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The Physics of the Very Large

The Physics of the Very Large

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Published by Karla Mae S Galvez

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Published by: Karla Mae S Galvez on Sep 29, 2012
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05/13/2014

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-UNIVERSE

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Sumerians and Babylonians (2,000-3,000 BC) - invented constellations such as the zodiac.

 Aristotle

( 350 BC )

- GEOCENTRIC MODEL

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” .is towards the center of the universe. …“the natural motion of the Earth …. that is the reason it is now lying at the center.

 Claudius Ptolemy . *Deferent  larger circles . *Epicyles  set of small circles on which the planets moved.RETROGRADE MOTION.

Model: Sun-centered universe or “heliocentric model” (Earth is closer to the sun. Nicolaus Copernicus . Earth moves faster than Mars) .

 Johannes Kepler (16th Century) Elliptical orbits (Johannes Kepler 1571-1630) .

.First astronomer to use a telescope to observe the sky. Galileo Galilei (16th Century) .

 Isaac Newton -Universal Gravitation  Albert Einstein .Theory of relativity .

This constant relationship between distance and speed led cosmologists to believe that the universe is expanding. Edwin   Hubble (1929) Model: Big Bang Cosmology Big Idea: Universe is changing. . evolving .

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      Stars and planets Gas and dust Organized into star clusters Organized into nebulae Organized into galaxies Other things: Black holes  Dark matter  Dark energy  .

diffuse .Milky way galaxy is a complex system • 1011 stars (& planets?) between the stars Each with life cycle: birth/life/death • Material Tenuous gas: clouds.

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. matter being continuously created to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become unobservable as a consequence of their increasing distance and velocity of recession. Universe is always expanding but maintaining a constant average density.

the average density and arrangement of galaxies--is the same. and from any point within it the view on the grand scale--i. .e. A steady-state universe has no beginning or end in time. Galaxies of all possible ages are intermingled..

 Eternal Expansion  open universe Eventual Collapse  closed universe .  .high density to cause gravity to eventually stop the universe’s expansion and begin its contraction.

 To calculate we find the distance of an object from Earth and the rate at which it is moving away from Earth.  Hubble’s constant (H) v=H x d   v= velocity (speed of the object) d= distance bet. The object and Earth .

.would expand forever.stop expanding and begin contracting. Universe with low density… . Universe with high density… . slowing down as the universe ages. (closed universe)  . defines an open universe.the expansion rate is changing.

STARS .

 Nebula: A large cloud of gas (helium and hydrogen) and dust which forms into a star.  . Dust and gas particles exert a gravitational force on each other which keeps pulling them closer together.

 Orion Nebula .

(Life cycle of the star) Star expands and becomes a red giant .  Fusion uses up a star’s hydrogen supply rapidly causingthe core to heat up and the outer temperature to fall.

.  Core continues to heat and star expands to a super giant. As the core uses up its helium supply. the outer layers escape into space and the remaining core is white hot and called a white dwarf.

 . When no more material is left in the core it explodes into a supernova. Smaller stars become neutron stars and most massive will collapse into a black hole.

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. typically a red giant.• The most commonly accepted theory of this type of supernovae is that they are the result of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf accreting matter from a nearby companion star.

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  A star’s temperature can be determined by its color.  . All objects will glow a different color when heated differently Colors hottest to coolest: Blue/white  yellow  orange  red.

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3 light years -Center to edge of Milky Way = 50.5 trillion kilometers) Approximate distances: -Sun to edge of solar system = 5. (Equal to about 9.5 light hours -Nearest star (Alpha Centauri) = 4.000 light years .  Light-year: Distance light travels in one year.

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