of Ernest Hurlingham.
(e) There was an extraordinary man at your party who said that for years and years
he’d had been wanting to meet us. He said he would have asked the Templetons to
introduce us, but he hadn’t seen them for ages and didn’t know what had happened
to them.
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Unit V. Practice 1 (a, p. 145)
1.A. Read the words lout out providing the adequate stress.
1. Two-syllable words
VERBS
1. de’ceive /dI.’sIv/ 6. ‘object /’bb.gIkt/
2. ‘sharpen /’[a:p.en/ 7. ‘conquer /’kbŋk.e (r)/
3. co’llect /k e’lekt/ 8. re’cord /rI.’ko:d/
4. pro’nounce /pre’naons/ 9. ‘polish /’pb.lI[/
5. ‘copy /‘kbpI/ 10. de’pend /dI.’pend/
ADJECTIVES
1. ‘easy /’i: . zI/ 6. ‘yellow /‘jel.eo/
2. com’plete /kem ‘pli:t/ 7. ‘early /’s:.lI/
3. ‘major /‘meI.ge/ 8. ‘happy /’hæp.I/
4. a’lone /e ‘leon/ 9. ‘heavy /’hev.I/
5. be’low /bI ‘lao/ 10. ‘dirty /’ds:tI/
NOUNS
1. ‘bishop /’bI[.ep/ 6. ‘office /‘bf.Is/
2. ‘aspect /’æsp. ekt/ 7. a’rray / e.‘reI/
3. a’ffair /e’fee/ 8. ‘petrol /‘pet.rel/
4. ‘carpet /’ka:p.It/ 9. ‘dentist /‘den.tIst/
5. de’feat /dI’fi:t/ 10. ‘autumn /‘o:.ten/
2. Three syllable words
VERBS
1. enter’tain /,en. te. ‘teIn/ 6. e’licit /I ’lIs.It/
2. resurr’ect /rez. e, ‘rekt/ 7. com’peting /kem. ‘pi:t. iŋ/
3. a’bandon /e ’bæn. den/ 8. I’magine /I.’mæg.In/
4. de’liver /dI ’lIv. er/ 9. de’termine /dI ’ts:. mIn/
5. ‘interrupt /‘In. te’rtpt/ 10 ‘separate /’sep. er. eIt/
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ADJECTIVES
1. im’portant /Im ‘po:t.ent/ 6. ‘insolent /’In.sel.ent/
2. e’normous /I’no:.mes 7. fan’tastic /fæn ‘tæst.Ik/
3. veredic /’ver.I.dIk/ 8. ‘negative /’neg.et.Iv/
4. ‘decimal /’des I,mel/ 9. ‘accurate /‘æk.jer.et/
5. ab’normal /æb ’no:.mel/ 10. to’mato /te ‘ma:.teo/
Compound words
a) First element adjectival, stress on the second element
1. loud’speaker /,lao ‘spi:.ke/
2. bad-‘tempered /bæd ‘tem.pe/
3. head’quarters /hed ‘kwo:.tez/
4. second-‘class /,sek. end ‘kla:s/
5. three-‘wheeler /θri: ‘hwi:.ler/
b) First element nominal, stress on the first element
1. ‘type,writer /’taIp ,raI.te(r)/
2. ‘car-,ferry /’ka: ,fer.I/
3. ‘sun,rise /‘stn.,raIz/
4. ‘suit,case /‘su:t .,keIs/
5. ‘tea-,cup /’ti:.ktp/
c) Mixture of type a and b
1. ‘long-,surfing /,lbŋ ’ss:f.Iŋ/
2. ‘gun ,man /’gtn.,mæn/
3. ‘shoe ,lace /’[u:.,leIs/
4. ,red-‘blooded /,red ‘bltd.Id/
5. ‘gear-,box /’gIe. ,bbks/
6. over-‘weight /eo.ve. ‘weIt/
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Unit 5. Practice 1 (B, p. 145)
1.B. Represent the verbs, adjectives and nouns in exercise 1, using syllable trees representations.

Deceive
/dǰsǰv/
s
/ \
O R
/ \

|
N C

|

[ d ǰ ]


s


/

\


O

R


/

\


|

N C




|

|


[ s ǰ v ]

Sharpen
/ɇȉa:p . ǟn/
s
/ \
O R
/ \

|
N C
| |
[ ɇȉ D p ]




s

/

\

O

R

/

\


N C

|

|

[ǟ Q

]
Collect
/N ǟɇleNW/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
|

[k ǟ]










s

/

\


O

R

/

\


N C

|

|

|

[
ɇl e kt ]
Pronounce
/prǟɇnaȐns/
s
/ \
O R
/ \ / \
| | N C
| | |

[
p

r

ǟ

]




s


/

\


O

R


/

\


N C


|


|


|


[

n aȐ

n s

]

Copy
/kǘpǰ/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C

| |
|
[k ǘ ]

s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
|

[p ǰ ]
Object
/ɇǘb.Ȫǰkt/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C
| |
[ ɇǘ b ]

s
/ \
O R
/ \
N C

|
| |
[ Ȫ ǰ k ]

Conquer

/kǘŋk. ǟ/
s
/ \
O R
/ \
N

|
| | |
[ k ǘ ŋ k ]



s
/ \



O R

/ \

N C

|

[ǟ ]


Polish

/pǘ

. lǰȉ/

s
/ \
O R
/ \

N C


| |
|

[p ǘ ]




s
/ \
O R
/ \

N C

| |

[ l ǰ ȉ ]

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BIBlIogRaPhY
Baker, Ann
(1982a) Tree or three? An elementary pronunciation course. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press. UK.
(1982b) Introducing english pronunciation, a teacher´s guide to three or tree? or ship
or sheep? Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. UK.
(1990) Ship or sheep? An Intermedial Pronunciation Course. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press. UK.
Bowler, Bill and Parminter, Sue
(1992) Headway pre intermediate pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
UK.
Cambridge University Press
(1996) International Cambridge dictionary of english. Cambridge. Cambridge University
Press. UK.
Clifford, Prator & Wallace Betty
(1995) Manual of american english pronunciation. New York, C.B.S College Publishing,
fourth edition. UK.
Collins
(1997) Collins cobuild english language dictionary. Suffolk, Collins Birmingham
University. UK.
Crowell Trager, Edith & Cook Henderson, Sara
(1983) Pds pronunciation drills for learners of english. New Jersey, Prentice Hall
Regents, second edition.
Cunninghan, Sarah and Bowler, Bill
(1991) Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
(1993) Headway intermedial pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras
- 226 -
Cunningham, Sarah and Moor, Peter
(1996) Headway elementary pronunciation. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Harper Collins Ltd.
Harper Collins spanish-english dictionary. New York, Harper Collins Ltd.
Hubbard Jones Thorton Wheeler
(1990) A training course for TEFL. Oxford, Oxford University.
Jones, Daniel
(2007) English pronunciation dictionary. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Kenworthy, Joanne
(1987) Teaching english pronunciation. New York, Longman Group UK Limited.
Longman Group UK Limited
(1993) Language activator. The world’s first production dictionary. Essex, Longman
Group Ltd.
(1995) Longman dictionary of contemporary english. Essex, Longman Group Ltd.
Matthews, Alan Spratt, Mary & Dangerfield, Les
(1990) At the Chalkface, practical techniques in language teaching. London, Edward
Arnold, a division of Hodder & Stoughton.
Oxford University Press
(1994) The Oxford spanish-english english-spanish dictionary. New York, Oxford
University Press.
Ponsonby, Mimi
(1987) How now brown cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall
International English Language Teaching Ltd.
Richards, Jack, Platt, John & Weber, Heidi
(1985) Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. Essex, Longman Group Limited.
Roach, Peter
(1989) English phonetics and phonology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,
eighth printing.
Scott, Foresman
(1983) Advanced dictionary. Illinois, Scott Foresman and Company,
fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii
- 227 -
Sheeler, W. D. and Markley, R. W.
(1991) Sounds and rhythm, a pronunciation course. New Jersey, Prentice Hall
Regents, second edition.
Stockwell, Robert
(1965) The sounds of english and spanish. Chicago, The University of Chicago
Press.
Underhill, Adrian
(1994) Sound foundations. Oxford, Heineman English Language Teaching.
Vaughan-Rees, Michael
(1994) Rhymes and rhythm, a poem based course for english pronunciation.
Wells, J. C.
(1997) Pronunciation dictionary. Essex, Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Anne C. Newton (Editor).
(1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection. English teaching forum. A
journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Volumen XV, Nº 4.
otras fuentes para consultar
Carr Phillip
(1999) English phonetics and phonology: An Introduction.
Goldsmith John A.
(1996) The handbook of phonological theory.
(1999) Phonological theory: The essential readings.
Roca Iggy, Johnsin Wyn
(1999) A course in phonology.
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html
http://www.telefonica.net/web2/eseducativa/alphabet_mp3.html
http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/omphonetics/contenidotematico.htm
http://www.google.com.pe/search?hl=es&q=+elision+in+english&meta=
http://www.sil.org/capacitar/FONETICA/cursos/cursoafricadas.PDF


se terminó de imPrimir
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centro de Producción editoriaL e imPrenta de
La universidad nacionaL mayor de san marcos
jr. Paruro 119. Lima 1.
teLéfono: 619-7000 anexos: 6009 / fax: 6015, 6016
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CEPREDIM

FACULTAD DE EDUCACIÓN DECANO Dr. Carlos Barriga Hernández DIRECTORA ACADÉMICA Dra. Elsa Barrientos Jiménez DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATIVO Prof. Enrique Pérez Zevallos PROGRAMA DE LICENCIATURA PARA PROFESORES SIN TÍTULO PEDAGÓGICO EN LENGUA EXTRANJERA DIRECTORA Mg. María Emperatriz Escalante López COMITÉ DIRECTIVO Dra. Edith Reyes de Rojas Lic. Walter Gutiérrez Gutiérrez

Yoni Cárdenas Cornelio Fonética y Fonología del Inglés II Serie: Textos para el Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera Primera edición Lima, febrero de 2009 © Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin Título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera Facultad de Educación, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Av. Germán Amézaga s/n. Lima 1, Ciudad Universitaria de UNMSM- Pabellón Administrativo de la Facultad de Educación - 2.º piso, oficina 203 Teléfono: 619-7000 anexos 3021, 3022 / E-mail: prog_idiomas_edu@unmsm.edu.pe Website: www.unmsm.edu.pe/educacion/licenciatura/index.htm Ilustración de carátula: David A. Villanueva Diseño, diagramación e impresión: Centro de Producción Editorial e Imprenta de la UNMSM Este libro es propiedad del Programa de Licenciatura para Profesores sin título Pedagógico en Lengua Extranjera de la Facultad de Educación de La Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Ninguna parte de este libro puede ser reproducida o utilizada por cualquier medio, sea éste electrónico, mecánico o cualquier otro medio inventado, sin permiso por escrito de los editores.

Table of contents

INTRODUCTION. Acknowledgments. English vowels and consonants (Review). UNIT I Phonological processes 1.1. Assimilation. 1.2. Elision. 1.3. Dissimilation. 1.4. Insertion or epenphesis. 1.5. Neutralization. 1.6. Gemination. ACTIVITY. UNIT II

7 8 9

15 19 23 23 24 24 28

Stress, word stress, stressed syllable, sentence stress and English rhythm 2.1. Word stress. 2.2. Types of stress. 2.3. Word stress in English. 2.4. Importance of word stress. 33 33 34 35

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

2.5. Rules of word stress in English. 2.6. Syllable stress. 2.7. Sentence stress. 2.8. Sentence rhythm. ACTIVITY. UNIT III Connected speech 3.1. Assimilation. 3.2. Compounds and phrases. 3.3. Double consonant sounds. 3.4. Double consonants letters. 3.5. Elision. 3.6. R Liaison. 3.7. Stress shift. 3.8. T-voicing. 3.9. Weak forms. 3.10. Weak vowels. 3.11. Word linking. ACTIVITY. UNIT IV Suprasegmental Phonology 4.1. Prosodic features: intonation, stress, tone, pitch and length 4.2. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby 4.2.1. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements, Wh-question). 4.2.2. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern (Yes / No question, request for repetition, greetings).

36 45 47 52 57

61 67 68 67 69 71 71 72 73 75 76 80

85 94 94 97

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Rules for ortographic syllabification. intonation. Rhythm and jingles. Breaking. Kinds of syllabes according to its structure. Stress. Kinds of syllable in the process of syllabification. 5.2. ACTIvITy.6. 5. weak forms (Review 3). etc).fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. Articulation. Weak forms. Syllabic consonants.12. Rules for phonetic syllabification. Weak forms. linking and elision (Review 1). 5.4.11. tag question.2.13. 100 4. 4. elision. The structure of the syllabe (by Turncer Cam).5.4. UNIT V The english syllable 5.6. 4.2.3. Intonation 3: Combined patterns (pausing in the middle. 5.8.7. 5. Definition. 5. Crescendo diphthongs. Syllabification. 5.10. syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2).2.2. 5. linking. 5. Co articulation. 5. ACTIVITY. Intonation 4: Tag questions.2.8.9. Diphthongs.3.5.7. 5. 114 -5- . apology. consecutive stress.1. 5. the shifting tonic. linking. 4. doubt. American light verse: A contemporary selection. 135 135 136 137 137 138 142 142 147 147 148 149 149 151 103 106 108 111 130 4.2. lists.

6. 6. 6. Rhythm.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY. 6.3. Practicing pronunciation through proverbs. 6. 6. 6.5.10.11. Teaching the schwa. 6. Word stress.6. 6. Connected speech (1 and 2). English sentence stress.2.4.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras UNIT VI Selected reading 6. Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols. Global english and the teaching of pronunciation.7. Pronunciation chart activities. KEY.8. 6. 155 158 162 168 171 175 180 188 191 195 199 204 207 225 -6- . Intonation.1. Developing pronunciation through songs.9. Integrating pronunciation into classroom activities. 6.

assimilation. Word stress. In the fourth unit we have considered basic information about suprasegmental phonology (intonation. germination and other important processes considered in language learning. Other important websites were also used to prepare this anthology and they are at the end of each unit and in the bibliography at the end of the book. syllabic consonants. In the fifth unit we have considered the study of the English syllable. Among these articles.org. Most of these articles in chapter sixth are owned by the British Council BBC and they were first published on the http://www. linking. phonological processes and application of the theory in the classroom. well known all over the world. we have considered basic and interesting reading materials for deepening what we have been doing in the earlier chapters. YonY Cárdenas Cornelio . its structure and some rules for syllabification. following mainly ideas found the book “How now.. importance of word stress. Global English. all of them connected with spoken language were considered in the third unit.Introduction This book aims at deepening the study of English Phonetics and Phonology focusing on suprasegmental aspects of the language. connected speech and rhythm are some of these interesting materials that are used free of charge. Brown cow?. in order to help teachers to speak with appropriate stress and intonation and avoid being misunderstood. then we concentrated on kinds of intonation with lots of exercises. Intonation. neutralization. tone pitch and length). all of them. T voicing and weak forms. Different aspects such as elision. sentence stress and rules for stressing correctly were considered in the second unit. types of stress. articulation and co articulation among others. stress.uk/tink/ articles website. in the sixth unit. we have included phonological processes such as assimilation.teachingenglish. We have also developed important aspects related diphthongs. Written by Mimi Ponsonby. elision. epenthesis or insertion. stress shift. R liaison. Finally. In this anthology we have selected burning and attractive articles written by different authors.

99 regular and upgrading courses. especially my husband Mr.Acknowledgements First and foremost our thanks to our dear students from the specialty of English who took the course of English Phonetics and Phonology at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Scott Thornbury. Faculty of Education. Rosalyn Hurst. 90). 97 and 98. my English trainer. and National University of San Marcos. Alfredo Villanueva for not complaining and understanding the work even during holidays. Mimi Ponsonby. and professors Ricardo Floyd P. Angélika Marsch and Andrés Easthouse from Universidad de Lima from whom we have learned a lot in the summer courses. as well as for being in charge of the correction. who is always clarifying our doubts. They were the ones who in a way made us think that something else was needed in the course and this book is the result of it. Last but not least. for providing us clear theory on this matter. to our friends who can not be mentioned individually but who are always with us being sources of ideas. Michael Vaughan-Rees. reviewing. To our families. Gustavo Solís Fonseca. to the seniorest of all.. Maria Escalante López. At the same time I would like to give my deepest recognition to Peter Roach. designing and redesigning this specialised book. Anne Baker. Félix Quesada and Dr. Director of the Foreign Language School for giving us the chance of organising. and that allowed us to complete with the practical aspect of the course. Special thanks to Mrs. completing the practical aspect of the course. Daniel Jones (“English Pronunciation Dictionary”. Aída Mendoza Cuba. J C Wells (“Longman Pronunciation Dictionary”. classes of 96. Dr. to our university for supporting us in the developing of this book as a way to improve the professional development of the ELT in Peru. Joanne Kenworthy. We would also like to thank our friends Carmen Caceda Cordoba. among others. We also want to thank University of San Marcos professors Dr. making it comprehensible and easy to be understood. to David Villanueva for always being ready to solve our computer illiteracy. which is going to help English Teachers in the Program of Lisenced of Foreign Languages. . 91). Adrian Underhill. a colleague of mine from whom I have learned to become a dedicated professional in ELT.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii ENglISh VowElS aNd CoNSoNaNTS (REVIEw) The vowels long vowels i: a: u: : : sheep far fool horse bird  æ    Short vowels ship hat foot sock (UK) cup e    head above mother (US) worm (US) The consonants Voiced b book d g v ð z   l r j w m n ŋ day give very the zoo vision jump look run yes we moon name sing Voiceless p pen t k f  s   town cat fish think say she cheese -9- .

/ croissant (UK) /’hæp.cambridge.10 - .spek’ten/ /.bl/ or /’le.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras diphthongs e a  day eye boy a mouth  nose (UK) o  e  nose (US) ear (UK) hair (UK) pure (UK) other symbols h ~  i ţ u   /’hænd/ hand ~ /’kwæs.ri:’tel/ /’ss. .bl/ = /’le.z four : four apples Main stress secondary stress syllable division /.z/ influenza /’lt./ little l.n.: r <> /’le.org/help/phonetics. n can be pronounced either: l or .ht .tm/ expectation retell system ’ .b/ linking r is pronounced only before a vowel in British English: f:r: f:ræp. Source: http://dictionary.flu’en. etc.’i/ happy /’bţ./ butter (US) /. m.ek.

11 - .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Before we star with our course. it is necessary to review the basic consonant and vowel charts. // // // // . /w/ . Vowels /i:/ Front /i/ /e/ /æ/ // // /:/ /a:/ Central Back // /u:/ // /e/ /e/ diphthongs ear air way /a/ // /a/ fly boy now high Mid low // insure /:/ // // go (Rogers. /j/ /k/ /g/ /h/ Fricatives affricates Nasals lateral Semivowels /ŋ/ . Table 2. . . . /m/ . . Table 1 Manner of articulation Stops Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Point of articulation Bilabial labiodental Interdental alveolar alveopalatal Velar /p/ /b/ . . /q/ /ð/ . . . Modern English Vowels. /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ . . 2000) . . /f/ /v/ . /n/ /l/ /r/ . .

.

Be aware of the principal phonological processes of assimilation and elision. 2.UNIT I PhoNoLogICAL ProCEssEs oBjECTIVES 1. 3. . epenthesis or insertion behind the connected speech. Understand the processes of dissimilation. 5. Have an overview about other phonological processes. Understand the process of neutralization and germination. apply these rules into the exercises to understand the processes. 4.

.

Let’s take a look at the English prefix {–in} [m] I[m]potent I[m]partial I[m]possible I[m]practical I[m]mature [ m ] before [ n ] before [ ŋ ] before Consider the following data: I[ n ] advisable I[ n ]animate I[ n ]ordinate i[ n ]take i[ n ]direct i[ n ]secure [n] i[n]direct i[n]dependent i[n]tolerance i[n]sufferable i[n]sufficient [p.sm. s] [k. Therefore. n/ which. Based on these data. t. [in] occurs in the most environments: before vowels. d. b.has the same place of articulation as the following consonant: We say: the nasal assimilates in place of articulation to the following consonant. A well-known example is that of English alveolar consonants such as /t. and s. d. It is found in all languages which cause speech sounds to be modified in a way which makes them more similar to their neighbours. but the most relevant in English and for language teachers are: assimilation /.n/ Colleen Richey establishes (97) that assimilation is a phonological process where a phone becomes similar to a nearby phone.PhoNologICal PRoCESSES There are different kinds of processes in all languages. when they are followed by a consonant which does not have alveolar place of articulation. tend to adopt the place of articulation of the following consonant. d.’le. we want to say that the underlying form of the prefix is /n/ . m] [t. g] [ŋ] i[ŋ]conclusive i[ŋ]considerate i[ŋ]correct i[ŋ]complete i[n]convenient (bilabials) (alveolars) (velars) The nasal in the prefix in.

giving the pronunciation /fp. resulting in the pronunciation of ‘this ship’ as / ð’p/ and this year as / ð’’jr/. a. A similar case is the assimilation of /s/ to a following // or /j/. is concerned with one sound becoming phonetically similar to an adjacent sound. When the assimilation is backward. one segment influences another that precedes it.b:l/ → ← Conditioning sound /b/ /fp. then the phone assimilates to a preceding phone.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras /n/ → → → [m] / ___ bilabial consonants [ŋ] / ___ velar consonants [n] elsewhere 1. this is. Assimilated sound /p/ ‘football’ /ft. Assimilation.bilabial sounds /t/ assimilates to /p/ before bilabial sounds. ‘this ship’ ‘this year’ /s/ /s/ → → /ðsp/ /ðs’jr/ / / [] → → [] / - / -j /ð’p/ /ð’’jr/. Thus the /t/ at the end of the ‘foot’ /ft/ change to /p/ when followed by /b/ in the word ‘football’. Let’s see some regressive assimilation processes: 2. the same as the continuant alveopalatal /j/. and the fricative alveopalatal // is passing its characteristics to the preceding sound phoneme /s/.b:l/ /t/ → → /fp.1. then. ‘football’ /ft. b:l/ /p/ / . The sound that causes the change is called the conditioning sound or trigger. Two sounds that have the same place or articulation are called homorganic.b:l/ 1. direction of assimilation Assimilation is type of co articulation. It is the alteration of a speech sound to make it more similar to its neighbours.b:l/ . and The /s/ is assimilated to /  / before /  / or / j / . There are two kinds of assimilation Regressive assimilation. This assimilation can be considered to be optional and is called regressive assimilation. The sound that changes is called the assimilated sound or the target.16 - . this is.1.

being the assimilation optional because the prefix and the stem are easily separable. and in a number of cases the /n/ of these prefixes is followed by a consonant which is not alveolar. See the rules: A) ‘incautious’ can be transcribed as /in’k:.te[n] ‘men/ /‘da[n] bi:t/ /n/ red paint admit bad guys /. kwest/. In some cases it seems to be normal that the /n/ is regularly assimilated to the place of articulation of the following consonants (e.gaiz/ /d/ /d/ → → → → → → → → /. the assimilation is shown as obligatory. The assimilation of /n/ is a rather special case: many English words begin with the prefixes ‘in-‘ and ‘un-‘.reb ’peint/ /b ’mt/ /’bæg .s/.k (obligatory) B) ‘inquest’ / /iŋ. m/ as in the examples: ten men downbeat /. d. 94 4. can optionally assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonant at the beginning of the next syllable.kwest/.k (optional) -g / .g. so that prefix and stem are easily separable.gaz/ [b] [g] / -p -m -g 5. kwest/).te[m] ’men/ /’da[m] bi:t/ [m] / ___m. The prefix n is an integral part of the word.s/ or /iŋ’k:. n/ when they occur at the end of a word or syllable. b. The alveolar consonants /t. the assimilation is normally treated as optional. Where it is clear that the prefix is attached to a word that exists independently. Thus /n/ can become bilabial m before the bilabials /p.17 - . n → [ŋ] In B the assimilation is obligatory because ‘in’ is an integral part of the word “Inquest” /’iŋ. that means an official attempt by the court to find out the cause on someone’s death. b (bilabials) (optional) /. n → [ŋ or n] .s/ or /iŋ’k:.s/.red ’peint / /d ’mt / /’bæd . When it seems more like an integral part of the word. though a more frequent possibility is for t to be realized as glottal stop when followed by another . as in It is also possible for t to change to p and k respectively. In the same way d can change to b and g respectively. while in others this assimilation is optional (for example: ’incautious’ may be /in’k:.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. Source: Daniel Jones. ‘inquest’ / iŋ. “English Pronunciation dictionary”.

p n ‘dan/ ‘hæp nz → → → [beikŋ] [. then. / ? /. Conditioning sound → Assimilated sound Assimilation can also operate in the other direction (progressive assimilation).n’lesju[ [. the assimilation is to a following phone. [‘hæp n ŋ] (cannot assimilate) . ribbon /‘rbn/ → [‘rbm] (Note that although ribbon /‘rb n/ can also be pronounced /‘ribn/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras consonant. this assimilation can operate only if the two consonants are in direct contact. A glottal voiceless sound produced by the closure of the vocal cords. In the same way s and z can change to  and  respectively.18 - . this is rightward.p m ‘dan] [‘hæp mz] [.æu‘si:] B.æzju‘si: / → → → → [.ði:’u:z] [.ðs’ep/ /.hæp m ‘sd n li] This kind of assimilation cannot apply when the following sound is a vowel. in standard accents it mainly affects phrases involving you or your.Consonant 6.eit biz/ → t → /. that is.n’lesju/ /. Progressive assimilation When assimilation is forward.ei?biz/ (. eight boys /. . you’re the j may disappear. In English this applies only to syllabic n. changing it to syllabic m or ŋ depending on the place of the preceding plosive.hæp n ‘sd n li → n → m / pMore examples on assimilation 1. with a phonetic vowel between the b and n. In you. this shape these shoes unless you… as you see /. Yod coalescence (or coalescent assimilation) is the process which changes t or d plus j into  or  respectively.eip’biz) ? / . but only before  or j at the beginning of the next syllable. bacon up and down happens happen suddenly happening /‘beik n/ /. Across word boundaries.ði:z’u:z/ /. alveolar consonants sometimes assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonants. without any phonetic  between them).ð’ep] [. at the end of the preceding syllable.

is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel.letu’at . and of the  in words such as religion.let ju’at . Within a word. me/ Source: Logman Pronunciation dictionary. delicious d’l s came to English from Latin. . Historically. Sometimes. via French delicieux delisjo. yod coalescence can frequently be heard in Be E.s. Contraction differs from elision in that contractions are set forms that have morphologized. Russian. /’pre. so the possibility of assimilation does not arise.19 - . zj → ) explains the  in words such as pressure. such as can’t from cannot. It is not random. or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase. (Pleasant or harmonious sound). English does not often show elision in writing. producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce. d’l.wu’tra . although it is not considered standard. or . and the  in words such as measure.wdju’tra .get:’bægz 2.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii let you out would you try get your bags . In English.n. Examples of elision in English. the status of yod coalescence depends on whether the following vowel is strong or weak. Elision.2. which differ from one language to another. For example. Elision /e’ln/ 1. but elisions are not. Elision is the omission (= deletion) of a sound that would otherwise be present. e. if used often enough. -Where the vowel is strong . this is called a contraction. It is particularly characteristic of rapid or casual speech. ’pe. then.get j: ‘bægz → → → . a process of yod coalescence is the origin of the  used by all speakers in words such as nature. Similarly. a consonant. The elided form of a word or phrase may become a standard alternative for the full form. sounds may be elided for euphonic effect. delicious patient. ’r.nt.r. tune endure factual educate tju:n n’dj ‘f æktjul ‘edjuket → → → → tu:n in’ ‘f ækul ‘euket 3. u:. yod coalescence involving fricatives ( sj → . but follows certain rules. but the sj coalesced into  several centuries ago. In AmE there is usually no j present. 1.

of t in nts. This term is most often associated with the elision of vowels between consonants. Thus lunch /ln/ may be pronounced /ln/ or. The opposite of elision is epenthesis /e’pent. less commonly. /mt/. Thus jumped mpt may be pronounced mpt. whereby sounds are inserted into a word to ease pronunciation /i:/. and of k in ŋks.20 - . Latin tabula e. 2. the consonants are in different syllables and no elision is possible). .g. The elision of t in st and of d in nd. He has → → Spanish tabla. ŋkt.2.g.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras comfortable: fifth: him: laboratory: temperature: vegetable: /’kftbl/ /’ffθ/ /hm/ /læ’brtri/ /’tmprt/ /’vdtbl/ → → → → → → /’kftbl/ /’fθ/ /m/ /’læbrtri/ (American english). /stren/ (Note that in a word such as enjoy /n’/.kp/. Eng. /l’brtri/ (British english) /’tmpt/. lynx lŋks may be lŋks or. less commonly. e. Some types of elision typically occur within a single syllable and therefore within a word and they are represented by transcribing a second pronunciation. he’s. less commonly /ln/. 2. /ln/ lunch /ln/ /ln/ /estren/ strange /stren/ /stren/ 2.θss/. less commonly. In English they include. The elision of p in mps. lŋs. strange stren may be /stren/ or. /’tmprt/ /’vdtbl/ A synonym for elision is syncope /sŋ.1.

3. when r is not pronounced).mð rn ‘fa:ðr/ by compression. Additionally. or before a vowel sound. or collide k’lad becomes klad. kt. But is a phrase such as stand clear. In casual speech  is also sometimes elided in the first syllable of a word in which the second syllable is stressed and begins with a liquid. tt. See the example: Camera /‘kæm r / The full form is ‘kæmr. Elision of a t or d is usually possible when it is preceded by one of certain consonants at the end of a syllable. In AmE the full form is /. t. with elision of the t. and less commonly in pt. But in a phrase such as next thing. Thus terrific t’rfk sometimes become ‘trfk. this word is pronounced stænd. d may be elided in d. ðd. and the elision of  before a liquid. 4. Under these conditions t may be elided in ft. nd and less commonly in bd. .didn’t /‘didnt/ When followed by another word in a phrase this word is sometimes pronounced /‘didn/. md. ŋd. This is usually compressed to give ‘kæmr.mðr n ‘fa:ðr/.mðr n ‘fa:ð/.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. dd. 3. stand firm it is often pronounced stæn. this word is Pronounced /nekst/. . All these possibilities occur. hence the phrase can also be pronounced /. Mother /‘mð/ / r In Br E r is usually inserted at the end of this word when the following word begins with a vowel sound (R-liaison = non-rhothic accents. next question it is often pronounced /neks/. if the next syllable (or word ) starts with a consonant. zd. gd. Elision of the  is often (though not always) possible when it is followed by a liquid (= l or r) and then a weak vowel. vd. st. Hence mother and father becomes /. unless COMPRESSION also occurs (in which case all trace of the  disappears). This compressed form of mother does not occur when the word said is isolation.mð r n ‘fa:ð/. The  of mother is now in a elision environment. or before a vowel sound. Stand /stænd/ in Isolation. This applies both within words and between words.2. The initial syllable then undergoes compression.21 - . This has the effect of making the liquid SYLLABIC. When  is elided. no matter what kind of sound follows. They include the elision of t and d when surrounded by other consonants. - .1. other types of elision occur only at syllable boundaries.Next /nekst/ in isolation. θt. in the first instance it makes the r syllabic: ‘kæm r . with elision of the d. with elision of the t. t is sometimes elided in the contracted negative-n’t. which can likewise become /.

