You are on page 1of 25

BI TIU LUN

TM HIU V:

NH SN DN TC THI
Gio vin hng dn: Nhm sinh vin thc hin : L Th Thanh An 10k5 o Thun Thng 10k5 Khng Hi Hon 10k5 Nguyn Vn Thng 10k3

Mc lc: Chng 1: i iu v dn tc Thi. Chng 2: Kin trc c o ca nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La . Chng 3: Nh sn dn tc Thi thi hin i Sn La. Chng 4: Tn ngng dn gian c th hin trong kin trc nh sn dn tc Thi. Chng 5: Gi tr vt cht tinh thn ca nh sn ngi Thi. Chng 6: Bi hc.

Cc t liu s dng trong bi vit:


Hnh nh i chp thc a Ti mt s x ca Tnh Sn La : Bn Lng - huyn Sng M , Bn B thnh ph Sn La Phng vn cc gi lng, trng bn, thy mo, thy cng, ngh nhn vn ho dn gian,cng ng bo ngi dn tc. T liu t 1 s bi vit ca Trn Vn Hc: http://vanhac.org/ Tm kim ti liu qua mng internet, th vin tnh. Thng tin t 1 s a ch Web: http://www.baoyenbai.com.vn/26/78922/Giu_nhung_gia_tri_van_hoa_truyen_thong_kien_truc _nha_san.htm http://www.baosonla.com.vn/images/12dantoc/dantocthai.asp http://baodatviet.vn/Home/congdongviet/Dieu-xoe-dan-toc-Thai/20103/85226.datviet http://vietbao.vn/Kham-pha-Viet-Nam/Xen-ban-Net-van-hoa-truyen-thong-cua-dan-tocThai/40038587/148/ http://vifash.com.vn/p0c80s155n558/trang-phuc-net-dac-trung-trong-van-hoa-thai.htm

Chng 1: i iu v dn tc Thi.
*Dn tc Thi c khong 60 vn ngi bao gm nhiu ngnh, mi ngnh li chia lm nhiu nhm khc nhau : Thi en, Thi Trng v Thi gm nhiu nhm phc tp c tr ch yu Mc Chu ( Sn La), Mai Chu ( Ha Bnh) v cc huyn min ni hai tnh Thanh Ha v Ngh Tnh : Thi Mai Chu , Thi Mc Chu v Thi Thanh Ho. *Dn tc Thi thuc nhm a phng : Ngnh en(Thi en), Ngnh Trng(Thi Trng) v thuc nhm ngn ng Ty Thi.

I/ Dn c 1/ Thi en ( hay cn gi l Ty m). a bn c tr: ch yu hai tnh Sn La , Hong Lin Sn , v cc huyn in Bin , Tun Gio tnh Lai Chu . min ty Thanh Ho v Ngh Tnh , nhng nhm Ty Thanh (Man Thanh), Ty Mi, Ty Khng b nh hng nhiu v vn ho v nhn chng ca cc dn c a phng v Lo.

Ngun gc: n Vit Nam vo khong th k XI va XII . Ty Thanh t Mung Thanh (in Bin) qua Lo v Thanh Ho ti Ngh Tnh cch y 200,300 nm. Nhm ny gn gi vi Thi Yn Chu v chu nh hung vn ho Lo. Nhm Ty Mi l 1 phn c dn x Ching Pc di vo Thanh Ho v Ngh Tnh t thi L Thi T. 2/ Thi Trng (Ty n). a bn c tr: Ch yu Lai Chu v cc huyn Qunh Nhai, Bc Yn, Ph Yn (Sn La). Ngun gc: Thi Trng l con chu ngi Bch Y c tr t lu Ty Bc v Nam Vn Nam. Nhng n u thin nin k th 2 sau Cng Nguyn, h mi +) chim c u th dc hu ngn sng Hng v Mai a bn c tr: Ch yu Mc Chu (Sn La), tnh Chu Lai Chu. Bnh)th k th XIII, min ni 2 ch Mung (H Sn n v cc huyn h lm tnh Thanh Lay. vng Ho v Ngh Tnh. ven sng Hng, h n sm hn ngui Thi en v trong hnh trnh hnh qun, Lng Chng +) Ngun gc:t trng Thi Trng t Lo sang Bth k gp ci Nhm Thi Mc Chu dc ng. t phn Thi Trng sau pht v nhn chng v vn ho ca c th XIV, chu nh hng trin th lc sang cc vng Qunh Nhai Thi Trng v Thi (Lai Nhm ti Mng Tc hai nghnh(Sn La), Mng T en. Chu), Thi Mai Chu (Ph Yn) v mt b phn xung Bc v Thanh gc t min Bc H (Hong Lin Sn) chuyn v vo Ho. khong th k th XIV, t xung Mng Khong (Thanh II/ Kinh t: Ho) v mt s ngc ln Chu Mc (Sn La) ho vo nhm Thi c . Ngi Thi Thanh Ho tip tc c b sung bng nhng lung thin di t Lo qua hay Ty Bc v, Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 1 c quan h qua li v huyt thng vi vn ho v ngi Mng. 3/ Thi

Dn tc Thi c nn kinh t kh a dng, h bit tn dng tt c nhng ti nguyn sn c cng nh sng to v pht minh ra nhng cng c phc v cho cng vic ca h. di y l nhng hnh tha kinh t ch yu ca dn tc Thi. 1/ La nc:

