# with MATLAB® Applications

Steven T. Karris

Circuit Analysis I

G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176-1.7546i magIx = 2.75 A theta = -39.64 deg

Orchard Publications, Fremont, California www.orchardpublications.com

with MATLAB® Applications

Circuit Analysis I

Students and working professionals will find Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications to be a concise and easy-to-learn text. It provides complete, clear, and detailed explanations of the principal electrical engineering concepts, and these are illustrated with numerous practical examples.

This text includes the following chapters and appendices: • Basic Concepts and Definitions • Analysis of Simple Circuits • Nodal and Mesh Equations Circuit Theorems • Introduction to Operational Amplifiers • Inductance and Capacitance • Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Phasor Circuit Analysis • Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments • Natural Response • Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • Introduction to MATLAB • Review of Complex Numbers • Matrices and Determinants Each chapter contains numerous practical applications supplemented with detailed instructions for using MATLAB to obtain quick and accurate answers.

Steven T. Karris is the president and founder of Orchard Publications. He earned a bachelors degree in electrical engineering at Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, a masters degree in electrical engineering at Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, and has done post-master work at the latter. He is a registered professional engineer in California and Florida. He has over 30 years of professional engineering experience in industry. In addition, he has over 25 years of teaching experience that he acquired at several educational institutions as an adjunct professor. He is currently with UC Berkeley Extension.