The loss of any sound • • • 2. [k]nife pronounced /’naf/ a’cute [e]’gyptian [a]’mend b. 5. Pronounced /‘sŋkp/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras The same applies to cases of apparent elision of  in some speakers occasional pronunciation of words such as incident ‘n. capacity K’pæst. old english hláford > english lord english worcester.sdnt. however. generally called contractions: • • • • • english go[ing t]o english wa[nt t]o english did n[o]t english do[n’t k]no[w] english I [woul]d [h]ave > > > > > gonna wanna didn’t dunno I’d’ve . It is the loss of one or more sounds from the beginning of a word. where there usually seems to be a compensatory lengthening of the preceding consonant. Some people have ‘Kæmra as the only pronunciation for camera. Pronounced /’frss/. For many English people it would feel very artificial to pronounce t in postman ‘psmn. as in ‘coon’ for ‘raccoon’ or ‘till’ for ‘until’. 1. mn/.22 - . especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. aphæresis or aphesis (Initial). The loss of one or more sounds at the interior of a word. pronounced [‘glst] Syncope in informal speech Various sorts of colloquial reductions might be called “syncope”. pronounced [‘wst] english gloucester. when a consonant is elided at the beginning of a word. o’er for over. Sometimes a pronunciation that was originally the result of elision has become the only possibility for some speakers. > > > cute gyptian mend > gypsy Syncope (Medial). ‘fish ‘n’ chips’. postman /‘ps. heav’n for heaven. Forms such as “didn’t” that are written with an apostrophe are. given the effect of n’s:dnt . The elision can be: a. K’pæs:t. especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. or pli:s as the only form for police.

apocope (Final). from French marbre. such as n in government (‘gv. “paticular” for particular. and thermometer. 1. n. It is the loss of one or more sounds from the end of a word.n. governor. In this case the second r has dissimilated to l in order to prevent a repetition of the r and ease articulation. surprise.t] Note that other consonants besides r may be altered or omitted as a result of dissimilation.ss.3. Pronounced /’pkpi/. in which there is a tendency for the first r to drop out of the pronunciation resulting in enterprise governor impropriety prerogative surprise thermometer [’en. One historical example of dissimilation is marble.dsm. impropriety.. which has only one /r/). marbre → marble Other contemporary examples of dissimilation include enterprise.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii c. especially to the interior of a word or initial position.im. ‘I don’t know’ postman /I duno/ /‘ps mn/. and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. (phonetics). as in “beserk” for berserk. mnt]. then.23 - . Source: The American Heritage® Book of English Usage.praz] [’gv. the first tends to drop out.p-‘pra. .com/64/C007/066. is a phenomenon whereby similar consonant or vowel sounds in a word becomes less similar. Insertion or epenthesis /ep’ent.tv] [s ‘praz] [θ ‘mm. “supprise” for surprise.html Dissimilation..4. For example. dissimilation /. prerogative.t] [p-‘rg. 1. in’s:n/ The epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds to a word. http://www. they frequently dissimilate.θe. Because r’s in successive syllables are particularly difficult to pronounce.r] [. and “govenor” for governor (note this doesn’t affect the pronunciation of government.’le.t.bartleby. when one /r/ sound occurs before another in the middle of a word in rhotic dialects of English. Copyright © 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Company.n/ Dissimilation is a phonological process that involves one of two similar or identical sounds within a word becoming less like the other or even disappearing entirely..

j. phrase. . that after /s/ the opposition is neutralized (since p here has no ASPIRATION). Similarly. that is. The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary LPD symbol /u/ represents the neutralization of the opposition between u: and . This neutralization is also found in certain other weak syllables. gemination /.24 - . as in radiation. Note. ju. The opposition between i: and  operates in most environments.em.nju:trl. 1.5. When the vowel is in a weak syllable before another vowel. as seen in green /gri:n/ and grin /grn/.We conventionally write spin /spn/ phonemically as spn . 1. the immediate repetition of a word. I speak english He is a estudent /a es’pi:k iŋgl/ /hi:z  es’tjudnt/ 1. di’e. • In these positions the traditional Received Pronunciation (Standard English) form is  (a short vowel). The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (LPD) symbol i (a short vowel) reflects this. in certain phonetic environments. let).n/ N (Noun) Doubling. Rhetoric. usually to satisfy the phonological constraints of a language or poetic context. for example in one pronunciation of stimulate /’stm.n/ Two phonemes (= sounds whose difference has the power of distinguishing words) may. etc.i/ valley /’væl.6. use something intermediate or indeterminate. duplication.2.s/. 1.1. leap /li:p/ and lip /lp/. But there are two environments in which it is neutralized: • When the vowel is in a WEAK syllable at the end of a word ( or at the end of part of a compound word of the stem) as in happy /’hæp. they carry a potential difference in meaning.re. /. glorious.n/.’ne.ri. We call this neutralization. letter.. not be distinguishable. In most environments English /p/ and /b/ are in opposition. babies /‘bebiz/. and some use fluctuate between the two possibilities. some use i: some. Neutralization /. however. or syllable into a word. for rhetorical effect.i/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras It is also defined as the insertion of a phoneme. /’gl:.a’ze.let/ (also ‘stIm. This can be seen in the pair pin /pn/ and bin /bn/. repetition.5. but since there is no possible difference between /p/ and /b/ here we could just as well write /sbn/. Phonetics. One type of neutralization is symbolized explicitly in Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (LPD) by the use of symbols i and u. But in fact some speakers use .5. cup /kp/ and cub /kb/. the doubling of a consonantal sound.

ss/.b:l/.25 - . becomes double long like the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy.’le. 7. A segment. Sounds becoming more alike. . there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound.3. the /s/ would be shorter). Insertion (epenthesis) /in’s:n.sppose.sm. Example: breakfast – Breakfast.2. degemination /demi’ne n/. It is the omission of a segment. These can be voicing. manner or place.θe. Elision /e’ln/. (medial) 2. apocope: deletion of last segment(s) of a word (final). It could be: 2. 5. aphæresis: deletion of first segment(s) of a word (initial). and 2) The structure of the two syllables is similar. Syncope: deletion of segment(s) from the middle of a word or end of the syllable: suppose -. Examples English (colloquial): • • • • Engla land particularly pierced-ear earrings probably > > > > England particuly pierced earrings probly 6. haplology /hæp’ll. The phenomenon was identified by American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20th century. Conditions: 1) Syllables are both medial. ep’ent. Example: around – round. as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a single /m/.n/. (Note that if her name were Miss Andie. /. assimilation /. 2. 2. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this case before /r/. 4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Summary of important phonological processes in English: 1. vowel or consonant. gemination /emi’ne n/. Neutralization /nutr’lasen/. 3.1. Inserting segment(s) into a word: example: [straik[ --[estraik]. . It is defined as the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to one single consonant. Example: /fp.

is moved closer to the palat. example ata -. In phonetics. usually before a /j/ glide but often before a high front vowel. 9. they usually become africates. usually between vowels.[mejciv] where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’.26 - . ask as /’æks/. 16. Note though that place might also change. Some other frequent English pronunciations that display metathesis are: /’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English) /’æstrks/ for asterisk /’kmftrbl/ for comfortable /ntr’dju’s/ for introduce /’ntrgl/ for integral /rvlnt/ for relevant 12. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized. in voicing. It is responsible for the most common types of speech errors. so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth. Vowel reduction /’valwl r ‘dk n/. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English. 14. such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti.fote. Usually nothing else changes as in ‘vote -. Voicing assimilation /‘vsŋ asimi’le n/. A voiced segment becomes voiceless. Metathesis /met’æθss/. Stops become fricatives. Spirantization /sparnt’zen/ /n/. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization of the vowel /a/ in ‘pond’.asa.[ada]. 15. Imagine talking with a stuffy nose.mishu or ‘make Eve -. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated by printing a tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized equivalent of [a].hafta. nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered. devoicing /d’vsŋ/. 10. Segment becomes like another usually adjacent segment.dut. vowel harmony: Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel. and [ ~] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. denasalization /dnezla’zen/. The nasals consonants can v nasalize the vowels.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 8. Consonant harmony /’ksnænt ’ha:mn/. when you spirantize a [b] in english you often get [v]. Only the manner changes here. 13. have to -. Nasalization /nezla’zen/. Example: nut -. . Removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment leaves you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Palatalization /pæltla’zen/. A sound. 11. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or similar short lax vowel. Example ‘ata’ -. One consonant becomes more like another: often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog. miss you -.

Oxford.html http://www.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into. American light verse: A contemporary selection. CUP. a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. They went to the fupbol 4. English teaching forum. Number 4. it is asks not aks 5. Oxford University Press. Sarah and Bowler. Editor.27 - .bgsu.html http://www. Heineman English Language Teaching. Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. (1997) Jones Daniels (1997) English Pronunciation Dictionary. Addison Wesley Longman Limited.edu/users/m/a/mam1034/csd300. Adrian (1994) (1995) (1991) (1993) Cambridge University Press Cunninghan.rdg.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Observe the excercises and the processes in the each one: 1.com/Table3. Cambridge University Press. Headway intermedial pronunciation. He estudies english 2. Oxford University Press.edu/departments/english/courses/eng718/phonprocesses. It is the same to say happi: or happ Insertion Elision Assimilation Metathesis Neutralization BIBlIogRaPhY Wells. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman.htm .org/wiki/Elision http://en.speech-language-therapy. J. Pronunciation dictionary.phonologicalprocesses. Anne C.ac. He waited till 7 o’clock 3. C. Volumen XV. Newton.org/wiki/Dissimilation http://www.wikipedia. Essex.htm http://en.psu. Oxford. Oxford.personal.wikipedia. Sorry. Bill http://www. (1997) Underhill.personal. International Cambridge dictionary of english. Sound foundations.

Mention kinds of elision. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ . __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 6. Why is it important in language learning? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5.. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. How many kinds of assimilation do we have? Give an example.28 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras aCTIVITY 1. Consider the following examples i[m]practical. Give some examples. Explain the phonological process of elision. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. Give the rule for the assimilation process of the English prefix in. Mention some phonological processes and give examples. i[n]sufferable and i[ŋ]complete.

Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English. What do you understand by neutralization? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 11.29 - . ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 13. Why is it important in language learning? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 12. What do you understand by elision? Give an example. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 9. Explain the process of dissimilation. What do you understand by neutralization? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 7. Explain the yod coalescence as a process. Explain epenthesis or insertion of one or two sounds in the process of learning English. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 8. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 10.

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3. Point out the importance of sentence stress and English rhythm. 4. worD sTrEss. Get familiar with rules of word stress in English. sENTENCE sTrEss AND ENgLIsh rhyThm oBjECTIVES 1. 2. 5.UNIT II sTrEss. Be aware of the importance of word stress and sentence stress. Recognize types of stress. syllable stress and sentence stress. Recognize the difference among word stress. . sTrEssED syLLAbLE.

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it is lexical rather than prosodic).1. (a) Stress-timed language (Rhythm). woRd STRESS. Stressed syllables in English are louder than non-stressed syllables. etc.htm 2. prepositions. stressed syllables appear at a roughly steady tempo (approximately fixed tempo).com/chifenchen/rhythm. Word Stress is phonemic in English. For example. alone. grammatical words (auxiliary verbs. Taken from http://members. it involves greater pressure from the lungs than unstressed syllables).) do not receive stress. if stress is defined as relative respiratory force (that is.STRESS. whereas content or lexical words (nouns. ) and unstressed. That is. and weaker. Ordinarily. and adverbs) must have at least one stressed syllable. adjectives. admiration. the words desert /’dez. and non-stressed syllables are shortened to accommodate this. as are the noun a record /’rek. However. STRESSEd SYllaBlE. and is inherent in the word rather than the sentence (that is.2. SENTENCE STRESS aNd ENglISh RhYThM 2. pronouns. verbs. using boldface to represent stressed syllables. They also tend to have a fuller realization than unstressed syllables. as most phoneticians argue.tripod.t/ and dessert /d. secondary ( .’z:t/ are distinguished by stress. degree.:d/ and the verb to record /r’k:d/. See the example. this is the movement of stress in a word from one position to another changes the meaning of the word. English is a stress-timed language. Examples of stress in English words. confidential. as well as being longer and having a higher pitch. then these traditional approaches combines two distinct processes: . are holiday. Types of stress Traditional approaches describe English as having three degrees of stress: Primary ( ’ ).

especially those speaking fast. as in admiration or weaker. such as Russian and English. Every word is made from syllables. word stress in English The word Stress in English is the magic key to understanding spoken English. three or more syllables.∙∙■∙ ∎∙ (The unstressed syllable changes to schwa) ‘ænt / ‘ænt ‘elfnt / ‘elfnt ‘mana / ‘mana/ . Native speakers of English use word stress naturally. and b) vowel reduction on the other.mis‘sp When a stressed syllable contains a pure vowel (rather than a diphthong). In languages. many unstressed vowels reduce to schwa-like vowels. Word stress is so natural for them that they do not even know they use it. encounter two problems: 1. Each word has one. Unit 2. who speak English to native speakers without using word stress.de/.) 2. They find it difficult to understand native speakers. followed by a single consonant and then another vowel.mis‘sp / .. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them. To understand word stress helps to understand what syllable is. there is a three-way phonemic distinction: Either three degrees of stress. two. vowel reduction may occur when a vowel changes from a stressed to an unstressed position. though the details vary with dialect. In this case.34 - . Either way. many native speakers feel that the consonant belongs to the preceding stressed syllable. Practice 1 Degrees of stress words Janet Elephant Jemina Mississipi Sentence pattern Stressed and unstressed syllable janet Elephant JeMina MissiSSipi Reduced syllable ■∙∙ ∙■∙ . as in holiday.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras a) Stress on the one hand. (Phonetically. unstressed.3. . speakers agree that the consonant belongs to the following syllable: /’ædm’ren/. [ij]. Non-native speakers. However. 2. /’hl. the vowel in weak is also a diphthong. and reduced. when the stressed vowel is a diphthong. In English. and an unstressed but not reduced vowel in others. primary stress is actually prosodic stress. whereas secondary stress is simple stress in some positions. or else stressed.

Importance of word stress Word stress is not used in all languages. ʃən. tɪk un-ex-cep-tion-al /. o.’sep.sɪv/ in-ter-est-ing interesting /‘ɪn.l/ number of syllables 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a. ‘lɪs.rɪ. Other languages. bəl/ ex-pen-sive /ek. tɪŋ/ (3 in fast speech) realistic unexceptional re-a-lis-tic . English for example. ɪk. Japanese or French for example.tres. e. ɪnʤ ta-ble /teɪ.4. or u) or vowel sound. ‘spen.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii word dog green quite quiet orange table expensive dog /dɒg/ green /gri:n/ quite /kwáɪt/ qui-et /’kwaɪ. ət/ or-ange /’or. a.35 - . ʌn. i. . Some languages. 2. use word stress. pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis.

. even in difficult conditions. important) and all the other syllables remain very quietly. photograph or photographer? Of course. Anthony 3... for example. Example: Decide which stress pattern do the words belong to and write it in the space? Unit 2. Manchester 2. photographer and photographic. Morocco 6. Rules of word stress in English In English. Jemina 4. So the shape of each word is different.. we say one syllable very loudly (big. you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words. this is. Which word is it. Let’s take 3 words: photograph. elephant 5. strong.. You cannot hear clearly. And it is not always the same syllable. We accentuate ONE syllable. without thinking about it. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. you can still understand the word because of the position of the stress. we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength in one word. Carpenter 8.graph or phoTo.. Now imagine that you are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line.36 - . with word stress you will know immediately which word it is because in reality you will hear either Photo. photo.. Practice 2 Stress pattern 1.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want. In fact. It’s magic! (Of course. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. If. Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. or phoTo. you also have the ‘context’ of your conversation to help you. . So without hearing the whole word.) This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. happiness ■∙∙ ∙■∙ ∙∙■ 2.. Amazon 7. because we use word stress all the time. It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and accurately.5..grapher). you probably know what the word is ( Photo. you do not hear a word clearly. many other examples. There are many..

There are some rules about which syllable to stress. make a note to show which syllable is stressed. but not the weak syllables. usually with an apostrophe (‘) just before or just after the stressed syllable. This is where they show which syllable is stressed. If you use word stress in your speech. The stress is always on a vowel. But..) Look at this example for the word plastic. etCETera. you can look in a dictionary. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. So if you hear two stresses. If you do not know.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Shape Pho To gRaPh Total syllables 3 Stressed syllable #1 Pho To gRaPh ER 4 #2 Pho To gRaPh IC 4 #3 This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer. The syllables that are not stressed are weak or small or quiet. Native speakers of English listen carefully for the STRESSED syllables. Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English . JaPAN. imPORtant. not one word). you can USE it! There are two very important rules about word stress: 1. INteresting. one stress. deMAND. aBOVE.37 - . you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension. one word. When you learn a new word.the rules are rather complicated! Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Syllable #1 is stressed. you should also learn its stress pattern. (The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used. Which one is correct? . converSAtion.. 2.on the radio or in films for example. Listen carefully to spoken English and try to develop a feeling for the “music” of the language. you have heard two words. If you keep a vocabulary book. (One word cannot have two stresses. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. CHINa. There are 2 syllables. After that.

Rule 1. and is only used in long words). CLEVer. one word has only one stress. If you hear two stresses. Here are some more. it becomes a verb (to offer). for example is a two-syllable word. It is better to try to “feel” the music of the language and to add the stress naturally. More examples: the words export. . it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent). It is true that there can be a “secondary” stress in some words. If we stress the first syllable.com). you hear two words. because there are many exceptions.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Example Phonetic spelling: dictionary a Phonetic spelling: dictionary B PLAS TIC /plæs’tik/ There are two very simple rules about word stress: 1. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress. SLENder. not consonants. But do not rely on them too much. But if we stress the second syllable. import. Stress on first syllable Rule Most 2-syllable nouns Most 2-syllable adjectives Example PRESent. (One word cannot have two stresses. EXport. we can only stress vowels.englishclubtip. rather complicated. The word present. 2. Two stresses cannot be one word. Table PRESent. HAPpy /’plæs tik/ There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress. CHIna. contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable (www.38 - . rules that can help you understand where to put the stress.

to exPORT. Rule 2. mirror and disco. More examples: the words export. produce invite assist repair suggest skate research survive return prefer Unit 2. pencil. it becomes a verb (to offer). contact and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable (www. Practice 3 Pronounce the words and provide the stress appropriately. it is a noun (gift) or and adjective (opposite of absent). rapid. lemon. to beGIN Unit 2. tiger.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2. Stress in the first syllable ‘Abstract (Adjevtive) ‘conduct (Noun) Stress in the second syllable abs’tract (Noun) con’duct (verb) . Read the words and pronounce them correctly providing the appropriate stress. object. bony. to decide. Stress on last syllable Rule Most 2-syllable verbs Example To preSENT. Practice 5 Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress. early and stormy. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable) Word stress. silly.39 - . lotion.com). Phonemic stress. Quickly. slowly. Import. The word present. relax destroy depend intent collect Rule 3. But if we stress the second syllable. heavy. ruler. import.englishclubtip. If we stress the first syllable. for example is a two-syllable word. There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress.

Practice 6 Pronounce the words correctly and provide the right stress in A and B: (penultimate = second from end) a.40 - . geoGRAPHic. Ending in ic autographic authentic automatic barbaric boracic autodidactic autistic axiomatic basic boric acrylic rhythmic rubric rustic prosodic B. Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end) -sion admission passion tension permission adquisition -tion action promotion simulation deduction relation .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras ‘contract (noun) ‘contrast (noun) ‘desert (noun) ‘import (noun) con’tract (verb) con’trast (verb) de’ssert (noun) im’port (verb) Rule 4. Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end) Rule Words ending in –ic Words ending in –sion and –tion Example GRAPHic. geoLOGic aTTENtion. revelation Unit 2.

Rule 5. For example. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Important note For a few words. -phy and –gy Words ending in –al Example deMOcracy. some people say teleVIsiom and others say TELevison. englishclubtip. -ty.com). geOLogy CRItical.41 - . Practice 7 A) Pronounce the words ending in –cy correctly and provide the appropriate stress Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) adequacy aristocracy consistency constancy competency agency autocracy consonancy consultancy conveniency absorbency adequacy agency ascendancy bureaucracy accountancy advertency aristocracy autocracy clemency B) Pronounce the words ending in –ty correctly and provide the appropriate stress. photography. dependaBIlity. native English speakers don’t always ‘agree’ on where to put the stress. geoLOGical Unit 2. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) Rule Words ending in –cy. Another example is CONtroversy and controversy (www.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras ability abnormality absorbability absurdity audacity austerity automaticity barbarity bellicosity benignity bestiality biodiversity bioelectricity biosafety bisexuality brutality calamity capability carnality catholicity C) Pronounce the words ending in –phy correctly and provide the adequate stress.42 - . Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) allergy anthology astrology biotechnology chronology analogy apology astrobiology cardiology climatology genealogy histology hydrology ideology immunology laryngology lexicology monology morphology musicology . Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) autography biography cardiography cosmography encephalography bibliography calligraphy chronography crystallography historiography geography filmography ethnography idiography mammography mythography oscillography petrography philosophy radiography d) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy correctly and provide the adequate stress.

to overflow on the second part Unit 2. Compound words (words with two parts) Rule Example a) For compound nouns. the stress is on the second part: bad TEMpered. the stress bad-TEMpered. blackboard saucepan saleswork iceland bedroom bathroom wallpaper bathtub housework grasshopper boyfriend seafood undercut diningtable blue-green hwatermelon highlight fishtank tumbledown underworld witchcraft B) For compound adjectives.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii E) Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) abdominal aboriginal philosophical acquisitional additional aesthetical aeronautical agrichemical agricultural alphabetical analytical compositional computational epidemiological noninflectional nonmarital psychological professional monolitical nonpractical Rule 6. the stress is to understand. old-FASHioned is on the second part c) For compound verbs. the stress is BLACKbird. the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird. GREENhouse on the first part b) For compound adjectives. Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress.43 - . Practice 8 A) For compound nouns. .

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress. Alexander 4. the stress is on the second part: to understand. turn back (return) take charge (of) (assume responsibility) look over (review) Bring back (return) Call back (telephone again) talk back (to) (answer rudely) write down (make notes) talk over (discuss): highlighted Keep around (Keep something near you) Keep down (Do not vomit) Kick around (Discuss) Kick down (Break something with your feet) let down (Disappoint) lock down (Make something very secure) Unit 2. Michael Vaughan. Practice the words loudly and provide the adequate stress. Mississipi ∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙ Taken from “Rhymes Rhythm.44 - . Practice 9 Now read the 4-syllable words and write them on the appropriate space Stress pattern 1. Rhinoceros 6. Afghanistan 3. Felicity 2.Reeds . to overflow. long-legged three-headed flowered-dress masked man six-sided long-handled green-eyed staff-necked baby-faced short-tempered thin-skinned smooth-tongue broken-hearted light-footed long-winded tight-fisted sure-footed high-heeled freckle-faced stone-faced kind-hearted C) For compound verbs. Wolverhampton 5.

45 - . Thus to accent the word collapse k’læps the pitchprominence goes on the syllables læps. Although all stressed vowels are long. Syllable Stress In words of more than one syllable. long Before a voiceless consonant Seat Shoot Bet Make Rip longer Before a voiced consonant word end. Summing up the rules a) Always stress the syllable before one that’s pronounced [n] –ssion/ -tion. Accents can fall only on stressed syllables. ‘politics. nonsense. im’possible. journa’lese). i’lliterate) except: ‘nowhere. except ‘Árabic. po’litical. e. g. stressed vowels at the end of a word or before a voiced consonant are held somewhat longer than vowels before voiceless consonants. So stressed syllables in English are usually held longer than unstressed syllables. ‘-ical’. the stress is on the syllable before ‘-ic’. rhe’torical). ‘nothing. the syllables do not all have equal stress. ‘lunatic. c) Words ending in ‘-ese’ have the stress on this syllable (Chinése.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 2.6. he’retical. b) In words ending ‘-ic’. Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or make it completely unrecognisable. d) Do not stress the negative prefix attached to an adjective (‘possible. ‘heretic. and ‘nobody. ‘literate. a’rithmetic. .. but on tumble ‘tʌmbl on the syllable tʌm. [ l ] –cial/-tial. spacious. Speakers choose to accent certain words (or to de-accent others) because of the particular meaning they wish to convey in a particular situation. [ s ] –cious/ -tions. ‘-ically’. etc. and ‘rhetoric (but adjectives: arith’metic. This means that on this syllable your voice is louder and usually pitched higher. There is usually one that has particularly strong stress. They may also be louder and higher in pitch. seed shoe bed made rib An accent is the placement of intonation pitch-prominence (= higher or lower pitch than the surroundings) on a word. attention. and you hang on to the syllable considerably longer than on the other syllables of that word. artificial.

a) Completion efficient invasion financial advantageous vivacious. b) Photogenic scientific materialistic geographical musical technical. higher and longer than the unstressed ones. Exaggerate the stressing as much as you can . B. pho’tography / ‘institute / ca’reer / de’velop / ‘photographs / ‘technical / photo’graphic / possi’bility / compe’tition / ‘amateurs / poli’tician / dis’tinguished / po’litical / com’petitive / ‘politics . d) Chinese Japanese Portuguese Cantonese Balinese Viernese. e) Organised/disorganised complete/incomplete attractive/unattractive legal/illegal where/nowhere sense/nonsense.i. Practise shifting the stress photograph photographer photographic politics political politician competing competitor competition analyse analysis analytical C. Where are the stresses? Photography Institute Career develop photographs technical photographic possibility competition amateurs politician distinguished political competitive politics answers: C.46 - .e. Practise the words.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras PRaCTICE A. c) psychology/psychologist meteorology/meteorologist ideology/ideologist. Make the stressed syllable louder.

Well. you’re not a technician! And photographic materials are very expensive. like myself. I detest competitions. You’ll have to develop your own photographs. I shall become the most distinguished woman on the political scene! I thought you hated competing! Don’t tell me politics isn’t competitive! Jeremy: Diana: Jeremy: 2. sentence stress will affect the degree to which an ESL student sounds “natural”. Diana. He believes I could make a career as a photographer. Mr McKenzie’s recommended the course at the Institute. .47 - . In general.7.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dialogue: Photography or politics? Diana: Jeremy: Diana: What have you decided to do after college. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence. You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Mr McKenzie thinks there’s a possibility I might win the Observer competition. in any given English utterance there will be particular words that carry more “weight” or “volume” (stress) than others. Jeremy? I’m going to take up photography. Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or “beat”. From a speaking perspective. Jeremy. All the competitors are amateurs. Sentence Stress Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. I sent in four entries. Like word stress. In terms of listening. it affects how well a student can understand the utterances they hear. especially when spoken fast. sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English. I never agree with the decision of the judges! I’m going to be a politician. That requires technical skill.

rarely can’t. they. am For example: I am speaking to the young workers. didn’t this. Can. under. a. Word stress refers to the process whereby particular syllables (or parts of words) are stressed within and overall word. writing. these. desk. which. What Grammatical words. must. We.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras what is the difference between “word stress” and “sentence stress”? Whereas sentence stress refers to the process whereby particular words are stressed within an overall sentence. because. behind. studious. have. big. slowly. aren’t. with. In general. dance. where. talk. an. she. how. loudly. some. clever.word stress tends to have more of a phonological and morphemic importance I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher whose MAIN INterest is to TAKE SPEcial. who. big. give. never. . Most sentences have two types of word: • Content words – stressed Content words Main verbs Nouns Adjectives Adverbs Negative aux. BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that exHIBit ABstract MEANings in their photoGRAPHic STRUCture. employ student. can. across The. doesn’t. it On.48 - . don’t. red. interesting quickly. that. was. verbs Demonstratives Question marks • go. any But. sentence stress is more of a consideration for overall fluency . music. and. you. should. car. those. book. he . sell. always. do Is. so.unstressed Pronouns Prepositions Articles Conjunctions Auxiliary verbs Verb to be I.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii

You’re listening to the music, but you aren’t concentrated in the topic. He is speaking quickly, so it is difficult for him to understand him. Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense. grammatical words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form or “structure”. If you remove the grammatical words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the sentence. If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not understand the sentence. The sentence has no sense or meaning. Imagine that you receive this telegram message: Will you SELL Me CAR because I’m GONE to FRANCE

This sentence is not complete. It is not a “grammatically correct” sentence. But you probably understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car for them because they have gone to France. We can add a few words: Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE

The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically correct sentence. But the information is basically the same: Content Words Will you SELL My CAR because I’ve GONE to FRANCE. Grammatical Words In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed. Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important because it adds “music” to the language. It is the rhythm of the English language. It changes the speed at which we speak (and listen to) the language. The time between each stressed word is the same. In our sentence, there is 1 syllable between SELL and CAR and 3 syllables between CAR and GONE. But the time (t) between SELL and CAR and between CAR and GONE is the

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Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

same. We maintain a constant beat on the stressed words. To do this, we say “my” more slowly, and “because I’ve” more quickly. We change the speed of the small structure words so that the rhythm of the key content words stays the same. Syllables 2 will t1 you SEll beat __________ 1 my _____ t1 CaR beat 3 because t1 I’ve goNE beat _____________ 1 to ___ t1 FRaNCE. beat

Rules for Sentence Stress in English The basic rules of sentence stress are: 1. Content words are stressed 2. grammatical words are unstressed 3. The time between stressed words is always the same

Exceptions
The above rules are for what is called “neutral” or normal stress. But sometimes we can stress a word that would normally be only a grammatical word, for example to correct information. Look at the following dialogue: “They’ve been to Mongolia, haven’t they?” “No, ThEY haven’t, but wE have. Note also that when “be” is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed (even though in this case it is a content word).

Special STaIR Exercises
S.T.A. I. R stands for: • • • • • S tress T iming a rticulation I ntonation R hythm

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fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii

These are the 5 essential components of good English pronunciation. Make sure people can understand your English by using the interactive S.T.A.I.R exercises in Pronunciation Power.

Sentence Stress Practice Unit 2. Practice 10
Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence.

These are the
One 1. 2. 3.

house that
Two

Jaqueline
Three

built
Four

This is the

house that

Jack Jack Jaqueline mother Peter met in the saw on the drove to the Peter and rest of the lively get there in

built built built
designed repaired

These are the houses that These are the houses that house that my bicycle person I gardener who taller than
amazingly

4. This is the 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

This is the That is the That is the Andrew is What an How can we

Those are the people we Those are the people we

park stairs
party

works for my mother Thomas family
production

10. 11. 12. 13.

Tom’s not as tall as the possibily
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time

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

B. Repeat the sentences loudly 1. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2. I want to take a photography class? 3. China is the place where I was born. 4. Please, turn off the television before you go out. 5. I can’t decide which book to borrow. 6. Do you understand this lesson’ 7. Sparky is a very happy puppy. 8. It is critical that you finish your essay. 9. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat. 10. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway.

2.8. Sentence rhythm
Sentence rhythm is a natural part of language development. Most children master the intonation patterns and rhythms of language before they master the words. Because the patterns and rhythms of our native language are so deeply ingrained, the best way to review writing is to read it out loud. Any lapses in meaning or coherence can then be seen easily. It is important to remember that an English sentence will have a certain number of beats. Stressed (content words always take up an entire ‘beat’, while unstressed grammatical words fall between the beats. The time between beats is always the same. For this reason grammatical words are often spoken faster and with less volume. They are literally being squeezed into the gap between regular stressed beats. In the examples below, all the grammatical words (or groups of grammatical words) take the same amount of time to pronounce the number of sounds or syllables they include. Doing simple rhythmic clap or thump in time to the spoken sentence demonstrate how this happens. Rhythm is timing patterns among syllables. There are basically two types of sentence rhythm in languages: A) “Stress-timed rhythm” and B) “syllables-timed rhythm”. English has “stress-times rhythm and Spanish, a syllable-time rhythm. Stress-time rhythm has an alternation of stressed and unstressed. Important Note: Negative words and negative “to-be, “to have”, and auxiliary verbs need to be stressed: (e.g., no, never, isn’t, haven’t, can’t, don’t, won’t).

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He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. Practice 12 Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder. 4. 2. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment. 10. 3. 2. 1.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2. Practice 11 Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. See the examples: I am talking to the clever students Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us. so he wants to live in hollywood. 9. After the movie. 3. jack bought a new car last Friday. clearer. john wants to be an actor. Unit 2. and high-pitched. moving poetry. Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug. We are going to work on our homework together. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back roads of France. they went to a bar to have beer. . longer. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january. As you might have expected. 7. Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 1. 4. Shakespeare wrote passionate. Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess? 8.53 - . he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern. Beart1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. John is coming over tonight. 6. 5. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future.

can’t) (can. 5. They ________ doing the homework. 9. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2. It is critical that you finish your essay. each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress. but each syllable has its own length). Do you understand this lesson’. 1. I want to take a photography class? 3.54 - . can’t) (were. (Remember if you hear the “to-be” or auxiliary verb is stressed. 5. I ______ understand your story. Practice 13 Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. Sparky is a very happy puppy. I can’t decide which book to borrow. 3. Repeat the sentences loudly 1. China is the place where I was born. weren’t) 13. (can. Please turn off the television before you go out. Learn the following rules concerning pronunciation. weren’t) (are. 7.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. . non-stressed. then the sentence is negative). English pronunciation focuses on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other. 4. a. In other languages. My Grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat. 8. 4. They _______ hear the speaker. 4. here’s how we can improve our pronunciation: 1. aren’t) (were. such as French or Italian. 6.B. 3. 2. 10 There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. words. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. 13. English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered syllabic. 2. We _______ told to do that. 6. Tom _______ come to the party tonight. can’t) (can.