<= Cng nc Khi n Vit Nam , ngi Thi bit lm rung nc, nc l yu t quan trng bc nht trong vic trng la, cn quanh v v khi c nc mi bt u cy cy c,chnh v th m h c nhiu kinh nghim trong vic o mng, p phai, bc ng dn nc v rung cng nh trong vic s dng mt cch ph bin v rt ti tnh chic cng nc_mt th my mc gin n vo vic dn nc vo rung. 2/ Nng ry Nng Thi c 2 loi : Nng v ry . Nh l nng la, ng, sn, lm hai hoc ba nm phi b ha, thng i i vi cng c l gy chc l hay l cuc. Nng bng, chm c xi, bn k. Loi nng ny bt u c thm canh nhng cha n mc chuyn ha thnh rung hay thnh vn c. Nhng sau ngy gii phng , vic trng la c tng nng sut cao hn nh vo vic tip thu nhng k thut v phng php canh tc mi . Nc ,phn ,cn, ging, c ch trng v gii quyt theo kh nng ca a phng vi s gip ca chnh ph. xut hin nhng my mc nng nghip cy , ba my , my bm nc ...vv nhng cng trnh thy nng loi nh hay va..vv..t c khai thc mnh hn nh lm thy li,b phn tro, tng din tch, tng v. 3/ Rng Nh rung t, i sng c dn Thi c phn sung tc hn cc c dn quanh vng. Nhng h cng cha thot khi i km do l lt, hn hn gy ra v h vn tn ti v pht trin n tn by gi l nh c rng phng h v t h pht trin c kinh t rng, cung cp cho h cc th rau c, ht di,nm, mc nh, mng, ru , v cc loi cn trng , di khe sui cn c tm, cua,c c nh....Nhng th thng xuyn tham gia vo hai ba n chnh hng ngy ca ng bo. Nn hi lm vn ng mt v tr nht nh trong i sng kinh t ca c dn ngi Thi.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

Rng cn cung cp cho ng bo Thi nhng nguyn vt liu lm nh , an lt nhng gia c , cung cp ci un, du thp sng, nhng cy thuc v nhng lm th sn qu, v do chnh sch thu mua lm th sn v khuyn khch vic khai thc v trng rng , c hp tc x thu nhp c mt s tin mt ln gp phn nng cao i sng x vin. 4/ Chn nui, nh c. Rng khng ch l ngun cung cp ,d tr nguyn liu lng thc,l t sn bn,m cn l ni chn gia sc. dy t c ng c ln .Nhng tng a phng ,ngi Thi vn tm kim c ch tha rng tru b trong nhng lc khng dng chng vo sn xut. Ngh nh c kh pht trin: Py kin p, ma kin lu tc i n c, v ung ru l cu ni ca ming ca ng bo. C l mn n c trong ba cm hng ngy, v khng th thiu c trn mm l v khi nh c khch kha.

5/Dt vi C th coi ph n Thi l nhng th dt chm ch,lnh ngh ,sn xut khng nhng chn mn ,qun o cho gia nh m cn em trao i.Ngi Thi ni ting vi nhng tm th cm dt rt tinh vi vi nhng m tp hoa vn hnh th ,chim ,cy ci . Dt vi l mt ngh th cng truyn thng lu i ca ngi Thi. Hnh nh c gi Thi bn khung ci, nt p quen thuc vn thng gp mi nh trong lng bn.H dt ra nhng tm vi th cm rt tinh xo v p. III/ VN HA A/ Vn ha vt th 1, Trang phc ngi Thi TRANG PHC NAM Ngi Thi phn b ri rc nhng vng, min khc nhau. mi vng, tng nhm ngi Thi li c nhng phong cch trang phc khc nhau.Trang phc nam gii gm o, qun, tht lng v cc loi khn.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

o nam gii c hai loi, o cnh ngn v o di. o ngn may bng vi chm, kiu x ngc, tay di hoc ngn, c trn. Khuy o lm bng ng hay tt bng nt vi, c hai ti pha vt trc c khi c ti con pha ngc tri. o ngn loi ny hu nh khng c trang tr hoa vn, m ch dp trang trng ngi ta mi thy nam gii Thi mc tm o cnh ngn mi, lp l i qu ch (mak may) u ng x t hai bn hng o. Mak may qun bng ch mu xanh, vng, xen k nhau. TRANG PHC N Cng nh nhiu dn tc khc, trang phc ca ph n Thi cn bo lu v th hin r nt nht bn sc vn ha dn tc. Cc b phn ca n phc Thi gm: o ngn, (xa cm), o di (xa chi v xa lung), vy (xn), tht lng (xi cm), khn (piu), nn (cp), x cp (pepn kh), cc loi hoa tai, vng c, vng tay, x tch

M hnh thiu n Thi dt vi

Khuyn tai ca dn tc Thi en

o ngn ca ngi Thi c nhiu loi, trong xa cm (o ngn b st ngi c hng cc bm) l c trng hn c. Loi o xa cm may va kht thn, rt ngn, gu o va chm cp vy, lm tn thm nhng ng nt p ca ngi ph n. Bi th, loi o ph n ny rt kh may ct, sao cho b st ngi va lm cho ngi mc c ng thoi mi.

Nh sn phc ph n ThiSnChu Y dn tc Thi Lai La.

Y phc ph n Thi Trng Sn La

Vy (xn) cng vi xa cm to nn dng nt chnh ca b n phc Thi. Tht lng (xi o) lm bng vi t tm hay si bng mu xanh lam hoc tm xm, gi cho cp vy qun cht ly eo bng. Ni v b trang phc n Thi khng th thiu chic khn piu. Chic khn piu c cc c gi Thi thu tha rt cu k, n th hin s kho lo ca mi c gi. Piu tt 3 sng l piu thng dng, piu tt 5 hay 7 sng l piu sang, dng lm qu biu, i lc bn mng c hi h, ci xin.

Chic khn piu ca ngi thi.

Thiu n ang thu khn.