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ISBN 0-9744239-3-9

$39.95 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications Steven T. Karris Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications Copyright © 2004 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A. URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks®, Inc., and Microsoft® Corporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Library of Congress Control Number 2004093171 ISBN 0-9744239-3-9 Disclaimer The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text. This book was created electronically using Adobe Framemaker®. Preface This text is an introduction to the basic principles of electrical engineering. It is the outgrowth of lecture notes prepared by this author while teaching for the electrical engineering and computer engineering departments at San José State University, DeAnza college, and the College of San Mateo, all in California. Many of the examples and problems are based on the author’s industrial experience. It can be used as a primary text or supplementary text. It is also ideal for self-study. This book is intended for students of college grade, both community colleges and universities. It presumes knowledge of first year differential and integral calculus and physics. While some knowledge of differential equations would be helpful, it is not absolutely necessary. Chapters 9 and 10 include step-by-step procedures for the solutions of simple differential equations used in the derivation of the natural and forces responses. Appendices B and C provide a thorough review of complex numbers and matrices respectively. There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers, especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas. Circuit analysis is comprised of numerous topics. It would be impractical to include all related topics in a single text. This book, Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications, contains the standard subject matter of electrical engineering. Accordingly, it is intended as a first course in circuits and the material can be covered in one semester or two quarters. A sequel, Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications, is intended for use in a subsequent semester or two subsequent quarters. It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical introduction to MATLAB. As shown on the front cover, a system of equations with complex coefficients can be solved with MATLAB very accurately and rapidly. MATLAB will be invaluable in later studies such as the design of analog and digital filters. In addition to several problems provided at the end of each chapter, this text includes multiple-choice questions to test and enhance the reader’s knowledge of this subject. Moreover, answers to these questions and detailed solutions of all problems are provided at the end of each chapter. The rationale Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Preface is to encourage the reader to solve all problems and check his effort for correct solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was written to serve as a self-study or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a resource to test his knowledge. The author has accumulated many additional problems for homework assignment and these are available to those instructors who adopt this text either as primary or supplementary text, and prefer to assign problems without the solutions. He also has accumulated many sample exams. Like any other new book, this text may contain some grammar and typographical errors. Accordingly, all feedback for errors, advice and comments will be most welcomed and greatly appreciated. Orchard Publications Fremont, California Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Contents Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions The Coulomb...................................................................................................................................................1-1 Electric Current and Ampere........................................................................................................................1-1 Two Terminal Devices...................................................................................................................................1-4 Voltage (Potential Difference) ......................................................................................................................1-5 Power and Energy...........................................................................................................................................1-8 Active and Passive Devices ........................................................................................................................ 1-12 Circuits and Networks................................................................................................................................. 1-12 Active and Passive Networks..................................................................................................................... 1-12 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow .................................................................................................. 1-12 International System of Units .................................................................................................................... 1-13 Sources of Energy........................................................................................................................................ 1-17 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 1-18 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 1-21 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 1-25 Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................2-1 Ohm’s Law.......................................................................................................................................................2-1 Power Absorbed by a Resistor......................................................................................................................2-3 Energy Dissipated by a Resistor ...................................................................................................................2-4 Nodes, Branches, Loops and Meshes..........................................................................................................2-5 Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)...................................................................................................................2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)...................................................................................................................2-7 Analysis of Single Mesh (Loop) Series Circuits....................................................................................... 2-10 Analysis of Single Node-Pair Parallel Circuits......................................................................................... 2-14 Voltage and Current Source Combinations ............................................................................................. 2-16 Resistance and Conductance Combinations............................................................................................ 2-18 Voltage Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-22 Current Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-24 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices..................................................................................... 2-26 Resistor Color Code .................................................................................................................................... 2-27 Power Rating of Resistors .......................................................................................................................... 2-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications i Contents Temperature Coefficient of Resistance .................................................................................................... 2-29 Ampere Capacity of Wires.......................................................................................................................... 2-30 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment ............................................................................................. 2-30 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring........................................................................................... 2-33 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 2-38 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 2-41 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 2-50 Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems Nodal, Mesh, and Loop Equations ............................................................................................................. 3-1 Analysis with Nodal Equations.................................................................................................................... 3-1 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations ..................................................................................................... 3-8 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources.........................................................................3-20 Thevenin’s Theorem....................................................................................................................................3-24 Norton’s Theorem .......................................................................................................................................3-35 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ........................................................................................................3-38 Linearity.........................................................................................................................................................3-39 Superposition Principle ...............................................................................................................................3-41 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices.............................................................................................................3-45 Efficiency ......................................................................................................................................................3-47 Regulation .....................................................................................................................................................3-49 Summary........................................................................................................................................................3-49 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................3-52 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................3-64 Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Signals .............................................................................................................................................................. 4-1 Amplifiers........................................................................................................................................................ 4-1 Decibels ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-2 Bandwidth and Frequency Response.......................................................................................................... 4-4 The Operational Amplifier ........................................................................................................................... 4-5 An Overview of the Op Amp...................................................................................................................... 4-5 Active Filters................................................................................................................................................. 4-13 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits ..................................................................................................................... 4-16 Input and Output Resistance ..................................................................................................................... 4-28 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 4-32 ii Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Contents Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................4-34 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................4-43 Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Energy Storage Devices................................................................................................................................. 5-1 Inductance ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-1 Power and Energy in an Inductor ............................................................................................................. 5-11 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors........................................................................................ 5-14 Capacitance.................................................................................................................................................... 5-17 Power and Energy in a Capacitor .............................................................................................................. 5-22 Capacitance Combinations ......................................................................................................................... 5-25 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms........................................................................................ 5-28 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-29 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-31 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 5-36 Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Excitation Functions...................................................................................................................................... 6-1 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs ........................................................................................................ 6-1 The Complex Excitation Function.............................................................................................................. 6-3 Phasors in R , L , and C Circuits ................................................................................................................. 6-8 Impedance ..................................................................................................................................................... 6-14 Admittance .................................................................................................................................................... 6-17 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-21 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-25 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 6-30 Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Nodal Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 7-1 Mesh Analysis ................................................................................................................................................. 