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PHN KHC TH TRNG Nc gii kht l mt nhu cu thit yu trong cuc sng thi hin i.

Vy c bao gi bn th lit k ra xem c bao nhiu loi nc gii kht hin ang c trn th trng. Hy chng ti gip bn nh: l c ph, nc tri cy, sa nc, nc ngt c gas, nc chit xut t tho mc, sa u nnh, sa bt, yaourt ung, nc tng lc, tr ung lin, tr ti lc, nc tinh khit. Nhng nu ni nhng loi thc ung ny l nc gii kht th cha , m phi ni l nc gii kht khng cn, phn bit vi loi nc gii kht c cn nh bia, ru Khng ch dng li , ngi ta cn i su vo tng chng loi nc gii kht khng cn k trn chia chng ra thnh nhng nhm nh hn. i vi c ph chng hn, chng ta c hai nhm chnh l c ph c cafein v c ph khng c cafein, ri t hai nhm chnh ny li chia nh xung thnh c ph pha t bt, c ph ha tan, trong c ph ha tan li chia ra c ph en, c ph sa, c ph sa c kem 3 trong 1, gn y li xut hin c loi c ph ung lin trong lon Birdy. Vy l chng ta va hon thnh mt bi tp nh v phn khc th trng. Phn khc th trng ng vai tr rt quan trng nh v nhn hng. N l cng c chnh phn nhm ngi tiu dng mc tiu cng nh mt gi quan trng nhn dng v sng to ra li ch nhn hng mang tnh khc bit c o. Th d nh trc y, khi nhc n tr, ngi ta ch bit n tr ung lin, nh Lipton Ice Tea dng bt v trong chai thy tinh, tr ti lc, nhng cch y 3 nm, s xut hin ca tr xanh ng chai ca nhng thng hiu hng u nh Tr Xanh Khng , C2 ri tip l hng chc cc thng hiu nh khc, k c hng nhi, hng gi, lm thay i cc din th trng nc gii kht khng cn v thm vo mt mt hng mi cho ngnh ny: Tr xanh ng chai ( y l chai nha PE). M gi l tr ng chai th chnh xc hn v mt hng tr ng chai ch sau mt thi gian ngn nay phn ha nhiu: No l tr xanh nguyn cht, tr chanh, tr tri cy, tr sa, tr tho mc VAI TR CA PHN KHC TH TRNG Th d k trn cho thy phn khc th trng l mt yu t cc k quan trng trong chin lc nh v. Phn khc th trng chia th trng ra thnh cc nhm ngi tiu dng r rt, cc nhm ny c chung nhu cu v s c nhng phn ng tng t i vi mt hot ng marketing no . Theo quan im ca nh v nhn hng, cn phi nhn vo cc ng c mua hng; iu c ngha l, loi li ch hoc dch v no m ngi tiu dng trng i t sn phm. Bn cnh , cch thc v dp s dng sn phm s gip chng ta hiu c ng c mua hng. Cc nghin cu th trng cho thy bia c ung nhiu nht ti cc nh hng, qun nhu, tp trung vo tui cn tr, t 20 n di 50 tui; t l ung bia ti nh t l thun vi tui tc, c bit l i vi nhm ngi tiu dng t 50 tui tr ln. iu ny l gii v sao cc nhn hng bia lin tc s dng cc c gi gii thiu sn phm (promotion girls hay gi tt l PG) ti cc nh hng, qun nhu tng cng hnh nh nhn hng cng nh doanh thu. S mi mc kho lo ca cc ngi p d khin cc ng my ru xiu lng ung nhiu hn hoc dng th sn phm mi.