Khn Piu l c trng ca ngi dn tc Thi vi ng nt tinh so v hoa vn mang m cht ni rng hoang s cng mu sc sc s, n th hin tnh yu, sc mnh n tnh tht quyn r. 2, Nh ca im khc bit nht ca nh ca ngi Thi so vi ngi Vit v Hn l h xy nh sn.Nh sn ca ngi Thi s c ni r v k phn sau. 3, m thc Mt trong nhng c trng ni bt ca dn tc Thi l vn ha m thc. Mn n ca dn tc Thi th hin s kt hp hi ho, s giao lu, ho quyn cng linh kh ca ni, ca sng, ca rng.Vn ha m thc dn tc Thi c mt ci ngun trit l ring mi trng tn vi thi gian. i vi ngi Thi, m thc l mt ngh thut tr thnh nt vn ha c truyn . Bnh thng, cc mn n ca ngi Thi chia lm 5 phn ln khc nhau nh: cm chm ( chm, t u tin); cm nm ( ung, t th hai); cm cp ( ghm, t th ba); cm kin (phn v thc n, t th t); cm khu (phn v cm, t cui cng). Trong s phn loi, t n bao qut c m dng, ng hnh mt cch tng th. Xt ring tng phn, s hi ho cng li l mt nt ring to nn mt tc phm v cng quyn r.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

Xi np ng trong p khu

Hnh nh ngi ph n Thi bn bp la ang dng Tu hy xi.

i vi ngi Thi, trong mt mm cm, cc mn n bao gi cng phi m bo 2 yu t m, dng. Chng b sung, pha trn cho nhau lm thc khch m mi cng hng ru, qun qut vi nhng hng v c gia gim rt k cng. Mn c mang tnh m (hn) nn khi n, ngi Thi dng vi mt s gia v mang tnh dng nh: t, s, gng, tiu cn bng. V nhng v cay ny cng li c iu ho bng v chua ca kh, ca chanh... Mang trong mnh hi th ca ni rng rng thm cng nhng sn vt c thin nhin u i.

Mn P pnh tp

Chun b lm mn ru nng

4, Phng tin vn chuyn. Do sinh sng bn cnh dng sng, con sui, ngi Thi ni ting l nhng ngi i thuyn gii. Nhiu ngi du lch khng ht li ca ngi cch li thuyn ca h vt qua cc thc ghnh, xui ngc sng . Ngy xa, trc khi ly v,ngi thanh nin Thi buc phi ln rng kim g ng xong chic thuyn c mc cho mnh. Ni ting vng Thi l chic thuyn ui n dng ch hng, dc cc dng sng lm thc ghnh. Thn thuyn thon, mi thuyn nhn, phng pht nh hnh chic thuyn trn trng ng Ngc L. Thuyn c nhiu loi: c loi to 5 mi cho, c loi nh 2 mi cho. Thuyn to di ti 15-16m, c th ch c 20 t hng. n ngy nay, bn cnh nhng phng tin giao thng vn ti c truyn cn thy thng dng nng thn, xut hin nhng phng tin hin i: t, xe p, thuyn gn my. Mng li ng s m rng xung cc lng mc, tao iu kin cho ng bo d tip xc vi vn minh bn ngoi ca c nc, thc y s pht trin v cc mt kinh t, x hi, vn ho a phng. B/Vn ho phi vt th.
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 6

1, Ngn ng. a, Ting ni. Ngi Thi ni cc th ting thuc nhm ngn ng gc Thi ca h ngn ng Thi-Kadai. Trong nhm ny c ting Thi ca ngi Thi (Thi Lan), ting Lo ca ngi Lo, ting Shan Myanma v ting Choang min nam Trung Quc. Ti Vit Nam, 8 sc tc t ngi gm B Y, Giy, Lo, L, Nng, Sn Chay, Ty, Thi c xp vo nhm ngn ng Thi. b, Ch vit. Vit Nam, Thi l dn tc thiu s c ting ni v sm c ch vit ring. Theo cun Quan T Mng (k chuyn Mng) th ch Thi en dng To Xung, To Ngn t Mng L (nay l huyn Vn Trn v th x Ngha L - Yn Bi) c t th k XI. Chc chn ch Thi l phng tin duy nht ghi chp cc thng tin kinh t, x hi, vn ho ca dn tc. V nh th ch Thi c tr thnh di sn vn ho ca tc ngi v nhn dn Thi.
Sch c ca ngi Thi

2,Tn gio tn ngng. Do sinh sng bng nng nghip trong iu kin cn ph thuc nhiu vo thin nhin, khoa hc cn km pht trin, ngi Thi tin rng cc lc lng siu nhin quyt nh s phn ca h. H tin trn tri c Then Lung l ng cai qun tri t,loi ngi v vn vt, Then Lung c cc qun thn gip vic. Cn trn gian, bt c ni no cng c cc ma cai qun. Mun lp bn, khai ph rung, pht nng, nh c, sn th u phi xin php cc ma rung, ma nng, ma rng ma sui Nhng v thn trn tri, cc ma di trn cng vi ma nh, ma h, nhng ng b c k mt l nhng lc lng ph h, bo v con ngi. Ngi Thi theo trt t gia nh ph quyn, c hnh thc th cng t tin. Ngi Thi c ni th cng tng dng tc, tng dng h. Ch c th l mt rng cm, mt gc cy, mt hn . Nu ngi trong mt h lin kt vi nhau bng vic th cng ma dng h, thi thnh vin trong gia nh lin kt vi nhau bng vic th ma nh. B m khut c coi l siu linh tc ng n ton b i sng ca con chu. Ch c ngi ch nh mi c thay mt gia nh cng ma nh, ch tr l xn hn, cu xin t tin ni chung ph h cho con chu.