Focus on the stressed words in each sentence. Read the following sentence aloud: He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn’t have to do any homework in the evening. Be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves! By focusing on stressed words. Non-stressed words are considered function words: Determiners e. visit. Stressed words are considered content words: Nouns e. 12. interesting . am. before.g. Tips: 1.55 - . kitchen. 13. This is because there are 5 stressed words in each sentence. she 7. a .g. Peter . Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first. or take a few example sentences from a book or exercise. . focus on how those speakers stress certain words and begin to copy this. 2. carefully 6. Always focus on pronouncing stressed words well. the sentences take the same time to speak.Adjectives e. were .g. 9. 8.Conjunctions e.g.Auxiliary verbs e. First underline the stressed words.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 5. 3. Read the following sentence aloud: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. but. non-stressed words and syllables take on their more muted nature. 11. then read aloud focusing on stressing the underlined words and gliding over the non-stressed words. and . Don’t focus on pronouncing each word.(most) principle verbs e.Prepositions e.g. When listening to native speakers.Adverbs e. they. Notice that the first sentence actually takes about the same time to speak well! 10. the. Write down a few sentences. beautiful. of . Remember that non-stressed words and syllables are often “swallowed” in English. 14.g.g.g.g. construct .Pronouns e. non-stressed words can be glided over. often.

speech-language-therapy. London: Routledge.) B. O’Connor http://www.pdf http://downloads. Setter (ed. Better english pronunciation.englishclub. J. London: Edward Arnold.htm . Ashby (2005) A. London: Routledge. Speech sounds. Practical phonetics and phonology. (1997) American light verse: A contemporary selection.bbc. Gimson’s pronunciation of english. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Hartman and J. Seventeenth edition.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1.bbc. Editor.co.co.bbc. Longman. English pronouncing dictionary.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras BIBlIogRaPhY Anne C.D. Cruttenden (2001) (2003) (1980) P. English intonation: an introduction.56 - . Roach (2000) (2006) J. M. English teaching forum.mp3 http://www. Collins and I. a journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/ http://downloads. Third edition. Wells (2000) P. Wells (2006) P. Cambridge University Press. Newton. Second edition. English phonetics and phonology. Second edition. Mees J.C. Sixth edition. Volumen XV. Cambridge University Press.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.htm http://www.co. Cambridge University Press. Number 4.C. J. Roach.com/pronunciation/word-stress-rules.com/Table3. Cambridge University Press.

57 - . What are the simple rules for word stress? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Where are most 2-syllable nouns stressed? Give examples. What are the problems non-native speakers face when they speak to native speakers? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii aCTIVITY 1. Why is word stress so important? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Indicate the traditional types of stress and the three degrees of stress. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Why is word stress phonemic? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 7. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. What is the difference between word stress and sentence stress? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 8. What are the basic rules for sentence stress? Give examples. Give examples of lexical entries where the stress is phonemic. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ o .58 - . Where are most 2-syllable verbs stressed? Give examples.

Learn how r is pronounced in isolation and in connected speech. 4. . 5. 2. 8.UNIT III CoNNECTED sPEECh oBjECTIVES 1. Understand how double consonants are pronounced in connected speech. 7. Be aware of the different processes that take place in connected speech in spoken language. 6. Recognize compound words and how they are stressed. 3. Get familiar with different changes as a result of assimilation. Understand how /t/ can be pronounced as a voiced sound /d/ in connected speech. Understand the importance of elision process in connected speech. Understand how stress changes in connected speech.

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Example: in English. In the latter case the change is from alveolar to labial under influence of the neighbouring labial segment [p].8. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p / / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p / / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p / . Elision 3. Double consonant letters 3. Assimilation 3. When assimilation takes place between two vowels it is more commonly referred to as vowel harmony (agreement among vowels in successive syllables in respect of one or more feautures: bathtub → battered in a child). Double consonant sounds 3.4. Compounds and phrases 3. assimilation It is a process in which one or more segments become adapted in one or more aspects to a neighbouring segment. Let see some of this common assimilations. Some of the characteristics of the phonetics of connected speech are discussed in this unit. Word linking 3.1.2.10. its pronunciation may sometimes be different from the pronunciation used when it is said in isolation. Sounds tend to change as a result of assimilation.9.3.7.CoNNECTEd SPEECh When a word occurs in a phrase or sentence.5. R liaison 3. T-voicing 3. Stress shift 3. the alveolar nasal of the prefix /in-/ changes to [l] in illegal (complete convergence) and to [m] in input (partial convergence). Weak forms 3.6.1. 3.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/ / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g / / n / changes to / ŋ / before / k / or / g / / s / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / / z / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / /θ/ changes to / s / before / s / 1. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p / /t/→/p/ / -m / / -b / / -p / basket maker best man cat burglar cigarette paper circuit borrad coconut butter court martial direct method dust bowl fast motion first base flight plan foot brake front bench front man fruit machine Great Britain mixed bag mixed blessing mixed marriage mixed metaphor pocket money post mortem pot plant private property put back put by right pair secret police set point set back set piece sheet metal sit back .62 - .

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 2. / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p / /d/→/b/ / -m / / -b / / -p / bad pain blood bank blood bath blood brother blood poisoning blood pressure blood pudding broad bean card punch closed book command module command post custard pie custard powder dead beat food poisoning food processor gold plate gold medal gold mine good man good cook good morning grand master ground plan head boy hold back lord mayor mud bath mud pie old bailey old boy old man old maid old moon oxford blue red bag second mate sound barrier stand by united party word blindness .63 - .

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 3.64 - . / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p / /n/→/m/ / -m / / -b / / -p / action planning american plan brown paper brown bear chicken breast common market cold man cotton belt cotton picker down payment fan belt fan mail foreign minister foreign mission garden party green belt green bean hen party human being in blue iron man on me one pair open book open market open prison pen pal pin money queen bee queen mother question mark roman mile sun bath sun blind tin plate town planning venetian blind virgen birth wine box wine bar .

65 - . / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g / /d/→/g/ / -k / / -g / bad girl bird call closed game cold call cold cream field glasses good cook grand canyon ground control ground cover had come had gone hard cash hard copy hard core hard court highland cattle red carpet sand castle second class second comino second cousin slide guitar short cut smart card street credibility street cry that cake .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/ /t/→/k/ / -k / / -g / cigarette card credit card cut glass fat girl first class flan cap 5.

/ θ / changes to / s / before / s / / θ / → / s / / / -s / bath salts bath seat birth certificate both sexes both sides earth science fifth set fourth season fourth summer north-south divide Source: http://www.com/~ted.power/assimilation.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. / z / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound /z/→// / - o / u / / -j o / u / cheese shop Rose show these sheep where’s tours? 9.html#as04 . / n / changes to /ŋ/ before / k / or / g /n/→/ŋ/ / -k / / -g / action group common good common ground garden cress golden gate golden goose human capital in camera iron curtain open court roman calendar roman candle roman catholic tin can tone control town clero town crier 7. / s / changes to /  / before /  / or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound /s/→// / - o / u / / -j o / u / bus shelter dress shop nice shoes nice yacht space shuttle 8.66 - .btinternet.

2.yellow ‘hammer (a hammer coloured yellow) A ‘moving van (to carry furniture when one moves house) A . that is why many compounds and phrases are listed separately with their stress patterns. although many such compounds are written as single words.typed ‘cards . These.weekly ‘lessons 3. a two-word phrase is typically pronounced with late stress: that is to say. .Not omusic ‘lessons. and all stress patterns. ‘christmas ocard ‘visitors’ book ‘music olessons ‘beauty ocontest 3. Compounds and phrases A two-element compound is typically pronounced with early stress: that is to say.next ‘time . A ‘darkroom (a room developing photographs) A .dark ‘room (a room which is dark because there is little light in it) A ‘yellow ohammer (a kind of bird) A . which are grammatically compounds.several ‘books .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. __ a .2. can be changed if the speaker wants to emphasize a particular contrast. are nevertheless pronounced with late stress (= as if they were phrases).just otime to ’practise.3. 3.67 - .moving ‘van (a van that is motion). .4. its first element has more stress than its second.2.2. There is no firm rule. __ . Sometimes a compound has a different meaning from the corresponding phrase. .Not ‘weekly olessons. others are written as two words.Not a oschool 'boy. __ ’monthly ones! 3.school ’girl! . its second word has more stress than its first. Some expression.2. ‘bedtime /‘bed tam/ ‘block obuster /‘blk obst / || /‘bl:k obst r/ Notice that. On the other hand.2.1. .

3. which takes early (beginning) stress.cheese ’sandwiches . In big game. Although cases like these consist of two identical phonemes in succession.5. The details depend upon their manner of ARTICULATION. ‘almond cake ‘orange juice ‘barley owater 3. . soulless /’sl ls/ || /‘sol ls/ . • . but the hold is longer in a geminate.Melrose ‘Road . /md’de/. In ten names. Examples are a nice sight /. midday. too.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras One group of expressions of this type comprises those where the first element names the material or ingredient out of which a thing is made.King’s ‘Avenue but ‘Gower Street 3. or a stem and an affix. They are always found in a syllable boundary. juice.pork ’pie Note.3.Oxford ‘Circus . In this set. In names of English places. note that all take late (final stress) stress except street. liquids: a geminate is pronounced like a single sound.2. they are not usually pronounced like two distinct complete sounds. /ðs’set/ the two s’s come together to make a long s: between the two vowels.nais’sat/. that expressions involving cake. double Consonant Sounds Double consonant sounds (“geminates”) in English phonetic are found only across grammatical boundaries: where two words occur next to one another in connected speech. or in the two parts of a compound word.Lavender ‘Crescent . • Fricatives. however.paper ’plates .68 - .apple ’crumble’ a .2. a . water take early stress.3. straddling (being found) the syllable boundary. except that it lasts longer.rubber ’duck . with just one sequence of approach-hold-release. nasal. /ten ’nemz/we get a long n: Plosives: a geminate is pronounces like a single sound.

the vowel in the first syllable may disappear. because of the possibility of a GLOTTAL STOP. but it is important for them to be aware that when native speakers of English talk to each other. or segments in oral speech.rt ’ts/ the fricative part of the first  can be separately heard before the beginning of the second . Elision It is the omission or loss of a vowel. t. Exceptionally.i/ (not /’hæppi/). though only a small numbers of the many possibilities can be given here. • affricates are the only case where two successive complete consonant sounds are pronounced independently. one might express this in more technical language by saying that in certain circumstances a phoneme may be realized as zero.1. for example succeed /sk’si:d/. The other import exception is where the two consonant letters in question belong to two different parts of a compound word. The nature of elision may be stated quite simple: under certain circumstances sounds disappear. rabbit rhymes perfectly with habit. loss of weak vowel after p. ‘today’.4.ðæt’tam / but a single long alveolar t: is also possible.1.5. 3. a segment. Double consonant letters in English spelling normally correspond to a single consonant sound in pronunciation. Examples: parttime /.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii /.ns/ (however many adverbs in ly drop one I sound when attached to a stem ending in l: fully /’fli/). or one to a stem and one to an affix. 3. In words like ‘potato’.pa:t’ tam/. ‘tomato’. 3. one after the other. ‘canary’. casual speech. straddling the syllable boundary. 108-110. The main exception arises in a few words with cc before i or e. In rich choice /.4. pp. quite a number of phonemes that the foreigner might expect to hear are not actually pronounced. 3. Then the two letters most often correspond to two phonemes (DOUBLE CONSONANT SOUNDS). the aspiration of the initial plosive takes up the whole . Producing elisions is something which foreign learners do not need to learn to do.bg’gem/ there is a single phonetic g: between the two vowels. the process of change in phoneme realizations produced by changing the speed of speech is sometimes called gradation. unnamed /n’ nemd/ meanness /’mi:n. a syllable. elision is typical of rapid. As with assimilation. double consonants letters 3. a geminated t may consist phonetically of ?t: that time /. Peter Roach (83). So happy is pronounced /’hæp.69 - . or have zero realization. ‘perhaps’. k. Ellen rhymes perfectly with helen. We will look at some example.2.4. In orange juice there are two separate ’s.5. a consonant.

3. something like /… sks θrn is more likety. / ‘pi:s/. z after lenis consonants (voiced) . ‘looked back’ /’lk bæk/. ‘Wil’: spelt ‘ll. ‘they’ ðe -‘they’re’ ðe. ‘would’ : spelt ‘d. 3.‘you’re’ j. Examples: ‘tonight’ ‘police’ ‘correct’ /t’nat/ /p’li:s/ /k’rekt/ → → → / ‘t ņait/. ‘you’ ju: . . /k h ner/. . Avoidance of complex consonant clusters. Contracted ‘are’ is also pronounced as  or r when following a consonant. pronounced v after vowels.5.‘don’t dnt). e. z.nt.5.5. except that after s. where h indicates aspiration: /p h tet/.5. • • • . resulting in these pronunciation.is pronounced z and ‘has’ is pronounced z in contracted form. ‘do’ du:. pronounced d after vowels. ‘has’ spelt ‘s. 3. Examples : ‘lots of them’ / lts  ðm/. the middle plosive or two may disappear.5. Loss of final v in ‘of’ before consonants. d after consonants. It is difficult to know whether contractions of grammatical words should be regarded as examples of elision or not. 3.  . /krekt/. pronounced s after fortis consonants (voiceless) . /t h ma:t/. It has been said that no normal English speaker would ever pronounce all the consonants between the last two words of the following: ‘George the sixth’s throne’ /: ð sksθs θrn/. 3.4. /p h h æ ps/. Weak vowel + n.‘can’t’ ka. . e. ‘Is’. The fact that they are regularly represented with special spelling forms makes them seem rather different from the above examples. usually with some change in the preceding vowel. ‘Have’: spelt ‘ve. (There are also vowel changes associated with n’t. pronounced  after vowels. linking r is used when a vowel follows. pronounced l after vowels and syllabic  after consonants. Though this is not impossible to pronounce. v after consonants. l or r becomes syllabic consonant. In clusters of three plosives or two plosives plus a fricative.g. /t h de/.g. ‘can’ kæn. syllabic ņt after consonants. scripts / ‘skrps/. pronounced nt after vowels. ‘waste of time’ /west  mn/. so that the following pronunciations result: ‘acts’ / æks/.2. ‘Not’: spelt ‘n’t. • ‘Are’: spelt ‘re. ‘we’ wi:’ – ‘we’re’ w. The best known cases are: • • ‘had’.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras of the middle portion of the syllable.70 - .

Far /fa:r/ || /fa:r/ In isolation. as in the cases just mentioned.7. In RP (standard english).6. is shown thus: storing /st:rŋ/. there might be greater stress on fnd than on ment. giving /:r’at/ (In Gem Am there is no r). Near /n/ || /nr/ In isolation. this word is. . now lost before a consonant or pause. For example. (In Gen Am it is always /fa:r/. the spelling includes r. Although in isolation we say fundamental with the main stress these on ment and japanese with the main stress on /ni:z/.1. in connected speech an r may be pronounced in some cases if the next word begins with a vowel sound. pronounced /fa:/. 3. Nevertheless. a word said in isolation never ends in r. 3. The linking r. The dictionary does show r liaison within a word. RP thaw is /:/. :. and there is no corresponding r in AmE. :./. The inserted r-sound is then known as linking r.6. This intrusive /r/ does not correspond to historical r.r/ (In american english it is always /’k:m/.enz/ gives the phrases weekly lessons /. A phrase usually receives late stress. as in other non-rhotic accents.71 - .wi:okli’ les.2.3.2.enz/ .kli/ and lessons /’les. the RP form is /’km. This typically happens with a word (syllable) that ends in one of the vowels . Usually. This phenomenon is known as stress shift. (Thaw: the period of warmer weather that causes ice and snow to turn into water). is shown thus: thawing /:rŋ/. and other non-rhotic accents.1.4. it is often pronounced /’km. whether linking or intrusive. or before a consonant sound.6. Comma /’km/ || /’k:m/ In isolation. 3. e. or greater stress on /æp/ than on /ni:z/. being optional. in RP. the insertion is frequently made even if there is no r in the spelling. It corresponds to a historical r. The intrusive r. Thaw /:/ || /:/ In isolation. Some words seem to change their stress patterns in connected speech. But in a phrase such as put a comma in. far out it is usually pronounced /fa:r/. whatever the environment it occurs in).fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. But in phrases such as far away. The placing of primary stress on the last element means that the basic stress of the first element is weakened by one degree: combining weekly /’wi:. In BrE (RP). Stress Shift 3. R liaison 3. intrusive r may be added. But in a phrase such as near enough it is usually pronounced /nr/.6. 3.7. In the phrase thaw out. however. when the following word (syllable) begins with a vowel sound. :. being obligatory.6. in connected speech these words often have a different pattern. the RP form is /n/. . whatever the environment). 3.7.

AmE t can optionally be elided (omitted).ni:z’ læŋ. t is a voiced alveolar tap (flap).4. 3.8.æp’ni:z/ plus language /’læŋ.tel m’stek/ and that japanese /. and also ˘ like the r of some languages.8. It sounds like a quick English d.zi/ with people ‘pi:pl.gw/. however.vr/. Thus in AmE right /rat/ may pronounced /rat/ in the phrase right away /. ˘ that some speakers of AmE consider this pronunciation incorrect.7.3. ˘ ˘ Again. Learners of English as a foreign language who take AmE as their model are encouraged to use t where appropriate. • the next word begins with a vowel sound and follows without a pause. t at the end of a word may change to t if both the following ˘ condition apply: • the sound before the t is a vowel sound or r.8. But these stress patterns are unbalanced.8. the t change to t (and therefore possibly disappear): paint /pent/. Under the same condition.left’.2.72 - .5. Stress shift potentially affects all words entered in the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary that include the secondary stress-mark (. ˘ 3. 3.gw/.veri’le.de’men.telm’stek/.æp. it is shown in italics. it is likely to apply only to those which are regularly followed in a phrase by a more strongly stressed word: most adjectives.r/ may sound identical with ˘ shudder /’d. but only certain nouns. But in right now /rat’na/ no t is possible: nor in left over ˘ /.æpni:z’læŋ. Accordingly. ver.gw/would give /.de’men. In fact. In connected speech.men.tel/ plus mistake /m’stek/ would give /fn. so that AmE shutter /’t.7. ˘ 3. 3.r/. but paint it /’pen t t/. Thus AmE winter /’wntr/ can sound identical to winner /’wnr/. Note.5.d. thus.1. In practice. The same thing happens with a phrase such as that made by combining very lazy /. Phonetically. 3.8. .). 3. some people consider this incorrect. ˘ 3.8.rat’we/. as ˘ ţ.3. ˘ ˘ right out /. For many Americans. The usual pattern involves stress shift. After n. it is actually identical with their d in the same environment. /.le z ‘pi:pl. 3. though.7. if the sound before a t at the end of a word is n.rat’at/.4.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Hence one would expect that fundamental /. T-voicing For most Americans and Canadians the phoneme t is sometimes pronounced as a voiced sound.fn. and say /.fn. native speakers of English usually switch round the stress levels in the first element. Where this is the usual AmE pronunciation it is shown by the symbol /t/.

… /t/…/t/… We say “at home “. the strong form is used even for certain unstressed functions words: (i) Usually.9. In particular. they have a strong form. with strong form æt and weak form t. and a weak form. preposition. articles are generally weak. I can speak better than you can ( = than you can speak) /’kn spi:k .2.4. in the case of a preposition followed by a pronoun at the end of a sentence.… /w/ || /wr/ Tell me how they were. An example is at. /’æt/… I´ll invite them round. weak forms 3.9. Equally. ’ju: kæn/ It was aimed at but not achieved … (= they aimed at it ) /’eimd æt/ “Stranded” or “left” like this. He´ll be back at one. not “in home”. the last word in each sentence or phrase has to be strong. . such as articles. listeners may think they are emphasizing a word where this is not really so. 3. The weak form is generally used if the word is unstressed (as is usually the case with function or grammatical words).fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. containing a strong vowel. though. have more than one pronunciation. The strong form is used only when the word is stressed for some reason. Nevertheless.9. where strong forms are often used.. pronouns.. (ii) Always. Otherwise. Jim´s at lunch. 3. modals etc. I´m looking at you… /ætj/ or /tj/. native speakers should not be misled into supposing that careful or declamatory speech demands strong forms throughout. auxiliaries. . … /ðm/… They were delighted. One exception is in singing. when a word is left exposed by a syntactic operation involving the movement or deletion of the word on which it depends Where does he come from? … (he comes from X) /’km frm/ || /’km frm/.. It is important for learners of English to use weak forms appropriately.9. containing a weak vowel. Many English function words (grammatical words).1. … /w:/ || /’w:r/ 3.3..9. Even here.73 - .

4. 2. Where were your parents married? I think they were married in London. Has your father got dark hair? Yes. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is Strong (S) or weak (W). I have. Practice 1 Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs The weak form (unstressed form) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of sentence. Does your mother work in an office? Yes.74 - . How many languages can you speak? I can speak two . When was your birthday? It was in April. 5. she does. I do. 6. 1. Do you get the bus to work’? Yes. 3.English and French (W) (W) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . The strong form (strong stress) is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence. auxiliary verb do does have has were was can weak form /d/ or /d/ /dz/ /hv/ /hz/ /w/ /wz/ /kn/ Strong form /du:/ /dz/ /hæv/ /hæz/ /w:/ /wz/ /kæn/ Instruction. Have you got a good English dictionary? Yes. he has. 7.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras UNIT 3.

she can.2. Has she got a job? Yes. are strong . 3. too. Have they got any children) Yes. must always contain a strong vowel. This may be any vowel or diphthong except . (secondary stress) = equal to primary or secondary stress. Among unstressed syllables it is useful to distinguish between those that nevertheless contain a strong vowel and those that have a weak vowel. 12. whether stressed or unstressed. Were they married in Japan? Yes. they were 3. 10.10.75 - . 13. they have.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 8.10. they do.i/ . Can you speak English? Yes.vowelled: red hope bedtime undone acorn butane /red/ /hp/ || /hop/ /’bed. So. Does she live in the north of England? Yes. tam/ /. The unstressed syllables in the following words are all weakvowelled: allow happy /’la/ /’hæp. i. is  in many cases.10. 11.10. All the syllables in the following words. she has. weak Vowels ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3. i . u. The vowels . This distinction has implication for syllabification and sometimes for rhythm.n’dn/ /’ek:n/ || /’ek:rn/ /’bju:ten/ 3. Do they share the housework? Yes. as well as  in BrE and o in AmE. A stressed syllable (shown in words of more than one syllable by one of the marks ‘ (primary stress) .u are always weak.1.3. she does 9.

as in annual / ‘ænjul/. or the choice between  and  depends upon the phonetic context. 1. civil. Practice the sentence loudly making linking words appropriately. /’svl/.5.6. 3. /’pravt/.11.10.  can for the nucleus of a syllable). The west End 2.10. remain weak. this distinction may be neutralized. and these are given in as secondary pronunciations.stu’en/ /’kelsns/ or /lsns/ /r’mem. Even in RP and other kinds of English that maintain the distinction between weak  and . /’pravt/. The weak vowels  may be realized in the form of a SYLLABIC CONSONANT (some consonants such as ņ. Gatwick Airport . but Jhon Lennon is ’lenn. and this is shown in LPD. word linking It takes place when a word that begins with a vowel sound is linked to the consonant sound at the end of the word before it. private are nowadays usually pronounced /’kelsns/. however. as in suddenly /sdņli/.4. or compressed into a single syllable).b/ or /r’membr/ /’stændd/ or /’stændrd/ /’stmjls/ or /’stmjls/ 3. In certain other kinds of English. many words may be heard with either pronunciation. 3. 3. (NEUTRALIZATION: the suppression of an opposition between phonemes operative in other positions phonemes): either  is used instead of weak  in virtually all positions.76 - . A conservative minority say /’kelsns/.10. The words rabbit ´ræbt and abbot ‘æbt do not rhyme. /’svl/. Diphthongs arising from the COMPRESSION of weak syllables (the capacity of sequence of sounds to be pronounced either as two separate syllables. For example. Standard English. carelessness. So rabbit at Longman Pronunciation Dictionary shows a secondary pronunciation /´ræbt/. Marble Arch 3. V. For example. The distinction between weak // and // has the power of distinguishing word in Received Pronunciation (RP). I Lenin is ’lenn.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras situation carelessness remember standard stimulus /.

3. The pane crashed in the jungle …. The Royal Albert Hall 7..t. The Tower of London 9. Sue Parminter. Then Bank of England Unit 3: Practice 2 Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking. 5. 2004. Bill Bowler. Columbus discovered America …. 1.. The bomb destroyed a house …. They traveled across Europe by train …. He introduced Amanda to his friends ….77 - . The Houses of Parliament 8.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. She jumped over the wall …. . 6. Heathrow Airport /w/ 5. Source: Headway Pronunciation P-I. 4. 2. . The City of London /j/ 6. She laughed at the joke. 7. The London Underground 10.

sir. S: He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days. B: All right.78 - . I am phoning from (b) the Ritz. B: I was afraid of (f) that. We had a lunch appointment at (d). . B: Hello. I am looking from (c) James Bond. Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny? S: Speaking. but he’s gone to (e) Budapest. Isn’t he there? S: I’m sorry. Where exactly? S: He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal. Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. Oh. B: Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble. S: Yes. sir. Practice 3 Read the sentences and say what form the prepositions are used in them: Strong or weak form? Prepositions to from for at of weak form /t/ /frm/ /f/ or /fr/ /t/ /v/ Strong form /tu:/ /frm/ /f:/ /æt/ /v/ B: Hello.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 3. and you can tell him I’m waiting for (m) his call.

bbc. Cambridge University Press. English intonation: an introduction. Better english pronunciation. Cambridge University Press.com/~ted.bbc. Essex.com/~ted. Practical phonetics and phonology. CUP. Pronunciation dictionary. B.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/quiz/quiz2/ http://downloads. London: Routledge. http://www. Sixth edition. Addison Wesley Longman Limited.C. Second edition.pdf http://downloads.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/pdf/quiz/pronunciation_quiz_1. English pronouncing dictionary. Second edition.power/assimilation.79 - .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii BIBlIogRaPhY J. Roach. O’Connor Speech sounds.btinternet. Seventeenth edition. Collins & I. London: Edward Arnold.html#as04 . Roach (2000) (2006) English phonetics and phonology. Edited by Peter Roach and James Hartman. London: Routledge. English pronunciation dictionary. Cambridge University Press.co. Wells (2006) (1997) (2000) Jones Daniel (1997) P. P. Cambridge University Press.D. J. Longman.mp3 http://www.) Gimson’s pronunciation of english.power/phonetics.btinternet.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/pronunciation/mp3/pronunciation_quiz_1.bbc.co. Mees J. M.co. Cruttenden (2001) (2003) (1980) P. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Third edition. Hartman & J. Ashby (2005) A.htm http://www. Setter (ed.

b/ before bilabial nasal and bilabial stops? (Case 1. Give examples. d/ into /p.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras aCTIVITY 1. What about the assimilation of alveolar stop voiced /d/ into velar stop voiced /g/? (Case 5) _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. 2). _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . Can you explain the assimilation alveolar nasal /n/ into bilabial nasal /m/? (Case 3) _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Give examples. How are double consonant letters treated? Give examples. Can you explain the assimilation of /t/ into voiceless velar /k/ (Case 4). How is a compound word stressed? Give examples. What can you say about assimilation in connected speech? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. Can you explain the assimilation of /t.80 - . _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 8. Explain some cases of elision. Where are double consonants sounds found? Give examples.81 - . _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 13. Explain the pronunciation of R-liaison briefly? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 11. What do you understand by Stress shift? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 12. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. What do you know about weak forms? Why is it so important in English language learning? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ o . Explain the phenomenon of T-voicing.

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. 4. Length and stress through rhythm and jingles. etc) 5. Understand the components of the suprasegmental phonology: Intonation.question). (Yes / No question. Understand and produce sentences following the fall-rise pattern.UNIT IV sUPrAsEgmENTAL PhoNoLogy oBjECTIVES 1. request for repetition. Practice the intonation. Be aware of the intonation pattern behind weak forms. Be aware of the tag questions intonation pattern. Produce sentences following combined patterns (pausing in the middle. greetings). 7. length and stress. Get familiar with the rising-falling pattern (Statements. Wh. lists. apology. linking. doubt. 2. elision and shifting tonic. 6. 3.

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but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression. also called prosodic phenomena. are normally examined in relation to individual lexical items or short phrases. However. Prosodic features: Intonation. (1) Did Danny buy a cow? Ye. No. are referred to as intonation. while declaratives and other kinds of questions occur with final falling intonation. Suprasegmental phenomena. and we will restrict our attention to examples that show the close relationship between intonation and the syntactic and semantic structure of sentences (Langacker. In English. (2) Danny bought a cow. tone. we use tone to signal emotion. and parts of the sentence among many other things.SUPRaSEgMENTal PhoNologY Suprasegmental phenomena are those that pertain to intonation. Four major features in the teaching of English suprasegmentals will be introduced in this chapter: 1) intonation units. pitch and length Intonation Intonation is the music of the language. 82). Intonational studies are not so well developed as those which deal with the suprasegmental properties of individual lexical items. and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings between the speaker and the listener. Moreover.1. 4. University of Turkey). many interesting prosodic patterns can be described only in terms of major constituents or entire sentences. 2) stress. particularly those pertaining to pitch and stress. length and stress. for example. questioning. The prosodic properties of entire sentences. they are intimately connected with the syntactic and semantic properties of the sentences in which they occur. 3) tone. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds can be overlooked. Rising intonation Falling intonation (3) What did Danny buy? Falling intonation . questions answerable by ‘yes’ or ‘no’ occur with rising (or non-falling) intonation. It’s important to recognize the meaning behind the tones used in everyday speech. 4) pitch range and 5) length by reviewing relevant and current research (Mehmet Celik. stress. In English and many other languages.

and 3) Selection of a tone for the intonation unit To this list. Pausing in some sense is a way of packaging the information such that the lexical items put together in an intonation unit form certain psychological and lexic~grammatical realities. another feature can be added: pitch range. a continuous stream of sounds. or key (Brazil et al. which is assigned the ‘tonic’ status. and this is called stress. Typical examples would be the inclusion of subordinate clauses and prepositional phrases in intonation units. Let’s study then the suprasegmental elements that characterized English Language: 1) intonation units. This helps create the rhythm of the language. 1) Intonation Unit An ‘intonation unit’ is a piece of utterance. word stress and sentence stress. Leech & Svartvik. Stress on the second syllable will be a verb and on the first will be a noun or adjective. in which slashes correspond to pauses (Roach. • Those who sold quickly / made a profit (A profit is made by those who sold quickly.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras For Cruttenden (1986:35). there is one main emphasized syllable. 3) tone. 2) stress. 1967. 1980). The stress is related to syllable stress. longer. and knowing how to recognize the stressed syllable will help you with comprehension. Consider the example below.) • Those who sold / quickly made a profit (A profit was quickly made by those who sold.) 2) Stress In every word in English. 2) Selection of a syllable (of a word).. for example: ‘record and re’cord.86 - . bounded by a fairly perceptible pause. University of Turkey. The stress is very important in English because in some cases the stress can also be phonological because it will change the meaning of the word. 1983:146) (see Halliday. 4) pitch range and length by reviewing relevant and current research (Mehmet Celik. 1975 for more): the meaning is given in brackets. (Review unit II on stress) . intonation has three important features: 1) Division of a (dividing) a stream of speech into intonation units. which were developed in Unit II. The vowel sound in this syllable sounds higher in pitch. and louder. Placing the stress where it should be when you’re speaking helps native speakers understand you better as well.

You mustn’t talk so LOUDly.3. or ‘nucleus’.2. which is usually a modal auxiliary. Compare the following examples. I’m going to London. the syllable that receives the tonic stress is called ‘tonic syllable’. emphatic stress 2. I’m going to London for a holiday. contrastive stress 2. 2.1. however. I’m going to london for HOliday. an intensifier. etc. not as much as the tonic syllable. Roach (1983: 144). It was very BOring. (content words) unstressed (grammatical words) and the unmarked (going and holiday in the sentence). They still get stressed. You MUSTN’T talk so loudly. new information stress Tonic stress. (emphatic) . An intonation unit almost always has one peak of stress.4. Consider the following. in which the tonic syllable is underlined: 1. It refers to the word that should be marked. Example: I’m go into London for Holiday. unmarked tonic stress 2. Emphatic stress. 2. Tonic stress is almost always found in a content word in utterance final position. 2. and reporting utterances. Because stress applies to syllables. (emphatic) i.1.2. It was VEry boring.87 - . proclaiming. producing a three level stress for utterances: the stressed. The term tonic stress is usually preferred to refer to this kind of stress in referring. (unmarked) ii. which is called ‘tonic stress’. i. (unmarked) ii. but it is not because another word was emphasized. A question does arise as to what happens to the previously tonic assigned syllables. I’m going.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Four major types of stress are identified: 2. The first two examples are adapted from. Unmarked tonic stress. One reason to move the tonic stress from its utterance final position is to assign an emphasis to a content word. 3. an adverb.

surely.975:135): indeed. grand. really. tremendous. enough. barely. (She only played (not.) D) She played the piano yesterday. very (adjective).88 - . Contrastive Stress. pretty.) in the stimulus utterance.3. too. New Information Stress.) E) She played the piano yesterday. literally. utterly. alone. it is pronounced with more breath force. In a response given to a wh-question. is stressed. terribly. definitely. the stress pattern is quite different from the emphatic and non-emphatic stresses in that any lexical item in an utterance can receive the tonic stress provided that the contrastively stressed item can be contrastable in that universe of speech.. C) She played the piano yesterday. (It was yesterday.. great. That is.. the information supplied. The concept of new information is much clearer to students of English in responses to wh-questions than in declarative statements. Consider the following sentences where we can find contrast. naturally enough.. 1. (It was her who.. since it is more prominent against a background given information in the question. very (adverb). far.. entirely. a) What’s your NAME b) My name’s GEORGE. extremely. completely. quite. awfully. (It was the piano that.) 2.) F) She played the piano yesterday. Examples: a) Do you like this one or THAT one? b) I like THIS one.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Some intensifying adverbs and modifiers (or their derivatives) that are emphatic by nature are (Leech & Svartvik. truly. No distinction exists between content and function words regarding this.. only. The contrasted item receives the tonic stress provided that it is contrastive with some lexical element (notion. In contrastive contexts.4. absolute. a) Where do you LIVE b) I live in BONN . a) Where are you FROM? b) I’m from WALES. terrific. 2. especially. -self. own. harmed) ..

rising tone.1.’ The part referring to his name is given in the question. A tone is a certain pattern. Regarding the significance of new information declarative statements. 3) Tone A unit of speech bounded by pauses has movement.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii The questions given above could also be answered in short form except for the last one. in which case the answers are: • George. if the upward movement is higher. rising falling and a combination of them.89 - . Ladefoged (1982:100) states: ‘In general. wh-questions. Examples: a) Statements: I’ll report you to the headmaster. new information is more likely to receive a tonic accent than material that has already been mentioned. speakers signal whether to refer. then it is ‘low rise’. so it may be omitted. b) wh-questions: Where is the PENcil? . not an arbitrary one. question or hesitate. falling rising tone. and Yes/No questions (when the speaker uses a falling intonation. then it is ‘high rise’. agree. • Wales. A fall in pitch on the tonic syllable renders (provides) the tone as ‘fall’. etc. • in Bonn In other words. 3. By means of tones. 1983: 113). if it is lower. associated with the pitch of voice (Roach. requests. This glide is of two kinds. A ‘rise’ tone is one in which the tonic syllable is the start of an upward glide of pitch. the glide continues over the rest of the syllables. or indicate completion and continuation of turn-taking. The ‘new’ information in this response is ‘George. This certain pattern of voice movement is called ‘tone’. ‘Fall-rise’ has first a pitch fall and then a rise. What makes a tone a rising or failing or any other type of tone is the direction of the pitch movement on the last stressed (tonic) syllable (Brown. that will be seen later on. ‘given’ information is omitted. If the tonic syllable is in non-final position. because it is meaningful in discourse. In the exchange: a) What’s your name? b) (My name’s) George. in speech. of music and rhythm. exclamations. Falling intonation: In statements. we assume that he already knows the answer). 1977:45). disagree. imperatives. not repeated. Tone allows identifying different kinds of sentences: a falling tone.