C rt nhiu c im lin quan n sn phm theo phn khc th trng chia ngi tiu dng ra thnh tng nhm nh: Tui tc, gii tnh, thu nhp, phong cch sng (h sng u v nh th no), s trung thnh i vi mt sn phm hay dch v no , cng s dng (ngi s dng nhiu hay t), v cc mu hnh vi ng x. Mt s cng ty nghin cu th trng, cc cng ty truyn thng v cc tp on a quc gia pht trin cc phng php phn khc th trng sng to v mi m ca ring mnh vt qua ro cn ca nghin cu th trng truyn thng ging nhau c cc i th cnh tranh s dng. Mt trong nhng cch hiu qu khm ph cc phn khc mi l nghin cu hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng. Kin thc v cc th t u tin trong qu trnh quyt nh chn la sn phm, mua v s dng c th gip khm ph nhng kha cnh quan trng trong phn khc th trng. Phn khc th trng l quy trnh sng to ch b gii hn bi tr tng tng ca nh lm marketing v ngun lc ca cng ty. Phn khc th trng khng phi l mt quy trnh tnh. N cn c lp i lp li nh k, v th trng rt nng ng v hnh vi ngi tiu dng thay i t nhin theo vi s thay i thng xuyn ca phong cch sng, giai on ca vng i v nhng phn ng i vi cc hot ng ca i th cnh tranh, s pht trin ca mi trng, vn vn. V hy nh rng, nh cao ca phn khc th trng l tm ra c nhng phn khc cha b chim gi v tr thnh nhn hng tin phong cho phn khc . CC PHNG PHP PHN KHC TH TRNG C rt nhiu loi thng tin m da vo th trng c th c phn khc. Trong qu trnh nghin cu, nhng thng tin v d liu mi thng xuyn xut hin nh l h qu ca vic tm kim cc phn khc th trng cha b chim gi. Mt s nhng bin s ca phn khc th trng di y (nhn khu hc, a l hc) c c im mang tnh m t nhiu hn, trong khi mt s khc, th d nh cc mu hnh vi ng x v tm l, c nh hng theo s thch ca ngi tiu dng, cm xc v cm nhn. Nhng iu quan trng khng ch i vi s nhn dng v m t i tng ngi tiu dng mc tiu m cn cho vic nhn dng cc li ch sn phm. Phn khc th trng theo a l hc Trong phng php phn khc th trng theo a l hc, th trng c chia thnh cc n v a l khc nhau. Nhng n v ny c th bao gm cc thnh ph, khu vc, quc gia, hoc lc a. i khi ngi tiu dng c th c nhng thi quen mua hng, nhu cu v mong i khc nhau ty thuc vo ni h sng. Loi phn khc th trng ny c khuynh hng c s dng cp thc thi hn l cp hoch nh chin lc. Phn khc th trng theo a l hc thng c s dng hoch nh cc phi thc marketing. Th d nh th trng thi trang min Bc s c nhng c im v bn ma Xun, H, Thu, ng mt cch r rt (v nh th i hi cc nhn hiu thi trang phi c cc b su tp theo ma) cn th trng thi trang min Nam s i hi s dng cc cht liu thong mt quanh nm. Phn khc th trng theo nhn khu hc

Trong phn khc th trng theo nhn khu hc, th trng c chia thnh phn khc da trn c s ca nhng tiu chun nhn khu hc nh tui tc, gii tnh, kch c gia nh, hc vn, thu nhp, v tng lp x hi. Ngi tiu dng vi nhng bin s nhn khu hc ging nhau c xu hng c cng mong c, s thch v thi quen tiu dng. Cc bin s nhn khu hc ca mt phn khc th trng c th c so snh vi cc phn khc th trng khc. Tuy nhin, nhiu thi v hnh vi ngi tiu dng khng b thc y bi nhn khu hc, trong nhiu trng hp, thm ch cn khng lin quan g n nhn khu hc. Ly thi trang l mt minh chng, hu ht tt c cc ph n d tui no, thuc giai tng x hi no u c cng mt nim am m chung l c mc p, cm thy t tin hn trong giao tip v hnh phc hn trong cuc sng thng nht. Phn khc th trng theo tm l hc Vic phn chia th trng trn c s giai cp x hi, c tnh v/hoc phong cch sng c nhc n nh l phn khc th trng theo tm l hc. Trong khi c nhiu tranh ci xem c tnh c phi l tiu chun hu dng v c lin quan n vic phn khc th trng khng, th cc yu t phong cch sng thuc v tiu chun hiu qu nht ca phn khc th trng. Vic quyt nh phong cch sng thng da trn s phn tch cc hot ng, mi quan tm v kin ngi tiu dng. Nhng phong cch sng ny k c t trong mi tng quan vi sn phm, nhn hiu v cch s dng phng tin truyn thng ca ngi tiu dng mc tiu. Phn khc th trng theo li sng c s dng thnh cng trong nhiu chng loi sn phm khc nhau t thc phm, qun o n cng ngh xe hi. Ti Beijing, ngnh thi trang ca th Trung Quc ny chia ra mt phn khc th trng ring dnh cho nhng ph n nc ngoi sinh sng v lm vic ti ni ny hoc l v ca cc chuyn gia ngi nc ngoi c gi l expatriates/expatriates wife, bi l n gin l nhm ph n ny c phong cch sng khc vi nhng ph n bn x, cha k l h cn thuc nhm c thu nhp cao hn nhiu so vi thu nhp bnh qun ca ngi tiu dng a phng. Cc mu hnh vi Phn khc th trng theo ch ngha hnh vi chia ngi tiu dng thnh tng nhm theo nh cc mu hnh vi thc s trong khi s dng mt sn phm hay mt dch v c th no , nh vic s dng thng xuyn, s trung thnh, dp s dng, cc li ch nhn c t vic mua v s dng sn phm. S dng thng xuyn Phn khc th trng theo cch ny phn bit gia nhng ngi s dng thng xuyn vi nhng ngi s dng t thng xuyn hn, v nhng ngi khng s dng. Kt qu nghin cu t cc nhm ngi tiu dng khc nhau ny s gip cho nh sn xut c th nhm n ngi s dng nhiu hoc s dng t, hoc tm hiu ng c v gi tr - lm th no ng vin ngi s dng t thnh nhng ngi s dng thng xuyn...