Thy mo ang cng l

3, Vn ho dn gian Sinh sng hng ngn nm trn di t Vit Nam tha hng mt nn vn minh c truyn ln lao ca cha ng ngi Thi gp phn cng hin khng nh vo kho tng vn ho chung
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 7

ca c dn tc Vit Nam . Nh c vn t, c dn Thi lu li cho n nay nhiu sch, chuyn ghi trn giy, trn l cy. l nhng cun sch s chp tay dy hng trm trang, nhng b lut hay tp qun tng i hon chnh, phn nh tnh hnh x hi ng thi nhng bn trng ca lm kch ng lng ngi, nhng chuyn th tuy khuyt danh nhng y gi tr ngh thut, nhng tp dn ca nhng bi ht ng giao nhng bi ht rn i, nhng tp ghi chp nhng nghi l tn gio C th ni vn vn ngh c truyn Thi rt phong ph. Th ca dn gian chim mt v tr rt ln gm nhng cu ca dao, nhng tp th tnh yu, th ca ht trong dp hi h, m ci, mng ln nh mi ,trong nhng dp lao ng sn xut, cho n nhng bn trng ca, nhng truyn th lch s. t Thi cn ni ting v ma. Ma cn gi l ma xo. Ban u xo c hnh thc n gin v c tnh ph thng. C iu xo vng hay xo theo hng, ma theo nhp n hay theo iu ht khi vui chi di nh trng hay lc ngh gia hai thi gian sn xut. Sau cch mng, ngh nhn dn gian mi pht trin thnh nhng iu xo mang biu din ln sn khu nh iu xo khn, xo qut, xo nn, xo bm, xo n

Thiu n Thi ma iu ma dn tc

Thiu n Thi ma qut

Chng 2: Kin trc c o Nh sn dn tc Thi SN LA.


Nh sn ca ngi Thi Ty Bc l mt cng trnh kin trc m bn sc vn ho dn tc,ta s tm hiu iu ny qua nhng nt chnh sau: I. S mt ng. II. S mt bng v phn chia khng gian ni tht trong nh sn. III.Kt cu khung. IV. Ha tit trang tr nh sn. V. Mt s kiu cu thang nh sn. VI. Vt liu lm nh sn. I. S mt ng.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

Nh sn ca ngi Thi - "hn hn ph ty" l mt cng trnh kin trc ti hoa, ho ng vi thin nhin, t tri cng vn vt. T kin trc xy dng n ngh thut trang tr u bt ngun t thc t cuc sng khch quan c cch iu ho t ti trnh thm m cao. Cng ng ngi Thi sng thnh nhng bn, mng, nhng thung lng. Cuc sng ho vi thin nhin tin cho vic gieo cy la nc, trng lanh dt vi nn ngi nh sn ca ngi Thi c trng khc bit vi nh ca cc dn tc khc. Kh hu Ty Bc khc nghit, hng nm c th chia lm 3 ma : hanh, sng, ma. Ma hanh t thng 10 n thng Ging, ma sng t thng 2 n thng 5, ma ma t thng 6 n thng 9. T xa xa, trong nhn thc ca ngi Thi l phi lm mt kiu nh an ton, chu ng c nhng iu kin khc nghit ca thin nhin. V th, nhng ngi nh truyn thng ra i gn vi ng bo hng ngn nm, gip h tn ti, pht trin. c c ngi nh sn va , ngi Thi phi chn nhng loi g tt lm khung nh, mi lp gianh,by gi th a phn l lp ngi.
Chm nh i chp thc t 1 ngi nh sn bn Lng-x Ching en-huyn Sng M-SnLa.

Pha trc nh. Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

Nhn cho t pha trc nh. 9

Pha sau nh.

Nh sn thng cao hn mt t chng 2 mt,nh vy gip chng c m thp,th d (ngy xa), pha trn sinh hot, pha di c th dng chn nui. Mt sn c lt bng nhng cy bng, tre, vu hoc g. iu c bit, trong np nh sn truyn thng l mc d c cu trc t cc loi cy g v cy c dng, lp bng c tranh hay vn thng, nhng khng h dng n mt mu st nh no trong thit k xy dng. Tt c cc h thng dy chng buc, tht kh cng phu v tinh xo bng lt tre, gin my hoc v nhng cy chuyn dng trong rng. Tuy n s, mc mc, nhng nh sn rt chc chn v bn vi ma rng, gi ni v kh hu m t quanh nm. C nhng ngi nh tn ti ti hng trm nm tui.
nh i chp thc t 2 ngi nh sn khc x Ching L-Sn La.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

10

II. S mt bng v phn chia khng gian ni tht trong nh sn. Nh sn c ca ngi Thi bao gi cng lm s gian l, hai u hi - "tp cng" khum khum nh mai ra, gn vi truyn thuyt v thu khai thin lp a, thn ra "Pua tu dy cho ngi Thi bit cch lm nh theo hnh ra ng trnh c l lt v th d. Ngi Thi c cu: "Khn song phi/ ci song ay" - tc l m hai ca/ i hai thang. Nh sn
c trng ca ngi Thi en lun cng c hai cu thang: "Tang chan" v "Tang qun"."Tang chan" cui nh, bn tri dnh cho ph n ln xung, c 9 bc tng trng cho 9 va ca ngi ph n. "Chan" l phn sn nh c ni di ra ngoi tri. y l ni cc m, cc ch, cc em... thng ngi chi lc nhn ri, thu tha, cu thang ny bao gi cng mang s l, thng l 9 bc, ng vi 9 va. "Tang qun" l cu thang dnh ring cho nam gii, u nh, thng c 7 bc ng vi 7 va. S d c hai cu thang l v trc kia Ngi thi thng c tc l bt con trai r, trong sut thi gian r, ngi con trai ch c php i bn cu thang c 7 bc, ngi ph n cng vy h cng ch c i bn cu thang c 9 bc.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