Falling.4.3. In this question we have three possible answers from addressee: A) Isn’t he NICE? B) i) Yes. d) Requests: Please sit DOWN. • PreSUmably / he thinks he CAN. 3. a) She passed her DRIving test.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras c) Imperatives: Go and see a doCtor. as in the following intonation units. b) Taking up WHAT? (clarification). ii) No. Rising intonation a) Yes/No questions when the speaker is sure that he does not know the answer and that the addressee knows the answer. a) Have you MET him? b) YES.2.Rising (Followed by a Fall) Sentential adverbs. or indicating disbelief. 3. • A quick tour of the CIty / would be NICE. . b) She PASSED? (disbelief). a) I’m taking up TAxidermy this autumn. iii) I don’t know. 3. we may think that the speaker is asking for a repetition or clarification. high-Rising: Asking for repetition or clarification. compound sentences and so on. If the tonic stress is uttered with extra pitch height. we assume that the speaker already knows the answer and he only needs confirmation). Consider the following in which the former of the intonation units are uttered with a fallinrising tone (the slash indicates a pause): Sentencial adverbs: • Private enterPRISE / is always EFficient. e) Exclamations: Watch OUT! f) Yes/No questions: (when the speaker uses a falling intonation. • Usually / he comes on SUNday.90 - .

as in • • I WON’T deliver the goods / unless I receive the PAYment. When such a clause has two intonation units. (Cruttenden. we may still observe the pattern fall-rise and fall respectively. Pitch is one of the acoustic correlates of stress (Underhill 1994:57). Consider the following: • When I passed my REAding test / I was VEry happy. In an overwhelming majority of syllables that are stressed. The human auditory perception system may also have trouble distinguishing frequency differences between notes under certain circumstances. it is the auditory attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered on a scale from low to high. a higher pitch is observed. which is falling-rising..pitch is primarily dependent on the rate of vibration of vocal cords. According to acoustical terminology. the pitch of voice increases. The moon revolves around the EARTH / as we ALLknow. Pitch variations in speech are realized by the alteration of the tension of vocal cords (Ladefoged.91 - . ‘. higher pitch is heard louder than lower pitch. specific and/or meaningful sequences of pitches in an intonation unit. 1986:3).. the first.. . harmonic or otherwise. For a key to be significant: 1) It should be under speaker’s control. the tone observed in non-final intonation units can be said to have a ‘dependency’ tone.. It is one of the three major auditory attributes of sounds along with loudness and timbre. it may differ from the perceived pitch because of overtones. normally has a fall-rise while the second. also known as partials. has falling tone. Therefore. 4) Pitch Pitch represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. When the actual fundamental frequency can be precisely determined through physical measurement. non-final. From a physiological point of view. That is. loudness to a certain extent contributes to the make-up of pitch. The rate of vibration in vocal cords is increased by more air pressure from the lungs. 1982:226). final. non final (Fall-rise) (dependency tone) • If you SEE him / give my MESsage. When the vocal cords are stretched. final intonation (Falling) When the order of complex clause is reversed. in the sound.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Compound sentences: One of the most frequent complex clause types in English is one that has dependent (adverbial or subordinate) clause followed by an independent (main) clause. The term ‘key’ can be described as utterance pitch. Therefore.

Most of the speech for a speaker takes place at the mid (unmarked) pitch (key). There are three kinds of keys (pitch): high.1977) and speakers make use of them depending on what and how they want to say the things. It is not raining today.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 2) It should be perceptible to ordinary speakers. high pitch. 1. 1983:113). Echo. (said Barney sadly) b) 30 thousand dollars¡. In contrast. speaker must choose one of the three keys as required for the conversation. 2. and relatively less significant contribution to the speech. For each intonation unit.92 - . 2. (unmarked) In denotative or declarative statements (affirmative or negative) I wan to go to the market. Exclamations: High: She: Oh GOD¡ Mid: Low: He:/have you GUESSED?/ 2.1.3. 2. and 3) It should represent a contrast (Roach. Echo/repeat: a) 30 thousand dollars.2. high and low pitches (keys) are marked: high key is used for emotionally charged intonation units while use of low key indicates an existence of equivalence (as in appositive expressions). mid and low (Coulthard. Contrastivity: High: DAVdi¡ / Mid: / we’re going to MARgate this year / Low: High: YALE / Mid: / I’m going to HARvard / Low. employed in normal and unemotional speech. (high). . Mid pitch.

there are only a few that have both distinctive vowel length and distinctive consonant length. live. leave. of course. fool (short // and log /u:/ ) . It is more common that there is only one or that they depend on each other. /:/. /a:/. or for both. sheep. Length may be distinctive for vowels. Non-defining relative clauses High: Mid: / my DOCtor / / is very WELL-known / Low: who’s a neuROlogist 3. length or quantity is a feature of sounds that are distinctively longer than other sounds. /3:/. Among the languages that have distinctive length.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. considerable variation in length is possible. Statements of opinion. for consonants. /æ/. hit (short //and long /i:/) Pull. although distinctive length is more common with vowels than with consonants. Phonetically. The languages that distinguish between different lengths have usually long and short sounds.93 - . It –eat. heat. //. In English the length is phonological because we can change the meaning of the word.3. English distinguish between long and short vowels: English short vowels: English long vowels: //. pool.2. low pitch 3. Many languages do not have distinctive length.Co-reference: High: Mid: / I TOLD you already / Low: DUMmy / ( it refers back to you) 3. /e/. length In phonetics. //.1. There are short vowels as well as long consonants (the latter are often called geminates). //. High: Mid: / the GOvernment / / will agree with our deMANDS Low: I THINK 5. ship. full. // /i:/. /u:/.

and how). loudness.94 - . The whole sentence seems to be dropping like a series of small towards the Tonic. why. The Tonic is the syllable of greatest stress an utterance. whom. if anything. the voice drops on the following syllable and there is no further movement until the end of the phrase or sentence. harm /ha:m/ (long vowel /a:/) Caught /k:t/ cord /k:d/. corn /k:n/. I bought some food. We have looked at intonation when we saw how meaning could be altered by shifting the Tonic.question) Stress. I thought I saw an alligator. rhythm and intonation are. If there are one or more unstressed syllables after the Tonic. If the Tonic is the last syllable in the sentence. the voice will slide from high to low within that syllable. hard /ha:d/. wh. for ‘wh’ questions (what. when.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Heart /ha:t/. in which all the features of the other stressed syllables-movement. It is also the syllable where most `movement´ occurs. Intonation 1: The rising-falling pattern (Statements. . A sentence with the Tonic at the end will look like this. This is called the ‘rising-falling’ intonation pattern. lengthare present in an exaggerated form. I thought I saw a burglar. whose. more important for communication than the correct pronunciation of individual sounds.2. Jane’s away.2. which. course /k:s/ (long vowel /:/) 4. who. This pattern is used (a) (b) for statements. where. the voice rising on each stressed syllable and then falling slightly below the pitch it was at before: ‘A farmer went trotting upon his grey mare’.1. Kinds of intonation by Mimi Ponsonby 4.

We`re going to church. B. It’s snowing. I put them down (b) Second –last syllable I`ve bought you a present.95 - . in which the voice does not rise on the Tonic. I’m ill. lacking in enthusiasm. I’m going away. Practice making a difference between rising-falling and falling intonation It’s raining. The difference between this and the first pattern is that if you use the second you will sound distinctly bored or. but remains flat and then falls either within the final syllable or on the following one: I feel sick. I think he’s an anthropologist. . Practice a. Statements (a) Final syllable I took the books. He’s going into politics. at the very least. My father’s a teacher. I’ve killed him. We’re going by taxi.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii There is also a plain ‘falling’ pattern. ‘Wh-’questions (a) What’s that? Where’s the tea? Which is yours? Who’s that girl? Whose are these? (b) What are you going? When did you get there? Where are you going? Why didn’t you tell me? How are the children? (c) When will you finish it? Which is the easiest? Who were you talking to? Why don’t we go to the cinema? How did you hurt yourself? C. (c) Followed by several syllables I’ve dropped the thermometer.

Emily! Where are you going? I’m going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the loudspeaker. Who is he? I don’t know. How did he manage to hear it if we didn’t? Because he was listening. When does the plane leave? Not until a quarter to four. Never mind. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement… Yes. between your feet. It won’t be leaving till five. I was talking too much? Oh dear. What do you mean. Why did we get here so early? Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents. What time is it now. Where’s my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase? It’s there. Which gentleman? That man over there with all the packages. dear. Emily? . I was afraid so.96 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras dIalogUE: what time does the plane leave? ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: EMILY: ROBERT: What’s the time? Ten past two. You were talking too much to hear. dear. The plane’s delayed.

and then. You use this pattern to ask questions that require an answer of Yes or No.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4.97 - . Did you see an alligator in the bath at the party last night? The fall-rise pattern is also used for greetings. on the name that follows falling a little more and rising again sharply. I saw a burglar. This pattern is the reverse of the one rising-falling pattern. Jane! Good evening. greetings). Be careful not to rise too sharply. implying. but this time the voice falls on the Tonic and then rises. the voice rising and falling on the greeting. or you’ll end up in a squeak! /s’kwi:k/ (very high tone of voice). request for repetition. Hello. The main movement in the sentence is still on the Tonic syllable. especially if you have a lot to add after the Tonic. . Let’s look at three sentences. I don’t believe you. not the exact reverse of the first? In the statement. once the voice has fallen after the Tonic. and then in question form: (a) I bought some food. Intonation 2: The falling-rising pattern (Yes / No question. Mrs. in fact. but in the question the voice continues to rise to the end of the sentence. A saw an alligator (b) Did you buy some food? Did you see a burglar? Did you see an alligator? Did you notice that the second pattern is. Baker! You also use this tune with ‘wh’ questions when you’re asking for information to be repeated.2. first as statement with a rising-falling pattern. it stays at the same level. The intonation here usually expresses shock or anger.2.

Good evening. Who was she with? Charlie Brown? PRaCTICE 1 (a) a. Doctor. am I being a nuisance? /’nju:sns/ (someone who annoys you and causes trouble) B. She was with Charlie Brown. greetings Hullo.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras I saw your girlfriend at the cinema last night. Good morning. Where did you see her? At the cinema. Mr Mumble. everybody. (b) C.98 - . Peter. Requests for repetition What did you say? When was all this? Where did you say you found it? Which pills did you take? Who did you say you went with? Whose wife danced on the table? Why did you think it was me? How did you get in? . Good afternoon. Yes / no questions Are you alone? Can I come in? May I sit down? Do you mind if I smoke? Are you sure? Have you got an ashtray? May I borrow some matches? Would it be possible to have a cup of tea? Oh.

It’s about last night. Someone who looks after a building. Sir. Caretaker. /’ketek/ (Someone who looks after a building) Vocabulary Popped out. Mr Holmes? SERGEANT: Were you alone? SERGEANT: Did you go out at all? SERGEANT: Do you remember what time this was? HOLMES: SERGEANT: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you. /’ketek/. I wasn’t feeling very well. Won’t you come in? Yes. /pa:pt’aut/. The caretaker said ‘good evening’. of course. No. Go somewhere suddenly.erpopped out to post a letter. Won’t you sit down? Yes. it was about-um-half past eight.99 - . Er. Were you at home. /pa:pt’aut/ (Go somewhere suddenly) HOLMES: No. Yes. . Mr Holmes? HOLMES: HOLMES: HOLMES: HOLMES: HOLMES: Good evening. officer. Sergeant. I stayed in all evening-that is. just a minute. May I ask you a few questions? SERGEANT: Thank you. that’s right-John Holmes. Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes. except for a few minutes when I popped out to post a letter. SERGEANT: Thank you. I was. the caretaker was murdered last night. SERGEANT: The caretaker. Oh yes. actually.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dIalogUE: were you at home last night? SERGEANT: Good evening. Yes. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend. yes. I don’t think so.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. hesitation.3.100 - . Thursday. such as ‘don’t interrupt me’: ‘I haven’t finished yet’. If you want to show that you could go on but leave the rest to your listener’s imagination. when enumerating lists. or ‘That’s all for the moment’. Wednesday… If your list is complete. if the speakers pauses in the middle of a sentence. lists. or apology. Intonation 3: Combined patterns. Tuesday. Tuesday. Wednesday. you use the falling-rising pattern on the last item as well. Can I help you? Well… I’m sorry. I was about to put my hands inside the box… when I heard a ticking noise. Thursday….2. doubt. indicating to your listener that it is the last element.) Intonation is one of the means a speakers uses to send signals to the listener. Dr Mark’s secretary. . Over to you. This falling-rising only on the Tonic is frequently used to express doubt. too. (Pausing in the middle. This is called an ‘open’ list: I’m free on Monday. which has the falling-rising tune. until you come to the Tonic. You use the falling-rising tune. It can also imply. each one on the same level as the last: Monday. Tuesday. he will stop on a rising tone to show you that he intends to continue. This is called a `closed´ list: I’m free on Monday. apology. Every item in your list will have its own pattern. /tkŋ/ (strong) In the first part of the sentence. up to the pause. Wednesday. the final item will have the rise-fall pattern. I think I’ve got it. the pattern is the ordinary risingfalling one of statements. etc.

I’ve bought a painting / but now I don’t like it. No Excuse me. This applies to questions. I saw your uncle in the park/ but I don’t think he saw me (b) Yes. B. Did you see my cousin or my uncle or my aunt? Shall we go to the cinema or the pub or stay at home? (b) Open lists Now say the sentences in B (a) again.101 - . Williams’ Bakery.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Implying that any day of the week is possible. I don’t think so. Mandrake College. (a) If you go to the India / you must see the Taj Mahal. too: Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday? Are you free on Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday…? Practice 1 a. I’m sorry to bother you. . using the falling-rising intonation on the last item as well. I can offer you tea or coffee or hot chocolate. (a) Closed lists -statements and questions We went to Rome and Athens and Beirut and Cairo.

Excuse me. Did you say near the Pier? There’s no pier here. Or the area? I know it was not far from the Pier. Well. I’m afraid. oldfashioned hotel where I – if only I could remember the name! Or the name of the street? The street? Oh I’ve no idea. But. no. I wonder? No. of course! Eastbourne? But this is Seaford! Seaford! Really? I thought it seemed rather a long way! . port. I’m looking for a small. Or could that have been last year. Can’t I help you at all? I don’t know to begin. I don’t know the beginning. I’m terribly sorry to bother you… Yes? That’s quite all right.I think. the beginning’s always a good place to start. you see. Which pier? /p:t/ (port) Eastbourne Pier. /p:t/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras dIalogUE : I’m afraid I’m lost OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: POLICEMAN: OLD LADY: Vocabulary Pier.102 - . last year I went with Emily. There must be ! My hotel was near it.

The speaker seems certain that its true.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. You’re learning English. aren’t you? You killed Cock Robin.103 - . In the first pattern the speaker makes a statement which he or she believes to be true. isn’t it? I’m not going to fall.4. won’t she? The third pattern starts making a definite statement.2. and so will the tag question: You didn’t eat it. Intonation 4. usually asking for confirmation of what has just been said. (b) Although there’s a comma before the tag question you link if the question itself begins with a vowel: That’s the answer. In fact. am I? You said you wanted to go to Aden-didn’t you? . If the main sentence is in the negative. It’s really a question. and so will the tag question: You’re learning English. Tag questions Tag questions are those little questions stuck at the end of a sentence. so it will have a fallingrising intonation. as if an awful feeling of doubt in creeping in /’krpŋ/ (moving carefuly). did you? She will be there tonight. being a statement. I am The sentence. will have a rise –fall intonation pattern. The tag question expresses this doubt with a falling-rising intonation: That’s my money-isn’t it? Two things to note (a) If the main sentence is in the affirmative. the tag question is always in the negative. didn’t you? In the second pattern the speaker is not at all sure of the truth of his statement. the tag question is in the affirmative. though it has a statement form. aren’t you? Yes. The tag question is not really asking a question –the speaker does not except anything but agreement. Then there comes a slight pause.

don’t you? And you won’t do it again. isn’t it? You know where I found it.isn’t yours? . shall we? We won’t have to stay long. falling-rising You have got to buy the tickets –haven’t you’ I didn’t turn off the bath water –didn’t I? The hotel is in this street –isn’t it? You weren’t in the plane crash –were you? d. don’t you? And you put it in my bed. Falling-rising You’ll come with me to the school fete. Rising-falling This is your frog.104 - . didn’t you? So you know what’s going to happen to you. wont you? I’ll pick you up at two. Definite statement followed by doubt-rising-falling. will we? You’ll come and some tea afterwards. Tag question with special stress-rising-falling. won’t you? C. shall I? And we’ll go by car. I like pop music-don’t you? We’re going to the pub on Saturday -aren’t you? We’ve been invited to the Joneses.haven’t you? Mine’s a real diamond. will you? B.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Practice 1 a. falling-rising within the Stressed word.

do you? My talking doesn’t disturb you. isn’t it? All right if you’re a duck. don’t you? . but it seems to disturb the fish. Ah. have you? No. Come here regularly. Come fishing every Sunday. are there? No there aren’t. not yet. No many other people today. Stay here all day. You don’t mind if I sit down. don’t you? That’s right. too. does it? No. don’t they? Same as me. I like a bit of peace.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dIalogUE: Fish like a bit of silence. are there? Caught some fish already. don’t they? PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: FISHERMAN: PASSER-BY: Nasty weather. don’t you? Yes. I do. will you? I should like to.105 - . they like a bit of silence.

beetroot… Unit 4. sitting  on  an  ant’s nest. You can’t fit a square peg into a round hole. which is s/he saying? (a) That sounds to me like a foul. . (d) These sheep are going to have their wool shorn off. A bull in a china shop. grass. for tomorrow we die.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. roas(t) pork.5.106 - . :n/ take out the wool.5.2. There’s no smoke without fire. linking and elision (Review 1) weak forms: linking: Elision: out of [v] the [ð] car. Here today. vowel. B and C) a.2. ‘boiled beef’. lettuce. (e) I didn’t realize it was so light. gone tomorrow. Two consecutives stresses: ‘stop grumbling’. cucumber. peas and [n] carrots and [n] cabbage. B. (b) We’ve decided to cover this part with glass. Few proverbs Eat. Practice 1 (4. /peg/ (a stick of wood). (c ) What a cat your cousin is! cad /kæd/ (a man who cannot be trusted) torn. A red rag to bull. Vocabulary Shear. couldn’(t) stay. Rising intonation of incomplete lists: tomatoes. peppers. your bit  of beef. drink and be merry. Check your answers in the answers key (B and C). ‘brown bread’. weak forms. shorn /. detes(t) picnics. did you? late.

(a) lemon [ ] (b) lettuce [ ] (c) almond [ ] (d) sultana [ ] (e) orange [ ] (f) sweetcorn [ ] (g) broad bean [ ] (h) asparagus [ ] (i) beetroot [ ] (j) artichoke [ ] (k) sprout [ ] (l) walnut [ ] (m) turnip [ ] (n) melon [ ] (o) currant [ ] (p) grapefruit [ ] (q) sugarbeet [ ] (r) gooseberry [ ] (s) apricot[ ] (t) carrot [ ] (u) cucumber [ ] [ ] (v) potato [ ] [ ] (w) onion [ ] [ ] (x) mushroom [ ] (y) cauliflower [ ] [ ] d. detest basket indoors beautiful cabbage pudding perfect behind chicken salad tomatoes cucumber beetroot rabbit dumplings . do you know how the ‘o’s and ‘u’s (either separately or in combination) are pronounced in the names of these fruit and vegetables? Put the correct phonetic symbol(s) after each one. listen to the dialogue.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii C. Mark the stresses syllables.107 - .

It’s beautiful! I do like a proper Sunday dinner. peas and carrots and cabbage. isn’t it?.6. peppers. weak forms: linking: Tag question: You’re sitting in. can’t it? Intonation: rising-falling on statements and ‘wh-’ questions. of [v]. we’ve got brown bread and butter and pâté and cold chicken… Blast! I’m sitting on an ant’s nest! Picnics! /blæst/ criticise very strongly) And the salad’s got tomatoes. cucumber. linking. sitting  in. aren’t you?. sort of. What I like is roast pork with apple sauce and gravy. Look.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras dIalogUE: Bit of beef at the picnic PAUL: KATE: PAUL: Picnics! Detest picnics! Paul. tag question. that’s  a. . We couldn’t stay indoors today.108 - . to [t] and so on. just joking. syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2). lettuce. KATE: PAUL: KATE: PAUL: KATE: 4.2. beetroot… Rabbit food! Oh for a plate of boiled beef and dumplings! Oh dear! Paul. the plants. intonation. and treacle tart for pudding… /’tri:kl ta:rt/ (azúcar. Good. do stop grumbling and get the basket out of the car. I do believe your bit of beef is coming this way! Isn’t that a Bull? weak forms. melaza) Here’s a perfect spot! Spread the rug behind this bush. falling-rising on ‘yes/ no’ question.

Do you think this cream’s all right? green’s C. Practice 2 (4. Many hands make light work. but regular within each phrase. like music. The more you beat ’em the better they be. Penny wise. C and d) A few more proverbs a. Look after the pence and the pounds will look after themselves. drain. A woman.2. Not the same all the way through. Rhythm: Feel it. Never look a gift horse in the month.6. pound foolish. which of these words rhyme with ‘funny’? Money Puny Many Monday Pony honey chutney journey sunny Sonny Sony Coney botany alimony Granny anemone runny Mummy . Half a loaf is better than no bread Beggars can’t be choosers. books Water has to be transported by means of a long train. B.109 - . Unit 4. Look after the sense and the sounds will look after themselves. march Don’t leave those boots lying about in the hall. which is s/he saying? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) How many lambs have you got this year? rams That’s a photograph of a marsh hare I took last spring. A fool and his money are soon parted. a dog and a walnut tree. Too many cooks spoil the broth.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Syllable stress: make your voice higher and louder and hang on to the syllable a little longer on the stresses. B.

But they make noises. Andrew! Plants can’t talk –everybody knows that. Colloq. Cross my heart and hope to die. A thin soup with a meat or vegetable flavour. how do you know they make them? Come on. Lie down on the ground and put the stethoscope into your ears. Hear anything? Golly. Well. A male sheep. George.110 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras d. An area of soft wet land. hare. /mar/. can it? golly /’ga:l/ Interj. Not even animal noises. how many syllables are there in these words? (a) position (k) Extraordinary (j) stethoscope Vocabulary Broth. Honestly. Ram(s). /her/. Not noises like the ones human beings make. Marsh. ¡Caray¡ . /ræm/. you’re just joking. What’s that thing that’s hanging round your neck? Looks like sort of a snake. Special sounds. isn’t it? I’m listening to the plants talking. It’s a doctor stethoscope. dIalogUE: listening to the plants talking (c) everybody (b) listening (l) pitched (e) especial (d) noises (g) aren’t (f) hear (i) serious (h) audible GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: ANDREW: GEORGE: Vocabulary That’s a funny sort of position you’re sitting in. /br:θ/. I did! How extraordinary! A very high-pitched squeaking! It can’t be the plants. Animals similar to rabbit but bigger. if they aren’t audible. listen to the dialogue. You can hardly hear them with the human ear. aren’t you? I’m as serious as…as… Sunday.

french I’ll find out if he ever came to the surface again. tailor. Intonation: especially of questions. Tinkers /’tnkr/ (to make changes to repair something) B. handsome [‘hænsm] Vocabulary: Dashing /’dæŋ/ (go somewhere in a hurry) Unit 4. the shifting tonic. thief. poor man. un’happy. Tinker. there’d be no need for tinkers. then beggars would ride. also within words: polite [p’la]. which is s/he saying? (a) The brute! He pinched my shin! chin! gin! I just adore fresh bread. soldier. weak forms: but [bt] are you.111 - . ‘mer’maid. (Review 3) Stress: no stress on negative prefixes: impo’lite. service Have you ever seen such an awful sore before in all your life? shore chore jaw Great minds think alike Fools seldom differ. elision. Still more proverbs Pride comes before a fall.2. Consecutive stresses: a ‘good ‘heavens. ‘big ‘black ‘beard. Stress: consecutive stress. nothing gain. weak forms. linking. /‘dfr/.7 B. han(d) some. One good turn deserves another.7.2. (b) (c) (d) . seen  a: got  a Elision: hasn(‘t) got time. rich man. The shifting Tonic: are you a ‘mer’maid? Of ‘course I’m a ‘mer’maid. bi(g) black. sailor. linking: are you  a. If wishes were horses. handsome and [n] dashing. If ‘ifs’ and ‘ands’ were pots and pans. Nothing venture.C y d) a. forgive [f’gv].fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. beggarman. Practice 3 (4.

112 - . I told you I was going to Repton with Peter. Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter? Peter Blenkinsop. too. That’s a boat show. Are you going to Repton alone? No. d) Mark the stressed syllables in these words before you practice the dialogue orally? Mermaid impolite before upset unhappy borrow handsome delighted actually unadventurous Check your answers to exercises b and c in the answer key. isn’t it? No. . a motor show. Peter’s going. You never told me.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras (e) I’m so cross. I’ve lost the marvellous cot I got from Tom and Margaret. When did you tell me? It must have been someone else. cod cart card C) Underline the Tonic in each phrase or sentence in the following dialogue: I’m going to the Repton Show in October.

He ought to be delighted –you can follow him out to sea. I’m terribly sorry. you see. ordinary. of course not. Oh dear! I didn’t mean to upset you. Only I’ve never seen a mermaid before (weeping) Well. Don’t you think you’d actually be happier with a nice. Ojos matadores. It’s just that I’m so unhappy. now you have. I didn’t mean to be rude.like me? MERMAID: PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: Vocabulary dashing. It’s most impolite to stare like that. Have a good blow and tell me all about it. there. He says he hasn’t got time for girls at sea. It wasn’t you. He’s a sailor. but. Who doesn’t love you? Haven’t you got a hankie? No. /’dæŋ/ Hit somebody or someone violently. . borrow mine. How silly of me.113 - . He’s so handsome and dashing with his big black beard and flashing eyes. unadventurous chap. That’s right.are you a mermaid? Of course I’m a mermaid! You can see I m a mermaid. There. quiet. Here. brilliant.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii dIalogUE: Nobody wants a mermaid PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: MERMAID: PASSER-BY: Good heavens! Forgive me. Flashing. He doesn’t love me. But he doesn’t want a mermaid. /flæŋ/ Bright.

2. I’d rather see than be one. Newton. Risposte Ah. yes.8. 3. Bu I can tell you. I think that whenever I see one. The hippopotamus Behold the hippopotamus¡ We laugh at how he looks to us. The abominable Snowman I’ve never seen an abominable snowman. if I do. Editor 1. 4. now. I’ll kill you if you quote it. I’m also hoping. I wrote “The Purple Cow” – I’m sorry. 2. american light Verse: a Contemporary Selection anne C. And yet in moments dank and grim . anyhow.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. I wrote it¡ But I can tell you. anyhow. I’m hoping not to see one. Rhythm and gingles.114 - . I’d rather have been than still be one. That it will be a wee one. The purple cow I never saw a purple cow I never hope to see one. 5. Babies.

A conscientious scientist. “You mean” he said. Or else the other way around. the guide informed him later. The panther The panther is lie a leopard. Peace. . Are You? 7. Should you behold a panther crouch Prepare to say Ouch. The Camel The came has a single hump: The dromedary.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii I wonder how we look to him. Don’t anther.115 - . Except it hasn’t been peppered. One day he missed his living bride. Been eaten by an alligator. two. peace. I’m never sure. “a crocodile” 8. The Purist I give you now professor Twist. thou hippopotamus¡ We really look all right to us. Professor Twist could not but smile. 6. “He never bungles¡” And sent him off to distant jungles. As you no doubt delight the eye Of other hippopotami. Trustees exclaimed. Better yet. She had. Camped on a tropic riverside. if called by a panther.

didn’t worry. the bear was ravenous. “Ho. Isabel didn’t scream or scurry. How do. Isabel met a troublesome doctor. adventures of Isabel Isabel met an enormous bear. Isabel. glad to meet you. The doctor’s talk was coughs and chills. Once in a night as black as pitch. Isabel¡” the old witch crowed. didn’t worry. The witch’s face was cross and wrinkled. now I’ll eat you¡” Isabel. “Isabel. The doctor said unto Isabel. She washed her hands and She straightened her hair up.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 9. Isabel. She showed no range and she showed no rancor. Isabel. The bear said. But she turned the witch into milk and drank her. . And the doctor’s satchel bulged with pills. Then Isabel quietly ate the bear up.116 - . ho. He punched and he poked till he really shocked her. Isabel. Isabel. The bear’s big mouth was cruel and cavernous. “I’ll turn you into an ugly toad¡” Isabel. Isabel didn’t scream or scurry. The witch’s gums with teeth were sprinkled. Isabel met a wicked old witch. didn’t care The bear was hungry.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii “Swallow this. She took those pills from the pill concocter. And Isabel calmly cured the doctor. Hoping. that it Depends on whom you are away from 11. Or large and small. “I can read you like a book. though. It’s not a thing I’m growing grey from. with a hope quite grim. didn’t worry.” Whereupon I bow my head And submit to being read. distant views Two sayings that I’ve been inclined In puzzlement off times to ponder Are out of sight is out of mind And absence makes the heart grow fonder. For I have found. at last. with piercing look. They’re opposite as day and night.117 - . They’re the kind who merely skims . No more alike than black and white. 10. or fact and fiction To reconcile them. Isabel. The very height of contradiction. Isabel didn’t scream or scurry. it will make you well¡” Isabel. Reading Matter People say. I’ve quit.

I could run as I wish. Would there not still be Two points of view? 14. famished energy and claws of gripping steel. Surplus Commodity The getting is easy. .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 12. I could ramble the wide world free. The taking’s the tough part About advice. 13. Puss pounced upon the sparrow and prepared to make a meal. Etiquette The people tell the story of a sparrow and the cat. As well as the legs of a deer— I could fly. wishful Thinking If I had the wings of a bird of the air And the fins of a fish of the sea. The sparrow never struggled when he knew that he was caught (If somewhat slow in action he was mighty quick of thought). With eager. The feline thin and hungry and the bird exceeding fat. I could swim.118 - . But I’d certainly look mighty queer. The wings of a bird and the fins of a fish. I could travel with speed and abandon all care. The giving is nice. argument If you convinced me And I convinced you. 15.

