# F field of scalars

+
'zero' 0
inverser α+(-α) =0 if α#0 (1.α)*α=1

Multiplication
*
non zero 'one' 1

Eg:
1. F=C complex numbers
2. F=R real numbers
3. F=Q rational number
4. F=Z integers
5. F= Z5={0,1,2,3,4}
α+β= remainder when divided by 5
3+4=2;!!
α*β=rem inder when divided by 5
2*3=1!!
'zero'=0;
α
0
1
2
3
4

α
1
2
3
4

1/α

0
4
3
2
1
1
3
2
4

c) distributive: also works
6) n is positive integer
Zn={0,1,2,...,n-2, n-1}
is field if and only if n is a prime number!!!
7) Smallest possible field
{0,1}=Z2
Some elementary
a) 0+α=α 
) α+β= lph +gr
(cancellation)
c) α+(β-α)=β
d) α*0=0*α=0
e)(-1)*α=-α
f)(-α)(-β)=α*β
g)if α*β=0 then

properties
mm

=> beta=gramma

[β-α:=β+(-α)]

either α=0 or β=0 or both

(-alpha)+(alpha+beta)=(-alpha)+(alpha+gramma)
=> [A]ii ((-alpha)+alpha)+beta)=((-alpha)+alpha)+gramma
=> [A]iv
0+beta=0+gramma =>a beta=gramma
f) (-alpha)(-beta)
=e ((-1)*alpha)*((-1)*beta)
=(-1*-1(alpha*beta
We will be done if we can show (-1)(-1)=1

e)=> (-1)(-1)=-(-1) let -1=alpha 1+(-1)=0 [A]iv =>(-1)+1=0 [A]i = -alpha=1 => 1=-(-1)!!! -(-alpha)=alpha Homework: the rest .