7-5 Application of Superposition Principle.......................................................................................................7-7 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ...........................................................................................................7-8 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits .......................................................................................................7-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications iii Contents Phasor Diagrams .......................................................................................................................................... 7-15 Electric Filters............................................................................................................................................... 7-20 Basic Analog Filters ..................................................................................................................................... 7-21 Active Filter Analysis................................................................................................................................... 7-26 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 7-28 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 7-29 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 7-37 Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments Periodic Time Functions............................................................................................................................... 8-1 Average Values ............................................................................................................................................... 8-2 Effective Values ............................................................................................................................................. 8-3 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids ........................................................................................................... 8-5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies............................................................................. 8-7 Average Power and Power Factor............................................................................................................... 8-9 Average Power in a Resistive Load ...........................................................................................................8-10 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads ................................................................................8-11 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms.......................................................................................8-14 Lagging and Leading Power Factors.........................................................................................................8-15 Complex Power - Power Triangle .............................................................................................................8-16 Power Factor Correction ............................................................................................................................8-18 Instruments ...................................................................................................................................................8-21 Summary........................................................................................................................................................8-30 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................8-33 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................8-39 Chapter 9 Natural Response The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit............................................................................................. 9-1 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit ......................................................................................... 9-10 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 9-17 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 9-19 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 9-25 iv Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Contents Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits The Unit Step Function...............................................................................................................................10-1 The Unit Ramp Function............................................................................................................................10-6 The Delta Function......................................................................................................................................10-8 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit ................................................................................10-14 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit ................................................................................10-21 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-31 Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-33 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................. 10-41 Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® MATLAB® and Simulink® ........................................................................................................................ A-1 Command Window....................................................................................................................................... A-1 Roots of Polynomials.................................................................................................................................... A-3 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots ......................................................................................... A-4 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values ....................................................................................... A-6 Rational Polynomials .................................................................................................................................... A-8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots ................................................................................................................ A-10 Subplots ........................................................................................................................................................ A-19 Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation.......................................................................................... A-20 Script and Function Files ........................................................................................................................... A-26 Display Formats .......................................................................................................................................... A-31 Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Definition of a Complex Number ...............................................................................................................B-1 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers......................................................................................B-2 Multiplication of Complex Numbers ..........................................................................................................B-3 Division of Complex Numbers....................................................................................................................B-4 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers ..............................................................................B-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications v ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. C-20 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices ................................................................................................................................................. C-21 The Inverse of a Matrix ............................................................C-1 Matrix Operations..................................................................................................................... C-16 Gaussian Elimination Method ...............C-9 Minors and Cofactors..................................................................... C-12 Cramer’s Rule ...C-5 Determinants ........Contents Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Matrix Definition .......................................................................................................................................... C-30 vi Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................C-2 Special Forms of Matrices ................ C-19 The Adjoint of a Matrix ................................................ C-23 Exercises...... C-21 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices................................................................................... Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions T his chapter begins with the basic definitions in electric circuit analysis. In other words. that is.6 × 10 C and one negative coulomb is equal to 6. 8 –7 q Vacuum 1m F = 10 c 2 N q=1 coulomb –7 q Figure 1. the charge of an electron is 1.1 The Coulomb Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum. 1. and includes several practical examples to illustrate these concepts.24 × 10 positive or negative. the unit and quantities used in circuit analysis.2) 1-1 . Definition of the coulomb The coulomb. is denoted by the letter q or Q . The definition of coulomb is illustrated in Figure 1.1. Charge. 1.2 Electric Current and Ampere Electric current i at a specified point and flowing in a specified direction is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past this point in that specified direction. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .1. ----i = dq = lim ∆q ----dt ∆t → 0 ∆t (1. – 19 18 electrons. ---------------------------1 ampere = 1 coulomb 1 sec ond Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (1. is the fundamental unit of charge.1) The unit of current is the ampere abbreviated as A and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second. abbreviated as C . It introduces the concepts and conventions used in introductory circuit analysis. In terms of this unit. 2. this is known as conventional current flow. compute the total charge q transferred between a. To find an expression of the charge q in terms of the current i . since ----i = dq dt the charge q is q t t0 = ∫ t i dt 0 t or q( t ) – q ( t0 ) = ∫t i dt 0 t or q(t) = ∫t i d t + q ( t 0 ) 0 t (1. t = 0 and t = 3 s b. it is customary to think of current as the motion of positive charge. t = 0 and t = 9 s i ( mA ) 30 20 10 0 −10 −20 −30 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s) Figure 1. Waveform for Example 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Note: Although it is known that current flow results from electron motion.2. let us consider the charge q transferred from some reference time t 0 to some future time t . Then.3) Example 1.1 1-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 For the waveform of current i shown in Figure 1. for 0 < t < 9 s. by calculating the areas.Electric Current and Ampere Solution: We know that q t t=0 = ∫0 i d t t = Area t 0 Then. we find that: a. area = ½ × {1×(−15)} = −7. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 8 < t < 9 s. As before. or −15 mA / s. We will see later in Chapters 2 and 3 that in some circuits (to be defined shortly).5 mC. the designation shown in Figure 1. total charge = total area = 30 + 120 + 30 −7. we conclude that the actual direction is opposite of that of the arrow. For 0 < t < 2 s. Therefore. For example. In the case of time-varying currents which change direction from time-to-time. then. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 3 s. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-3 . we assume a direction with an arrow for said current i . Then. b. or that a current of – 2 A is moving from right to left. the actual direction of the current cannot be determined by inspection. Direction of conventional current flow Caution: The arrow may or may not indicate the actual conventional current flow. and if a negative value for the current i is obtained.5 mC. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 6 s. it is convenient to think or consider the instantaneous current. the direction of the current which flows at some particular instant.3 indicates either a current of 2 A is flowing from left to right. 2A Device −2 A Figure 1. we conclude that the actual direction of the current flow is opposite to the direction of the arrow. for 0 < t < 3 s. In such a case. for 8 < t < 9 s. that is. area = 1 × 30 = 30 mC Therefore. Convention: We denote the current i by placing an arrow with the numerical value of the current next to the device in which the current flows. total charge = total area = 30 mC + 30 mC = 60 mC. For 0 < t < 2 s.3. Obviously. area = 4 × 30 = 120 mC For 6 < t < 8 s.5 = 172. we assume a direction by placing an arrow next to the device in which the current flows.3. reversing the direction reverses the algebraic sign of the current as shown in Figure 1. if the current with the assumed direction turns out to be negative. we observe that the slope of the straight line for t > 6 s is −30 mA / 2 s. Current entering and leaving a two-terminal device Let us assume that a constant value current (commonly known as Direct Current and abbreviated as DC) enters terminal A and leaves the device through terminal B in Figure 1.4 ms = 20 cos 40π = 20 mA –3 c. and thus we say that a potential difference or voltage exists “across” the device. 7A 7A Two terminal device Terminal A Terminal B Figure 1. Example 1. 1-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a current i ( t ) = 20 cos 100 π t mA enters the left (first) terminal. In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal* as shown in Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1.2 In a two-terminal device.sin -.2 = -----.3 Two Terminal Devices In this text we will only consider two-terminal devices. The passage of current (or charge) through the device requires some expenditure of energy. i t = 0.2 = -----. a.