“No gentleman would ever eat before he washed his face¡” This hint against his manners wounded Tommy like a knife. For cats are great observers of the niceties of life.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii But chirped in simple dignity that seemed to fit the case. and then wash myself¡” and that’s the universal etiquette for educated cats. The naught prepositions I lately lost a preposition. chirruping derisively. hopeless hunger at the sparrow on the bough Poor Tommy glowered longingly and vowed a solemn vow “Henceforth I’ll eat my dinner first. And yet I wondered: “what should he come Up from out of in under for?” Morris Bishop . which seemed the proper things to do When. I thought. He paused to lick his paws. Arthur Guiterman 16.119 - . away the sparrow flew¡ In helpless. (go with me) And straggling phrases I abhor. And angrily I cried: “Perdition¡” Up from out of in under there¡” Correctness is my vade mecum. beneath my chair. It hid.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

17. Favourite That poem is splendid thing, I love to ear you quote it. I like the thought, I like the swing, I like it all. (I wrote it) Mother goose Rhymes: a child’s literary heritage 1. Twinkle, Twinkle, little Star Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are¡ Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are¡ 2. humpty dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; All the king’s horses. And all the king’s men. Couldn’t put Humpty together again. 3. little Bo-Peep Little Bo-peep has lost her sheep And can’t tell where to find them. Leave them alone, and they will come home Bringing their tails behind them.

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4. little Boy Blue Little Boy Blue, Come blow your horn; The sheep’s in the meadow, The cow’s in the corn . Where’s the little boy That looks after the sheep? He’s under the haystack, Fast asleep. 5. ladybird, ladybird Ladybird, Ladybird, Fly away home. Your houses is on fire, Your children will burn. Fly to the east, Fly to the west, Fly to the one you love the best. 6. a dillar, a dollar A dillar, a dollar, A ten o’clock scholar What makes you come so soon? You used to come at ten o’clock, But now you come at noon. 7. jack and jill Jack and Jill Went up the hill. To fetch a pail of water.

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Jack fell down and broke his crown, And Jill came tumbling after. 8. little Polly Flinders Little Polly Flinders. Sat among the cinders, Warming her pretty little toes. Her mother came and caught her And spanked her little daughter. For spoiling her nice new clothes. 9. little Tommy Tucker Little Tommy Tucker Sings for his supper. What shall he eat? White bread and butter. How shall he cut it Without any knife? How shall he marry Without any wife? 10. The old woman in the shoe There was and old woman. Who lived in a shoe. She had so many children. She didn’t know what to do. She fed them some broth.

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Without any bread, Then spanked them all soundly and sent them to bed. 11. Mary had a little lamb Mary had a little lamb. Its fleece was white as snow; And everywhere that Mary went. The lamb was sure to go. It followed her to school one day, Which was against the rule; It made that children laugh and play To see a lamb at school. 12. hi, diddle, diddle Hi, diddle, diddle, The cat and the fiddle, The cow jumped over the moon. The little dog laughed To see such sport, And the dish ran away with the spoon. 13. Sing a Song of Sixpence Sing a song of sixpence, A pocketful of rye, Four-and-Twenty blackbirds Baked in a pie. When the pie was opened, The birds began to sing;

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a tasket A tisket. A green and yellow basket. And on the way I drooped it. Quite contrary Mary. Mary. How does your garden grow? With silver bells. Mary. a tasket. 15. And cockleshells.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Wasn’t that a dainty dish To set before the King¡ The king was in his countinghouse. Mary. Hanging out the clothes. Quite contrary.124 - . And pretty maids all in row. The maid was in the garden. I dropped it. I wrote a letter to my love And on the way I dropped it. Along came a blackbird And snipped off her nose¡ 14. The Queen was in the parlor. I drooped it. Counting out his money. Eating bread and honey. . a tisket.

This is the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. This is the rat. That worried the cat. That killed the rat. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That tossed the dog. This is the house that jack Built This is the house that Jack built. That worried the cat. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. This is the dog. This is the maiden all forlorn.125 - . This is the cow with the crumpled horn. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That killed the rat. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. . That worried the cat. This is the man all tattered and torn. That killed the rat. This is the cat. That tossed the dog. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 16. That killed the rat.

That killed the rat.126 - . That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That waked the priest all shaven and shorn. That tossed the dog. That kept the cock that crowed in the morn. That kissed the maiden all forlorn. . That kissed the maiden all forlorn. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. This is the priest all shaven and shorn. That tossed the dog. That killed the rat. That tossed the dog. That worried the cat. That married the man all tattered and torn. This is the farmer sowing his corn. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras That kissed the maiden all forlorn. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. That killed the rat. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn. This is the cock that crowed in the morn. That married the man all tattered and torn. That married the man all tattered and torn. That worried the cat. That waked the priest all shaven and shorn. That worried the cat.

That tossed the dog. Come.127 - . B and C) a. Waiting for a buttered cake. That worried the cat. That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built.8. Practice 4 (4. butter. here are all the months of the year. do you know how these words are pronounced? although borough bough bought brought cough dough drought enough fought nought ought plough rough sought thorough caterpillar thought dizzy tough trough B. come! Peter stands at the gate. Put a stress mark on the stressed syllables january february march april may june july august september october november december . a. come. butter. Unit 4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii That kissed the maiden all forlorn. butter. ¿how is the letter ‘a’ pronounced in English in the names of these places? France Japan Brazil Spain Wales China Nassau Arabia Holland Bulgaria Uganda Albania Portugal Malaysia Hungary Romania New Zealand South Africa Yugoslavia Australia C. Come. Come butter come Come. come. That killed the rat. That milked the cow with the crumpled horn.2.

listen to the teacher or the tape. But how are you? A) Why do you ask? B) I thought you looked ill. weak forms. B) I haven’t got a cousin. A) You must have¡ we met there¡ B) Are you sure it was me? A) Well. why don’t we have a cup of coffee and see if we can find out? . A) Where? B) All over your face. A) What shall I do? B) You could always wear a veil.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras d. A) Who? B) You.128 - . The speakers are speaking very fast. B) Whose cousin? A) Your cousin. A) What do you mean. Vocabulary: Veil /vel/ (A thin piece of cloth worn over the woman’s head or face) A) How do you do? B) Dow do you do? A) Haven’t we met before? B) Have we? When? A) At your cousin’s party. what are they saying? Copy the sentences on your notebook E. A) What spots? B) Sort of red spots. A) Hullo. how are you? B) I’m very well. Practice the intonation pattern. ill? B) You’ve got spots.

P. (1994) Kenworthy. How now Brown Cow.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation. Sound foundations: Living phonology. (1977) (1998) An introduction to discourse analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Inc.oupchina.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii BIBlIogRaPhY Roach. (1987) Yolanda D. Mother Gosse rymes.html http://www. London: Longman.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# http://www. Teaching english pronunciation. Federici Foreword Eulalie Osgood Grover. J.htm . Ronalnd W.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html http://www. (1988) http://iteslj. A course in pronunciation of english. (1987) Coulthard. Hall International English Language Teaching Ltd. Fundamental of linguistic analysis.com/englishsyllablestress. Ponsonby.129 - . Langacker. A. Harlow (Essex): Longman. Cambridge. M. American light verse.uiowa. (1983) Underhill. San Diego Harcourt Brace Iovanovich.ingilish. Oxford: Heinemann. English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Mimi.com. University of California.

mentioning sub classifications.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras aCTIVITY 1. What is an intonation unit’? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. What can you understand by suprasegmental phonology? Mention the English suprasegmental elements. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Give a definition of tone and mention the different kind of sentences according to the tone.130 - . Define pitch and its classification. What is intonation and what are the three important features about intonation? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What are the four major types of stress identified? Give brief explanation.

elision and shifting tonic? Explain. What do you know about length? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘doubt’ and ‘apology’ follow? Give examples. What pattern do ‘request for repetition’ and ‘greetings’ follow? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 11.131 - . What intonation patterns do sentences that express ‘pausing in the middle’ and ‘making lists’ follow? Give examples. How is intonation behind weak forms. Explain ‘tag question’ intonation pattern and give examples? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 13. Can you explain the rising-falling pattern? Give examples. linking. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 7. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 12.

How and what exercises would you use to teach suprasegmental aspect of the language to your students in the classroom? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ o .132 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 14.

4. and breaking in the syllable formation.UNIT V ENgLIsh syLLAbLE oBjECTIVES 1. /k /sk æ i Rythme Coda t/ n/ ‘cat’ ‘skin’ . Understand the structure of English Syllable. Understand articulation. co articulation. 6. Understand the concept of English syllable.g. 5. 2. Syllable Onset Nucleus E. 7. Find out the difference between syllable and diphthongs. Be aware of the syllabic consonants and its importance for Syllable division. Find out the difference between phonetic syllable and orthographic syllable. 3. Get familiar with syllabification rules.

.

it should be broken at an orthographic syllable boundary. and only one.g. E. it may be combined with a nasal or liquid to give a SYLLABIC CONSONANT. When a word is split across two lines of writing. /n/ (phonetic syllabification) . a long vowel. In the word happen the spelling includes two p’s. a syllable is a group of sounds that are pronounced together. In some cases this may not exactly correspond to a phonetic syllable boundary. /’hæp/ and /n/.2. and the syllables are /’hæp/ and /n/. It is a group of letters in spelling. They are important in verse and metrics. B) Orthographic syllable. or. glad consists of one syllable: /glæd/ Coming consists of two syllables: /km/ and /ŋ/ So does valley: /’væl/ and // tobacco consists of three syllables: /t’bæk/ and // or /-o/ Each syllable contains one vowel. Corresponds to syllables classification of the spoken language. The syllabification of entries can be shown by spacing between successive syllables or by a dot.pen. The division of a word into syllables is its ‘syllabification’. This vowel may be preceded or followed by one or more consonants. Syllables carry the features of stress and intonation.pen (orthographic syllabification) b) /’hæp/. 5.lu:. if it is the weak vowel . Kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification Phonetic (spoken) syllables must not be confused with orthographic (written) syllables a) Phonetic Syllable. But the pronunciation has only a single p.ENglISh SYllaBlE 5.1.br’ke. since the rhythm of a word or phrase is determined by the number and nature of the syllables it contains. All four types appear in the example lubrication /.n/. Every English word consists of one or more complete syllables. definition In phonetics. or a diphthong. The vowel itself may be a short vowel. a) hap. and the orthographic syllabification is hap.

s + (initial) p. /q/. Example: bets. r.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 5. 2 or 3 consonants. w.3. and the velar nasal (the ‘/h/’ sound) can also be the nucleus of a syllable. 2. belt 2) Final cluster: /Post-finals (s. if we have a look at the structural properties of syllable we observe that syllable consists of a central peak of sonority (usually a vowel). if a syllable ends with a vowel (i. n. which are usually consonants or consonant clusters. Example: bump. j may be final consonant.r. The nucleus is a vowel in most cases.k.CV.e. nasal.r / s:pre-initial/others:initial s + other consonants + (post-initials) l. [ l ]. For example. Structural Properties of the syllable. l.j =pre-initial+initial+post-initials In the following words. In English syllables. The consonant or consonant cluster which is following the peak (nucleus) of sonority is called the “coda”.136 - . Table 3.t. Pre-finals (m. consonant clusters are not arbitrarily formed. There may be two kinds of Final Cluster: 1) Final cluster: /pre-final + final / final + post final. the “b” in the word “bar” is the onset.f. . their representation is as follows: Consonant Clusters: 1. CVC. beds). English Syllables may start with 1. CVV) this is open syllable but if it ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i. [ m ]. In the word “bar” “a” is the nucleus. z.e.y. the rest underlined. and optionally onset or coda. The preceding consonant or consonants cluster is called the “onset”. and the consonants that cluster around this central peak. Parts – onset – Nucleus – Coda description Initial segment of a syllable Central segment of a syllable Closing segment of a syllable optionality (Optional) Obligatory (Optional) As seen in Table 3. In case they have an onset. the “rt” cluster in the word “art” is the coda.w.w. although the consonants [ r ]. they can be described as: ”any consonant except for h. English syllables require a nucleus. s. The peak of sonority is called the “nucleus”.n. d. which is usually a vowel. VCC) this would be closed syllable.l. The structure of the syllable (by Tuncer Can) First of all. Syllables of English can be “open” or “closed”. the onset is in bold. [ n ]. t. For example.m. read flop strap The consonant clusters which constitute the coda are also not arbitrarily formed.

z.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii So. VCC) this would be a closed syllable. beds).4. q = bets. s). Nevertheless the question of syllabification in English is controversial. Pre-initial + Initial + Post-initials -Vowel . with a maximal example being strengths (/strεŋkθs/. since it is not possible initial consonant cluster in English. although it can be pronounced /strεŋθs/).final + final / final + post final. the structural formula for the English Syllable can be drawn as: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C). n. Hence we can argue whether candy is kan-di or cand-i. as well as making certain details of pronunciation more explicit.e CV. open syllable: If the syllable ends with a vowel (i. d. Final cluster / pre .5 Syllabification Syllable divisions are shown by pacing. Kinds of syllables according to its structure Syllables of English can be: “open” or closed” 1. These two extracts indicate the complexity of syllabification (in English) and the consequent difficulty in finding rules: . t. One tree diagram exemplifying this phenomenon is: σ rhyme onset nucleus coda 5.137 - . It is generally agreed that phonetic syllable divisions must be such as to avoid (as far as possible) creating consonants clusters which are not found in words in isolation. This makes the transcription easier to read. but it cannot be ca-ndi. pre finals (m. Closed syllable: If the syllable ends with a consonant or a consonant cluster (i. CVC.e. Final cluster / post final (s. CVV) 2. 1. nasal. l. 5.Pre-final + Final+ Post-final or (C) (C) (C) Onset V Nucleus (C) (C) (C) (C) Coda. or Onset + Rhyme (the rest of the syllable after the onset). and must therefore be discussed. 2. Rhyme can be divided as nucleus + coda.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras

Syllabification is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written. In most languages, the actually spoken syllables are the basis of syllabification in writing too. However, due to the very weak correspondence between sounds and letters in the spelling of modern English, for example, written syllabification in English has to be based mostly on etymological i.e. morphological instead of phonetic principles. English “written” syllables therefore do not correspond to the actually spoken syllables of the living language. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllable#Syllabification As a result, most even native English speakers are unable to syllabify (or spell) words with any degree of accuracy without consulting a dictionary or using a word processor. The process is, in fact, so complicated that even schools usually do not provide much more advice on the topic than to consult a dictionary. Even the Internet does not seem to provide any general syllabification guide, explanation, or discussion not meant for experts. In addition, there are differences between British and US syllabification and even between dictionaries of the same kind of English. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllabification http://www.createdbyteachers.com/syllablerulescharts.html

5.6. Rules for Phonetic Syllabification
Harley (2003) proposes fourteen rules to describe how English words are formed or framed. She describes this phenomenon through Phonotactics. She first defines phonotactics as “the rules that describe possible sequences of sounds for forming English words”. These rules are: 1. All phonological words must contain at least one syllable, and hence must contain at least one vowel. 2. Sequences of repeated consonants are not possible. 3. The velar nasal /ng/ never occurs in the onset of a syllable. 4. The glottal fricative /h/ never occurs in the coda of a syllable. 5. The affricates /ts/ and /dz/, and the glottal fricative /h/ do not occur in complex onsets. 6. The first consonant in a two-consonant onset must be an obstruent.(p,t,k, d, f, g). 7. The second consonant in a two-consonant onset must not be a voiced obstruent. 8. If the first consonant of a two-consonant onset is not an /s/, the second consonant must be a liquid or a glide – the second consonant must be /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/. 9. Every subsequence contained within a sequence of consonants must obey all the relevant phonotactic rules.

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10. No glides in syllable codas. 11. The second consonant in a two-consonant coda cannot be /ng/, /d/, /r/, /3/. 12. If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, the first consonant in the coda must also be voiced. 13. When a non-alveolar nasal is in a coda together with a non-alveolar obstruent, they msut have the same place of articulation, and obstruent must be a voiceless stop. 14. Two obstruents in a coda together must have the same voicing.

onset
The following syllable combinations can occur as the onset: All single consonant phonemes except /ŋ/ Plosive plus approximant other than /j/: /pl/, /bl/, /kl/, /gl/, /pr/, /br/, /tr/*, /dr/*, /kr/, /gr/, /tw/, /dw/, /gw/, /kw/ Voiceless fricative plus approximant other than /j/: /fl/, /sl/, /fr/, /θr/, /r/, /sw/, /θw/ Consonant plus /j/: /pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /gj/, /mj/, /nj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /lj/ /s/ plus voiceless plosive: /sp/, /st/, /sk/ /s/ plus nasal: /sm/, /sn/ /s/ plus voiceless fricative: /sf/ /s/ plus voiceless plosive plus approximant: /spl/, /spr/, /spj/, /smj/, /str/, /stj/, /skl/, /skr/, /skw/, /skj/

(Harley, H. 2003)

play, blood, clean, glove, prize, bring, tree, dream, crowd, green, twin, dwarf, language, quick floor, sleep, friend, three, shrimp, swing, thwart pure, beautiful, tube, during, cute, argue, music, new, few, view, thurifer, suit, Zeus, huge, lurid speak, stop, skill smile, snow sphere split, spring, spew, smew, street, student, sclerosis, scream, square, skewer

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Nucleus The following can occur as the nucleus: • • • All vowel sounds /m/, /n/ and /l/ in certain situations ( syllabic) /r/ in rhotic varieties of English () in certain situations (see below under word-level rules, syllabic)

Coda
The following can occur as the coda: The single consonant phonemes except /h/, /w/, /j/ and, in non-rhotic varieties, /r/ Lateral approximant + plosive: /lp/, /lb/, /lt/, /ld/, /lk/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + plosive: /rp/, /rb/, /rt/, /rd/, /rk/, /rg/ Lateral approximant + fricative or affricate: /lf/, /lv/, /lθ/, /ls/, /l/, /lt/, /l/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + fricative or affricate: /rf/, /rv/, /rθ/ /rs/, /r/, /rt/, /r/ Lateral approximant + nasal: /lm/, /ln/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + nasal or lateral: /rm/, /rn/, /rl/ Nasal + homorganic plosive: /mp/, /nt/, /nd/, /ŋk/ Nasal + fricative or affricate: /mf/, /mθ/ in non-rhotic varieties, /nθ/, /ns/, /nz/, /nt/, /n/, /ŋθ/ in some varieties Voiceless fricative + voiceless plosive: /ft/, /sp/, /st/, /sk/ Two voiceless fricatives: Two voiceless plosives: /fθ/ /pt/, /kt/ help, bulb, belt, hold, milk harp, orb, fort, beard, mark, morgue golf, solve, wealth, else, Welsh, belch, indulge dwarf, carve, north, force, marsh, arch, large film, kiln (oven) arm, born, snarl (gruñón) jump, tent, end, pink triumph, warmth, month, prince, bronze, lunch, lounge, length left, crisp, lost, ask fifth opt, act depth, lapse, eighth, klutz (torpe), width (ancho), box

Plosive + voiceless fricative: /pθ/, /ps/, /tθ/, /ts/, /dθ/, /dz/, /ks/

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Lateral approximant + two consonants: /lpt/, /lfθ/, /lts/, /lst/, /lkt/, /lks/ In rhotic varieties, /r/ + two consonants: /rmθ/, /rpt/, /rps/, /rts/, /rst/, /rkt/

sculpt, twelfth, waltz, whilst, mulct, calx Warmth, excerpt, corpse, quartz, horst, infarct

Nasal + homorganic plosive + plosive or fricative: Prompt, glimpse, thousandth, /mpt/, /mps/, /ndθ/, /ŋkt/, /ŋks/, /ŋkθ/ in some varieties distinct, jinx, length Three obstruents: /ksθ/, /kst/ sixth, next
Source: http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm

Note: For some speakers, a fricative before /θ/ is elided so that these never appear phonetically: /ffθ/ becomes [fθ], /siksθ/ becomes [sikθ], /twelfθ/ becomes [twelθ]

Syllable-level rules
1. Both the onset and the coda are optional. 2. /j/ at the end of an onset (/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /mj/, /nj/, /lj/, /spj/, /stj/, /skj/) must be followed by /u:/ or // 3. Long vowels and diphthongs are usually not followed by /ŋ/ 4. // is rare in syllable-initial position 5. Stop + /w/ before /u:, , , a/ are excluded.

word-level rules • // does not occur in stressed syllables • // does not occur in word-initial position in native English words although it can occur syllable-initial, e.g. /tr(r)/ • /θj/ occurs in word-initial position in a few obscure words: thew, thurible, etc.; it is more likely to appear syllable initial, e.g. /nθjuz/ • /m/, /n/, /l/ and, in rhotic varieties, /r/ can be the syllable nucleus (ie a syllabic consonant) in an unstressed syllable following another consonant, especially /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/. • Certain short vowel sounds //, /æ/, // and // (Checked vowels) cannot occur without a coda in a single syllable word. In Standard English the checked (//, //, /æ/, //, //, and //) are those that usually must be followed by a consonant in a stressed syllable,
(up, bit, bet, but, put, but). while free vowels are those that may stand in a stressed open syllable with no following consonant. (bee, bay, boo, bra, buy, toe, cow, boy).
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonotactics

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ate dis . they make a syllable of their own. When a word has a ck or an x in it. it is usually divided after the consonant if the vowel is short. and are sounded separately. it is u s u a l l y divided before the consonant if the vowel is long. sis . When a vowel is sounded alone in a word. lish . brush When two or more consonants come between two vowels in a word.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 5. nit un . hale re . tie Rule 11. be . ball tooth . cab . main . ter Rule 8. ter hun . Rule 2. ing =3 bell reach . fend ex . Rule 13. in . it is usually divided between the first two consonants. A compound word is divided between the two words that make the compound word. er Rule 9. di . ing A one syllable words is never divided. Home= 1 stop rest . Rule 12. count di . ra . Rule 4. Consonant blends and digraphs are never separated. Rule 6. side Rule 7. lev .7 Rules for orthographic syllabification Rule 1. the word is usually divided after the ck or x. de.142 - . et a . Every syllable has one vowel sound. foot . A word that has a prefix is divided between the root word and the prefix. jor Rule 10. el sub . sin fe . ver ma . When two vowels come together in a word. it When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word. The number of vowels sounds in a Word equals the number of syllables. When be. divide the word between the two vowels. fit i . a u . ex and re are at the beginning of a word. ing nick . it forms a syllable itself. el tax . Rule 3. in hab . u . but . ject =2 feel bush . o gra . pron miss . Rule 5. gry When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word. de . came de . i pub. ba .

ple fum . Rule 19.com/syllablerulescharts. dle Rule 16. ble mid . When ture and tion are at the end of a word. fund . lev . el us . ture. al Rule 18. lo . Source: http://www. the word is divided before that consonant. these letters usually form the last syllable. preceded by a consonant.143 - . ful stuff .html . u .) stays with the syllable at the end of the line. they make their own syllable. ed Rule 17. ed When a word or a syllable ends in al or el. The hyphen (.createdbyteachers. When –ed comes at the end of a word. it forms a syllable only when preceded by d or t. s tart . kind . tion pos . A word that has a suffix is divided between the root word and the suffix. ness thank . A word should be divided between syllables at the end of a line. When a word ends in le.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Rule 14. ing Rule 15. pur .

144 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Application 1. Apply the rules to the word syllabification. O R / / \ | NC | | | [ w i n] ‘wind’ O R / / \ | NC | | | [d ou ] ‘dow (window)’ s O /|\ | | | | | | [st r R / \ N C | || || ŋk θ s ] O R / / \ | NC | | | [r i: d ] ‘read’ s O R / / \ | NC | | | [ r i: d ] ‘read’ s O R / / \ | NC | | | [w i n] ‘win’ ‘strengths’ s O R /\ / \ | | NC | | | | [ f l a p] ‘flap’ s S: syllable O: onset R: rhyme N: nucleus C: coda O R / / \ | NC | | | [ t o p] ‘top’ .

deliver 5. array 8. imagine 9. depend 6. alone 5. carpet 5.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit V. conquer 8. early 8. abandon 4. office 7. pronounce 5. deceive 2. adjetives and nouns using syllable tree representations. Three syllable words VERBS 1. dirty . Two-syllable words VERBS 1. interrupt 6. major 4. complete 3. B) Represent the verbs. dentist 10. below NoUNS 1. 1. affair 4. elicit 7. aspect 3. sharpen 3. compete 8. object 7. copy adjECTIVES 1. entertain 2. happy 9. polish 10. Autumn 6. resurrect 3. defeat 2. separate 6. yellow 7. Practice 1 a) Read the words loud out providing adequate stress. record 9. collect 4. petrol 9. determine 10. Easy 2.145 - . heavy 10. bishop 2.

enormous 3.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras adjECTIVES 1. Mixture of type a and b long-surfing gunman shoelace red-blooded gear-box over-weight . important 2. First element nominal. tomato Compound words a. First element adjectival. decimal 5. stress on the second element loud-speaker bad-tempered head-quarters second-class three-wheeler b. negative 9. veredic 4. stress on the first element typewriter car-ferry sunrise suitcase tea-cup c. accurate 10. abnormal 6. fantastic 8.146 - . insolent 7.

the second syllable consists of n alone. thus ‘li:n ĭnt. for example. 5. this consonant (or one of them) is a nasal (usually n) or liquid (l or.2. Nevertheless. Such a consonant is called a syllabic consonant. involves a movement of the tongue from a starting-point /a/ towards an endpoint //.9. especially in AmE. as in glorious /’gl:ris/.10.li/. (Compare CRESCENDO DIPHTHONGS). rather than becoming /’n.ns/. If lenient ‘li:niˇnt is compressed from three syllables to two.147 - . All English diphthongs phonemes are diminuendo (falling) diphthongs: in nice nais the prominence decreases as we pass from a to .8.1. Where –rj. r). • 5. the i may merely come to form the less prominent part of a crescendo diphthong ĭ.. the sequences represented by /je/ and /w/ could be regarded as crescendo diphthongs.n. there are actually two distinct possible outcomes (although admittedly it may be difficult to hear the difference between them).1. This is particularly likely if a semivowel give rise to a difficult sequence of consonants. diphthongs A diphthong is a complex vowel: a sequence of two vowel qualities within a single syllable.9.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 5. An English diphthong has the same duration and rhythmic characteristics as a long vowel. • A semivowel (j or w) is followed by a vowel. Ordinary diphthongs are diminuendo (or falling).9.ns/. Syllabic consonants 5. in the usual pronunciation of suddenly /’sd. thus ‘Inflŭns. A vowel written in LPD (Longman pronunciation dictionary) as i or u is compressed with a following vowel (see COMPRENSSION). influence /’nflu. Rather than changing all the way to the corresponding semivowel j (giving ‘li:n jnt). Sometimes. 5. No English phoneme has crescendo diphthong as its usual phonetic realization. a syllable consists only of a consonant (or consonants). in that the prominence decreases as we pass from the first element to the second: the /a/ part of /a/ is more prominent than the // part. though. If so.flw. may be pronounced with a crescendo diphthong ŭ. Most syllables contain a vowel sound. In the words yes /jes/ and win /wn/. For example. Similarly. Crescendo diphthongs 5. crescendo diphthong may arise in one of two ways.is awkward. The /a/ of time /tam/. Several English vowel phonemes are diphthongal.10. A crescendo (or rising) diphthongs is one in which the prominence increases as we pass from the first element to the second. .

including syllabic n. to show a syllabic consonant. articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the air flow turbulent. g are plosives. b. Hence this notation implies that lPd prefers bare n in the second syllable.10. a syllabic consonant may arise from almost any sequence of  and a nasal or liquid. in middle /’mdļ/ lPd recommends pronunciations with syllabic l. with plain n. thus /’retnŋ/. thus ņ . ŋ are nasals. in some varieties of English or styles of speech. thus /’f:ð/. dr) obstruction and the a narrowing of the mouth passage (AFRICATES). v. it does not need these conventions. 5. Similarly.4. thus /’f:ð r/. Since there is then no proper vowel in this syllable. θ. Instead of syllabic consonant it is always possible to pronounce a vowel  plus an ordinary (non-syllabic) consonant. the symbol  is sometimes used. Although there is a possible pronunciation `dIst nt. to say /’sdnli/ rather than /’sdnli/.10. Syllabic consonants are also sometimes used where lPd shows italic  plus a nasal or liquid. articulated with a complete obstruction of the mount passage entirely blocking the air flow for a moment.7. articulation English consonants have the following typical manners of articulation: p.  are fricatives. threatening /’retn. m. Likely syllabic consonants are shown with the symbol . articulated with firs a complete (and also usually tr. (In fact. thus /’ret n ŋ/. Any nasal or liquid in a syllable in which there in no other vowel must automatically be syllabic. The IPa (International Phonetic Alphabet) provides a special diacritic. but functioning like consonants because they are not syllabic.10.148 - .  are affricates. though not usual. articulated by completely obstructing the mouth passage but allowing the air to pass out through the nose.ņ. becoming plain non-syllabic consonants: see COMPRESSION.) 5. /’sd.10. z. w are semivowels. d. 5.. but allowing it to pass through continuously without turbulence (see LIQUIDS) j.3. thus /’mdļ/ In father /’f:ð/ or /’f:ðr/ lPd (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary) recommends for AmE (American english) a pronunciation with syllabic r. ð. For example. . Because lPd uses spaces to show syllabification. thus suddenly /’sdnli/. lPd recommends `dIstnt. . When followed by a weak vowel.10.ŋ/ may be pronounced with three syllables. while allowing it to pass through continuously. n.5. l are liquids articulated by diverting or modifying the air flow through the mouth. Longman Principle Dictionary `s regular principle is that a raised symbol indicates a sound whose insertion lPd does not recommend.10. syllabic consonants may lose their syllabic quality. s.6. anticipatorily like vowels.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 5. Thus it is possible. k.11.li/ For AmE syllabic r. r. t. 5. the n must be syllabic. 5. . or compressed into two syllables. f.2. thus distant /’dstnt/. 5.

fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii

5.12. Co articulation
5.12.1. Speech sounds tend to be influenced by the speech sounds which surround them. Coarticulation is the retention of a phonetic feature that was present in a preceding sound, or the anticipation of a feature that will be needed for a following sound. Most allophonic variation – though not all – is coarticulatory). For example, a vowel or liquid that is adjacent to a nasal tends to be somewhat nasalized. This coarticulation of nasality applies to the vowels in money /’mni/ and to the l in elm /elm/. 5.12.2. The English “voiced” obstruents tend to be devoiced when adjacent to a voiceless consonant or to a pause, e.g. the consonants in good /gd/ when said in isolation, or in a phrase such as the first good thing. This is coarticulation of voicing. 5.12.3. Many consonants vary somewhat depending on which vowel comes after them. Thus the  in sheep /i:p/ is more i:-like, the  in short /:t/ us /:rt/more :like. This is coarticulation of place of articulation. Other examples are the d in dream /dri:m/ (post-alveolar because of the r) and the b in obvious ‘b viˇs || ‘:b- (sometimes labiodentals because of the v). 5.12.4. For cases where coarticulation is variable, and may lead to the use of what sounds like a different phoneme see ASIMILATION.

5.13. Breaking
When a vowel is followed in the same syllable by r or l, a glide sound  may develop before liquid. The vowel thus become a diphthong, and is said to undergo breaking. Two types of breaking are particularly frequent in English, are shown explicitly in LPD: 1. Feel /f:l/ Besides the traditional pronunciation /f:l/, the form /f:l/ (or fl/) is often to be heard, especially in BrE (British English). This happens when I follows i:, e, a, , and is termed pre-I breaking. 2. Fear /fl/ or /fr/. In AmE (American English), the usual pronunciation involves the phoneme I. (Unlike BrE, AmE has no phoneme ) However, this word may actually sound more like /fr/, especially if said slowly. This is due to pre-r breaking, which arises when r follows I, e, æ, particularly in a word of one syllable.

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BIBlIogRaPhY
Roach, P. (1983) Underhill, A. (1994) Kenworthy, J. (1987) Coulthard, M. (1977) (1998) An introduction to discourse analysis. Harlow (Essex): Longman. “Fundamental of linguistic analysis”. University of California, San Diego Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. How now Brown Cow. A course in pronunciation of english. Cambridge, Hall International English Language Teaching Ltd. Langacker, Ronalnd W. Teaching english pronunciation. London: Longman. Sound foundations: Living Phonology. Oxford: Heinemann. English phonetics and phonology: A practical coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ponsonby, Mimi. (1987)

http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Celik-Intonation.html http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# http://www.oupchina.com.hk/dict/phonetic/home.html http://www.ingilish.com/englishsyllablestress.htm http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jrubba/phon/syllables.html

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aCTIVITY
1. What is a syllable? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Explain the structure of a syllable. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Mention kinds of syllables in the process of syllabification. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Mention kinds of syllables according to its structure. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What do you understand by syllabification? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Mention some phonic syllabification rules. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Mention some orthographic syllabification rules. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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8. What is a diphthong? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. What do you understand by crescendo diphthongs? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. What is a Syllabic consonant? Mention some of them. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. What is the difference between articulation and co articulation? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 8. What is breaking? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. Represent the words using a tree, similar to ones we have present earlier in the course: lunch, cooper, transatlantic, syllabic, rhyme, island, breakfast and book. lunch cooper transatlantic syllabic

rhyme

breakfast

book

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UNIT VI sELECTED rEADINg oBjECTIVES 1. 4. 2. 3. . Deepen the information received. Apply the theory into the classroom. Reinforce the theory on suprasegmental phonology. Clarify certain concepts form another perspective.