11

Trong nh sn Thi c hai ct rt quan trng, cha ng vn ha tm linh ca ng bo, l ct "sau chu sa" v "sau kk". Ct "sau chu sa" (ct ch o hay o ch) l mt ci ct dng gc u cch gian "hong" (gian th t tin) vi gian ng ca ng b ch. "Ch o" l ch hn, ngi Thi quan nim rng chic o mc l vt cha ng linh hn ngi v ngi ta thng treo thanh gm thing ca dng tc hoc khu sng kp, ti ng thuc sng, n dc v ch c ch nh (n ng) mi c treo o ca mnh ln . Ct "sau kk" c th l ct chng cng qu giang vi ct ch o hoc mt ci ct no ty thuc vo c im ca dng h v cc th h cng chung sng trong ngi nh. Nhng "sau kk" nht thit phi l ct pha di bn qun. "Sau kk" c nh du bi mt ci phn tre an p ln u ct ch c khc chui xuyn chng qu giang, bn trong phn tre an buc vo chic ct mt gi ht

ging, mt mai ra, mt dng vt o bng g.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

12

S phn chia khng gian bn trong nh sn:

- Nh sn ca ngi Thi en huyn Mng La,Sn La: Nh sn c hai thang hai u hi. Qua thang chnh ln gian qun, gian ny trng. T gian ny qua gian ca chnh vo trong nh,v pha trc l ging khch v c bn gh tip khch.Tip theo l gian hng (hng hng),ni y c gian th t tin v ct thing - "sau kk" Trn ct thing treo hnh thn ra bng g, ba bng la - "sam hung khu" v ba nhnh rau th l - "sam hm chk"... Ngoi ngha c tnh biu tng ca t tem gio th cn mang bng dng ca thuyt thin - a nhn, phn sau ca hng hng l ch ca v chng ch nh. Tip theo hng hng l gian cang hn (ngha l gia nh), phn sau dnh cho con gi pha trc chng, theo tc ca ngi Thi th con gi khng c nm gn v pha bn th. V pha bn tri l phn tang chan. Tang chan c gian n gi l hng lnh ngi (lnh ngi c ngha l ba tra v ba ti), cnh l bp,ca ch gian n c th l ca s hoc ca i ( di vi nh c thm hnh lang bn ngoi). Cnh cn c hng chan lng thc, chai, l... Ch yu l ni ph n trang im. Tip n ra pha ngoi ca l chan, phn di mi l chan cung ni dnh cho cng vic ca n gii ( khu,v, thu tha) v cng l ni nc sinh hot. Phn l thin l chan no ngi hng mt v phi phng. Thang ph t chan ch yu cho n gii qua li. Nh sn ca ngi Thi c c hai bp la - "Chk phy". Bp la pha "tang qun" dnh cho ngi gi, bp chnh pha "tang chan" dnh cho n gii v nhng cng vic ni tr. Gia ni rng trng ip, bp la hng trn nh sn nh tri tim hng, si m v nui dng c v vt cht v tinh thn cho mi con ngi.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

13

Mt s cch sp xp ni tht trong nh sn

III. Kt cu khung. B khung nh Thi c hai kiu c bn l kh thng v khay ing . V khay ing v v kh khng c m rng bng cch thm hai ct na. Kiu v ny dn gn li vi kiu v nh ngi Ty-Nng. Kiu v kh khng gm hai ct ( xau) v mt qu giang ( kh). u ct c u tua( lut) lp vo u qu giang. to thnh b khung nh ngi ta lin kt cc v li vi nhau nh hai cy n tay ci (pe ci) lp vo u cc ct v hai thanh dm (ping) ngang thn ct. mi ch l ci khung hnh hp ch nht. Khi ci khung ny hnh thnh ko mi c t ln u cc ct. Ko thuc v khung mi nh, cha phi l mt b phn thuc v v ct. Kt cu b khung mi cng c ba yu t: xinh da- kheo- hao.
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 14

Kt cu thn ct to nn gi mt sn cng c ba b phn ch yu: ping- khang- tng. Nh vy l kt cu mt v nh ngi Thi da trn mt t hp vi ba yu t chnh: Xau-kh- pe hay xau- pe- kh Xinh da- kheo- hao Ping- khang- tng gi cho b mi khng b xiu, di b khung mi ngi ta cn buc hai cy tre (hay g) cho nhau (ho chai) nh hnh du nhn. Hnh thc ging mi ny chng ta hy nhiu dn tc trong nc.

B khung 1 nh sn .

Kiu v khay ing l kiu v kh khng c m rng bng cch thm hai ct con (xau ing) hai bn. Kt cu v ny c s thay i: u hai ct ci cn gi nguyn kiu lp rp c truyn, cn hai u ct con li theo nguyn tc ko- ct- x. V khay ing dn chuyn theo nguyn tc ko- ct- x ging nh v ko ca nh ngi Ty. Gia Thi en v Thi Trng, v nh ca ca h, ngoi nhng yu t c bn ging nhau cng c nhng nt khc bit nh: hnh th ca b nc, mt bng sinh hot, v tr t cu thang. - Nh sn ca ngi Thi en huyn Mng La Sn La: nh lm theo kiu phng inkh khng mi hnh mai ra lp bng c tranh, hai chm u dc c khau ct xung quanh nh c che vch na. IV. Ha tit trang tr. ng ch trong cc hnh thc trang tr nh ca ngi Thi ni chung v Thi Sn La ni ring, l Khau ct - "Khau ct l mt biu tng trang tr trn nc nh sn, ni hai u hi ca nh ngi Thi en Ty Bc. "Khau ct khng ch lm p cho ngi nh, m cn n cha nhng ngha nhn sinh su sc.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

15

Mt s hnh nh ca Khau ct.

