IS :2131 - 1981 ( R4fiied 1997)
METHOD FOR STANDARD PENETRATION TEST FOR SOILS
( First Revision )
Third Reprint MARCH 1997
@ Copurigh’ 1982
BHAVAN. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAB MARG NBWDELHI 1lOOLZ February 1982
DIVANJI SHRI A. S. DEILLON Irrigation Department. Bombay SHRI M. SHRI A. S. DANDAVATE SHRI N. Lucknow DR B. DEILLON ( Alfern& ) The Concrete Association of India. SERI A.1981 ( Reaffmed 1997 )
METHO~D FOR STANDARD PENETRATION TEST FOR SOILS
( First Revision )
Chairman DR JAODISH NARAIN University
and Rock Mechanics Sectional Committee. IRI Pradesh. BDC 23
Representing of Roorkee. S. Jodhpur DR ALAX SINQE Engine&-in-Chief’s Branch. Calcutta 700017 ) Indian Geotechnical Society. DHAWAN ( AItcrnatc ) University of Jodhpur. New Delhi DB G. ) RDSO DEP&Y DIRECTOR RESEARCH ( SOIL-MEOE ) RDSO ( Alternate ) Public Works Department. V. JAIN SHRI VIJAY K. G~~PTA . H. AQARWAL Pradesh. %. Roorkee Co Ltd. SHRI N. S. Roorkee
ADDITIONAL DIRECTOR RESEARCH Ministry of Railways ( P.Indian Standard
IS : 2131. E. Government of Uttar DIRECTOR. DE SOUSA ( Alternate SHRI G. DASTIDAR Hungerford Court. CHIEF ENQINEER ( D&R ) _ Chandigarh DR G. JANOLE (~Altcmztc) DR GOPAL RAJAN DR GOPAL RANJAN SERI S. Government of Punjab. Bombay & Associates. Government of Uttar SHRI P. N. C. G. Calcutta of Roorkee. DUQ~AL ( Alternate ) In personal capacity (5 Hungerford Street. KANITXAR ( Abrnatc ) Irrigation Department. Jain of Engineers ( India ). K. Roorkee ( Continued gage 2 ) m
Q Copvright 1982 OF INDIAN STANDARDS
This publication is protected under the Indian Cojyrighr Ad (XXV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act. Army Headquarters COL AVTAR SIN~H LT-COL V. L. Roorkee AsiaB~~b~ations and Construction (P) Ltd.
. JAIIU( Alternate) Institution University \Cemindia ] G. D. 12/I.
New Delhi SECRETARY DEPUTYSECBETARY Alternate ) ( Shipping and Roads Wing (Mmiatry of SEW N.rtment. MALHOTRA tration. NATRAJAN Indian Institute of Technology. SRINIVASAN Snnr SUNILBERRY ( Altrrnats ) Station. SUBRAMANYAM Government of Tamil SWPER~NTENDINQE N Q I N E E a Publ. Government of RESEAROH OFFICER( B&RRL ) Punjab. New Delhi SHRI T. Engineering Research Karnataka SEXIN. SIVAQURU Transport ) SHRI D. KsYERKAR SHRI V. Chandigarh Central Building Reztearch Institute ( CSIR ).