.

what are the implications of EIl for pronunciation? The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the teaching of English. English is no longer spoken only by its native speakers in the UK. gloBal ENglISh aNd ThE TEaChINg oF PRoNUNCIaTIoN Jennifer Jenkins. What are the implications of EIL for pronunciation? 3.native speakers from a wide range of countries/first languages throughout the world. It is a means of demonstrating that English is spoken in every part of the world. This last use of English is often referred to as ‘English as an International Language’ or EIL. what is global English? The term ‘global English’ is being used increasingly nowadays. and by those who learn English in order to communicate with native speakers. It is also spoken among non-native speakers within countries like India. The findings from research 4.6.1. What are the implications for pronunciation teaching? 1. the Philippines and Singapore and internationally among non. What is global English? 2. Their argument is that native speaker accents are not necessarily the most intelligible or appropriate accents when a non-native speaker is communicating with another non-native speaker. and across speakers from different countries/first languages. London The emergence of so many different kinds (or ‘varieties’) of international English has caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the teaching of English. North America. and it is this kind of English which we will focus on here as it is the largest group of English speakers. This article presents my research into the pronunciation of global English and gives some teaching implications. numbering around 1.5 billion. both among speakers within a particular country who share a first language. lecturer in sociolinguistics and phonology at King’s College. 2. 1. we need to identify which pronunciation features are crucial for mutual understanding when a non-native speaker of English talks . Australia and New Zealand. As regards intelligible pronunciation for EIL.

. Weak forms such as the words ‘to’.. • • On the other hand. e. The main features of the Lingua Franca Core are. many other items which are regularly taught on English pronunciation courses appear not to be essential for intelligibility in EIL interactions. the difference between vowel sounds where length is not involved. The findings from research In my research I analysed interactions between non-native speakers of English. For example. Word stress. These are. • • All the consonants are important except for ‘th’ sounds as in ‘thin’ and ‘this’ Consonant clusters are important at the beginning and in the middle of words.. the difference between the vowel sounds in ‘sit’ and seat’ Nuclear (or tonic) stress is also essential.. The aim was to find out which features of British/American English pronunciation are essential for intelligible pronunciation. there is a difference in meaning between ‘My son uses a computer’ which is a neutral statement of fact and ‘My SON uses a computer’.g. that is. ‘red paint’ becomes ‘reb paint’. • • The ‘th’ sounds (see above) vowel quality.156 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras to another non-native speaker and which are not at all important. and which are not. e. Other features of connected speech such as assimilation (where the final sound of a word alters to make it more like the first sound of the next word. This is to indicate that it is intended as a guide for lingua franca interactions. • • • • • All these things are said to be important for a native speaker listener either because they aid intelligibility or because they are thought to make an accent more appropriate. where there is an added meaning (such as that another person known to the speaker and listener does not use a computer).. the cluster in the word ‘string’ cannot be simplified to ‘sting’ or ‘tring’ and remain intelligible. Stress timing. ‘of’ and ‘from’ whose vowels are often pronounced as schwa instead of with their full quality. This is the stress on the most important word (or syllable) in a group of words. The findings have been formed into a pronunciation core for teaching which is known as the Lingua Franca Core. For example. not interactions between a native and non-native speaker of English. The contrast between long and short vowels is important. Pitch movement. so that. a German speaker may pronounce the ‘e’ in the word ‘chess’ more like an ‘a’ as in the word ‘cat’. For example.g. These are often not the same features that are crucial and unimportant for a native speaker of English 3.

students should be given plenty of exposure in their pronunciation classrooms to other non-native accents of English so that they can understand them easily even if a speaker has not yet managed to acquire the core features. they should be given the choice of acquiring a pronunciation that is more relevant to EIL intelligibility than traditional pronunciation syllabuses offer. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. by Jennifer Jenkins. this is much more important than having classroom exposure to native speaker accents.157 - . ”Global English and the teaching of pronunciation”.website. teaching. But for EIL communication. UNMSM-EPG . So why should non-native speakers of an international language not be allowed to do the same? Finally. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge (2002). The non-core items are not only unimportant for intelligibility but also socially more appropriate. Lecturer in sociolinguistics and phonology at King’s College. what are the implications for pronunciation teaching? • Students should be given choice. For EIL.uk.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. Up to now. That is.org. • • Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. After all. when students are learning English so that they can use it in international contexts with other non-native speakers from different first languages. the goal of pronunciation teaching has been to enable students to acquire an accent that is as close as possible to that of a native speaker. London. this is not the most intelligible accent and some of the non-core items may even make them less intelligible to another non-native speaker. native speakers have different accents depending on the region where they were born and live.

. 1.e. The phonology of any language is a system. Recognition 5. RhYThM Steve Darn.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6.158 - . so that a learner who can maintain the rhythm of the language is more likely to sound both natural and fluent. Production 6. Izmir University of Economics Rhythm is both a feature of and product of the phonological structure of English. i. Connected speech 3. Sentence stress 2. Teaching rhythm 4. what happens to words when we put them in an utterance. The two components of the system which have the greatest influence on rhythm are sentence stress and the various features of connected speech. so that a change in one part of the system will affect some or all of the other parts. Conclusion The system looks like this: Sounds Word stress Sentence stress Phonology Features of connected speech Intonations Rhythm English is a very rhythmical language.2.

of. the most common vowel sound in English.159 - . An awareness-raising approach is often more profitable. Connected speech Speed is also a factor in fluency. prepositions. The most common features of connected speech are the weak forms of grammatical and some lexical words (and. This causes changes to the ‘shape’ of words. to. were) and contractions. articles). should’ve). The remaining words are ‘grammatical’ words and are unstressed or ‘weak’ (conjunctions.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Sentence stress In any sentence. These are the ‘strong’ or ‘lexical’ words (usually nouns. they’ve. I’ll. When we speak quickly. as English spoken with only strong forms has the wrong rhythm. auxiliaries. have. ‘It’s the worst thing that you could do’ The rhythm produced by this combination of stressed and unstressed syllables is a major characteristic of spoken English and makes English a stress-timed language. we speak in groups of words which are continuous and may not have pauses between them. There is a temptation to try to teach the rules associated with these features. using phonemic script to write examples. Sentence stress is an important factor in fluency. Many unstressed vowel sounds tend to become schwa. he’d. However. we often ignore other features which preserve rhythm and make the language sound natural. Unstressed words always sound different when used in a sentence as opposed to being said in isolation. learners should be able to recognise and produce it. starting by asking students what happens to certain words when we put them in a sentence: . adjectives and adverbs). was. In stress-timed languages. The most common of these are: • • • Elision (losing sounds) linking (adding or joining sounds between words) assimilation (changing sounds) Added to these is the use of the schwa. compared with a syllable-timed language (such as French. won’t. sounds unnatural and does not help the listener to distinguish emphasis or meaning. verbs. some of which are acceptable in written English (can’t. Turkish and West Indian English) in which syllables are produced at a steady rate which is unaffected by stress differences. and because it is an important feature of weak forms. some words carry a stress. pronouns. didn’t. there is a roughly equal amount of time between each stress in a sentence.

Learners whose mother tongue is phonemic or syllabletimed have particular problems. A number of useful teaching techniques are listed here.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras listen it’s upstairs one or two right kind why did you? unpopular first girl Christmas ask them four o’clock blue apple last Monday This might be followed by a categorisation task. Ask. . Recognition • • • • • • • • • Speed dictations (the boys are good / the boy is good / the boy was good). Use natural language themselves in the classroom. Ask students how many words they hear in a sentence (to practise recognising word boundaries). Encourage learners to listen carefully to authentic speech. Authentic listening. is a product of sentence stress and what happens to the words and sounds between the stresses. and highlighting these on the board. Teachers should remember to: • • • • • Provide natural models of new target language before introducing the written form. Marking stresses and weak forms. vocabulary and functional language lessons as well as listening and speaking activities.160 - . Teach recognition before production. Teaching rhythm Rhythm. Dictogloss and other variations on dictation. “What’s the third / fifth / seventh word?” in the sentence. Teaching weak forms and contractions at the presentation stage. then. learners are often introduced first to written forms and then to the complexities of spelling. Unfortunately. Integrate rhythm and other aspects of phonology into grammar. Matching phrases to stress patterns. and divided into recognition and production activities. Using tapescripts. focusing either on rhythm as a whole or on contributing aspects. from which rules or guidelines could be elicited. Using recordings of deliberately ‘unnatural’ English.

football results) Jazz chants. (the rhythm of English lends itself to rock and pop music. rhymes and tongue-twisters (limericks are good at higher levels). while rap involves fitting words into distinct beat). Poems. tapping. Songs.uk. teaching. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. jumping) in time to the rhythm of the sentence . There are specific phonology courses available. Conclusion Because phonology is a system.org.” Rhythm” by Steve Darn. Focus on stress in short dialogues (can you? yes I can) Making short dialogues. then add the rest) Reading out short sentences with only the stressed words (How…come…school?).website. clapping. Attention to phonology begins at lower levels and builds up as learners progress towards fluency. This article published: 4th April.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Production • • • • • • • • • • • Drills (especially back-chaining).161 - . paying attention to stress and rhythm (How often do you speak English? Once in a while) Headlines. learners cannot achieve a natural rhythm in speech without understanding the stress-timed nature of the language and the interrelated components of stress. connected speech and intonation. notes and memos (build the rhythm with content words. Physical movement (finger-clicking.UNMSM-EPG . while most integrated syllabuses include pronunciation activities which run in parallel to structural. then add the other words without slowing down. functional and skills development. Izmir University of Economics British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. Above all it is important to remember that there is a place for phonology in nearly every lesson. Reading aloud (with plenty of rehearsal time) Focus on short utterances with distinctive stress and intonation patterns and a specific rhythm (long numbers. ‘phone numbers. 2007 Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.

1. Using songs to focus on connected speech 4. we look at some aspects of pronunciation that can be focused on through songs. you might already use songs in class. Learners can find sounds difficult to pick out. Using songs to focus on words 3.3. incorrectly pronounced sounds strain communication. memorable and rhythmic language. The rhymes in songs provide listeners with repetition of similar sounds. British Council. we create activities based on songs’ rhymes. Conclusion 1. indirectly exposing them to these sounds. Here. How songs can help • • What we do To focus learners on particular sounds. Cameroon Like us. But have you considered choosing songs specifically to work on pronunciation? Songs provide examples of authentic. and may not see the point in focusing on them. Using songs to focus on sounds Sounds are the smallest unit from which words are formed and can be categorised as vowels and consonants. Students often choose to listen to songs time and again.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. Sabbadini. Why are they difficult? • As languages differ in their range of sounds. • However. Using songs to focus on sounds 2.162 - . Songs are authentic and easily accessible examples of spoken English. dEVEloPINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh SoNgS Balbina Ebong & Marta J. . They can be motivating for students keen to repeatedly listen to and imitate their musical heroes. and find that your students enjoy them. sometimes even changing a phrase’s meaning. students have to learn to ‘physically’ produce certain sounds previously unknown to them.

focusing on these can result in over-emphasis (not weakening) of these syllables. with very complex ‘rules’ to guide learners. using the song to guide them. though students often find this hard to believe. We write the pairs separately on cards and give out one set per group of four or five students. using the lyrics to show how changing one sound can alter meaning (minimal pairs). helping learners associate the number of syllables / stress in these words.163 - . the number of syllables is not always identical. A word is uttered in syllables. Students listen and fill the gaps. How songs can help • .‘anger man . Moreover. with a gap.’ by Sting) talk New York walk : e day say one sun run  Alternatively. More analytically minded students can then categorise the words according to sounds.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii activity 1 We replace some of the rhymes in the song. with memorable rhythms. activity 2 We choose six words from a song from which minimal pairs can be created heaven . 2. Using songs to focus on words Words are combinations of sounds which form together to give meaning.even hunger .mad (From ‘Imagine’ by John Lennon). Words in songs fit the music. Why are they difficult? • • • Even when the same words exist in both languages. usually one emphasised syllable (the stress) and the rest weak (unstressed). Choices are then checked against the lyrics. (From ‘An Englishman in New York. The students then match the pairs. we highlight differences between sounds. Each English word has its own stress pattern. Weak syllables are central to English. They then listen to the song and ‘grab’ the correct one.

with certain words for students to guess the number of syllables. What we do To raise learners’ awareness of the number of syllables / word stress. How songs can help • • What we do We use songs that have numerous contracted words to convince learners that contractions are natural in English. are full of contractions. . Students can be keen to reproduce this.164 - . linking together and emphasising certain words. we repeat the activity. especially those where the music makes the stress patterns clearer. Students then listen. and especially the chorus. leaving a space by each word to write the number in. like other spoken texts. 3. only used in ‘slang’. Songs. our activities target specific words. without their realizing. We then drill these words and sing or chant the whole song through. Songs. At higher levels. Contractions (two words forming one) are an extreme example of the way we connect speech. in order to sing the song as they hear it. Not all words within a phrase carry the same weight. Why is it difficult? • • • • Students normally learn words individually and. to the extent that the written form too is affected. especially at lower levels. The music further emphasises the ‘flow’ of the words. Students frequently misconceive contractions as being ‘incorrect’. helping to convince learners of the way English is pronounced. Songs contain endless examples of weak syllables. with students underlining the stressed syllable whilst listening. rather than each word standing alone. Using songs to focus on connected speech Connected speech is the natural way we speak. checking their predictions. activity 3 We give out the lyrics. provide real and ‘catchy’ examples of how whole phrases are pronounced often to the extent that students find it difficult to pick out individual words. tend to pronounce each word separately.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras • • The relaxed atmosphere songs create can expose students to this difficult pronunciation area.

org. more creative groups could write their own words to fit the tune. we choose catchy tunes for learners to fit words to. activity 5 • • • We play each line of the chorus.website. Conclusion There are no ‘standard’ songs for teaching pronunciation.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii activity 4 • We rewrite the lyrics with the contractions in full form ‘I am wondering why’ ‘I cannot see’ • Students listen. memorable. depending on the area of pronunciation we are focusing on. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. for learners to hum back until they get the rhythm. Other activities can focus on highlighting the strong words in phrases. Sabbadini. not too fast. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. for example for a ‘song contest’. To help learners hear how words flow in phrases. Alternatively. students can practise and present their singing. However. British Council. Any song can be an example of different pronunciation aspects. Cameroon. 2006. In groups. teaching.UNMSM-EPG . Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. a word of warning: songs are creative works. • 4. they rewrite the words with the contractions ‘I’m wondering why’ ‘I can’t see’ • This works even with the lowest level classes.uk. identifying the contracted words. so be ready to justify the occasional ‘mis-pronunciation’ to your students! This article published: 21st June. replacing the rest with ‘mmm’. and singing only these. Finally. Finally.165 - . On a second listening. we try to choose songs that are clear (use quality recordings where possible).” Developing English through songs” by Balbina Ebong & Marta J. likely to appeal to our learners (possibly songs they already know) and easy to create activities for. students then order the lines of the song on strips of paper by remembering the tune.

166 - .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Using songs to focus on connected speech SONgS ‘Imagine’ by John Lennon Imagine there’s no Heaven It’s easy if you try No hell below us Above us only sky Imagine all the people Living for today Imagine there’s no countries It isn’t hard to do Nothing to kill or die for And no religion too Imagine all the people Living life in peace You may say that I’m a dreamer But I’m not the only one I hope someday you’ll join us And the world will be as one Imagine no possessions I wonder if you can No need for greed or hunger A brotherhood of man Imagine all the people Sharing all the world You may say that I’m a dreamer But I’m not the only one I hope someday you’ll join us And the world will live as one .

’ by Sting I don’t drink coffee I take tea my dear I like my toast done on one side And you can hear it in my accent when I talk I’m an Englishman in New York See me walking down Fifth Avenue A walking cane here at my side I take it everywhere I walk I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York If. “Manners maketh man” as someone said Then he’s the hero of the day It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile Be yourself no matter what they say I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York . avoid them when you can A gentleman will walk but never run If. propriety can lead to notoriety You could end up as the only one Gentleness. “Manners maketh man” as someone said Then he’s the hero of the day It takes a man to suffer ignorance and smile Be yourself no matter what they say I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York I’m an alien I’m a legal alien I’m an Englishman in New York Modesty.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii ‘An Englishman in New York.167 - . sobriety are rare in this society At night a candle’s brighter than the sun Takes more than combat gear to make a man Takes more than a license for a gun Confront your enemies.

are normally stressed in connected speech. Even if they understand. why I teach the schwa To understand the concept of word or sentence stress. pronouns. This means that they are said faster and at a lower volume than stressed syllables. “ Whát kínd of músic dó yóu líke?” “ Whatkín of músic doyoulíke?” (slowly) (fast) The same thing happens with individual words. often becoming a schwa Listen to these two examples of the same question.the schwa. that is. but it will raise their awareness of an important feature of spoken English. Mexico If you only learn or teach one phoneme. and the vowel sounds lose their purity. 2. excellent. In addition. linkers and prepositions are not usually stressed. and are reduced to keep the stress pattern regular. “What you do?’” and “They coming now”. unstressed syllables are weakened. they may fail to recognise known language. sister. For example. Why I teach the schwa 3. nouns.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. experiment. The first is with every word stressed and the second is faster and more natural with vowels being reduced. make sure it’s the most common English sound . especially when listening to native speakers. if learners expect to hear the full pronunciation of all vowel sounds. . main verbs. why the schwa is the most common sound In stress-timed languages such as English. TEaChINg ThE SChwa Catherine Morley. learners also need to be aware of the characteristics of ‘unstress’. which include the occurrence of the schwa. British Council. stresses occur at regular intervals. the letters in bold in the following words can all be pronounced with a schwa (depending on the speaker’s accent): support. The words which are most important for communication of the message. adjectives and adverbs. students often do not notice unstressed auxiliaries. How I teach the schwa 4. Helping your students to notice the schwa won’t necessarily lead to an immediate improvement in listening skills or natural-sounding pronunciation.168 - . Why the schwa is the most common sound 2. 1. banana. Conclusion 1. While stressed syllables maintain the full vowel sound. Grammar words such as auxiliary verbs. button. colour. articles. leading to mistakes such as. picture.4.

The teacher can correct any final mistakes that other learners do not notice. For example. Try to maintain natural sentence stress when drilling. invite individual learners to write the sentences on the board. This is where the sentence is drilled starting from the end. Tell them to write what they hear. while students make changes and additions.169 - . Next. and that you will not repeat anything. Ask them to identify the stress and schwas in the other sentences. following revision of present simple questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) How many brothers and sisters have you got? How often do you play tennis? What kind of music do you like? What time do you usually get up? How much does it cost? After reading the sentences. you can drill the sentences. My students found the following. allow students to compare in pairs or groups. so correct this tendency if it occurs in individual and choral repetitions. even if it’s only one word. and ask learners which words are stressed. gradually adding more words. Repeat the sentence naturally until students are able to do this. Say the first sentence again naturally. perhaps by ‘backchaining’. trying to keep stress and intonation consistent. Read the first sentence again and ask learners to identify the schwa sounds. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) How many brothers and sisters have you got? How often do you play tennis? What kind of music do you like? What time do you usually get up? How much does it cost? I normally get learners to write the schwa symbol underneath the alphabetic script. while others offer corrections. . working in pairs or groups. Once this is done. although again there is some variation between accents. Warn students that you are going to dictate at normal speaking speed.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. A danger of focusing on the schwa is that it can be given too much emphasis. I used these questions with Pre-Intermediate level students. until learners are able to correctly identify the stressed syllables. However. Repeat the sentence. how I teach the schwa Fast dictation I find this activity useful for introducing the schwa in context. Get students to repeat. as it also recycles grammar and vocabulary. Then point to the schwa on the phonemic chart and make a schwa sound. Then read again. it can be repeated several times with the same group of students. before a final comparison with their partner(s). Then read out some sentences or questions including language recently studied in class.

nouns. but it’s worth practising these features orally to help learners ‘develop an ear’ for them).e. Mexico. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. while others revert to the full vowel sound after drilling. There will probably be differences.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras After doing this activity for the first time. Do you think this is more important for listening or speaking? (Students will often say ‘speaking’ but in fact this is more important for what Underhill calls ‘receptive pronunciation’: learners will still be understood if they give all vowel sounds their full value. but in either case their expectations of how English sounds will have changed (This article published 21ts march. Slumping in the chair and looking exhausted while saying schwa normally gets a laugh! 4. but this can lead to a useful discussion. They then listen or watch and compare their version with the recording.uk. teaching.UNMSM-EPG . raising issues such as variations in the use of schwa between accents. with every vowel being given its full sound.e. articles.website. i. adjectives. and illustrates the point that schwa does not occur in stressed syllables. a gentle reminder You may still find. ask learners to identify the stressed syllables and schwas. British Council. This recycles vocabulary. adverbs). even when drilling. word stress and schwa I often ask learners to identify word stress and schwa in multiple-syllable words recently studied in class. I ask learners some awareness-raising questions: • • • • What kinds of words are stressed? (Content words. Do stressed syllables ever contain schwa? (No). main verbs.170 - . i. pronouns. I give my students a gentle reminder that schwa is the ‘Friday afternoon’ sound. Conclusion Many of my students have seemed fascinated by the insight that English is not spoken as they thought. linkers.org. Before listening or watching. More ambitious students take every opportunity to practise this ‘native-speaker’ feature. and to rehearse speaking the text. prepositions). auxiliary verbs. that learners are tempted to pronounce the full vowel sound in unstressed syllables. What kinds of words are generally not stressed? (‘Grammar words’. It also helps with aural comprehension as well as correct pronunciation of these words. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. 2006).” Teaching the Schwa” by Catherine Morley. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. and after an initial introduction to the schwa start to look for it themselves in other words and sentences. and emphatic stress to correct what someone else has said. Stress and schwa prediction Take a short section of tape or video script (a short dialogue or a few short paragraphs of spoken text).

rather than what we say. the pitch movement (a rise or fall in tone. Without intonation. Sabbadini. Everybody has their own pitch range. These patterns of pitch variation are essential to a phrase’s meaning. within a ‘pitch range’. English has particularly wide pitchrange. near the end of the unit. it’s impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words. It has the following features: • • It’s divided into phrases. Languages. differ in pitch range. How then to do this with intonation? 1. What is intonation? 2. we find ways of making the language accessible to our learners. Example: Say: ‘It’s raining’. or a combination of the two) takes place on the most important syllable known as the ‘tonic-syllable’. and as such.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. what is intonation? Intonation is about how we say things. Cameroon Intonation is crucial for communication. The tonic-syllable is usually a high-content word. It’s also a largely unconscious mechanism. When teaching grammar or lexis. Listen to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words: the ‘melody’ you hear is the intonation. It’s no surprise that many teachers don’t feel confident about tackling it in the classroom. In each tone unit. also known as ‘tone-units’. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation? 4. too. • • . Conclusion 1. The pitch moves up and down. Changing the intonation can completely change the meaning. British Council. Why teach intonation? 3. a complex aspect of pronunciation. How I help my students: • • • • Awareness-raising Intonation and grammar Intonation and attitudes Intonation and discourse 5. INToNaTIoN Marta J.5.171 - .

or ‘How annoying!’. rather than rules. Choose somebody to listen to closely: as you listen. but giving it different meaning. so the concept we’re introducing isn’t new. why teach intonation? Intonation exists in every language. Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings. Intonation doesn’t exist in isolation. Yet intonation can be as important as word choice . or ‘That’s great!’. Can I improve my own awareness of intonation? It’s difficult to hear our own intonation. speakers losing interest or even taking offence! Though it’s unlikely our learners will need native-speaker-level pronunciation.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras - Now say it again using the same words. However. So it makes sense to approach it together with other factors. There are many possibilities.we don’t always realise how much difference intonation makes: • • Awareness of intonation aids communication. Let students compare two examples of the same phrase. You could say it to mean ‘What a surprise!’. 4. what they do need.don’t be afraid to exaggerate your intonation. I see these as starting-points.e. Get students to imitate my intonation. Some examples are: . focus on your students’ intonation. ex: varied/flat intonation. I highlight these to my students. 2. ‘seeing’ how it’s divided into tone-units. but something doesn’t sound right? Do they come across as boring or insincere? It may well be their pitch range isn’t varied enough. 3. but without words. with no intonation. is greater awareness of intonation to facilitate their speaking and listening. Intonation and grammar Where patterns associating intonation and grammar are predictable. i. Ask students to have a 2-minute conversation in pairs as ‘robots’ (elicit the word using a picture if necessary).172 - . visualise the melody in your head. how I help my students awareness-raising Some techniques I find useful for raising learners’ awareness of intonation: Provide learners with models . When they then go back to speaking ‘normally’. just humming.this is what gives movement to our voices. Next time you do a class speaking activity. learners are often so busy finding their words that intonation suffers. English / L1. Are there students whose language is ‘correct’. point out that the difference is made by intonation .

I say the word ‘bananas’ . Intonation and attitude It’s important that students are aware of the strong link between intonation and attitude.) Each student is allocated a character and. one strawberry (fall). such as ‘enthusiastic’. even if it’s difficult to provide rules here. . At the end. rising.Tags: ‘chat’ . ‘bored’. guessing each other’s attitude. Anything else? One strawberry (fall) ice-cream. ‘surprised’. etc. ‘relieved’. I include activities focusing specifically on intonation. One chocolate (fall). Anything else? Yes. students confirm their jobs. rising. For example. One chocolate (fall-rise) ice-cream. Miss Frightened. At the end. one strawberry (fall). Students identify the two and describe the difference. Here. The first thing is for learners to recognise the effect of intonation changes. This can be developed by asking students to ‘greet’ everybody with a particular attitude.rising Lists: rising. they greet the class with that character’s voice. Question-Tags: Students in groups are assigned jobs to mime to each other. Students then do the same in pairs. We then brainstorm attitudes. They then have to check they’ve understood the jobs: Students use rising/falling intonation question-tags depending how sure they are: ‘You’re a pilot. as above. Intonation and discourse Learners’ also need awareness of intonation in longer stretches of language. ‘shared’ knowledge = ‘fall-rise’.falling. I use ‘Mr Men’ characters (Miss Happy. One chocolate (fall). Mr Grumpy. Students make notes about what they think each person’s job is. A simple shopping dialogue demonstrates this: SK: C: SK: C: SK: C: Can I help you? I’d like a chocolate (fall) ice-cream. we can give our learners clearer guidelines: ‘new’ information = fall tone. I say ‘bananas’ for these.173 - . falling When practising these constructions. the class identify each person’s attitude. aren’t you?’. For younger learners. ‘check’ . and one vanilla (fall-rise).fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Wh-word questions: falling intonation Yes / No questions: rising Statements: falling Question . then ‘uninterested’ (flat).firstly with an ‘interested’ intonation (varied tone).

uk. With lower level students. 5. teaching.” Intonation” by Marta J. I use my hands to indicate it (fall = hand pointing down. Conclusion When working on intonation in the classroom: Remember that intonation is relevant to any speaking activity.org. The last thing I’d want is to make my students so anxious about their intonation that they stop speaking! This article published: 16th March.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Higher level students can identify the ‘new’ / ‘shared’ information. Although I don’t refer to intonation directly. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. Avoid going into theory. we memorise the dialogue together. Cameroon British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. I’ve found my learners pick up these patterns very quickly. fall-rise = down then up).174 - . and makes interesting remedial/revision work. and then practice reading accordingly. 2006. Students then prepare their own dialogues. Sabbadini. UNMSM-EPG . double lines ( // ) for tone-unit boundaries. tonic-syllable in CAPITALS. British Council.website. Remember that students don’t always have to ‘know’ we’re focusing on intonation: every time I drill phrases they’re hearing intonation models. Use a consistent system for marking intonation on the board for example: arrow for tone. Help students find patterns / rules-of-thumb. Provide realistic and clear contexts. wherever possible. Keep it positive and don’t expect perfection. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.

” oO desert* Oo desert** Oo hottle Think about the grammatical difference between desert* and desert**. preferably in different ways. 1. try saying the following words: oO b’tell And now in a sentence: “I carried the b’tell to the hottle. why word stress is important Mistakes in word stress are a common cause of misunderstanding in English. What word stress is 3.” Now reverse the stress patterns for the two words and you should be able to make sense of the sentence! “I carried the bottle to the hotel.6. Dubai A major benefit of focusing students on how words are stressed is the extra mental engagement with the word that it gives. A language learner needs to engage with a word many times. .175 - .identifying and practising word stress can provide one or two of those engagements. in order to really learn it . Some ‘rules’ of word stress 4. Teacher.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. Conclusion 1. How I help my students 5. Why word stress is important 2. Here are the reasons why: Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word very difficult to hear and understand. Trainer. woRd STRESS Emma Pathare.” Stressing a word differently can change the meaning or type of the word: “They will desert* the desert** by tomorrow. In the classroom 6. for example.

and could prevent good communication from taking place.176 - . it is dangerous to say there are fixed rules. Exceptions can usually be found. 2. It is said more clearly -The vowel sound is purer. what word stress is When we stress syllables in words. The second syllable of the three is stressed. Say it out loud. Compare the first and last vowel sounds with the stressed sound. Here are some general tendencies for word stress in English: . and it is something I should help my students with. Even if the speaker can be understood. It is equally important to remember that the unstressed syllables of a word have the opposite features of a stressed syllable! 3. mistakes with word stress can make the listener feel irritated. Some ‘rules’ of word stress There are patterns in word stress in English but.comPUTer It has a change in pitch from the syllables coming before and afterwards. as a rule (!). These three reasons tell me that word stress is an important part of the English language. Look at your jaw and lips in particular.Look in the mirror when you say the word. The pitch of a stressed syllable is usually higher. or perhaps even amused. we use a combination of different features. It uses larger facial movements .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras I will look at this in more detail later.com p-u-ter It is loUdER . Listen to yourself. What are you doing so that the listener can hear that stress? A stressed syllable combines five features: It is l-o-n-g-e-r . Experiment now with the word computer.

Patterns can usually be found. for example: Oo Final Neutral o O oo Finality Neutrality Ooo Finalise Neutralise oooOo finalisation neutralisation There are some recognised differences in word stress which depend on the variety of English being used. how I help my students Students can be alarmed when they meet words which are similar but have different stress patterns: Oo Equal o O oo Equality Ooo Equalise oooOo Equalisation A useful thing you can do is to help students see connections with other word families. for example: OoOo Caribbean aluminium (British English) OOoo Caribbean aluminium (American English) .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii word apple table happy Type of word two-syllable nouns and adjectives Tendency stress on the first syllable oo apple Exceptions hotel lagoon suspect import insult the noun has stress on the first syllable oo “You are the suspect!” words which can be used as both the verb has stress on the second nouns and verbs syllable oo “I suspect you.” fairly equally balanced but with stronger stress on the first part oo hairbrush respect witness hairbrush football compound nouns 4.177 - .

For example. I use the big circle . point them out to students. Cuisenaire rods These different sized. Meaning and spelling are usually clarified for students but the sound and stress of the word can all too often be forgotten. The ideal time to focus students’ attention on it is when introducing vocabulary. unhappy). Instead. 5.178 - . (Children’s small building blocks are a good substitute!) Integrate word stress into your lessons You don’t need to teach separate lessons on word stress. hospital) and o o o (computer.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras These differences are noted in good learner dictionaries. The students build the words using different blocks to represent stressed and unstressed syllables. Ask if there are similar cases of differences in word stress in their own language . small coloured blocks are great for helping students to ‘see’ the word stress. students will be able to check word stress independently. It is very easy to see and has the added advantage of identifying the number of syllables in the word. Students also need to be aware of the way dictionaries usually mark stress .this will heighten awareness and interest.with a mark before the stressed syllable. If words like these come up in class. These will help to raise the students’ awareness of word stress and its importance. Mark the stress Use a clear easy-to-see way of marking stress on the board and on handouts for students. you can integrate it into your normal lessons. hearing the music of word stress or seeing the shapes of the words. in their vocabulary books they can have a section for nouns with the pattern o o. and then a section for the pattern o o. Three syllable words can be sorted into o o o (Saturday. Some learners love to learn about the ‘technical’ side of language. e.small circle (O o) method. Drill it too! Students can use stress patterns as another way to organise and sort their vocabulary. while others like to ‘feel’ or ‘see’ the language more. Try to use a variety of approaches: helping students to engage with English in different ways will help them in their goal to become more proficient users of the language. ‘apple. Build students’ confidence by drawing their attention to the tendencies and patterns in word stress that do exist. Quickly and simply elicit the stress pattern of the word from the students (as you would the meaning) and mark it on the board. By knowing this. as well as the stressed syllable.g. . In the classroom Raise awareness & build confidence You can use the same questions with your students that I have used in this article.