– 0 = -----.sin 100πt π 0.4. This voltage across the terminals of the device is a measure of the work required to move the current (or charge) through the device. What is the current at t = 40 ms ? c. What is the charge q at t = 5 ms given that q ( 0 ) = 0 ? Solution: a.4 ms = 20 cos 100 πt 5 × 10 –3 t = 0. q( t) = ∫0 i dt + q ( 0 ) = 5 × 10 0 –3 ∫0 5 × 10 20 cos 100 πt dt + 0 0.C 2 π π * We will see in Chapter 5 that a two terminal device known as capacitor is capable of storing energy.2 π 0.4. What is the amount of current which enters that terminal in the time interval – 10 ≤ t ≤ 20 ms ? b. i t t0 = 20 cos 100 πt 20 × 10 –3 –3 – 10 × 10 = 20 cos 100 π ( 20 × 10 ) – 20 cos 100 π ( – 10 × 10 ) –3 –3 = 20 cos 2π – 20 cos ( – π ) = 40 mA b.4. we conclude that the actual polarity is opposite to that of the assumed reference polarity.5. we can say that there is a voltage rise of 10 V in going from B to A .6. We can also say that there is a voltage drop of 10 V in going from point A to point B . Illustration of voltage polarity for a two-terminal device Caution: The (+) and (−) pair may or may not indicate the actual voltage drop or voltage rise. As before. We must remember that reversing the reference polarity reverses the algebraic sign of the voltage as shown in Figure 1.4) Convention: We denote the voltage v by a plus (+) minus (−) pair. that is. and if a negative value of the voltage is obtained. we say that terminal A is 10 V positive with respect to terminal B or there is a potential difference of 10 V between points A and B . again we assume a voltage reference polarity for the voltage. this means that the potential at the (+) sign terminal is at a lower potential than the potential at the (−) sign terminal. For example. the voltage reference polarity at some particular instance. we assume a voltage reference polarity by placing (+) and (−) polarity signs at the terminals of the device. A + Two terminal device −12 v − B = A − Same device 12 v + B Figure 1. if this reference polarity turns out to be negative. it is convenient to think the instantaneous voltage. A Two terminal device + 10 v B − Figure 1. In the case of time-varying voltages which change (+) and (−) polarity from time-to-time.4 Voltage (Potential Difference) The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal. Alternately. In such a case. Alternate ways of denoting voltage polarity in a two-terminal device Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-5 . The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v ) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb (1. in Figure 1.Voltage (Potential Difference) 1. As in the case with the current.6. in some circuits the actual polarity cannot be determined by inspection.5. com. xlabel('time in sec.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Example 1.1. Use MATLAB®* to sketch this function for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s b.it).2.7.. grid. Plot of i ( t ) for Example 1. An introduction to MATLAB is given in Appendix A.6) * MATLAB and SIMULINK are registered marks of The MathWorks.*sin(3.5) a.*(exp(0. MA.1: 10.7.mathworks. Figure 1. Inc.3 The i – v (current-voltage) relation of a non-linear electrical device is given by i ( t ) = 0. 01760. plot(t.2 sin 3t – 1 ) dt (1. The charge q ( t ) is the integral of the current i ( t ) . that is.'). We use the following code to sketch i ( t ) .*t))−1). www. q(t) = ∫t t1 0 i ( t ) dt = 0. t=0: 0. ylabel('current in amp.1 ∫0 ( e t1 0. Use the MATLAB quad function to find the charge at t = 5 s given that q ( 0 ) = 0 Solution: a.') The plot for i ( t ) is shown in Figure 1.2 sin 3t – 1) (10. Natick. it=0.1 ( e 0.3 b. 1-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 3 Apple Hill Drive. t=sym('t').1*(exp(0.m. it returns a warning. Orchard Publications.a. Both of these functions use adaptive quadrature methods.0170 * For a detailed discussion on numerical analysis and the MATLAB functions quad and quad8. Example 1.b) integration function where f is a symbolic expression. We define it as shown below. this means that these methods can handle irregularities such as singularities. MATLAB displays a warning message but still provides an answer.2*sin(3*t))−1). This is a mnemonic for Circuit Analysis I. The description of these can be seen by typing help quad or help quad8. –3 With this file saved as CA_1_Ex_1_3. The string ‘f’ is the name of a user defined function. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively.Voltage (Potential Difference) We will use the MATLAB int(f.6).3. the reader may refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB® and Spreadsheets by this author. we write and execute the following code. MATLAB has two quadrature functions for performing numerical integration. ISBN 09709511-1-6.0. it is understood to be the standard tolerance of 10 . 10) We will use numerical integration with Simpson’s rule. First. t = 0. For this example. In C:\MATLAB 12\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\int. MATLAB returns the following message when integration is attempted with the symbolic expression of (1.10) When this code is executed.t = 0. and performs an integration to a relative error tol which we must specify.0. If tol is omitted.5) and MATLAB returns charge = 0. function t = fcn_example_1_3(t).m. we need to create and save a function m-file. and we save it as CA_1_Ex_1_3. . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-7 . It has the syntax q=quad(‘f’. charge=quad('CA_1_Ex_1_3'. s=int(0.a.tol). For this example.1*(exp(0.m at line 58 s = int(1/10*exp(1/5*sin(3*t))-1/10.b. we will use the quad function. MATLAB displays the following message: Warning: Explicit integral could not be found. Note When MATLAB cannot find a solution. When such irregularities occur.2*sin(3*t))-1). the quad* and quad8. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively. 9) Passive Sign Convention: Consider the two-terminal device shown in Figure 1. If the numerical value of this product is positive. A −2 A Two terminal device −12 v Power = p = (−12)(−2) = 24 w B − + = A 2A − Same device 12 v Power = p = (12)(2) = 24 w + B Figure 1. on the other hand.8. The unit of power is the watt . The passive sign convention is illustrated with the examples in Figures 1. we say that the device delivers power to some other device.9 and 1.8. If.8) and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere (1. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device. That is.10. the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi .5 Power and Energy Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended.9. The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the (+) (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the (+) sign.8. A i Two terminal device v B + − Figure 1.× ---------. joul coul --------Power = p = volts × amperes = vi = ---------. Examples where power is absorbed by a two-terminal device 1-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7) Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one coulomb through the device.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1. terminal A is v volts positive with respect to terminal B and current i enters the device through the positive terminal A . Illustration of the passive sign convention In Figure 1. ------Power = p = dW dt (1. In this case.= joul = watts coul sec sec (1. and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities. we satisfy the passive sign convention and power = p = vi is said to be absorbed by the device. Then. Examples where power is delivered to a two-terminal device In Figure 1.11 where the time has been converted to seconds. whereas in Figure 1.11. the total energy (in joules) supplied d. Example 1. i(t) (A) 8 i = 8e – t ⁄ 3600 t (s) 28800 Figure 1. is connected to a battery charger to trickle charge it for the next 8 hours. the average power (in watts) absorbed by the battery Solution: The current entering the positive terminal of the battery is the decaying exponential shown in Figure 1.4 It is assumed a 12-volt automotive battery is completely discharged and at some reference time t = 0 .Power and Energy A i=6cos3t Two terminal device 1 v=−18sin3t B − A i=−5sin5t − Two terminal device 2 v=cos5t B + + p = (−18sin3t)(6cos3t) = −54sin6t w p = (cos5t)(−5sin5t) = −2.4 Then.10. power is delivered to the device. the maximum power (in watts) absorbed by the battery c.5sin10t w Figure 1. power is absorbed by the device. Decaying exponential for Example 1. It is also assumed that the charging rate is ⎧ 8e – t ⁄ 3600 A i(t) = ⎨ ⎩0 0 ≤ t ≤ 8 hr otherwise For this 8-hour interval compute: a. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-9 .9.10. the total charge delivered to the battery b. q 15000 t=0 15000 28800 28800 0 = ∫0 i dt = ∫0 –8 8e – t ⁄ 3600 8 . their voltage-current relationship is non-linear. i max = 8 A (occurs at t=0) Therefore.8 kC b.e – 3t 0 0. p max = vi max = 12 × 8 = 96 w c.8 – 1 ) – 6 = 3.4t 3 0. the charge for 2 seconds is q t t0 = ∫t t 0 i dt = 3 ∫0 ( e 2 0.5 ( e 0.16t 2 – 1 ) . i = -.– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------. Diodes and Transistors are non-linear devices.19 C The two-terminal devices which we will be concerned with in this text are shown in Figure 1. that is.4t 9( e – 1) 0. 5 d. how much then.4t 0.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions a.e – 1 ⁄ 3600 28800 0 = 3. If v = 3 ( e 0.12.456 × 10 ( 1 – e ) ≈ 345.8 × 10 3 Example 1. 3 28.= 12 w. These will not be discussed in this text.16t 2 0. A simple circuit with a diode is presented in Chapter 3.4t 2 – 1 ) dt = -----. Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device.5 The power absorbed by a non-linear device is p = 9 ( e charge goes through this device in two seconds? Solution: The power is 0.e – 1 ⁄ 3600 = – 8 × 3600 ( e – 1 ) ≈ 28800 C or 28.6 KJ.6 × 10 dt = --------------------------. 1 P ave = -T ∫0 1 p dt = -------------28800 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 345.4 2 0 = 7.= 3 ( e – 1 ) A 0.4t 0.– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------.4t v 3(e + 1) 3( e + 1) 0. W = ∫ p dt = ∫0 T 28800 vi dt = –8 ∫0 ∫0 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 96 .= -------------------------------------------------.4t p 9(e + 1 )(e – 1) p = vi. 1-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----------------------------.4t + 1 ) . Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC). Here. Here.Power and Energy Independent and Dependent Sources v or v(t) Ideal Independent Voltage Source − Maintains same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it. Dependent Voltage Source − Its value depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. When denoted as k 1 v it is referred to as voltage controlled voltage source. Ideal Independent Current Source − Maintains same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals.When denoted as k 3 i it is referred to as current controlled current source and when denoted as k 4 v it is referred to as voltage controlled current source. Dependent Current Source − Its value depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. k 3 is a constant and k 4 is a conductance as defined in linear devices below. and when denoted as k 2 i it is referred to as current controlled voltage source. i or i(t) k 1 v or k 2 i k 3 i or k 4 v − + + − Linear Devices Resistance R iR vR R= sl ope Conductance G R iG iG p slo G= e G + vR − v R = Ri R Inductance L iL L iR + vG − i G = Gv G Capacitance C vG vL l op =s L e iC diL dt vC + C iC l op =s C e + vL − − diL vL = L dt dv iC = C C dt dvC dt Figure 1.12. Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC). k 1 is a constant and k 2 is a resistance as defined in linear devices below. Voltage and current sources and linear devices Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-11 . A network and a circuit 1.14. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits.7 Circuits and Networks A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices as shown in Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1. vS R1 R2 L C + − Figure 1.9 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow There are two conditions which are necessary to set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit. 1.13. Resistors. A network but not a circuit A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path. they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device. R L C vS + − Figure 1. An example is shown in Figure 1.8 Active and Passive Networks Active Network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source). inductors and capacitors are passive devices. Passive Network is a network which does not contain any active device.14.13. These are: 1-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1.6 Active and Passive Devices Independent and dependent voltage and current sources are active devices. A network in which there is no current flow Figure 1. It was formerly known as the Metric System.10 International System of Units The International System of Units (abbreviated SI in all languages) was adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960. Figure 1.17. The basic units of the SI system are listed in Table 1.1.15 shows a network which contains a voltage source but it is not closed and therefore. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-13 . A closed circuit in which there is no current flow Figure 1.15.17.15 through 1. These conditions are illustrated in Figures 1. Therefore. 2. R1 R2 R4 R3 Figure 1. both conditions are satisfied and current will flow.International System of Units 1.16 shows a closed circuit but there is no voltage present to provide the electrical work for current to flow. current will not flow. It is used extensively by the international scientific community. A circuit in which current flows 1. vS R L C + − Figure 1. There must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow. The circuit must be closed.17 shows a voltage source present and the circuit is closed. R vS L C I + − Figure 1.16. 6.2 and the less frequently in Table 1. Table 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1.1 SI Base Units Unit of Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Plane Angle Solid Angle Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Degrees Kelvin Mole Candela Radian Steradian Abbreviation m kg s A °K mol cd rad sr The SI uses larger and smaller units by various powers of 10 known as standard prefixes.4 shows some conversion factors between the SI and the English system. The common prefixes are listed in Table 1.5 shows typical temperature values in degrees Fahrenheit and the equivalent temperature values in degrees Celsius and degrees Kelvin.3. 1-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Other units used in physical sciences and electronics are derived from the SI base units and the most common are listed in Table 1. Table 1. 2 KV (Kilovolts) = 13.8 x 10 –2 meter 4 mH (millihenries) = 4 × 10 –3 henry 6 µw (microwatts) = 6 × 10 –6 watt 2 ns (nanoseconds) = 2 × 10 –9 second 3 pF (picofarads) = 3 × 10 -12 Farad Mega 3 Kilo –2 centi –3 milli –6 micro –9 nano – 12 pico TABLE 1.8 cm (centimeters) = 2.2 × 10 3 volts 2.2 Most Commonly Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 Prefix Symbol Example Giga 6 G M K c m µ n p 12 GHz (Gigahertz) = 12 × 10 9 Hz 25 MΩ (Megaohms) = 25 × 10 6 Ω (ohms) 13.3 Less Frequently Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 18 15 12 Prefix Exa Peta Tera femto atto Symbol E P T f a Example 1 Em (Exameter) = 10 18 meters 5 Pyrs (Petayears) = 5 × 10 15 years 3 T$ (Teradollars) = 3 × 10 12 dollars 7 fA (femtoamperes) = 7 x 10 –15 ampere 9 aC (attocoulombs) = 9 × 10 –18 coulomb – 15 – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-15 .International System of Units TABLE 1.