SHRI M. RAO DR K.: ( ) Director General. R. Chandigarh Engineering Research Laboratories. K. RDSO ASEXSTANT DIRECTOR RESEAXOH ( SOIL MEOH) RDSO ( Alternate ) Central Water Commission. RAO ( Alternate ) Central Road Research Institute. G. JOSHI DEPUTYI. JA~N ( Altematr ) University of Jodhpur. New Delhi DIBEOTOR CSMRS ) ( DEPUTYDI~EOT~~ ( CSMRS ) ( Alternatr ) ( Continusd pa16 10 b on
.Jorhz. SA~ENA of Andhra Pradesh. RAMAN. B. Chandigarh AdminisSHRI 0. R. ( P&D% ) EXECUTIVE ENGINEER SMRD ) ( Alter. GRORPADE Altcraate ( ) Public Works Department. MATHUR Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ). AWARWAL Centr$or~elding Research Institute ( CSIR ). V. SHRI D. GUPTA ( Alternate ) Public Works Department. IS1 ( Ex-OS& Mmber ) SHRIG. V. M.S. Jodhpur DR ALAMSINQH DEPUTY DIREOTO~ RES~A~OR Minirtry of Railways (PE). Government SH~I K. Hyderabad Central Board of Irritation & Power. BlS
The Site Exploration and Investigation for Foundation Subcommittee. V. S. P. New Delhi Da G. P. Director ( Civ Engg ) secretary S-1 K. K.IRECTOR ( CSMRS ) ( Alternate ) Ministry of Defence ( R&D ) COL M.IS : zl31-
( Continued from page 1 )
Representing Members Central Water Commission. BDC 23 : 2
Members !3xn1V. New Delhi SHRI A. SIKKA ( Alternate) National Buildings Organization. NARAHARI Roorkee SHRI B. New Delhi SHBI K. B.
observed or calculated.2 Standard penetration test conducted by means of the split spoon. 0.N values (number of blows per 30 cm of penetration using standard split spoon) of the soil. furnishes data about resistance of the soils to penetration which can be used to evaluate standard strength data.IS1 2131. dependable and reproducable samples. SCOPE 1.1 This standard specifies a standard standard penetration test for soils.4 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. FOREWORD
0. such as . besides including the details of the correction factors which are necessary in calculation of bearing capacity. Methods of calculation of bearing capacity of For obtaining soils based on N values are covered in IS : 6403-1981*. 0. procedure for conducting the
‘Code of practice for determination of bearing capacity of soils (first rmision ). 0. a standard procedure is necessary and this code is intended to furnish necessary guidance to the soil explorer in this regard. shall be rounded off in The number of significant places retained accordance with IS : 2-1960t.1 This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 24 December 1981. 1.1981
METHOD FOR STANDARD PENETRATION TEST FOR SOlLS
( First Revision )
0. tRules for rounding off numerical values ( raised ).
. specified in this standard. expressing the result of a test or analysis. the final value.3 This standard was first published in year 1963 and this revision has been done so as to include a standardized split spoon sampler for which a detailed specification has been formulated separately. after the draft finalized by the Soil Engineering and Rock Mechanics Sectional Committee had been approved by the Building Division Council. in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.
.1 Drilling Equipment
2.2 Casing or Drilling Mud .5 kg may be used.Where casing is used. if necessary.It shall be used when drilling in sand.1 Driving
*Specification for split spoon sampler.3 mm outer diameter). Spacers may be provided at every 10 m. It shall be ensured that the energy of the falling weight is not reduced by friction between the drive weight and the guides or between rope and winch drum. 2. Screw jack etc
~3. or more frequently~. the advancement of the casing pipe should be such that it does not disturb the soil to be tested or sampled. soft clay or other soils in which the sides of borehole are likely to cave in.2 Split-Spoon IS : 9640-1980*. If drilling mud alone is not successful.3 Drive
The split spoon sampler shall conform
2. it shall not be driven In the below the level at which the test is made or soil sample is taken. 100 to 150 mm in diameter. Rope.IS : 2131 .1 The equipment used shall provide a clean borehole. for insertion of the sampler to ensure that the penetration test is performed on undisturbed soil and shall permit driving of the split spoon sampler to obtain penetration record and the sample in accordance with the procedure specified in 3. The drill rod shall preferably have a stiffness equal to A-rod (41. case of cohesionless soils which cannot stand without casing.3. 2. 2. a hammer heavier than 63. below water table it is often preferable to use drilling mud rather than a casing. For driving the casing.4 Lifting
Rail.3. For depths of exploration more than 10 m. the casing shall preferably be advanced by 3. In sandy and other non-cohesive soils. A light rod ‘whips’ under the blows of the hammer.