S trung thnh Phn khc th trng theo s trung thnh da vo sc mnh ca mi rng buc m ngi tiu dng c i vi mt s nhn hiu no . S trung thnh c 5 cp bc m mi cp bc tiu biu cho mi rng buc gia ngi tiu dng v mt nhn hiu no . S sp xp cc cp i t nhm ngi tiu dng trung thnh v cam kt nht, nhng ngi tip tc gn kt vi mt nhn hng, ti nhng ngi thng xuyn thay i nhn hng, ty thuc vo gi c hoc cc li th khuyn mi khc. Lng trung thnh c th c kt ni vi vic thng xuyn s dng mt nhn hiu no . Mt trong nhng cch o lng trung thnh l o vic mua lp li v vic s dng thng xuyn nhn hng. hiu hnh vi ngi tiu dng, nn nghin cu cc l do v ng c i vi cc cp ca lng trung thnh ca ngi tiu dng. Phn khc th trng theo li ch Phn khc th trng theo li ch s phn nhm ngi tiu dng trn c s cc thuc tnh sn phm lm tha mn nhu cu ngi tiu dng. Thng qua vic mua sn phm, ngi tiu dng nhn chung c gng tha mn nhu cu, c mun hoc kht vng ca mnh. iu c ngha l ngi tiu dng thc s tm kim nhng li ch c th no m sn phm c th cung cp tha mn nhng nhu cu ny hn l tm kim sn phm. iu quan trng l phi bit loi li ch no m sn phm a ra c kh nng nhm n ngi tiu dng vi ng c ng. V nhng li ch ny c th rt khc nhau i vi nhng phn khc th trng khc nhau, phn khc th trng theo li ch tr thnh mt trong nhng phn quan trng nht ca quy trnh phn khc th trng. The Unique Selling Proposition (USP, tm dch l Ngh Bn Hng c o) l mt trong nhng khi nim marketing da trn c s s tha mn li ch. tng ng sau khi nim USP l cc qung co nn cho ngi tiu dng mt l do thi thc mua sn phm da vo li ch sn phm c o v d phn bit. Li ch ngi tiu dng l cha kha nh v nhn hng. i vi vic pht trin chin lc nh v, li ch cng l mt trong nhng yu t then cht phn khc th trng v nhn dng ngi tiu dng mc tiu. i tng ngi tiu dng mc tiu, vi t cch l mt trong nhng yu t chin lc nh v, s l mt nhm nhng ngi tiu dng c cng nhng kht vng v li ch sn phm. C th ni li ch sn phm l mt tiu chun quan trng ca marketing v v th c rt nhiu nghin cu th trng v vn ny. Mua v hon cnh s dng Dp m mt sn phm no c mua v s dng c th khc nhau kh xa trong tng nhm ngi tiu dng khc nhau. Nhn thu hnh vi ngi tiu dng xung quanh vic mua v tiu th c th gip nhn dng cc c hi s dng mi v cc yu t quyt nh then cht trong qu trnh mua, ng thi iu tra cc li ch ngi tiu dng. C rt nhiu phng php v mc tiu khc nhau trong nghin cu hnh vi ngi tiu dng xung quanh vic mua v s dng sn phm. Phn ln nhng phng php ny c gng nhn dng

nhng gi tr v ng c ng sau hnh vi ngi tiu dng. Nhng nghin cu ny thng gn kt cht ch vi vic nhn dng li ch ngi tiu dng. Tm li, phn khc th trng khng phi l mt vic lm d dng. S dng tht nhiu nhng bin s v tiu chun gip tp trung vo mt phn khc th trng cht ch v c th hn. Mt phn khc th trng cht ch hn c ngha l mt ngh thit thc hn cho ngi tiu dng, mc tha mn khch hng cao hn v t hao ph ngun lc hn. iu quan trng nht l tp trung vo nhng bin s m c th gip nhn dng ngi tiu dng c cng kht vng, s thch v li sng, da trn sng to mt li ch chung c o v d phn bit cho h.