Ngi nh sn ca ngi Thi en- Ty Bc bao gi hai u hi cng c cu trc khum khum nh mai ra- ting Thi gi l tp cng, va to dng, va gi s lin tng ti s chc chn, bn vng. Khau ct gm hai thanh g bt cho nhau hnh ch X, ng trn hai u n ncting Thi l tiu bn. Trn "Khau ct c trang tr nhiu hoa vn, ho tit nh: Bp cy gut- "ct lo ngong, hoa sen- "bk bua, hnh trng khuyt- "bn hai bn Khau ct trc ht chn gi cho mi tranh hai u hi- py lm, dn dn cc ngh s dn gian, bng tr tng tng phong ph v bn tay ti hoa ca mnh m phng t nhin, to nn nhng hoa vn, ho tit trang tr cho "Khau ct c mt v p hon ho, chuyn ch nhng ngha nhn sinh cao p. Trc ht l nhng hnh ct cun trn nh bp cy gut- ct lo ngong tng chm ni tip nhau. Hnh bp cy gut c th hin thnh nhng hnh k h v ho tit lp li trn khn piu ca ch em ngi Thi, to nn mt v duyn dng v gn gi. Cc bn lng ca ngi Thi thng qun t ven sui, chn i, ni u cng rt nhiu bp cy gut xoy trn c ung a trong gi, ri t lc no ct lo ngong. T thc t cuc sng bc vo i sng ngh thut ca ngi Thi mt cch sng ng. Khau ct cng c trang tr hnh hoa sen. Ngi Thi en c cu: Khau ct tm lai bua/ Xinh dua tm lai n/ Nh ca bn tin con, c ngha l Khau ct v vn sen, u ko v vn n, mi nh xn bng dui, nh tiu ch v v p ca mt ngi nh ngi Thi. Trn Khau Ct cn c nhng hnh trng khuyt, tng i hng vo nhau. Ni v s tch v ngha ca biu tng Khau ct c nhiu kin khc nhau. C kin cho rng l cp sng tru cch iu, biu tng ca mt nn vn minh la nc. Li c kin cho rng vi trang tr ho tit hoa sen, Khau Ct c t nhiu lin quan ti o Pht. Ngoi ra cn c kin cho rng, vi ho tit hnh trng, Khau ct gn vi cuc thin di tm min t ha ca ngi Thi th k XI, anh em lun nh v nhau.

Khau ct trn nc nh ngi Thi en.

Theo kin ca gio s Cm Trng: "Nh vy kin cho rng Khau ct c t ngn cy gut m ting Thi gi l ct lo ngong l c l hn c. (Ngi Thi Ty Bc Vit Nam - Nh xut bn Khoa hc x hi, nm 1978, trang 409).

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

16

Nh vy c th ni Khau ct lc u vi tc dng ch yu chn gi cho mi tranh, cc ngh nhn dn gian m phng t nhin trang tr cho Khau Ct thm p v dn dn cc th h khai thc ngha nhn sinh ph hp vi quan im v trnh thm m ca mi ngi v thi i. Mt s dn tc Ty Bc, Ty Nguyn v mt s nc nc ng nam cng c nhng biu tng trang tr theo m tp khau ct, v d dn tc Kh M c khau cm lm bng hai thanh tre, g x rnh dc rng ca, tng trng cho mt loi tin c bng v c ca th dn mt s b tc c Ty Bc Vit Nam v Lo, ghp thnh hnh ch X. Khau cm tng trng cho s giu sang, quyn qu. Xa ngi Thi Ty Bc c n nm lai khau ct: - "Khau ct pang (cn gi l khau ct mi): lm bng hai thanh tre hoc g bt cho nhau khng trang tr hoa vn, ha tit, trn tri nh nh ngi n b ga (me mi) ngho kh. - "Khau ct quai: Lm theo m tp hnh sng tru, biu tng ca mt nn vn minh la nc. - "Khau ct chim may: M phng m tp hnh trng khuyt. - "Khau ct cm- tc khau ct vng: Thng lm bng g, khc nhiu hoa vn , ha tit, c mt thanh gm bn di tng trng cho quyn lc. - "Khau ct pua- tc khau ct vua ban, cn c ngha l khau ct chm, hay "khau ct bua, tc l khau ct hnh hoa sen, c chm tr cu k v rt p. Ba loi khau ct di xa ch dnh ring cho gii qu tc, cn hai loi trn dnh cho ngi ngho hoc c a v x hi thp km. Song d Khau ct mang hnh dng v c nhng ngha nh th no, th hnh tng Khau ct gp phn khng nh lm phong ph them nn vn ho ca dn tc Thi v mi ngi Thi en Ty Bc, mi khi bt gp hnh tng. Khau ct trn nc ngi nh sn thn thng li thm m lng, gn b hn vi gia nh, bn mng, t nc.

Mt s ca s c trang tr ha tit.

Trn bu ca s thng chm hnh i thung lung - "t nga", linh vt lm ch sng, sui, biu tng ca sc mnh v gia nh hnh phc. Trn cc chn song ca s chm cc hoa vn, ho tit m phng thin nhin theo hnh i xng hoc lp li. l nhng hnh thoi nh qu trm, hoa ban - "bk ban", bp cy gut - "ct lo ngong" Nh sn ngi Thi trng - "Ty
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 17

khao" thng c lan can xung quanh hoc trc nh rt p. Thin nhin c phn nh mt cch sng ng, th hin tinh t quan im v v tr, m dng ng hnh v ngha nhn sinh cao p.

Mt s kiu trang tr lan can ca nh sn

V. Mt s kiu cu thang nh sn. Cu thang c nhiu hnh thc kh ang dng.

Mt s kiu cu thang ca nh sn.