A personalised and effective way of getting students to hear the importance of correct word stress is by using people’s names as examples.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Remember what I noted before: The more times students mentally engage with new vocabulary. the more they are likely to actually learn it. really exaggerating the stressed syllable and compressing the unstressed ones. By hearing the word stressed incorrectly. DubaiBritish Council BBC and It is used free of charge. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.the first or second?” “Is it Emma or Emma?” Then you can question students about their own names . . Troubleshooting Initially. Teacher. many students (and teachers!) find it difficult to hear word stress.website.org.this will give them a personalised connection to the issue of words stress. I introduce word stress with my name: “How many parts/syllables are there in my name?” “Which is the strongest .UNMSM-EPG.” Word Stress” by Emma Pathare.179 - . Engaging students through word stress helps to reinforce the learning of the words.uk. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. Trainer. Ask the students which version of the word sounds ‘the best’ or ‘the most natural’. but working on word stress can be fun and over time will help your students to be better understood and more confident speakers (this article published 21th february 2005). with a word they will never forget! Conclusion Any work on aspects of pronunciation can take a long time to show improvements and be challenging for both the students and the teacher. teaching. For example: oo0 Computer 0oo Computer o0o Computer Say the word in the different ways for the students. A useful strategy is to focus on one word putting the stress on its different syllables in turn. students can more easily pick out the correct version.

and often from those at an advanced level. its phonemes. they have no trouble comprehending. which may be more important in terms of overall intelligibility. where ignorance of the vocabulary used is not the reason for their lack of comprehension. Conclusion 1. are rarely a problem as we are actively making predictions about which syntactic forms and lexical items are likely to occur in a given situation. there has been a shift of focus towards the other systems operating within phonology. without clear-cut borderlines between each word. and certain phonemes linked together as we attempt to get our message across. we have various devices for dealing with indistinct utterances caused by connected speech. Working on weak forms 5. how this affects native and non-native speakers As native speakers. Thus. What connected speech is? 2. How this affects native and non-native speakers 3. CoNNECTEd SPEECh Connected speech 1 Vanessa Steele Teaching pronunciation used to involve little more than identifying and practicing the sounds of which a language is composed. They tend to depend almost solely on the sounds . is that speech is a continuous stream of sounds. 2.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. certain words are lost. When students see a spoken sentence in its written form. 1. phonetically ambiguous pairs like “ a new display” / “ a nudist play”. Recently however. We take account of the context.180 - . that is to say. Aspects of connected speech 4. it seems. In spoken discourse. what connected speech is? “English people speak so fast” is a complaint I often hear from my students. are rarely able to predict which lexical item may or may not appear in a particular situation. we assume we hear words with which we are familiar within that context. Why is this? The reason.7. Non-native speakers. however. In real life interaction. we adapt our pronunciation to our audience and articulate with maximal economy of movement rather than maximal clarity.

However. auxiliaries and articles are often lost.181 - . the degree to which connected speech contributes towards “naturalness” or “intelligibility”.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii which they hear. prepositions. This is because English is a stressed timed language. Learners must come to not only recognise and cope with the weak forms they hear. with too many stressed forms making it difficult for the listener to identify the points of focus. aspects of connected speech So what is it that we do when stringing words together that causes so many problems for students? Weak Forms There are a large number of words in English which can have a “full” form and a “weak” form. and fish and chips (fish´n chips) a chair and a table (a chair ´n a table) Can She can speak Spanish better than I can (The first “can” is the weak form. I have. we tend to swallow non-essential words. (Both”should” and “have” are weak here) The relevance of certain features of connected speech to students’ needs is often debated. Thus. (full) Should Well. This. is a useful starting point from which to measure the value to students of the different features of connected speech. to give the phrase rhythm.) 3. causing comprehension problems for students. Some examples of words which have weak forms are.) of A pint of beer That´s the last of the wine! have Have you finished? (weak) Yes. conjunctions. pronouns. particularly for those whose language is syllable timed. . the second the full form. Learners whose instruction has focused heavily on accuracy suffer a “devastating diminuation of phonetic information at the segmental level when they encounter normal speech. and in trying to make the intervals between stressed syllables equal. this is not the case with weak forms. If they do not their language will sound unnatural and over formalised. but also to use them themselves when speaking English. you should have told me.” (Brown 1990.

Contrast the weak or natural version with the full version. or record themselves using a more natural pronunciation. and ask students to listen and write down the number of words they hear. If practising “going to” for example. for example. Try not to fall into the text book trap of dividing language up into isolated chunks. a can of coke ). Go over each phrase to check whether they could identify all the words and then to see if they can accurately produce what they heard. Conduct a general feedback session at the end of the activity. working on weak forms Here are some ways in which we can attempt to help our students with weak forms. a cup of coffee. Unnatural speech Activities built around “unnatural speech” are an enjoyable way of working on weak forms and rhythm. and the “full” form of “to” with the linking “w” sound before the vowel. . like speech. or take turns reading out their different versions. A good way of doing this is to put the words onto flash cards. Integrating Integrate pronunciation into vocabulary work.182 - . When you have a few sentences. the teacher can write on the board examples such as. play them several times to the students. One lesson on grammar. Go on holiday Earn more money Buy a car Ask different students to read these phrases as a sentence with “going to”. They can then either use graphics to show the points they would change. rather than in a remedial lesson months later. practising. the weak form in phrases with “of” (a loaf of bread. Integrate weak forms into grammar work. the next on vocabulary. or a group of sentences. pointing out that the full version is often more difficult to pronounce. 5. To obtain “unnatural speech”. Conclusion Pronunciation work should be seen as an integral part of what goes on in the classroom. then pronunciation and so on. discussing reasons for the changes the groups have made.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 4. who should then work in pairs to try to make the speech more natural sounding. Listen for and highlight the weak form of “to” before the consonant sounds. All language. record someone reading a sentence as if it were just a list of words. How many words do you hear? Play a short dialogue. is connected. and students will benefit from learning the weak forms and stress patterns of new words from the start. and to reveal one at a time. so the reader gives each word its full pronunciation.

With native speakers.“How to Teach Pronunciation.” ( Gerald Kelly. Aspects of connected speech 2. He has learnt his English “through the eye” and has trouble interpreting the utterances of native speakers who do not monitor their output.. 1. to mark the transition sound between the two vowels. articulatory precision is a stylistic device. Intrusion and linking When two vowel sounds meet. without clear-cut borderlines between them. we tend to insert an extra sound which resembles either a / j /.. Intrusion and linking 3. a device referred to as intrusion. His delivery is an attempt at a precise version of every sound.”) Connected speech 2 Vanessa Steele An advanced student of mine speaks both clearly and usually correctly. what is it that native speakers do when stringing words together that causes so many problems for students? 2. Integrating work on connected speech 6. So.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Raising students awareness of these forms. be insistent or threatening. Elision 4. but can often sound over formal and at times stilted.in many cases. / w / or / r / . and the different aspects of connected speech help to explain why written English is so different from spoken English. In normal social interaction though. a conscious choice if we want to emphasize a point.183 - . the simple awareness of their existence can help enormously in enabling students to better understand the language they hear. aspects of connected speech Speech is a continuous stream of sounds. Conclusion 1. Even if they do not assimilate these forms at first. For example: . this is not usually the case and articulatory imprecision is the more natural and functional option. “. Working on connected speech 5. is the first step towards helping your learners to speak a little more naturally. whenever they arise.

For example. They /j/ are here! Intruding /w/ I want to /w/ eat. / t / and / d / With consonants. as we tend to drag final consonants to initial vowels or vice versa. sim(i)lar. In minimizing our efforts. Common sound deletions A syllable containing the unstressed “schwa” or is often lost. For example: Get on. the sound may disappear altogether. For example. (notatall) It´s no joke. Word boundaries involving a consonant and a vowel are also linked.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Intruding /r/ The media /r/ are to blame. Elision As I have mentioned. If articulation is weakened too much. (snow joke) 3. lib(a)ry. t(o)night. (geton) Not at all. a native speaker’s aim in connecting words is maxium ease and efficiency of tongue movement when getting our message across. it is / t / and / d / which are most commonly elided. chris(t)mas san(d)wich . Please do /w/ it. int(e)rest.184 - . Intruding /j/ I /j/ agree. Law(r)and order. especially when they appear in a consonant cluster. a process known as elision. It is the vowels from unstressed syllables which are the first to be elided in non-precise pronunciation. diff(e)rent. we weaken our articulation.

You could also read out the phrases. and ask the learners to listen again and write down how many sounds they hear. Try if possible to use language you have recently been working on in the classroom.185 - . working on connected speech If your learners have not worked on these forms before. for example. Then ask the class to count the number of sounds in each word. One way of introducing them to sound deletions could be to write a few short phrases on the board. Highlight that the features of connected speech not only make the phrase more natural sounding but that it is also easier to pronounce the words in this way. or only once. once using the elided forms. 4. Ask the learners which sounds more natural. asking if. for example. • Drill the phrases then ask the students to practise these phrases themselves. For example. the “t” is really pronunced twice between “must” and “tell”. • . You must tell him.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii The same process can occur across word boundaries. For example: That´s an interesting idea. emphatic manner. and write the numbers which they give you on the board above the words. mus(t) be the firs(t) three you an(d) me we stopp(ed) for lunch /h/ The / h / sound is also often deleted. you shouldn´t (h)ave tell (h)im. or read them yourself. Prompt them if necessary. like this: 3 you 4 must 4 tell 3 him Now play a recording of the phrases. you might wish to set some lesson time aside to work specifically on these features of connected speech. Are you coming out tonight? It´s the tallest building. then again in a more clipped.

make sure they elide the final “t” (unless of course. you could write a few phrases on the board: The Nile is the longest river in the world. the next word begins with a vowel). For example. Get out (getout) Put on (puton) Come out (cumout) . chorally and individually. When studying grammar for example. draw attention to the way they are pronounced in natural conversation. 5. Phrasal verbs can also be used to show how we tend to link final consonants and initial vowels across word boundaries. a useful way of practising the intruding sounds / r /. Integrating work on connected speech It is a good idea to try and integrate work on connected speech into everyday lessons. and they highlight the importance of listening to words rather than relying on their written forms. The Vatican is the smallest country in the world. Students might like to write their own general knowledge quiz. using questions such as.186 - . • • Ask the students to listen to the sounds while you repeat the phrases a few times and see if they can spot the disappearance of the “t” on the superlative adjective.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Exercises like this help to show learners the differences between written and spoken English. for example. Anything which you have recently been working on in class can be used as a basis for pronunciation work. Do/ w /up Play / j / up Go/ w /away Go/ w /out • Drill the verbs chorally and individually before providing a more personalized practice activity in which students ask each other questions using the verbs you are focusing on. and the repetition helps students to begin using these features of connected speech in a natural manner. • Superlatives. • Such exercises provide practice of both grammatical form and pronunciation. Drill the phrases. / w / and / j / is when studying phrasal verbs. “Which is the tallest building in the world?” As they read their questions. provide practise of sound deletions. don´t focus solely on the form of the words.

2.org. However. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. This article published: 28th February.uk. as well as valuable.187 - . UNMSM-EPG . by Vanessa Steele. 2005 Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. they will need time and confidence in order to assimilate the features of connected speech and to make them their own.website. that by simply drawing students attention to these forms. Conclusion Students often find pronunciation work fun and stimulating.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. teaching. Research does suggest though. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. you are givng them considerable help towards making sense of the language they hear.” Connected Speech 1.

Spain Sentence stress is a difficult area to work on for learners and teachers alike. Listening 3. Listening activities 4. Conclusion English is a stress timed language The English language is often referred to as stress-timed. Speaking 5. but this aspect of the language can cause problems for learners in both their speaking and perhaps more importantly listening. For this reason it’s also an area which is often neglected. British Council. 1. English is a stress timed language 2. Try saying or listening to the sentences below: 1 1 and 1 and a 1 and then a 2 2 and 2 and a 2 and then a 3 3 and 3 and a 3 and then a 4 4 4 4 The four sentences take the same length of time to say and you will notice the numbers are stressed and the unstressed words in between are said much more quickly in order to keep the rhythm of the language. listening In a recent class I discussed with my students the reasons they found listening difficult in English. In other languages. Speaking activities 6.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6.188 - . This means that stress in a spoken sentence occurs at regular intervals and the length it takes to say something depends on the number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself. ENglISh SENTENCE STRESS Lynn Gallacher.8. Some comments were: “The words come too fast” “I panic when I don’t understand every word” “Some words are swallowed” . which are not stress-timed the stress would fall more equally on each word and syllable.

The important conclusion being it is not necessary to understand every word. Discuss with students the aim of this activity . I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. Give the students the tape script to a listening before they hear it and ask them to predict which words they think will be stressed. usually stressed ones.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii I think what students are referring to here. amongst other things. I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. They will usually be the words that give meaning: verbs. In groups ask the students to try and recreate the listening extract using the words they have and their knowledge of the English language. taking note of the important words. I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. nouns and adjectives. The activities below are designed to practise stress-time and increase students’ fluency.to show how native speakers listen and understand the language. maybe a paragraph in length. is the stress-timed aspect of English. Read to the sentence below with the stress on different words. Play a fairly short listening extract. . You can play the tape several times. Emphasise that this isn’t a dictation exercise you don’t want students to try to write down every word. Speaking Stress timing can help speakers communicate meaning. Learners need to be made aware of the fact that the way they say something can affect it’s meaning. I asked you to buy me a bunch of red roses. Play the tape to check the predictions. Not using stress-time can also make students sound laboured when they speak and can cause irritation on the part of the listener. and using their knowledge of the language to build meaning. You can hear that the meaning changes. students write down the important (stressed) words they hear. give the students the tape script and play a very short extract. Compare the students’ version with the original.189 - . Discuss the kinds of words that are stressed. Students mark on the tape script the words that are stressed. After completing a listening comprehension task in class. listening activities Here are some activities I’ve done in class with students of all levels to raise awareness of stress time in English and help them overcome the difficulties it causes during listening.

Who smiled as she rode on a tiger. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. British Council. 2005). Here are some limericks I’ve used with my students: There was a young lady from Niger.190 - . and chose a two-person dialogue to listen to.website. Recently I was working with 2 advanced students who were about to take the speaking part of the Proficiency exam. by Lynn Gallacher. They were aware they didn’t sound fluent but still didn’t know what to do about it. It should be noted that stress-time is only one of many factors that influence how we say something. who the speaker is talking to and the context they are speaking in.teaching.org.” English Sentence Stress”. that when she essayed to drink lemonade. UNMSM-EPG . I asked them to record themselves speaking and then listen to the recording. trying to keep to the rhythm. Spain.uk. They spoke very deliberately and gave words equal stress. There once was a lady named Lynn Who was so uncommonly thin. Speech rhythms change according to the meaning the speaker wants to convey. And the smile on the face of the tiger.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Speaking activities Stress timing is most noticeable in patterned language such as poetry and limericks. using the tape-script. Next we used the cassette from the course book they were using. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. The students. recorded themselves again and again until the dialogue sounded as close as possible to the original. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. Next we mark the stressed syllables and the students read the limericks out. The students in groups then try writing one. Conclusion In this article I have outlined the difficulty my students have with listening and speaking in relation to English as a stress-timed language and suggested some ways to help students. It’s fun to use the names of the students in the class to start the limerick. After the ride She was inside. It’s also quite a difficult area for students to work on. she slipped through the straw and fell in! I read the limericks aloud and checked the students understand them. Their grammar and vocabulary was fine but when they spoke English they didn’t sound fluent. so don’t expect instant results (this article published 17th january.

as well as unknown lexis I will also include areas such as register. Materials writer. grammar and lexis. . the lack of clear guidelines and rules available in course books. however. INTEgRaTINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN INTo ClaSSRooM aCTIVITIES Barney Griffiths. Using student talk to teach pronunciation Pronunciation work can be kept simple and employ exercises which are both accessible and enjoyable for students. Spain. set phrases…and within the former I will include notes on any area of pronunciation that leads to miscommunication. Whenever students do a freer speaking activity. which means integrating it into daily classroom procedures. Using student talk to teach pronunciation 2. and secondly the fact that isolated exercises once a month do not seem to have much of an effect. the activity also serves to work on students’ accuracy through the feedback we give them on their use of language.9. function. However. word stress and sentence stress. the main aim is usually for them to develop their spoken fluency in the language. like all other areas of language teaching. consonant sounds.191 - . I can think of at least two reasons why pronunciation tends to be neglected: firstly. I find that addressing issues regularly during the language feedback or group correction stage of a lesson helps to focus learners’ attention on its importance and lead to more positive experiences. When my students do such a group or pair work activity at any level I listen in and take notes which are divided into three areas of language: pronunciation. Conclusion 1. Teacher trainer. pronunciation needs constant attention for it to have a lasting affect on students. Within the latter. This is not surprising. vowel sounds (including weak forms). Vowel sounds 4. In my work as a teacher trainer I have been surprised at how often experienced teachers are reluctant to tackle pronunciation issues in class. Sentence stress 7. Diphthongs 5.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. Teacher. Word stress 3. This includes diphthongs. whatever their level. Weak forms 6. 1. All of these areas can be dealt with quickly and efficiently by having some simple exercises ready which require nothing more than the board and a basic knowledge of the phonemic chart. Pronunciation work has traditionally taken a secondary role in language teaching to work on grammar and more recently lexis.

‘lead’. Once your students get used to the exercises. As a general rule I find that this procedure encourages learner autonomy by having learners form their own hypotheses which are then confirmed or disproved by the teacher in the following lesson. pronunciation work becomes even more efficient and dare I say it. giving myself some thinking time. whereas the activities I propose here will. ‘believe’. In this column I write the word ‘dead’ and have students repeat it. In this case. the second much larger. which students find easy (‘red’. i. I either ask them to think of examples that contradict their rule to give myself time to consider it or I tell them we will look at rules for this the following lesson. effective. I put students in pairs or groups to think of words. depending on the level I will get ‘head’. for example.and these go in the same column. ‘today’. writing them down and their organisation into columns that helps learners retain sounds and spellings.192 - . it can be introduced from beginner level and students are quick to appreciate its value. which I accept as correct before asking for verbs only. If a student asks for rules during this exercise. however. ‘bed’. ‘ea’. the first small. . rather than their simply revising the lists. A rule for when ‘ea’ is pronounced /e/ (head) and when it is pronounced /i:/ (bead) will not necessarily aid production. I write ‘suppose’ under the bubbles and drill it before asking students to think of other two syllable words with second-syllable stress. etc. word stress Here is a simple exercise I repeat regularly for work on word stress and individual sounds. ‘forget’…. 3. After the activity. I then get ‘accept’. It is the cognitive work of trying to think of similar words. Vowel sounds I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘Not now because he is did (dead)’. on the board I put a column with two bubbles to represent word stress.). The listener doesn’t understand because of the mispronunciation and asks the other student to repeat until finally they write it down and we see what the word was. 2. After the activity.e. I hear a pre-intermediate learner say: ‘I suppose (pronounced with stress on first syllable) I will see her tonight’. ‘read’. on the board I draw a column with the heading /e/.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras If learners are introduced to the phonemic chart one phoneme at a time. ‘below’ and ‘behind’. I do not write these. I then ask for words which rhyme and have the same vowel spelling. in this case ‘Do all 2-syllable verbs have this stress pattern?’. I get ‘outside’. This is why all students should be encouraged to copy the list into their notebooks. too. I then ask for examples of words which rhyme with this. ‘bread’.… and we end up with an extendable list of words with the same spelling and sound.

so I point out the number of syllables and the stress on the beginning of the word. etc. ensuring that they are not obscure words or too high for this particular level (in this case I might choose to introduce ‘bind’ and ‘grind’. 5. I make a column with a schwa. In my experience this approach is not a useful one. but to cater to this merely serves to reinforce students’ belief that a language always obeys a strict set of rules. The idea is to get a basic poster with a phoneme at the top and various columns with different spellings. note them down and practise them regularly. marking the word stress. I get ‘mind’ and ‘kind’. I note that this is also an opportunity to work on word stress. drill ‘find’ and my students give me ‘fight’. ‘eye’. diphthongs I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘I didn’t find (pronounced / f i: n d /) it anywhere’. ‘buy’. for the sound. With an elementary class there is a case for simply teaching this point rather than eliciting known words. explaining that this makes the final syllable weak and not pronounced as the word ‘table’. it’s also a great idea to have students pin posters with sound columns up on the wall and add to them whenever a new item comes up for that sound.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii If the classroom allows it. ‘bike’. I add to the list ‘comfortable’ and ‘presentable’ as further examples. for example. but probably not ‘rind’ or ‘hind’).193 - . I make a column with /ai/. There may be only one or two for any given pattern. and drill ‘vegetable’. If I have thought of any other words myself I add them to the column. such as students’ confusion at the lack of a steadfast rule or the non-uniformity of the examples. but avoid adding more so as not to overwhelm students at this level. ‘e’ Bed Pen 4. I can think of objections teachers have made to my suggesting this. I accept these without writing them and then encourage students to think of other words spelt like ‘find’. particularly if it is a strange or different spelling. For the second example I point out that the stress is on the second syllable. weak forms I hear an elementary learner say: ‘I will buy vegetables (pronouncing ‘table’ at the end)’. ‘my’. The only way to learn these fundamental pronunciation points is to notice them. /e/ ‘ea’ Dead Head ‘ai’ Said .

‘He told me I couldn’t have a holiday’. The activity is simply a choral drill. but if highlighted early on and practised relatively often. Spain . by Barney Griffiths. the pronouns. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.194 - . this latter exercise on sentence stress does seem to take longer to have an effect. The trick here is not to over-exaggerate on the stressed words. rather than a stress pattern. Sentence stress I use fluency drills to work on sentence stress.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6.e. students do seem to internalise how English stress differs from their own language and helps overcome what in later stages of learning becomes a fossilised way of speaking. Sentence stress causes more communication problems for a fluent speaker than any number of grammatical errors. I have attempted to provide a couple of very simple exercises here to help teachers integrate pronunciation into their classes on a regular basis. or grammar words. Admittedly. British Council BBC and It is used free of charge. Think in terms of modelling a rhythm.” Integrating pronunciation in the classroom”. This causes confusion due to the stress being placed on the wrong words in the sentence. Regular work in this area helps learners to develop their own hypotheses and gut-feeling for English pronunciation.UNMSM-EPG . Using gesture like the conductor of an orchestra or tapping on the board to show the rhythm is especially helpful for students who cannot hear it easily. 2004).uk. teaching.website. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. but of the whole sentence and maintaining an English rhythm. Conclusion One of the beauties of using student speech for pronunciation work is that it directly addresses students problems. as opposed to the content words. something experts and researchers have long emphasised as an essential skill of a good language learner (this article published 8th november. Teacher. but keep the stress and rhythm natural.org. Materials writer. Teacher trainer. i. I hear an intermediate learner say: ‘He told me I couldn’t have a holiday’ (bold words are stressed). 7.

Each symbol represents one sound consistently. 1.195 - . Inevitably.2. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols? 3. What is the best way to learn phonemic symbols? 5.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. they can write down the correct pronunciation of a word that they hear. If they cannot use phonemic . not pronounced. are a totally reliable guide. Phonemic symbols.1. What is more. 1.10. Students can use dictionaries effectively. Knowing phonemic symbols enables students to get the maximum information from dictionaries. why use phonemic symbols? The alphabet which we use to write English has 26 letters but (British) English has 44 sounds. The second bit of information in dictionaries for English language learners is the word in phonemic symbols. Which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn? 6. Why use phonemic symbols? 2. Using them can be a valuable tool to improving your students’ pronunciation. Don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols? 1. teacher trainer and materials writer Phonemic symbols represent the sounds of the English language. ‘through’ and ‘ghost’? (like f in fun. It comes right after the word itself. 1. Here are five good reasons why students should know phonemic symbols. TEaChINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN wITh PhoNEMIC SYMBolS Alan Stanton. They can find out the pronunciation of a word by themselves without asking the teacher. in contrast. Students can become independent learners. like g in got) How many syllables are there in ‘chocolate’? (3) Here a few challenging questions to put to your students: The letters of the alphabet can be a poor guide to pronunciation. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols? 4. English spelling is not a reliable guide to pronunciation because • • • • • • Some letters have more than one sound Sometimes letters are not pronounced at all The same sound may be represented by different letters Sometimes syllables indicated by the spelling are not pronounced at all How do you pronounce gh in ‘enough’.

individual sounds and include linking. 1. 19 of the 44 symbols have the same sound and shape as letters of the alphabet. For example they can see that ‘son’ and sun’ must be pronounced the same because the phonemic symbols are the same. 2. Phonemic symbols. knowledge of how the language works is still of great value. what is the best way to learn phonemic symbols? Most native-speaker teachers of English learn grammar from the textbooks they use when they first start teaching.4. they know what the target is and where the problems are.196 - . arranged in a chart. They can use their eyes to help their ears and if they are able to hold and manipulate cards with the symbols on. key words that show the sound of each symbol. the better they will learn. which most people can’t do. yes. Even if they have not mastered all of them. That leaves just 25 to learn. Phonemic symbols on the wall in a classroom remind them that there are 44. If you are a language teacher. Phonemic symbols are a visual aid. which most people don’t.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras symbols for this. It is best to be prepared. Compare that with the hundreds of different pieces of information in a grammar book or the thousands of words in even a small dictionary. Students can learn these symbols by themselves and one day you might meet a student who asks you to write a word on the board using phonemic symbols. 3. because they are unlikely to have been exposed to any . Students can see that two words differ. This means that some words. it is visual and shapes are easy to remember. you can get lost but you are better off with a map than without one. Is it difficult to learn phonemic symbols? Absolutely not. 4. Just as they have a dictionary for vocabulary and a grammar book for grammar. Even if we go beyond separate. such as ‘pet’. they will use the sound values of letters in their own language and this will perpetuate pronunciation errors. or are the same. If you are a doctor. so they need reference materials for pronunciation: the phonemic symbols and simple. then they are using the sense of touch as well. Although speaking a language is a performance skill. Even with a map. The more senses students use. then you know phonemic symbols. Anyone who can drive is able to recognise more than 25 symbols giving information about road conditions. 1. look the same whether written with phonemic symbols or letters of the alphabet. in pronunciation. It is a very small learning load. elision and assimilation.5. 1.3. Moreover. students do not know. Is it important for teachers to know the phonemic symbols? To be frank. Here is another question to ask students: How many different sounds are there in English? Usually. you will be able to name every bone in the human body. The chart is a map of English sounds. Every profession has specialist knowledge that is not widely known outside the profession. there is still a limited and clearly defined set of things to learn. are part of every student’s armoury of learning resources.

depending on the influence of other sounds and on individual ways of speaking. not that each sound is pronounced exactly like the sounds of RP.197 - . it is easy and you never forget. It is true that the 44 phonemes in British English are based on the sounds of Received Pronunciation. shape and appearance but we can always recognise a knight because it behaves like a knight and not like a king. This indicates that the real sound that you actually hear can vary up to certain limits. When the symbols are arranged in a chart. There is not just one perfect way to say each sound . visual and physical. which phonemic symbols are the easiest to learn? The consonants are the easiest. Therefore. an accent which is not frequently heard nowadays.there is an acceptable range of pronunciations. Note. Learning phonemic symbols will help students to understand the importance of length and voicing. 6. They can vary considerably in size. The point is that words such as ‘ship’. . because most of them have the same form as a letter of the alphabet (17 out of 24). Once you can do it. not the initial sound of ‘judge’. You just need to keep one symbol ahead of the students. It is possible to learn phonemic symbols in the same way. however. each one occupies a box. 5. it is best to start by teaching students a large number of consonant symbols and a small number of easy vowel symbols such as /e/ and /i/. Think of the pieces in a game of chess. that the sound /j/ represents the initial sound of ‘yellow’.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii formal study of English grammar. ‘sip’ and ‘seep’ should sound different from each other. Experience shows that students are very likely to make mistakes with the symbol /j/. They learn by teaching. Simply knowing that the symbol : indicates a long sound can be very helpful. They may seem challenging at first but it is like learning to swim or ride a bicycle. There is no end to our study of grammar and vocabulary but phonemic symbols are limited. so it needs special attention. Most native-speaker teachers do not have this accent but still use phonemic symbols. sheep’. don’t I need to have a perfect English accent in order to use phonemic symbols? Not at all. which is a very effective way of learning.

teacher trainer and materials writer.uk.198 - . UNMSM-EPG . 2002) Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www.Unvoiced and voiced pairs 1 Unvoiced Voiced Consonants .Unvoiced and voiced pairs 2 Unvoiced Voiced other consonants f v  ð s z   m n ŋ h l r w j (this article published 5th march.website. teaching.org. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras PhoNEMIC SYMBolS i: Vowel sounds u:  : æ a:  :  a   e diphthongs  e  a k g    p b  e t d Consonants .” Teaching pronunciation with phonemic symbols”. by Alan Stanton. BBC and It is used free of charge.

you could restrict the number of vowel sounds used. They can come and click on these sounds on the board or computer to check. To make the activity easier. This can be made more learner-centred if.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 6. Give the students a list of recently learned words in phonemic script. A variation on both the above activities is for you or the learners to prepare phonemic transcriptions of vocabulary with a deliberate mistake. and give learners the options they have to choose from. then give its alphabetic spelling. In the next class they exchange books and use the chart to help them work out the words. which the teacher confirms or rejects. They come to the board or computer and spell it out. Mexico These activities are designed for use with the teaching English interactive phonemic chart. They can send a group member to the board or the computer to click on sounds to help them check. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols If you have a computer with a projector. In groups. Learners in groups identify the mistake and replace it with the correct phoneme. They then have to write the words in alphabetic script. one of the vowel sounds. Using the chart for autonomous learning. you can download and copy the chart for them to use with their homework. British Council. they have to work out what the words are. If your students have access to computers at home. the chart can be used in class to recycle and reinforce recently learned vocabulary. learners choose 5 recently learned words and write them in phonemic script for homework. Vocabulary recycling and revision of phonemic symbols. at the same time as revising the phonemic symbols. 2. 1. clicking on the ‘correct’ sound for each word. Sound and spelling correspondence. PRoNUNCIaTIoN ChaRT aCTIVITIES Catherine Morley. Voiced and unvoiced consonants. • Give the students a list of recently learned words with a specific sound underlined.11. after some work in class on the phonemic alphabet.g. The learners then categorise the words into the different vowel sounds. e. 3. Individual learners prepare a recently learned word in phonemic script. 4. and any mistakes in the phonemic transcription. All these activities assume that learners have had at least some initial introduction to the phonemic alphabet. 1. one student can stand at the board or sit at the computer. When checking with the whole class.199 - . • • . Other learners have to identify the word.

Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras • Learners work in two teams. You could then give them a list of words and ask them to categorise the underlined consonant sound into these two categories. and that z is voiced while s is unvoiced. Tom Cruise. Ask them if they can feel the vibrations. why they like this person. • This discovery activity can be used to help learners notice the difference between voiced and unvoiced consonants. Voiced and unvoiced consonants Certain pairs of consonants can be problematic for some learners. The class as a whole has to work out who it is using their existing knowledge of the phonemic chart. With /s/ and /z/. Write the name of your favourite famous person in phonemic script on the board. One team member stands at the board or sits at the computer. the main difference between the pair is whether the consonant is voiced or unvoiced. The teacher gives one learner a word. • • 2. or leave the choice of words open).g. and the sound a snake is supposed to make for s. recently learned vocabulary. and the other team calls out a word (you could specify a subject area. In this list the sound being focused on is the final sound in each case. Ask them when they feel the vocal chords vibrate . do the same and put your fingers on your throat. e. As they make a buzzing noise. indicating that the learners should do the same. • . what films they’ve been in etc. e. Tell them that this is the main difference between the two sounds. He taps it out on the board. As a variation. The teacher collects these and redistributes them.200 - . and receives a point for a correct answer. The class is the judge. In some cases. they can find the person who wrote it and ask some more questions. whether or not the vocal chords vibrate when making this sound. Make the sounds with your fingers on your throat. You can help learners with this by getting them to make the ‘bee’ sounds for z. indicating that they should do likewise.with s or z? (The answer should be z). while other learners identify it. the teacher gives one learner a word in phonemic script. Begin by asking learners what noise a bee makes. with the teacher having the final say.g. They then write the name of a favourite famous person in phonemic script on a piece of paper (an English name. Then focus on a voiced / unvoiced pair such as s and z. written alphabetically.they can take turns in clicking on the sounds on the board or the computer to check individual sounds. The team member has to spell out the word on the chart. and the other team gets a point for giving the correct spelling. you might choose to include some third person singular verb and plural endings. Learners have to work out who this person is . Once they’ve worked out the name. not Enrique Iglesias). The learner has to tap out the word in phonemic script. This will allow them to feel the vibrations of the vocal chords that occur with voiced consonant sounds. that is.

with their fingers on their throat to check if it is voiced or unvoiced. you could do a minimal pairs activity using some voiced / unvoiced pairs. Voiced ben do gone van gin zoo Unvoiced pen to con fan chin sue • • This activity has the advantage of establishing the voiced / unvoiced distinction.e. Display this list or something similar on the board and say a word from each pair. depending on which of the pair they hear. All of this will be useful in future classes if problem arise in the discrimination or production of voiced / unvoiced consonant pairs. learners could do this in pairs. It also helps learners to become conscious of the muscle movements involved in voicing a consonant. focusing on initial consonant sounds. In a computer lab. After each word learners have to say voiced or unvoiced. the fingers on the throat.201 - . They can then test each other in pairs. and a shared gesture that learners and the teacher can use in class to indicate that a sound is voiced or unvoiced. the teacher or a learner could click on sounds while the rest of the class repeat them and categorise them into voiced or unvoiced. In class with the computer and a projector. They listen to a sound and repeat it. i. As a follow up. .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii /s/ cups speaks gets puts tents plants bags looks stops rice place • /z/ pens reads goes lives cars sees hears learns rise rose plays Learners then use the chart to decide which of the other consonant sounds are voiced and which are unvoiced.