54 cm (centimeters) 1. (mile) 2.2046 lbs (pounds) 1.5 Temperature Scale Equivalents °F –523. (inch) 0. (mile) 1 lb. (liter) = 1000 1 Å (Angstrom) 1 mm (micron) cm3 2.609 Km (Kilometers) 0.057 quarts 10 –10 meter 10 –6 meter TABLE 1.4 Conversion Factors 1 in.4 32 0 77 98.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1. (quart) 1 cm (centimeter) 1 Km (Kilometer) 1 Kg (Kilogram) 1 lt.4536 Kg (Kilograms) 946 cm3 (cubic centimeters) 0.8 25 37 100 °K 0 273 255.6214 mi. (inch) 1 mi.2 298 310 373 1-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . (pound) 1 qt.6 212 °C –273 0 –17.3937 in.

11 Sources of Energy The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. Suppose that a computer system that includes a monitor.).) and from mechanical forms (water falls. wood etc. fuel oil. wind. and other peripherals absorbs an average power of 500 w gets its energy from that burned Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-17 . Example 1.6 A certain type of wood used in the generation of electric energy and we can get 12.Sources of Energy TABLE 1.000 BTUs from a pound (lb) of that wood when burned.6 SI Derived Units Unit of Force Pressure or Stress Work or Energy Power Voltage Resistance Conductance Capacitance Inductance Frequency Quantity of Electricity Magnetic Flux Magnetic Flux Density Luminous Flux Illuminance Radioactivity Radiation Dose Volume Name Newton ( N ) Pascal ( Pa ) Joule ( J ) Watt ( W ) Volt ( V ) Ohm ( Ω ) Siemens ( S ) or ( Ω ) Farad ( F ) Henry ( H ) Hertz ( Hz ) Coulomb ( C ) Weber ( Wb ) Tesla ( T ) Lumen ( lm ) Lux ( lx ) Becquerel ( Bq ) Gray ( Gy ) Litre ( L ) –1 Formula N = kg ⋅ m ⁄ s Pa = N ⁄ m J = N⋅m W = J⁄s V = W⁄A Ω = V⁄A S = A⁄V F = A⋅s⁄V H = V⋅s⁄A Hz = 1 ⁄ s C = A⋅s Wb = V ⋅ s T = Wb ⁄ m 2 2 2 lm = cd ⋅ sr lx = lm ⁄ m Bq = s –1 2 S = J ⁄ kg L = m 3 × 10 –3 1. Other sources include nuclear and solar energy. natural gas. etc. a printer.

× --------------------------. Wood burned in 8 hours.× 14.6 × 10 joules 6 c. 1 lb f t – lb 1 BTU 6 14.60 6 kw – hr 3.137 lb joule 778. $0. if the polarities are opposite (negative/positive or positive/negative).= lim ∆q ----dt ∆ t → 0 ∆t 1-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and also on the distance between the objects.= 14. Energy consumption for 8 hours is 3600 s Energy W = P ave t = 500 w × 8 hrs × --------------. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .3 f t – lb 12000 BTU 1.4 × 10 joules × 0.15 per kw-hr c. Solution: a. the amount of wood in lbs burned during this time interval. the coulomb force decreases in proportion to the square of the distance between their charge centers. Thus.7376 ft-lb. Since 1 kilowatt – hour = 3. that is.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions wood and it is turned on for 8 hours. Compute: a. the force with which two electrically charged bodies attract or repel one another depends on the product of the charges (in coulombs) in both objects.4 Mjoules 1 hr b.× --------------------------------------. the so-called coulumb force is repulsive.12 Summary • Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum.15 1 kw – hr 6 Cost = ----------------.= 1.3 ft-lb of energy. It is known that 1 BTU is equivalent to 778.6 × 10 joules .7376 --------------. and 1 joule is equivalent to 0.× ------------------------------. the cost for this energy consumption if the rate is$0. dq i = ----.4 × 10 = $0. the force is attractive. the energy consumption during this 8-hour interval b. • Electric current is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past 8 –7 this point in that specified direction. If the polarities are the same (negative/ negative or positive/positive). For any two charged bodies. and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second. • An ideal independent current source maintains the same current regardless of the amount of volt- age that appears across its terminals. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative. we say that the device delivers power to some other device. • The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb • Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended. • In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-19 . The unit of power is the watt and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere • The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the plus (+) minus (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the plus (+) sign. • The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal. abbreviated as A. • Ideal voltage and current sources are just mathematical models. If the numerical value of this product is positive. on the other hand. the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi . That is. We will discuss practical voltage and current sources in Chapter 3. If. • The value of an dependent voltage source depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities. • An ideal independent voltage source maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of cur- rent that flows through it.Summary • The unit of current is the ampere. • The value of an dependent current source depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device. ------Power = p = dW dt • Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one cou- lomb through the device. • The International System of Units is used extensively by the international scientific community. and capacitors are passive devices. • To set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit there must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow and the circuit must be closed. It was formerly known as the Metric System. 1-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . natural gas. • The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. Other sources include nuclear and solar energy. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits. wood etc. • Resistors. • A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path. etc.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions • Independent and Dependent voltage and current sources are active devices. inductors.) and from mechanical forms (water falls. • A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices. they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device.). • Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device. • An active network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source). fuel oil. • A passive network is a network which does not contain any active device. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device. wind. coulomb E.13 Exercises Multiple choice 1. Power is A. The unit of charge is the A. coulomb C. none of the above 4. watt D. volt C. ampere B. none of the above 2. joule E. ampere B. The unit of current is the A. watt D. The unit of energy is the A. coulomb C. The unit of electric power is the A. none of the above 3. none of the above 5. ampere B. watt D. joule E.Exercises 1. watt D. volt C. ampere B. the integral of energy Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-21 . joule E. are just mathematical models E. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals C. none of the above 7. always deliver power to other external devices B. kV where k is a conductance value B. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. kI where k is a resistance value C. An ideal independent current source A. neither deliver or absorb power to or from other devices D. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. normally deliver power to other external devices C. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage rating of that voltage source C.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions B. Active voltage and current sources A. The value of a dependent voltage source can be denoted as A. voltage times some constant k E. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. none of the above 6. kV where k is an inductance value D. none of the above 8. current times some constant k D. the derivative of energy C. An ideal independent voltage source A. none of the above 9. kI where k is a capacitance value 1-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 5.18. 4. The value of a dependent current source can be denoted as A.000 metric tons. kV where k is a conductance value B.5 V W (mJ) 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t (ms) Figure 1.5. 0 V. whose total mass is 50. 1. Find the voltage across this device at t = 0. If this energy could be converted to electric energy with a conversion loss of 10%. how much would this energy be worth at$0. Answer: 3. reaches a height of 32. none of the above 10.808 feet in 20 minutes after takeoff. A two terminal device consumes energy as shown by the waveform of Figure 1.15 per kilowatt-hour? Answer: $65. Compute the number of electrons per second that flow through this bulb when it is connected to a 120 volt source.9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 3. If this energy were converted into electric energy during the period of 20 minutes. none of the above Problems 1.18 below. kI where k is a capacitance value E.5 ms.Exercises E.10 c. what average number of kilowatts would be generated? Answer: 1.5 V. a. kV where k is an inductance value D.75 and 6. 2. 450 Kw Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-23 . kI where k is a resistance value C. Compute the potential energy that the airplane has gained at this height. Waveform for Problem 1 2. An airplane. and the current through this device is i ( t ) = 2 cos 4000πt A . A household light bulb is rated 75 watts at 120 volts. Answer: 1. Answers: 2. – 2.5 V. 736 MJ b. The power input to a television station transmitter is 125 kw and the output is 100 kw which is transmitted as radio frequency power. The remaining 25 kw of power is converted into heat. How many BTUs per hour does this transmitter release as heat? 1 BTU = 1054.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------sec.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 4. 234 BTU ⁄ hr b. a.8 J Answer: 85.6 × 10 – 19 23 electron – volts J Answer: 1. 1-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . How many electron-volts per second is this heat equivalent to? 1 electron – volt = 1. You should follow this practice with the multiple-choice and problems on all chapters of this book.14 Answers to Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain answers to the multiple-choice questions and solutions to the exercises. You must.Answers to Exercises 1. look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors. If your answers to the problems do not agree with those provided. for your benefit. It is recommended that first you go through and answer those you feel that you know. For the multiple-choice questions and problems that you are uncertain. make an honest effort to answer the multiple-choice questions and solve the problems without first looking at the solutions that follow. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-25 . review this chapter and try again. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date. 5 × 10 ) A 2 ms 1 b. slope v = 0 t = 1.5 V –3 2 cos 19π A 2 cos π A –2 A 2 cos 4000π ( 4.5 V ------------–3 2A 2 cos 2π A 2 cos 4000π ( 0.= ---------------. p dW ⁄ dt slope v = -.= ---------------.75 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = ----------------------------------------------------------------. slope v 1 ms 0 5 mJ = ----------.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Multiple choice 1.= 5 J ⁄ s = 2. A 8.= --------------------------. B 7.= 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 0.= -------------------. B 9.75 × 10 ) A d. 1-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ------------i i i a. D 5.= – 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 4. A 3. A Problems 1.= -----------------------.5 ms = 0 = 0V -i c. C 4. B 10. B 6. slope v 5 ms 4 – 5 mJ = -------------.5 ms 5 J⁄s 5 J⁄s = -------------------------------------------------------------. D 2.= 2. = – 5 J ⁄ s = – 2.= -------------.A 8 v 120 V q = 1 s ∫t i dt 0 t q t=1 s = 18 ∫0 5 5 -.mv 2 where m = mass in kg and v = velocity in meters ⁄ sec. 20 minutes × ---------------.24 × 10 electrons 5 -.t 8 8 1 s 0 5 = -. a.= 5 × 10 Kg metric ton Then. 000 Kg 7 50.= 10.5 V ---------------–3 2A 2 cos 26π A 2 cos 4000π ( 6.= 1. 808 ft × ---------------------. 000 metric tons × -------------------------.= 3.5 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = -------------------------------------------------------------. min 25 10. 200 sec. 0.= ----.61 × 10 J ≈ 1.5 × 10 ) A 2.9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 8 1C 3. 5 p 75 w i = -. 1.= -.⎞ = 173. 2 1 7 25 7 W p = W k = -.= --------------------------.Answers to Exercises slope v 7 ms 6 = – 5 mJ = – 5 J ⁄ s -------------1 ms t = 6.3048 m 33. 1 2 W p = W k = -.dt = -.m ⁄ s 3 1.C ⁄ s 8 6. 736 MJ ⎝3 ⎠ 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-27 . 000 m = 10 Km ft 60 sec. 000 m v = ------------------------.C ⁄ s × ----------------------------------------------------.( 5 × 10 ) ⎛ ----. 200 sec. 23 electron – volts 25. and with 10% conversion loss.= 1.= -----------------------------.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------– 19 sec.10 Kw-hr c. 000 w 3. 25.× -------------------. 1 joule = 1 watt-sec 1 watt-sec 1 Kw 1 hr 6 1.6 × 10 – 19 – 19 J – 19 J 1 electron – volt 1.3600 sec. the useful energy is 482. 736 MJ P ave = ---.× -------------------. 000 watts × ------------------------------.× ------------------------.= --------------------------------------.22 × 0. 1 electron – volt ⁄ sec.= 1.× ---------------------.6 × 10 watt -----------------------------------------.8 J 1 joule ⁄ sec. 1 BTU = 1054.8 J watt b. 736 × 10 J × ------------------------. 600 sec.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions b. sec.= 1. 000 watts × --------------------------------------------------------. 234 BTU ⁄ hr 1 hr 1054.= 85.15 Cost of Energy = --------------.6 × 10 sec.9 = 482.× 434 Kw-hr =$65.6 × 10 watt 1-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . W 1. a.= 482.22 Kw-hr 1 joule 1. 1 BTU. 1. 1 electron – volt = 1.22 × 0.45 Mw = 1450 Kw t 60 sec 20 min × -------------min 4.9 = 434 Kw-hr \$0.