VI. Vt liu lm nh sn. Vt liu lm nh sn kh a dng ,nhng thng lm bng g, my, tre, na ly trn rng. Khung,ct nh sn c lm bng g phch, kho, limty vo iu kin kinh t ca tng gia nh. Mt sn c lt bng nhng cy bng, tre, vu hoc g,vch bao quanh nh lm bng tre, g, mi nh c lp bng c tranh hay vn thng (by gi thng c lp bng ngi), Mi nh c dc tng i ln to iu kin cho nc ma thot i nhanh nht. Mt im ch trong cch chn tre dng lm nh ca ngi Thi l h ch cht tre vo ma cy tre rng l,bi nh vy s chng c mi mt tt hn l tre thi im khc. Tuy c dng t nhng vt liu n s nhng nh sn ca ngi Thi rt vng chi nh vic to t l hp l trong kt cu khung g. iu c bit, trong np nh sn truyn thng l mc d
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 18

c cu trc t cc loi cy g v cy c dng, lp bng c tranh hay vn thng, nhng khng h dng n mt chic inh trong thit k xy dng. Tt c cc h thng dy chng buc, tht kh cng phu v tinh xo bng lt tre, gin my hoc v nhng cy chuyn dng trong rng.

Chng 3: Nh sn dn tc thi hin i Sn La.


Theo truyn thng, ngi Thi nh sn nh h xc nh trong thnh ng: Hn mi hn, qun mi xu (nh c gc, sn c ct). Nh sn ca ngi Thi mang mt nt p ring bit, n s, nhng cng khng km phn b th, sang trng Tuy nhin ngy nay, nhiu bn ca ngi Thi Sn La ang vng bng dn nhng ngi nh sn truyn thng c xa, thay vo l nhng ngi nh xy, lp ngi v nhng ngi nh sn rt mi m, mang m vc dng ca thi hin i. Do nhiu yu t thuc thi hin i tc ng, ng bo bn i nhng ngi nh sn c ca mnh, bi khng c kh nng hin i ho theo thi cuc: Hoc nh sn kiu mi, hoc nh trt xy theo kiu nh ca ngi Kinh - l s la chn mang tnh i mt vi thi hin i ca chnh ngi nh sn, ch khng hon ton do ch quan ca nhng con ngi lm nn ngi nh sn na! Do vy, cm t chy mu nh sn m bo ch hay dng trc y, cng vi cuc vn ng khng mua bn nh sn m nhiu ni lm thi qu, phn no km hm s pht trin ca nh sn mi ph hp vi s pht trin ca lch s x hi.

Nh sn kiu c

Nh sn kiu mi

X hi mi th nh sn cng phi mi, l iu khng th ph nhn! Khng ai bt buc c mt ai vn phi trn nhng ngi nh sn kiu c gi gn ly bn sc vn ho dn tc, trong khi h khng c kh nng cch tn mt ni cho ph hp vi ci mi hng ngy ang din ra quanh mnh. Trc thi hin i, nh sn cng nh tt c cc kin trc vn ho vt th khc, u phi tun th quy lut o thi v cng khc nghit: Thi hin i ch gi li nhng g thuc qu kh khi ho tm linh, cn li phi ph hp th mi tn ti!...
Chm nh i chp thc t 1 s nh sn kiu hin i ti x bn B-Sn La:

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

19

Hin nay, ng bo dn tc Thi Sn La ni ring v trn c nc ta ni chung, ang la chn nh hp vi khng gian truyn thng ca dn tc mnh. Hy vng trong tng lai, ng bo s to ra nhng kiu nh sn p hn ph hp v p ng hn vi thi i mi, nhng cng khng mt i nt p truyn thng ngi nh sn ca dn tc mnh c t ngn xa li nay! Nhng hnh nh sau y cho thy: Nh sn cng pht trin theo thi i mi, khng g ngn cn li c!

Chng IV: Tn ngng dn gian c th hin trong kin trc dn tc Thi


Thin a Nhn trong kin trc nh sn ngi Thi:
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 20

Cc bn mng ca ngi Thi vng Ty Bc thng tp trung bn sui, chn i, to nn cnh sn thy hu tnh m mi ngi nh l mt im nhn v l trung tm ca mi hot ng. Cng nh nhiu dn tc khc, ngi Thi c Ty Bc quan nim v tr ba tng thng t v giao cm, mi hot ng nu thun theo cc yu t s c hiu qu cao, m kin trc nh sn khng nm ngoi qu o . Thin: bao gm quan nim v v tr, v cc th lc siu nhin chi phi mi hot ng ca con ngi, cng vi iu kin sng v phong tc tp qun. Nh sn ca ngi Thi c Ty Bc thng c hai u hi khum khum nh mai ra gi l "Tp cng", gn vi truyn thuyt thu khai thin lp a, thn ra dy cho ngi Thi bit cch lm nh. Kt cu kiu mi ny cn lm tng v p v s bn vng ca ngi nh trc thi tit khc nghit ca Ty Bc. Trn n nc hai u hi c trang tr hai thanh g ng cho nhau hnh ch X, gi l "Khau ct". Ty theo hon cnh gia nh v a v x hi m "khau ct" c cch trang tr ring t n gin ti phc tp. Trn "khau ct" trang tr nhiu hoa vn, ha tit hnh trng khuyt, hoa sen, bp cy gut... v u c hoa c v hoa ci tng trng cho m dng v kht vng sinh si pht trin. Trong ngi nh sn bao gi cng c ct thing "sau h". Trn ct thing c lng mt gi tre tng trng cho bu tri c gi l "chp ngum", trn treo hnh thn ra bng g, ba bng la, ba bng th l, gi ht rau ci v linh vt ca nam, n o bng g, cng thanh gm... Ct thing nh cu ni t vi tri, chuyn ch nhng ngha nhn sinh cao p. Trn u ko v bu ca s c trang tr nhiu hnh k h, hoa vn ha tit m phng c, cy, hoa, l, chim th vi tng cp i xng theo nguyn l m - dng hi ha. c bit c chm i thung lung chu nhau, y l linh vt ch ca sng sui v l biu tng ca sc mnh v gia nh hnh phc. Trn nh sn ngi Thi c Ty Bc cn c hai bp la, mt bp dnh ring cho nam gii, mt bp dnh cho n gii. Bp la nh tri tim hng ca ngi nh, m cng gia ip trng non ngn Ty Bc. a: bao gm vt liu v th t. Nh sn ca ngi Thi c Ty Bc c lm bng g tt, tre, hp, lp gianh to nn mt v thn thin, ha ng vi thin nhin. Nh thng da lng vo i ni, quay mt ra sng sui hoc cnh ng. Khi dng nh, yu t phong thy rt c ch trng, nhm mc ch cao nht l khc phc nhc im ca th t v tui tc ca gia ch, pht huy c nhng li th vn c. Ngi dn tc Thi c cu: "Lm n c thng/ Lm nh c ngy", phn no ni ln tm quan trng ca vic tnh ton pht huy cao nht thin thi, a li, nhn ha. Nhn: y l yu t con ngi vi vai tr trung tm ca x hi. Cu trc nh sn Thi c Ty Bc th hin rt r vai tr v v tr ca mi thnh vin trong gia nh.Nh sn ngi Thi c Ty Bc bao gi cng c hai cu thang, "tang chan" v "tang qun". Cu thang pha "chan" dnh cho n gii, thng c chn bc ng vi chn va. Cu thang pha "qun" dnh cho nam gii, thng c by bc ng vi by va. Trn nh sn, t bp la bn "qun" n ht "tang qun" l ni dnh cho n ng v th cng. Cu trc bn mng ngi Thi Ty Bc theo vng trn ng tm: gia nh - bn - mng nh - mng ln to nn mt sc thi vn ha rt ring.
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 21