202 - . (It makes the vowel sound ‘say its name’. • • . give the students the phonemic symbols for the different possible pronunciations of e. represent different sounds. Where the word contains more than one a with different sounds. given that 80% of English words do fit into regular patterns. capital. practice.) It is not advisable to over-emphasise the irregularity of English spelling. checking with a dictionary if necessary. banana. One way of doing this is to give them a list of known words where the same letter or combination of letters. i. which they categorise according to how the as are pronounced. Spanish. For example. art. The teacher then asks them to formulate a general ‘rule’ for the effect of adding an ‘e’ to the end of a word. as a discovery activity to help learners notice the effect of adding an ‘e’ to the end of a word.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 3. before holding a final class check. average. Sound and spelling correspondence The chart can also be used to highlight both patterns and variations in sound and spelling correspondence. underline which a you want them to use to make their categorisations. you could give the learners some of the words from the following list: cap mat pin not pet kit sit win hat cut • cape mate pine note pete kite site wine hate cute Learners use the chart to help them write the phonemic transcription for each word. you could give learners the following list of words including the letter a. make. understand. Italian or Japanese where there is a very high correspondence between sound and spelling may need to have their attention drawn to the different possibilities for pronunciation in English.e. and can categorise the words according to the sound represented. However. normally a vowel or vowels. To make the activity easier. speakers of languages such as Spanish. take. Learners will have at least some idea of how these words are pronounced. car. using the chart to help them. the ‘a’ in ‘cape’ sounds like the letter A as it is said in the alphabet. For example.

in the list above. Adapted by Yony Cárdenas Cornelio. They simply show the two lists of words to a partner.org.UNMSM-EPG . For example.203 - . if student A says ‘seat’. and say one of the words. they might come up with something like this: /I/ sit hit hill mill bin ship • /i:/ seat heat wheel meal been sheep They can use these to test their classmates’ ability to discriminate between these sounds. for example with the sounds /i:/ and /I/. your learners could prepare their own ‘minimal pairs’. Encourage your learners to record the pronunciation of new words they meet. As mentioned above.” Pronunciation Chart Activities”. which learners can check using the online chart before bringing to class. Depending on their level. The partner responds ‘left’ or ‘right’. you could ask them to write 5 new words from the class in phonemic script for homework. if you want to focus on a sound which is problematic for your learners. teaching. With a little training.uk. to be used to test their classmates. Source: Copyright for this material is owned by British Council BBC World Service and it was first published on the www. by Catherine Morley. 2005). ask them to find 5 words including that sound and write them in phonemic script. Using the chart for autonomous learning If learners have access to a computer outside class. British Council. Similarly. they can use the chart together with a dictionary to check the pronunciation of new words they meet in their own reading. in the next class. Mexico.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 4. in their vocabulary notebooks. student B will (hopefully) respond ‘right’ (this article published 17th january.website. as well as their own pronunciation. This is particularly useful for learners who are not yet fully familiar with all the sounds on the chart. BBC and It is used free of charge. both in and out of class. • you can also set homework related to pronunciation.

The following is a list of proverbs that can be used for pronunciation exercises. / A spot is most seen on the finest cloth. Kind words are the music of the world. / East and west. For example. Well begun is half done.204 - . new laws.) Repeating a sound two or more times in a short sentence can give the student a deeper impression. Finders keepers. / Where there is a will. Sounds are marked with boldface instead of being represented by phonetic symbols because the American and British symbols are different. Haste makes waste. no gains” to some monotonous sentences such as “He looks pale today.” Sentences with several words involving the same sound are good materials for practicing that sound. Many proverbs contain the rhetorical devices related to sound such as alliteration. Proverbs. when practicing “a”. students will prefer reading “No pains. losers weepers. He who has an art has everywhere a part. there is a way. will give fun. Every bullet has its billet.12. and the euphonic rhythm can keep the boredom away. A little pot is soon hot. / The early bird catches the worm. home is best. rhyme and repetition. .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 6. and some symbols may be distorted on the internet. PRaCTICINg PRoNUNCIaTIoN ThRoUgh PRoVERBS Yi Yang Practicing pronunciation can be very tedious. and thus very suitable for pronunciation exercises (For instance: Practice makes perfect. A good wife and health is a man’s best wealth. One man beats the bush. He laughs best who laughs last. however. New lords. A drowning man will catch at a straw. another man catches the bird. Vowels • • • • • • • • • • • • • A friend in need is a friend indeed. / Walls have ears.

Try before you trust. Even the weariest river winds somewhere safe to sea. pound foolish. An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of learning. It is hard to be high and humble. A bird in hand is worth two in the wood. Work has bitter root but sweet fruit.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii • • • • • Little strokes fell great oaks. Least said. Constant dripping wears away a stone. / Birds of a feather flock together. / Birds of a feather flock together. There is nothing which has been bitter before being ripe. / Better be sure than sorry. / As you sow you shall mow.205 - . less speed. Time and tide wait for no man. soonest mended. There is no royal road to learning. . a lousy age. / Every dog has his day. No garden without its weeds. Something is better than nothing./ Practice makes perfect. Care killed the cat. Everybody has his merits and faults. / Might makes right. No joy without annoy. Good advice is beyond price. No sunshine but hath some shadow. A good name is better than a golden girdle. / Do on the hills as you would do in the hall. Fair feathers make fair fowls. Consonants • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Penny wise. Every jack has his jill. Labor is often the father of leisure. / More haste. A lazy youth. Do not count your chickens before they are hatched.

yangyi@gse. look before you leap.html o . willful waste makes woeful want. / Everything must have a beginning.206 - . Students could later be asked to interpret the meaning of the proverbs orally or in writing. A stitch in time saves nine. / Many a little makes a mickle.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras • • • • • • Better be drunk than drowned. N.º 3. / where there is a will. there is a way. A miss is as good as a mile. Seeing is believing.org/Lessons/Yang-Proverbs. march 1999 URL: http://iteslj. vol. v.harvard. which will lead the pronunciation activity naturally to a speaking or writing activity.edu The Internet TESL Journal. / A cracked bell can never sound well. Source: Yi Yang.

Practice 1 Summary of the phonological processes 1. /’frss/ and /’æfiss/.. Examples of English (colloquial): Engla land > England 6. 4. (medial). vowel or consonant. /‘sŋkp/. Syllable or part of a syllable (usually vc or cv) is deleted when there is an identical one nearby. 2. A contrast that usually exists in a language (like the two vowels in bate and bet) is not realized in certain phonological environments as in this case before /r/.θe.KEY Unit I. Insertion (epenthesis): /in’s:n. Elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur.sm. there is usually a conditioning factor and an effected sound. degemination.2. These can be voicing. 5. Syncope. Deletion of first segment(s) of a word.3. 7.n/. Example: around – round.sppose. . (Note that if her name were Miss Andie. Two similar neighbouring consonants are reduced to one single consonant. Example: breakfast – Breakfast.’le. Conditions: 1) Syllables are both medial. Deletion of segment(s) at the middle of a word or end of the syllable: suppose -. assimilation: /. (Medial). Neutralization: nutr’lasen/.ss/. /demi’nen/. 2. aphæresis or aphesis: (Initial). Pronounced /hæp’ll. as in ‘immature’: the double /m/ in the spelling is pronounced as a single /m/. the /s/ would be shorter). Elision: /e’ln/./. manner or place. Sounds becoming more alike. 3. Could be: 2. Deletion of last segment(s) of a word. and 2) The structure of the two syllables is similar. haplology. (there are two [ab] combinations and one is deleted). Inserting segment(s) into a word: example: [straik[ --[estraik]. Deletion of some segments in different positions.1. becomes double long like the /s/ in the phrase Miss Sandy. Example: probably-probly. /’pkpi/. 2. A segment. ep’ent. gemination: /emi’nen/. apocope: (Final).

and [v] is the nasalized equivalent of [v]. devoicing: / d’vsŋ/ a voiced segment becomes voiceless. so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.hafta.[mejciv] where [c] is a palatal stop as in ‘keep’. 9. 11. Metathesis: /met’æθss/ is responsible for the most common types of speech errors. ask as /’æks/. such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasghetti.asa.mishu or ‘make Eve -. usually before a /j/ glide but often before a high front vowel. Example: nut -. Only the manner changes here. example ata -. in voicing. Spirantization: /sparnt’zen / n/ Stops become fricatives. Vowels in unstressed syllables become shwa or similar short lax vowel. This usually applies to vowels as in the nasalization of the vowel /a/ in ‘pond’. denasalization:/dnezla’zen/ removing the feature ‘nasal’ from a segment leaves you with a voiced stop at the same place of articulation. Since there is no voiced bilabial fricative in English.208 - . The nasals consonants can nasañize the vowels.fote. a sound. when you spirantize a [b] in english you often get [v]. Voicing assimilation: /‘v sŋ asimi’le n/ Segment becomes like another usually adjacent segment. Example ‘ata’ -. 10. In the International Phonetic Alphabet nasalization is indicated by printing a tilde above the symbol for the sound to be nasalized: [ã] is the nasalized equivalent of ~ [a]. Consonant harmony: /’knsnnt ‘ha:mn / consonant becomes more like another: often exactly alike as in a child saying gog for dog. usually between vowels. Vowel reduction: /’valwl r ‘dk n/. 15. Note though that place might also change.[ada]. Note that when alveolar stops palatalized. nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered.dut. they usually become africates. vowel harmony: Rare in English: one vowel becomes more like a nearby vowel. Some other frequent English pronunciations that display metathesis are: /’æks/ for ask (possibly the most common metathesis in English) /’æstrks/ for asterisk /’kmftrbl/ for comfortable /ntr’dju’s/ for introduce /’ntrgl/ for integral /rvlnt/ for relevant 12. is moved closer to the palat.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 8. 13. Palatalization: /pæltla’zen/. have to -. Usually nothing else changes as in ‘vote . Imagine talking with a stuffy nose. . miss you -. 14. Nasalization: /nezla’zen/ In phonetics.

elephant 5. early and stormy. 39) Pronounce the words stress appropriately.209 - . pencil. 34) Degrees of Stress words Janet Elephant Jemina Mississipi Sentence pattern ■∙ ■∙∙ ∙■∙ .misə’sɪpɪ Unit 2. Amazon 7. tiger. mirror and disco. heavy. happiness ■∙∙ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ∙■∙ ■ ■ ∙∙■ Unit 2. Jemina 4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2. Practice 3 (p. Morocco 6. lotion. lemon.∙∙ ■∙ Stressed and unstressed syllable Janet Elephant Jemina Mississipi Reduced syllable (The unstressed syllable changes to schwa) ‘ʤænɪt / ‘ʤænət ‘elɪfənt / ‘eləfənt ʤɪ’maɪna / ʤə’maɪna . rapid. Quickly. Anthony 3. Practice 1 (p. Practice 2 (p. object.misɪ’sɪpɪ / . silly. 36) Stress pattern 1. ruler. Manchester 2. bony. Import. slowly. carpenter 8. .

39) Practice the following words that change the meaning by changing only the stress. 40) Pronounce the words correctly: (penultimate = second from end) A.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. Read the words and pronounce them correctly. 39) Word stress. Stress in the first syllable ‘abstract (adjective) ‘conduct (noun) ‘contract (noun) ‘contrast (noun) ‘dessert (noun) ’import (noun) Stress in the second syllable abs‘tract (noun) con‘duct (verb) con‘tract (verb) con‘trast (verb) de‘sert (noun) im’port (verb) skate re’search sur’vive re’turn pre’fer Unit 2.210 - . re’lax des’troy de’pend in’tent co’llect pro’duce in’vite a’ssist re’pair su’ggest Unit 2. Ending in -ic auto‘graphic au‘thentic auto‘matic bar‘baric bo‘racic autodi’dactic au’tistic axio’matic ‘basic ‘boric a’crylic rhythmic ‘rubric ‘ustic pro’sodic . Practice 6 (p. Practice 4 (Stress on last syllable) (p. Practice 5 (p.

211 - . Pronounce the words correctly ending in –cy Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) a’dequacy aris’tocracy con’sistency ‘constancy com’petency ‘agency au’tocracy con’sonancy con’sultancy con’veniency ab’sorbency a’dequacy ‘agency as’cendancy bu’reaucracy a’ccountancy ad’vertency aris’tocracy au’tocracy ‘clemency B. 41) A.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii B. 40) -sion a’dmission ‘passion ‘tension pe’rmission ad’mission -tion ‘action pro’motion simu’lation de’duction re’lation Unit 2. 42) stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) a’bility abnor’mality absorba’bility ab’surdity au’dacity aus’terity automa’ticity bar’barity belli’cosity be’nignity bes’tiality biodi’versity bioelec’tricity bio’safety bisex’uality bru’tality ca’lamity capa’bility car’nality catho’licity . Practice 7 (p. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –ty (p. Ending in -sion and –tion: (penultimate = second from end) (p.

42) Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) ’allergy an’thology as’trology biotech’nology chro’nology a’nalogy a’pology astro’biology car’diology cli’matology ge’nealogy his’tology hy’drology i’deology immu’nology laryn’gology lexicology mo’nology mor’phology musi’cology E. 42) Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) au’tography ’biography car’diography cos’mography encepha’lography bi’bliography ca’lligraphy chro’nography crysta’llography histo’riography ’geography fil’mography eth’nography i’diography ma’mmography my’thography osci’llography pe’trography phi’losophy ra’diography D.212 - . Pronounce the words correctly ending in –phy (p. Pronounce the words correctly ending in –gy (p. 43) Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end) abd’ominal abo’riginal philo’sophical acqui’sitional a’dditional aes’thetical aero’nautical agri’chemical agri’cultural alpha’betical ana’lytical compo’sitional compu’tational epidemio’logical non’inflectional non’marital psycho’logical pro’fessional monol’itical non’practical . Pronounce the words correctly ending in –al (p.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras C.

turn ’back (return) take ’charge (of) (assume responsibility) look ’over (review) bring ’back (return) call ’back (telephone again) talk ’back (to) (answer rudely) write ’down (make notes) talk ’over (discuss) high’lighted keep ’around (keep something near you) keep ’down (do not vomit) kick ’around (discuss) kick ’down (break something with your feet) let ’down (disappoint) lock ’down (make something very secure) . 44).fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 2. the stress is on the second part: bad-TEMpered (p. the stress is on the first part: BLACKbird. long-’legged three-’headed flowered-’dress masked’ man six-’sided long-’handled green-’eyed staff-’necked baby-’faced short-’tempered thin-’skinned smooth-’tongue broken-’hearted light-’footed long-’winded ’tight-fisted sure-’footed high-’heeled freckle-’faced stone-’faced kind-’hearted C.213 - . the stress is on the second part: to understand. ’blackboard ’saucepan ’saleswork ’iceland ’bedroom ’bathroom ’wallpaper ’bathtub ’housework ’grasshopper ’boyfriend ’seafood ’undercut ’diningtable ’blue-green ’watermelon ’highlight ’fishtank ’tumbledown ’underworld ’witchcraft B. For compound verbs. to overflow (p. 44). Practice 8 (p. For compound nouns. For compound adjectives. 43) A.

These are the one 1. That is the 8. I want to take a photography class? . This is the 2. Stress pattern 1. 51) A. what an 13. 1.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. These are the 3. rhinoceros 6. Felicity 2. Mississipi Unit 2. 44) Now read the 4-syllable words and write on the appropriate space. Practice 10 (p. 52). This is the 6. Wolverhampton 5. Repeat the sentences loudly (p. That is the 10. These are the 4. andrew is 11. Those are the 9. Practice 9 (p. This is the 5. Alexander 4. Afghanistan 3. how can we house that Two house that houses that houses that house that my bicycle people we person I people we gardener who taller than tall as the amazingly possibily jaqueline Three jack jack jaqueline mother Peter met in the saw on the drove to the works for my Peter and rest of the lively get there in built built built designed repaired park stairs party mother Thomas family production time built Four ∙■∙∙ ∙∙■∙ B. Practice the stress in the sentences keeping the rhythm of the original sentence. Tom’s not as 12. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2.214 - . Those are the 7.

jack bought a new car last Friday. We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back roads of France. Exciting discoveries lie in Tom’s future. 6. John is coming over tonight. 9. 10. We are going to work on our homework together. Please turn off the television before you go out. Practice 11 (p. 4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii 3. It is critical that you finish your essay. Sparky is a very happy puppy. 9. 5. They have had to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment. beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 He’s writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. Do you understand this lesson’ 7. 5. As you might have expected. Would you like to come over and play a game of chess? 8. moving poetry.215 - . Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug. Unit 2. . beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 beat 4 1. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. 4. 7. 10. he has just thought of a new approach to the pattern. China is the place where I was born. 2. 8. 53) Mark the stressed words in the sentences following the model. 6. I can’t decide which book to borrow. Shakespeare wrote passionate. See the examples: I am talking to the clever students beart 1 beat 2 beat 3 You are sitting on the desk but you aren’t listening to us. 3. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat. They are looking forward to your visiting them next january.

can’t) (can. China is the place where I was born. weren’t) 13 B. so he wants to live in hollywood. weren’t) (are. can’t) (can. can’t) (were. Tom __can_____ come to the party tonight. 3. Repeat the sentences loudly 1. aren’t) (were. Fill in spaces with the corresponding modal or verb to be. 54) 13.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 2. then the sentence is negative). 4. . Mary made an appointment with the dentist on Monday. Can you pass me a plastic knife? 2. Practice 13 (p. After the movie. longer. 9. Practice 12 (p. 6. 5. I want to take a photography class? 3. 1. There is a lot of traffic today on the highway. He is writing quickly so it is difficult for him to hear me. We __weren’t____ told to do that. clearer and high-pitched. 3. It is critical that you finish your essay.A. 5. 8. 6. Unit 2. 4. 1. (Remember if you hear the “to-be” or auxiliary verb is stressed. The students ___weren’t___ here last night. They _are_____ doing the homework. Please turn off the television before you go out.216 - . (can. 2. 2. 4. Sparky is a very happy puppy. My grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat. 53) Read the sentence emphasizing the stressed syllables making them louder. they went to a bar to have beer. Do you understand this lesson’ 7. I can’t decide which book to borrow. john wants to be an actor. I __can____ understand your story. 10. They __can’t_____ hear the speaker.

6. he has. she does (W) (W) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (W) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (W) (W) (S) . auxiliary verb do does have has were was can weak form /d/ or /d/ /dz/ /hv/ /hz/ /w/ /wz/ /kn/ Strong form /du:/ /dz/ /hæv/ /hæz/ /w :/ /wz/ /kæn/ Instruction. How many language can you speak? I can speak two – English and French 8. I have.217 - . 1. When was your birthday? It was in April. and when it is not stressed. Does she live in the north of England? Yes. I do. 5. The strong form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence. 74) Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs. 2. The weak form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of sentence. 7. she does. Do you get the bus to work’ Yes. Does your mother work in an office? Yes. According to the position of the weak or strong form decide if the sentence is Strong (S) or weak (w).fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 3. 3. Where were your parents married? I think they were married in London. Has your father got dark hair? Yes. or stressed. 4. Practice 1 (p. Have you got a good English dictionary? Yes.

11. t 2. Can you speak English? Yes. Do they share the housework? Yes. she has. she can. they do. The bomb destroyed ahouse d 6. The van crashed in the jungle t 4. they were (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (S) (W) (S) Unit 2. Were they married in Japan? Yes. 13. Have they got any children) Yes. She laughed at the joke. 77) Where does the linking take place and say if ‘t’ or ‘d’ is taking place in the linking. They traveled across Europe by train d 7. She jumped over the wall t 3. He introduced Amanda to his friends t . Columbus discovered America d 5. 10. they have.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras 9.218 - . Has she got a job? Yes. Practice 2 (p. 12. 1.

Weak forms. sir.2.5. Can I speak to (a) Miss Moneypenny? Speaking. sir. We had a lunch appointment at (d).219 - . Contact him and tell him from (l) me he is a damn fool. 78) Key: The prepositions because the come in the middle of sentences and are not stressed are pronounced with weak pronunciation. Unit 4. but he’s gone to (e) Budapest. Isn’t he there? I’m sorry. Practice 3 (p. B. Hello. Why didn’t he listen to (h) me? He’s just asking for (i) trouble. and you can tell him I’m waiting for (m) his call. Yes. Practice 1 (4.2. Prepositions to from for at of B: S: B: weak form /t/ /frm/ /f/ or /fr/ /t/ /v/ Strong form /tu:/ /frm/ /f:/ /æt/ /v/ S: B: S: B: S: B: S: Hello.4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 3. linking and elision (Review 1) B. He’s only staying there for (j) a couple of (k) days. I am looking from (c) James Bond. Oh. C and d) 4. Where exactly? He’s staying at (g) at the Hotel Royal. I am phoning from (b) the Ritz. All right. (a) vowel C. I was afraid of (f) that. (a) [ə] (b) [ɪ] (c) [ə] (b) glass (g) [ɔ:] (h) [ə] (i) [u:] (c) cat (m) [ɜ:] (n) [ə] (o) [ʌ] (d) shorn (s) [ɒ] (t) [ə] (u) [ju:] [ʌ] (e) light .

Are you going to Repton alone? No. (a) rams (b) marsh (c) books (d) drain (e) cream’s C. B.2. I’m going to the Repton Show in October. de’test ‘cabbage ‘chicken ‘beetroot ‘basket ‘pudding ‘salad ‘rabbit in’doors ‘perfect to’matoes ‘dumplings ‘beautiful be’hind ‘cucumber Unit 4. weak forms. be’fore. linking. Sonny.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras (d) [ʊ] (e) [ɒ] (f) [ɔ:] (j) [əʊ] (k) [aʊ] (l) [ʌ] (p) [u:] (q) [ʊ] (r) [ʊ] (v) [ə] [əʊ] (w) [ʌ] [ə] (x) [ʌ] [ʊ] (y) [ɒ] [aʊə] D.6. consecutive stress. ‘handsome. up’set. isn’t it’ No. D. ‘mermaid. C and d) 4. honey.2. de’lighted ‘actually. Parctice 3 (4. C and d) 4. You never told me. a motor show.6. intonation. . When did you tell me? It must have been someone else. Peter’ Peter who? Which Peter? Peter Blenkinsop. ‘borrow. unad’venturous. peter’s going.2. linking. runny D. B. sunny. elision. Stress. money. the shifting tonic. (Review 3) B.2. Practice 2 (4. impo’lite. That’s a boat show. I told you I was going to Repton with Peter. Weak forms. (a) 3 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 2 (f) 1 (g) 1 (h) 3 (i) 3 (j) 3 (k) 3 (l) i Unit 4. (a) gin (b) French (c) service (d) shore (e) cod C.7. B. syllable stress and rhythm (Review 2). un’happy.7. tag question. too.220 - .

] [i: . B.8.] [æ .] [: . (d) More than a thousand representatives from the whole of the Third World were presents at the concert given in the park yesterday afternoon to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Ernest Hurlingham. almost of urgency. De’cember. C and d) 4. (b) I bought you some more oranges and a pound of bananas at the greengrocer’s that’s just opened at the corner of Earl’s Court Gardens.] [æ .2.e . [:] [ . ‘Apr(i)l.æ ] [ ] [e] [e] [] [æ .] [ . ‘Janu(a)ry. ‘May.2. ‘June. No’vember.] [f:t] [n:t] [:t] [sl] [] [ .221 - . . (c) You can see from her early work that there’s a certain sense of purpose. ‘March.] [pla] [rf] [s:t ] [θr] [ð] [θ:t] [θru:] [tf] [trf] [‘brbrid] [‘lfbr] B. He said he would have asked the Templetons to introduce us.e .e . Practice 4 (4. A few more rhymes and jingles A.:] [ . ‘August. but he hadn’t seen them for ages and didn’t know what had happened to them.] C. Oc’tober. Rhythm and gingles.e . (a) I thought you were one of the ones who won an award at the bazaar on Thursday. [:lð] [‘br] [ba] [b:t] [br:t] [kf ] [d] [drat] [inf] [s’kbr:] [] [e .fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Unit 4. a.8. which she appears to have lost as soon as she started to be accepted as a serious artist. (e) There was an extraordinary man at your party who said that for years and years he’d had been wanting to meet us.] [æ . Sep’tember.] [] [e .’Feb(r)u(a)ry. Ju’ly.

l/ /’hæp. pro’nounce /pr’nans/ 9.t/ /km. iŋ/ /. r. . Three syllable words VERBS 1. enter’tain 2./ /’d:t/ /d. ‘sharpen 3. r/ /‘n. ‘aspect 3. a’rray 8. ‘polish 2. com’peting 8.s/ / . 1./ /’hev. Practice 1 (a.n/ /d ’t:. et/ . z/ /km ‘pli:t/ /‘me. ‘autumn /‘f. ‘pi:t.‘re/ /‘pet. com’plete 3.tst/ /‘:./ /’:. ‘heavy 10. p. mn/ /’sep. ‘carpet 5. ‘petrol 9. I’magine 9.l/ /d. (r)/ /r. be’low NOUNS 1. re’cord 10.’pend/ 4.tn/ /’i: .p/ /’æsp. resurr’ect 3. e’licit 7. Two-syllable words VERBS 1. a’lone 5.’sv/ /’a:p.rl/ /‘den. a’ffair 4. de’ceive 2. ‘conquer 8. ‘office 7. ‘dentist 10. t. ‘happy 9. Read the words lout out providing the adequate stress. ‘rekt/ / ’bæn. dn/ /d ’lv. ‘easy 2.’mæ.kt/ /’kŋk. 145) 1. ‘copy ADJECTIVES 1.A. ‘major 4.222 - . ‘ten/ /rez.en. de’termine 10 ‘separate / ’ls. de’feat /’b. ‘interrupt /. de’liver 5. de’pend /’b. ‘dirty /‘jel. t’rpt/ 6.t/ /d’fi:t/ 6. ‘early 8. ‘bishop 2. a’bandon 4.n/ /k ’lekt/ /‘kp/ 6.’k:d/ /’p. ekt/ /’fe/ /’ka:p.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit V. ‘object 7. ‘yellow 7. co’llect 5./ / ‘ln/ /b ‘la/ 6.

lr/ /’tap . second-‘class 5. bad-‘tempered 3.box 6. e’normous /’n:.rise 4.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii ADJECTIVES 1.k/ /’neg. to’mato /’n. im’portant 3..lace 4.bks/ /. ‘type.d/ /’g. ‘long-.cup 1. loud’speaker 2. ‘gear-.nt/ /fæn ‘tæst.t/ /t ‘ma:. ‘gun .kes/ /’ti:.ml/ /æb ’n:.raz/ /‘su:t . stress on the first element c) Mixture of type a and b . .les/ /. head’quarters 4.sek. ab’normal Compound words a) First element adjectival. three-‘wheeler 1. ‘sun.k/ /bæd ‘tem. ‘wet/ /m ‘p:t.mæn/ /’u:. nd ‘kla:s/ /θri: ‘hwi:.man 3.lŋ ’s:f./ /‘sn.ŋ/ /’gn.223 - .ml/ 6.writer 2.t.v/ /‘æk.v. .ra.nt/ /’ver..jr.fer. over-‘weight /..kp/ /. stress on the second element 1.red ‘bld. ‘suit. ‘negative 9.case 5.t(r)/ /’ka: . ‘accurate 10.p/ /hed ‘kw:.ferry 3.. ‘insolent 7.la ‘spi:.red-‘blooded 5.tz/ /.t/ 2.ms b) First element nominal. ‘car-.surfing 2. ‘shoe . veredic 4.. fan’tastic 8.dk/ /’des .sl. ‘tea-. ‘decimal 5.

145) 1. using syllable trees representations.224 - . s / \ O R / \ N C | | | s / \ O R / \ NC | [ s Object / s / \ O R / \ NC | | [ Polish /p / / O s \ R / \ NC | s / \ O R / \ NC | [p ] [ s / \ O R / \ NC | | | ] | ] | ] | [ ŋk] [ ] | s / \ O R / \ N C | | [ ] | ] .Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Unit 5.B. n/ s / \ O R / \ NC | | [ s [d | | ] | | | v] | / O \ R / \ NC | | ] p] [ Collect / le / \ R / \ NC | [k ] / O s / O s \ R / \ NC | | Pronounce /pr / O /\ | | | | [p r s \ R / \ NC | ] / O s \ R / \ N C | | ] | [ | ] | [ Copy /k / \ O R / \ NC | [k Conquer /k ŋk. p. Represent the verbs. Practice 1 (B. adjectives and nouns in exercise 1. Deceive /d s v/ / O \ R / \ NC s / \ O R / \ NC [s s Sharpen / a:p .

a teacher´s guide to three or tree? or ship or sheep? Cambridge. Headway pre intermediate pronunciation. UK.S College Publishing. fourth edition. Cambridge University Press. International Cambridge dictionary of english. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Oxford. Prentice Hall Regents. Collins Birmingham University. New Jersey. UK. Bill and Parminter. Introducing english pronunciation. second edition. Prator & Wallace Betty (1995) Collins (1997) Crowell Trager. Bowler. Headway upper-intermedial pronunciation. Cambridge University Press. Oxford University Press.B. Oxford. UK. UK. C. Sue (1992) Cambridge University Press (1996) Clifford. Ann (1982a) (1982b) (1990) Tree or three? An elementary pronunciation course. Sarah and Bowler. UK. Manual of american english pronunciation. Suffolk. Oxford.BIBlIogRaPhY Baker. Oxford University Press. Cambridge. Oxford University Press. Bill (1991) (1993) . Pds pronunciation drills for learners of english. Sara (1983) Cunninghan. New York. Headway intermedial pronunciation. Ship or sheep? An Intermedial Pronunciation Course. UK. UK. Edith & Cook Henderson. Cambridge. Collins cobuild english language dictionary.

John & Weber. Platt. Teaching english pronunciation. At the Chalkface. Hubbard Jones Thorton Wheeler (1990) Jones. Foresman (1983) . Mary & Dangerfield. Cambridge. Matthews. Peter (1996) Headway elementary pronunciation. A course in pronunciation of english. Mimi (1987) Richards. New York. Longman dictionary of contemporary english. Oxford. Longman Group UK Limited. New York. Kenworthy. Language activator. Oxford University Press. Harper Collins Ltd. English phonetics and phonology.226 - . Joanne Longman Group UK Limited A training course for TEFL. Illinois. Daniel (2007) (1987) (1993) (1995) (1990) English pronunciation dictionary. Essex. Peter (1989) Scott. Edward Arnold. Hall International English Language Teaching Ltd.Programa de Licenciatura Para Profesores de Lenguas extranjeras Cunningham. practical techniques in language teaching. Harper Collins Ltd. Sarah and Moor. Scott Foresman and Company. Cambridge University Press. Harper Collins spanish-english dictionary. New York. The Oxford spanish-english english-spanish dictionary. Longman Group Ltd. eighth printing. Heidi (1985) Roach. Cambridge. Oxford University Press. Cambridge University Press. London. The world’s first production dictionary. Advanced dictionary. Oxford University. Longman Group Ltd. Cambridge. Essex. Oxford. Alan Spratt. Longman Group Limited. Jack. Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. Les Oxford University Press (1994) Ponsonby. a division of Hodder & Stoughton. Essex. How now brown cow.

(1997) (1997) Anne C. Phonological theory: The essential readings. The handbook of phonological theory. The University of Chicago Press. Robert (1965) Underhill.net/web2/eseducativa/alphabet_mp3. English teaching forum.fonética y fonoLogía deL idioma ingLés ii Sheeler. C. Roca Iggy. a poem based course for english pronunciation. A journal for the teacher of english outside the United Sates. Prentice Hall Regents.html http://www.227 - . a pronunciation course. second edition.oupchina. Vaughan-Rees.ompersonal. Pronunciation dictionary. New Jersey. A course in phonology. Rhymes and rhythm. Newton (Editor). Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Volumen XV. Heineman English Language Teaching.html http://www.sil.google. W. Johnsin Wyn http://www. and Markley.telefonica. (1991) Sounds and rhythm. The sounds of english and spanish.uiowa. American light verse: A contemporary selection. W.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# http://www. Goldsmith John A.com. Sound foundations. Adrian (1994) (1994) Wells.hk/dict/phonetic/home.ar/omphonetics/contenidotematico. R.pe/search?hl=es&q=+elision+in+english&meta= http://www. Michael otras fuentes para consultar Carr Phillip (1999) (1996) (1999) (1999) English phonetics and phonology: An Introduction. D.com. J. Stockwell. Oxford.org/capacitar/FONETICA/cursos/cursoafricadas. Chicago. Nº 4.htm http://www.PDF . Essex.com.

Paruro 119.cePredim@unmsm.CEPREDIM en eL mes de febrero de se terminó de imPrimir 2009 centro de Producción editoriaL e imPrenta de La universidad nacionaL mayor de san marcos jr.Pe tiraje: 1000 ejemPLares en Los taLLeres gráficos deL .edu. Lima 1. 6016 e-maiL: ventas. teLéfono: 619-7000 anexos: 6009 / fax: 6015.

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