Notations like v R1 and i R2 will be used to denote the voltage across resistance R 1 and the current through resistance R 2 respectively. currents. Other notations like v A or v 1 will represent the voltage (potential difference) between point A or point 1 with respect to some arbitrarily chosen reference point taken as “zero” volts or “ground”. 2. and Kirchhoff ’s Current and Voltage laws.2 Ohm’s Law We recall from Chapter 1 that resistance R is a constant that relates the voltage and the current as: v R = Ri R (2. and p to denote instantaneous values of voltage. v S and i S will be used to denote voltage and current sources respectively.2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-1 . V for phasor voltage and I for phasor current. Ohm’s law. resistances. Combinations of voltage and current sources and resistance combinations are discussed. and loop analyses are introduced. and power respectively. One ohm is the resistance of a conductor such that a constant current of one ampere through it produces a voltage of one volt between its ends. Phasor quantities. For example.1 Conventions We will use lower case letters such as v .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits T his chapter defines constant and instantaneous values. sinusoidal (AC) voltages and currents will be denoted as v ( t ) and i ( t ) respectively. 1V 1 Ω = -------1A (2. Thus. i .1) This relation is known as Ohm’s law. We will denote voltages as v ( t ) and i ( t ) whenever we wish to emphasize that these quantities are time dependent. current. The unit of resistance is the Ohm and its symbol is the Greek capital letter Ω . mesh. Thus. to be inroduced in Chapter 6. and we will use subscripts to denote specific voltages. and the voltage and current division formulas are derived. will be represented with bold capital letters. Series and parallel circuits are also defined and nodal. 2. The designations v AB or v 12 will be used to denote the voltage between point A or point 1 with respect to point B or 2 respectively. etc.

. The concepts of open and short circuits The fact that current does not flow through an open circuit and that zero voltage exists across the terminals of a short circuit. Then.3) This is another form of Ohm’s law since by letting i G = i R and v G = v R . In contrast. infinite R means zero G and zero R means infinite G . a resistor is a device that opposes current flow. a short circuit is an adjective describing the connection of a pair of terminals by a piece of wire of “infinite conductance” or a piece of wire of “zero” resistance. In the previous chapter we defined conductance G as the constant that relates the current and the voltage as i G = Gv G (2. the voltage across a short circuit terminals is always zero but the current through it may or may not be zero. we get 1 G = -R (2. 2-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . since G = --. An open circuit is an adjective describing the “open space” between a pair of terminals. and an open circuit. and can be thought of as an “infinite resistance” or “zero conductance”.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Physically. for a finite voltR age. The current through an “open circuit” is always zero but the voltage across the open circuit terminals may or may not be zero. Likewise.4) –1 The unit of conductance is the siemens or mho (ohm spelled backwards) and its symbol is S or Ω Thus. –1 1Ω 1A = ------1V (2.1. A+ Open Circuit A+ R=∞ G=0 A + A+ i R=0 G=∞ i=0 B− i=0 B− v AB = i Circuit 0 Short B− v AB = 0 B− Figure 2. Resistors are used as a current limiting devices and as voltage dividers. say v G . 1 That is. can also be observed from the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G . The open and short circuit concepts and their equivalent resistances or conductances are shown in Figure 2.5) Resistances (or conductances) are commonly used to define an “open circuit” or a “short circuit”.1.