2. tightly coupled and straight in alignment. special precautions shall be taken to keep the rod vertical by using centering spacers and/or by using stiffer rods to minimize the whipping effect.
2.1.2 The rods to which the sampler is attached for driving should be straight.1981 2. EQUIPMENT 2. casing may be used along with the drilling mud.1 The drive weight assembly shall consist of a driving head and a 63-5 kg weight with 75 cm free fall.1.
NOTE -The stiffness of the drill rod used for testing influences the N value obtained by means of the test. PROCEDURE the Casing .
2.2 The sampler shall be lowered to the bottomof the borehole.2. if only water is used to stabilize the borehole. The intervals be increased to 3 m if in between vane shear test is performed.2. 3. 5
.5 m above the level of the water table.1 In case wash boring is adopted for cleaning the borehole. that will ensure that there is minimum mixing up of the soil from the bottom of the borehole.1 While boring through sand using casing to stabilize the sides of the borehole.2.2 While boring through soils. In cohesive soils. using suitable tools. 3.
3.2. but in no case shall a bottom-discharge bit be permitted. This should not be used in sands.3. The distance between the end of the casing and the bottom of the borehole should be as close as possible and in any case not exceed 150 mm. as the vibration caused by driving may alter the density of such deposits immediately below the bottom of the borehole. b) Penetration of the sampler into the soil under the combined weight of sampler and rods (to be noted from readings of the scale over the drill rod at the top). no water shall be added to the borehole while boring above the water table. The raised level of the water in the borehole should be maintained even if casing is used to stabilize the borehole. 3. such as augers.sampling elevation.3 The borehole shall be cleaned up to testing or. following information shall be noted and recorded:
a) Depth of bottom of borehole below ground level. 3. such as sands that may be disturbed by the flow of water into the drill hole. The process of jotting through an open tube sampler.2 Cleaning
3. and then testing and sampling when the desired depth is reached shall not be permitted. Tests may be made at lesser intervals if specified or considered necessary.3 Obtaining
3. the outer diameter of the shell shall be at least 25 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the casing.IS :2131-
slowly turning the casing rather than by driving. this distance may be up to 300 mm. the water in the borehole shall be maintained at least I. in case bentonite is used.1 Tests shall be made at every change in stratum or at intervals of not more than l-5 m whichever is less. side-discharge bits are permissible. While boring below water table.3. Bentonite slurry of appropriate consistency -may be required to help the water level to be maintained above the water table. the borehole may be cleaned with bailer with a f-lap valve.
4.1981 c) Water level in the borehole or casing.3 The split spoon sampler resting on the bottom of borehole should be allowed to sink under its own weight. 6
. 3. sealed with wax to prevent evaporation of the soil moisture. A typical sample or samples of soil from the opened split spoon shall be put into The jars shall have a self-sealing top.4 If on lowering the sampler by means of a string of rods it is found to rest at a level above the bottom of the casing. 3. 3. the split spoon sampler shall be further driven by 30 cm or 50 blows (except that driving shall cease before the split spoon The number of blows required to effect each 15 cm of sampler is full).1 The entire sampler when very soft sub-soil stratum it may not be necessary to give SPT value should be indicated may sometimes sink under its own weight is encountered.3. then the penetration resistance shall be for the last 30 cm of penetration (if less than 30 cm is penetrated. the internal diameter of the sampling spoon should be SO adjusted that the total internal diameter after incorporating the liner is 35 mm. The first 15 cm of drive may be penetration shall be recorded.3. b) Job designation. Thereafter. liner may be used in the sampling spoon.4 Removal of Sampler and Labelling
3.2 Labels shall be fixed to the jar or notations shall be written on the covers ( or .both ) with the following information: a) Origin of sample. In such a case.3. 3.3.