Mt s nt tm linh trong nh sn ca ngi Thi Sn La: Mi nh gn lin vi truyn thuyt ca ngi Thi. Cu thang gn lin vi phong tc th cng t tin. Ca s gn lin vi quan nim v th gii quan ca ngi Thi.

CHNG V: Nh sn ca ngi Thi Sn La l ni hi t nhng gi tr vt cht v tinh thn.


y l ni chng kin bun vui ca bao th h ri mi ngi hiu thm v qu kh, hin ti v tng lai, trn trng nng niu nhng ti sn v gi c v vt cht v tinh thn tr thnh truyn thng tt p v phn u v mt ngy mai ti sng hn. Quanh bp la hng, bao ln gia nh h tc quy qun nghe ngi gi ht, ngm, k "khp" nhng iu rn dy v o l lm ngi - "Qumk son cn", Chuyn bn mng "Qumk t mng", Bc ng chinh chin ca cha ng - "Ty pk sc", Tin dn ngi yu - "Xng ch xon xao", cng nng say trong cc iu "xo" ngy mng cm mi, ln nh mi, hi ci, ngy xun. Nh sn cn l ni con trai an lt, thi khn, p, con gi quay xa, dt vi, thu tha... c khi qut trong cu th: Trai bit an chi/ gi bit dt vi - "nhinh h thp phi/ tri h san he". Cc bn Thi thng qun t ven sui chn i theo tiu ch: sn chu thy t. Nhng ngi nh sn bnh d m cng, khi lam thm thong gi ng, lch cch ting thoi a, u y da dit mt iu khn cu khp, lc cc ting m tru n v bn. Tt c lm nn mt v p trong sng m tnh nh mt bc tranh sn thu, dn d nguyn s ca mt nn vn ho.

CHNG VI : BI HC .
Nh sn c lm bng cc vt liu t nhin,ban ngy s dng nh sng v gi t nhin l ch yu.v vy sng v sinh hot trong khng gian ca nh sn,con ngi lun cm thy thoi mi,thng thong,mt m,li thm cnh quan rng ni cy ci xung quang cnh to cho con ngi c cm gic gn gi vi thin nhin hn,m yu t thin nhin rt cn thit trong thit k nh hin nay. Mi khng gian trong nh sn c s dng ti a phc v cuc sng sinh hot,v c phn chia chc nng 1 cch r rng. Ch nhn ngi nh rt ti tnh trong vic b tr, sp xp, ct tr lng thc, nng c, bp la, chn nui cng nh kho lo b tr v tr ng, ngh mt cch ph hp cho tng thnh vin trong gia nh. Khng gian nh sn cn cha ng nhng thit ch mang yu t tm linh nh: t ban th gia tin, t ban th ma nh, ma rng, t b va - ni tr ng hn va ca mi ngi trong nh. Thm ch, nh sn ca mt s tc ngi c t cc vt th t tem gio hay biu tng cha ng kht vng ca con ngi L ngi hc
Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La. 22

ngh kin trc ta hc c rt nhiu iu v cch t chc khng gian ca ng bo dn tc Thi. Trong x hi ang pht trin nh hin nay,nhng ngi nh mang dng v hin i vn ang c thit k v xy dng cc vng qu ni chung v vng Sn La ni ring ,bn cnh nhng ngi nh p,hin i m vn gi c trong mnh nt truyn thng ca nh sn ,th vn c nhng ngi nh sn xy dng s dng vt liu mi mt cch ty tin,mang tnh t pht, cha ph hp, ang nh mt dn i hnh nh,bn sc,truyn thng vng min ca mnh. V p l rt tt,rt cn thit cho mi dn tc, nhng truyn thng li l mt v p v gi m khng g c th so snh c ca mi dn tc. L mt ngi hc ngh v ra trng s lm ngh kin trc,chng ta cn phi tip thu, gn gi v pht trin nhng nt c trng v c sc trong kin trc ,mi chng ta cn tm hiu hn na v truyn thng vn ha ,bn sc dn tc Thi ni ring v tt c cc dn tc ni chung c th thit k c nhng cng trnh khng ch p v hnh thc, m phi p c v ni dung,thn thin mi trng, p v quy hoch tng th .v.v. l trng trch ca mi chng ta - nhng sinh vin hc v kin trc.

HT.

Nh sn dn tc Thi Sn La.

23