Voltage polarity and current direction not in accordance to passive sign convention Note: “Negative resistance. absorbs power. can be thought of as being a math model that supplies energy. and a short circuit. that is.” as shown in (2.6) Likewise. v R = Ri R and the power relation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-3 .7) Reminder: We must remember that the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G are true only when the passive sign convention is observed.3. vR = –R iR IR − R vR + R IR − (2.8).3 Power Absorbed by a Resistor A resistor.2. being a passive device. R→0 lim v R = lim Ri R = 0 R→0 (2. 2.3. This absorbed power can be found from Ohm’s law.8) + vR Figure 2. then. Voltage polarity and current direction in accordance to passive sign convention But if the voltage polarities and current directions are as shown in Figure 2. IR R R − v + R IR + vR − Figure 2.Power Absorbed by a Resistor G→0 lim i G = lim Gv G = 0 G→0 (2. for a finite current.2. say iR. This is consistent with our classification of R and G being passive devices and thus v R = Ri R implies the current direction and voltage polarity are as shown in Figure 2.

it never stores energy. 2 vR vR 2 p R = v R i R = ( Ri R ) i R = Ri R = v R ⎛ ---. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating in watts commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor. T EN RR CU (W at ts) PO V2 I2R R P V V R I R P I2 W ER re pe m (A s) P V VI PR P⁄R Figure 2. 2 watts. WR diss t2 1 = ∫t RE SI ST AN C E P I IR V2 P (O hm s) V I E AG LT VO ts) ol (V p R dt (2. Pie chart for showing relations among voltage. by its own nature. Common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt.4. say from t 1 to t 2 . resistance and power relations are arranged in the pie chart shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits pR = vR iR Then.10) 2-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1 watt.4. ½ watt. The energy dissipated in a resistor during a time interval.⎞ = ---⎝ R⎠ R (2. resistance. This topic will be discussed in Section 2. 2.16. and power Note: A resistor. 5 watts and so on.Thus.4 Energy Dissipated in a Resistor A resistor. current. current. is given by the integral of the instantaneous power p R . dissipates energy in the form of heat.9) The voltage.

5. we must express the quantities involved in their primary units. Definition of node Definition 2. Branches. Loops and Meshes Definition 2.11) Alternately. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-5 .10) reduces to WR diss = Pt (2. that is. if the energy is known. An example of a node is shown in Figure 2.12) Reminder: When using all formulas. 2. Loops and Meshes If the power is constant. + − R Node C Branch Figure 2.5 Nodes.Nodes. Branches.6. Definition of branch vS Definition 2.6. pR = d W d t R diss (2. For example.3 A loop is a closed path formed by the interconnection of simple devices.1 A node is the common point at which two or more devices (passive or active) are connected.11) above. + − Node Figure 2.7 is a loop. the energy is in joules when the power is in watts and the time is in seconds.5. then (2. we can find the power by taking the derivative of the energy. say P . For instance in (2. the network shown in Figure 2.2 A branch is a simple path composed of one single device as shown in Figure 2.

Example showing the difference between mesh and loop 2. we must assign a minus (−) sign to the currents entering the node.6 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law (KCL) KCL states that the algebraic sum of all currents leaving (or entering) a node is equal to zero.8. i1 + i2 – i3 – i4 = 0 (2. Node to illustrate KCL (2. For example. but ABCDEF is a loop but not a mesh.8. – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 i1 i3 Figure 2. if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents leaving the node.9.13) i2 i4 But if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents entering the node and minus (−) sign to the currents leaving the node.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits vS R + − C L Figure 2. ABEF is both a loop and a mesh. For example. A B R1 C L vS C + − R2 F E D Figure 2.9. in Figure 2.14) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-6 . in the circuit shown in Figure 2. Definition of a loop Definition 2.4 A mesh is a loop which does not enclose any other loops. Then by KCL. then by KCL.7.

19) We observe that expressions (2.16) or going counterclockwise. For example.18) or going counterclockwise. in the circuit shown in Figure 2. we get: v4 + v3 – v2 – v1 = 0 (2.15) are the same. 2. 3. and v 4 represent the voltages across devices 1.10.7 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) KVL states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (voltages from + to −) or voltage rises (voltages from − to +) around any closed path (mesh or loop) in a circuit is equal to zero. 2. and have the polarities shown. if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage drops.17) Alternately. v 2 . voltages v 1 . therefore. v 3 . by KVL starting at node A and going clockwise we get: – v1 – v2 + v3 + v4 = 0 (2. Circuit to illustrate KVL Now. by KVL starting again at node A and going clockwise we get: v1 + v2 – v3 – v4 = 0 (2. Then.13) and (2. it does not matter which we choose as plus (+). Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to the currents leaving the node. Device 2 + v2 + + v 3 Device 3 Device 1 v 1 v4 − − − Device 4 + A − Figure 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-7 . Then. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage rises. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage drops.15) We observe that (2. we get: – v4 – v3 + v2 + v1 = 0 (2.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 (2. if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage rises. and 4 respectively.10.16) through (2.19) are the same.

11. Device with established voltage polarity 2-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11. the current that flows from a higher (+) to a lower (−) potential. the resistance. For example.6 Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across each of the devices. Definition 2. A simple parallel circuit Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will adopt the conventional current flow.13. i. For example. Accordingly.e.5 Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them. For example. in the circuit of Figure 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to voltage drops.. R + vR − Figure 2. the same voltage v AB exists across the current source. the inductance and the capacitance.13 we are given the indicated polarity. vS R + − C L Figure 2. the conductance. in the circuit of Figure 2.12. the same current i flows through the voltage source. this is classified as a series circuit. and the capacitance and therefore it is classified as a parallel circuit A iS G L A iS A A A C G L C B B B B B Figure 2. if in Figure 2. A simple series circuit Definition 2. the inductance.12.

The current through and the voltage across these devices can easily be determined if these devices deliver power to the rest of the circuit. such as voltage and current sources. Thus with the voltage polarity as given in the circuit of Figure 2. Voltage polarity in a device with established conventional current flow Note: Active devices. iR R + vR − Figure 2. Direction of conventional current flow in device with established voltage polarity Alternately.14. if current flows in an assumed specific direction through a device thus producing a voltage.16. established as part of their notation. we assign a clockwise direction to the current as shown in Figure 2. Device with established conventional current direction then we assign (+) and (−) as shown in Figure 2. i vS + − Rest of the Circuit vS + − Rest of the Circuit (a) (b) Figure 2. if we are given this designation a device in which the current direction has been established as shown in Figure 2. This is consistent with the passive sign convention since we have assumed that the voltage source delivers power to the rest of the circuit. we will assign a (+) sign at the terminal of the device at which the current enters. For example.14. Direction of conventional current flow produced by voltage sources Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-9 . R Figure 2.17 (a). the current arrow will be pointing to the right direction as shown in Figure 2.15.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) then.16.17.15. have their voltage polarity and current direction respectively. R vR − + Figure 2.17 (b).

an inductive. The external path is usually made of two parts: (a) the metallic wires and (b) the load to which the electric power is to be delivered in order to accomplish some useful purpose or effect. The current i which flows through each device b.18 (b) to be consistent with the passive sign convention. There must be a continuous (closed) external path for current to flow around this path (mesh or loop). and assuming that this source delivers power to the rest of the circuit. Voltage polarity across current sources Rest of the Circuit The following facts were discussed in the previous chapter but they are repeated here for emphasis.8 Single Mesh Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding current. or a combination of these. The power absorbed or delivered by each device 2-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .19. There must be some voltage (potential difference) to provide the energy (work) which will force electric cur- rent to flow in a specific direction in accordance with the conventional current flow (from a higher to a lower potential). Example 2. voltage drops and power) in a circuit with a single mesh. The load may be a resistive. The voltage drop across each resistor c. the direction of the current source is clockwise.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Likewise. we want to find: a. 2. in the circuit of Figure 2.18. or a capacitive circuit.18 (a) below. we assign the voltage polarity shown in Figure 2. + iS Rest of the Circuit iS v − (a) (b) Figure 2.1 For the series circuit shown in Figure 2. There are two conditions required to setup and maintain the flow of an electric current: 1. 2.

