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Virtualization Basics

Virtualization Basics

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Published by Sameer Farooq

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Published by: Sameer Farooq on Aug 08, 2012
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Virtualization Overview

Module 1

 System administration experience on Microsoft Windows or Linux operating systems  Good knowledge on Networking and TCP/IP  Knowledge on Storage technology (optional)

Introduction to Virtualization .

Objective  Understand the concept of virtualization  Identify the benefits of using virtual machine  Describe scenarios for using virtualization .

a server. or end users interact with those resources. an application. a storage device or network resources Virtualization is a technique for hiding the physical characteristics of computing resources to simplify the way in which other systems. or storage device) appear as multiple logical resources or Making multiple physical resources (such as storage devices or servers) appear as a single logical resource .What is Virtualization Virtualization is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something. applications. Virtualization lets a single physical resource (such as a server. an operating system. such as an operating system.

What is virtualization  Virtualization is a technology that transforms hardware into software.  Virtualization allows you to run multiple operating systems as virtual machines on a single computer Copy of an O.S is installed into each virtual machine.  Virtualization is not • • Simulation Emulation .

File Web Server Server File Server File Server Web Domain Server Server DNS App Server Server Each Server Running 1 Application . Linux. or Netware Companies put ONE operating system & ONE application on each server 2 servers would grow to 6 servers.Computers in 1990s  Fast Forward to the 1990s Intel/AMD servers are now very popular (known as “x86” servers) Each server runs Operating Systems such as Microsoft. eventually to 50 or more servers! Electricity and space (footprint) becomes a problem….

some Example HP “Blade” Servers Electricity and heat still a problem • As Servers Got Faster… – Server utilization became even lower – Average server utilization ranges between 4 -10% – STILL one application per server Example Dell “Rack” Servers .Computers in 2000s  Fast Forward to the 2000s Manufacturers “to the rescue”! Focus on making servers small “Rack” form factors (6-20 servers per cabinet) “Blade” form factors (30-60 servers per cabinet) Space/footprint problem helped….

space and cooling costs represent one of the largest IT budget line items One-application-per-server approach leads to complexity and high costs of equipment and administration Low Server Utilization Rates Result in excessive acquisition and maintenance costs .Today’s IT Challenges What this Equates to Today: Continued Server Sprawl Power.

cast-off hardware Dirty systems – inability to maintain “clean state” Users and IT bogged down in provisioning requests Release management is resource intensive and error-prone *Actual customer photos .Typical Dev/Test Infrastructure is an IT Headache Server sprawl – under desks. in closets Aging.

Virtualization is the Key Apply Mainframe Virtualization Concepts to Intel / AMD Servers: Use virtualization software to partition an Intel / AMD server to work with several operating system and application “instances” Oracle SQL Application Servers Email File Print DNS Domain Deploy several “virtual machines” on one server using groundbreaking virtualization software .

CPU. disk and network just like a physical server Applications developed for the standard OS’s will work on a virtual machine No adjustments are needed to run applications on virtual servers Virtualization Layer .Compatibility A virtual machine is compatible with standard x86 operating systems such as Windows and Linux A virtual machine has a motherboard.Isolation Virtual machines on the same physical machine run independently They are protected from each other .Virtualization Layer Explored Virtualization Layer . memory.

Virtual Hardware .

Virtualization Basics System without Virtualization Software System with Virtualization Software .

The Basics of Virtualization .

The Basics of Virtualization .

Virtualization Basics Before Virtualization: • Single OS image per machine After Virtualization: • Hardware-independence of operating system and applications • Virtual machines can be provisioned to any system • Can manage OS and application as a single unit by encapsulating them into virtual machines • Software and hardware tightly coupled • Running multiple applications on same machine often creates conflict • Underutilized resources • Inflexible and costly infrastructure .

A virtualization layer creates the virtual machines. The virtualization layer is implemented through either a hosted or a baremetal hypervisor architecture.How does virtualization work Virtualization allows multiple operating system instances to run concurrently on a single computer within virtual machines. .

the virtualization software relies on the host operating system to provide the services to talk directly to the underlying hardware. Hypervisor  A thin layer of software that generally provides virtual partitioning capabilities which runs directly on hardware. but underneath higher-level virtualization services. In this approach.  .Virtualization Approaches Hosted Virtualization   A virtualization approach where partitioning and virtualization services run on top of a standard operating system (the host). Sometimes referred to as a “bare metal” approach.

Virtualization Approaches Hosted Architecture Installs and runs as an application Relies on host OS for device support and physical resource management .

Virtualization Using a Bare-Metal Hypervisor A bare-metal hypervisor system does not require an operating system. The hypervisor is the operating system. .  VMware ESX™/ESXi use a hypervisor architecture.

Virtual machines have all the same hardware resources available such as CPU. memory. and network . disk.Virtual Machines Explored Virtual Machines A virtual machine is a collection of software that has been translated into files These files are collected and organized in “containers” These containers can be moved in seconds from one physical machine to another in case of physical server failure or performance needs.

like a physical computer.  From the hypervisor’s perspective. it is a discrete set of files. These are the main files: Configuration file Virtual disk file NVRAM settings file Log file Virtual Machine . runs an operating system and applications.What is a Virtual Machine?  From the user’s perspective. it is a software platform that.

Why Use Virtual Machines? Physical Machine Difficult to move or copy Bound to a specific set of hardware components Often has short life cycle Requires personal contact to upgrade hardware Virtual Machine  Easy to move and copy: Encapsulated into files Independent of physical hardware  Easy to manage: Isolated from other virtual machines running on the same physical hardware Insulated from physical hardware changes .

 Virtual Infrastructure is a dynamic mapping of your resources to your business.   Result: decreased costs and increased efficiencies and responsiveness Hardware-independence Server isolation Highly portable Security Administration TCO and ROI .Virtualization benefits  Infrastructure is what connects resources to your business.

Virtualization Benifits Using virtualization solutions. enterprise IT managers can address challenges that include: Server Consolidation and Containment Test and Development Optimization Business Continuity Enterprise Desktop .

Key Features of Virtualization Hardware-Independence • Reliably recover a virtual machine to any hardware • Enable waterfalling of equipment to recovery site Encapsulation • All information about a system is stored as data on disk • Entire systems can be protected with data protection tools Partitioning and Consolidation • Reduced hardware requirements at production and DR site • Can use higher consolidation ratios at DR site Resource Pooling • Transparently share and allocate hardware resources • Automatic resource optimization .

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