3.4.1 The sampler shall be raised to the surface and opened. If packing as specified is not available. The total blows required for the second considered to be seating drive. Jars shall be of such a size that they can be filled without deforming the sample. any blow to the split spoon sampler and as zero. and d) Depth of bottom of casing below ground level. Typical samples shall be cut to such a size as to fill the jars and thereby reduce the water loss to the air in the jars. the penetration test and sampling should not be carried out at that stratum. if the split spoon sampler is driven less than 45 cm (total). and third 15 cm of penetration shall be termed the penetration-resistance Jv.IS : 2131 . The sample in the liner shall be waxed properly at both the ends to keep up the natural moisture content during transit. the logs should state the number of blows and the depth penetrated). or shall be jars without ramming. Under such conditions. then the split spoon sampler shall be seated 15 cm with the blows of the hammer falling through 75 cm.
in silts. in clays.5. and after putting the casing.1 Due to Overburden-The
N value ior cohesionless soil shall be as per Fig. and g) Length of recovery. Samples shall not be placed in the sun.
3. the level shall be determined as the casing is pulled and then measured at least 30 min after the casing is pulled.1 shall be corrected for dilatancy if the stratum consists of fine sand and silt below water table for values of N’ greater than 15. 3. no accurate water level determination is possible unless pervious seams are present.
3.c) Boring number. the 24 h level shall be recorded for clays. e) Depth of sampling.6.
3. b) Reference datum. f ) Penetration record.6 Corrections
3.4. as under ( x” ): N =15f$(JV’-l5)
4.3 The jars containing samples shall be stored in suitable for shipment. ‘However. h) Date of sampling.
in the field
.6.2 Due to Dilatancy . When drilling x&d is used and the water level is desired. casing perforated at the lower end shall be lowered into the borehole and the borehole bailed down. 1 (Jv’ ).6.The value obtained in 3.1 Data
obtained in borings shall be recorded include the following: a) Date of boring. at least 24 h after the casing is pulled. REPORT 4.1 Information with regard to water table.on the field logs. shall be measured. elevations at which the drilling water was lost or elevations at which water under excess pressure was encountered shall be recorded. d) Sample number. where used.5 Field
3. Ground water levels shall be determined after bailing at time intervals of 30 min and 24 h until all traces of drilling mud are removed from inside the casing. Water levels before In sands. c) Job identification.
d) Boring e) Sample f) Type g) Drilling h) Sample j) m) Limits k) Water number. and
n) Penetration p) Casing q) Weather
CORRECTION OF N-VALUE COHESlONLESS SOIL FOR
FIG. (see 3. 1
CORRECTION DUE TO OVERBURDEN
. number.5). table information records. data.
Soil identification. including and recovery ratio. used. condition of samples. method. elevation of stratuin.
4. form over as a soil profile the area under
.2 The data obtairlecl shall be prepared in a final to show the nature and extent of the soil strata consideration.IS : 2131.
Public Works Department. NA~ARAJ ( Alternafe ) Central Road Research Institute.IS :2131 . NATRAJAN Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch. THOMAS ( Alternate ) Government of Department. S. Irrigation Maharashtra.1981
( Continuedfrom page 2
Members DIRECTOR. New Dt. SHOD SHRI P. K. K. S. New Delhi PROF T. NAIR Private Ltd. MEHTA ( Alternnte ) Roads Wing. Ministry of Transport SHRI N. N. K. Govr rnmrnt of Uttar Pradesh. SAHASI SRLEIA.~~. Calcutta SERr S. Madras EXECUTIVE ENQINEER (CD) ( Alternate ) Associated Instruments Manufacturers ( India 1 SRRI M. Government of Tamil EXECUTIVE ENGINEER ( SMRD ) Nadu. D. CHATURVEDI ( Altetnate ) Geological Survey of India. Lucknow Central Public Works Department. M.~~DINO ENGINEER (IP). SU. K. New Delhi LT-COL K.lhi EXECUTIVE ENGINEER ( DESIGN )V Public Works Department.. SIVA’XJnU SHRI P. New Delhi SHRI T. Bombay
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