Circuit for Example 2. by substitution of given values into (2. the current direction will be assumed to be that of the conventional current flow.Single Mesh Circuit Analysis + − 4Ω v S1 R1 v S2 64 V 6Ω R2 v S3 + 200 V − R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2.20. 4Ω + − 64 V 6Ω v S1 + R − 1 − − v S2 + R − 2 v S3 + 200 V A + − 80 V i R4 + 10 Ω − R3 + 8Ω Figure 2. v R1 = R 1 i v R2 = R 2 i v R3 = R 3 i v R4 = R 4 i Then. so let us assume that the current i flows in the clockwise direction* as shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.19.20) and by Ohm’s law. Step 1: We do not know which voltage source(s) deliver power to the other sources.1 with assumed current direction Step 2: We assign (+) and (−) polarities at each resistor’s terminal in accordance with the established passive sign convention.20. Step 3: By application of KVL and the adopted conventions.1 Solution: a. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-11 . starting at node A and going clockwise. we get: – v S1 + v R1 + v S2 + v R2 + v S3 + v R3 + v R4 = 0 (2.20). we get * Henceforth.

(2. Knowing the current i from part (a).1.1 with the assumption that the current i flows counterclockwise.23) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each voltage source is pV S1 = – 200 × 2 = – 400 w pV S2 = 64 × 2 = 128 w pV S3 = 80 × 2 = 160 w (2. we observe that the 200 volt source absorbs −400 watts of power.21) b. This means that this source delivers (supplies) 400 watts to the rest of the circuit.24) From (2. Then.1 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the total absorbed power is equal to the power delivered. Example 2. the voltage drops across each resistor are as indicated in Figure 2. However. we can now compute the voltage drop across each resistor using Ohm’s law v = Ri .21. the other two voltage sources receive (absorb) power from the 200 volt source. Then. starting at Node A and going counterclockwise. we get: v R4 + v R3 – v S3 + v R2 – v S2 + v R1 + v S1 = 0 Next. the power absorbed by each resistor is p R1 = 8 × 2 = 16 w p R3 = 16 × 2 = 32 w p R2 = 12 × 2 = 24 w p R4 = 20 × 2 = 40 w (2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits – 200 + 4i + 64 + 6i + 80 + 8i + 10i = 0 or 28i = 56 or i = 2A (2. Table 2.25) v R1 = R 1 i' 2-12 v R2 = R 2 i' v R3 = R 3 i' v R4 = R 4 i' Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 Repeat Example 2. v R1 = 4 × 2 = 8 V vR3 = 8 × 2 = 16 V v R2 = 6 × 2 = 12 V v R4 = 10 × 2 = 20 V (2.24). The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi . by Ohm’s law.22) c. Solution: We denote the current as i ' (i prime) for this example. Repeating Steps 2 and 3 of Example 2.

19 Device 200 V Source 64 V Source 80 V Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor Total Power Delivered (watts) 400 Power Absorbed (watts) 128 160 16 24 32 40 400 4Ω 64 V − 6Ω R2 + v S3 400 − v S1 R1 + i' v S2 + − + 200 V A − + + R3 8Ω − − 80 V + R4 − 10 Ω Figure 2. we get 200 + 4 i' – 64 + 6 i' – 80 + 8 i' + 10 i' = 0 or 28 i' = – 56 or i' = – 2 A Comparing (2. Circuit for Example 2.26) we see that i' = – i as expected.1 Power delivered or absorbed by each device on the circuit of Figure 2. (2.2 By substitution of given values.21.26) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-13 .21) with (2.Single Mesh Circuit Analysis TABLE 2.

3 For the parallel circuit shown in Figure 2.9 Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding currents. The power absorbed or delivered by each device I1 G1 12 A 4Ω –1 I2 G2 18 A 6Ω –1 I3 G3 24 A 8Ω –1 Figure 2.22 (a). the circuit of Figure 2.22. find: a. voltage drop and power) in a circuit with a single node-pair.22 (b). is a single node-pair circuit. A iS G L C A A A A iS G L C B (a) B B (b) B B Figure 2. For example. The current i which flows through each conductance c. Example 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Definition 2.23. Circuit with a single node-pair 2. Circuit for Example 2.23.3 2-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 A single node-pair circuit is one in which any number of simple elements are connected between the same pair of nodes. which is more conveniently shown as Figure 2. The voltage drop across each device b.

and G 3 in accordance with the conventional current flow.24.24.30) and by substitution of the given values.Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis Solution: a. Node B is chosen as our reference node and it is convenient to assume that this reference node is at zero potential (ground) as indicated by the symbol A A A A A A i S1 v AB 12 A B i G1 G1 –1 i S2 18 A B i G2 G2 6Ω –1 i S3 24 A B i G3 G3 8Ω –1 4Ω B B B Figure 2. we choose node A which is the plus (+) reference point and we form the algebraic sum of the currents leaving (or entering) this node. – i S1 + G 1 v AB + i S2 + G 2 v AB – i S3 + G 3 v AB = 0 (2. Circuit for Example 2. G 2 . Step 1: We denote the single node-pair with the letters A and B as shown in Figure 2.28) by substitution into (2.29) Solving for v AB . i G2 . Then.27) and since i G1 = G 1 v AB i G2 = G 2 v AB i G3 = G 3 v AB (2. Step 3: By application of KCL and in accordance with our established convention. It is important to observe that the same voltage (or potential difference) exists across each device.3 with assumed current directions Step 2: We assign currents through each of the conductances G 1 .27). These currents are shown as i G1 . with plus (+) assigned to the currents leaving this node and with minus (−) entering this node we get –i S1 + i G1 + i S2 + i G2 – i S3 + i G3 = 0 (2. we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-15 . and i G3 . we get i S1 – i S2 + i S3 v AB = ------------------------------G1 + G2 + G3 (2.

31) or v AB = 1 V (2. c. i G1 = 4 i G2 = 6 i G3 = 8 (2.27) is satisfied.33) and we observe that with these values.35) we observe that the 12 A and 24 A current sources absorb – 12 w and – 24 w respectively.28). From (2.8 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series aiding when the plus (+) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of another. 2. or when the minus (−) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of another. The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi . Table 2.10 Voltage and Current Source Combinations Definition 2. 2-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . This means that these sources deliver (supply) a total of 36 w to the rest of the circuit.2 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the absorbed power is equal to the power delivered. Then. Two or more series aiding voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic sum of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2. The 18 A source absorbs power.25.35) From (2.32) b. (2. the power absorbed by each conductance is p G1 = 1 × 4 = 4 w p G2 = 1 × 6 = 6 w p G3 = 1 × 8 = 8 w (2.34) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each current source is p I1 = 1 × ( – 12 ) = – 12 w p I2 = 1 × 18 = 18 w p I3 = 1 × ( – 24 ) = – 24 w (2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 12 – 18 + 24 v AB = ----------------------------4+6+8 (2.

They can be combined into a single current source as shown in Figure 2.Voltage and Current Source Combinations TABLE 2.2 Power delivered or absorbed by each device of Figure 2. Definition 2. Addition of voltage sources in series when all have same polarity A good example of combining voltage sources as series aiding is when we connect several AA size batteries each rated at 1.5 v to power up a hand calculator.23 Device 12 A Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4Ω 6Ω 8Ω –1 –1 –1 Power Delivered (watts) 12 Power Absorbed (watts) 18 24 4 6 8 36 36 Conductance Conductance Conductance Total − + + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V 80 V v3 v2 v AB = v 1 + v 2 + v 3 B + 200 + 64 + 80 = 344 V − Figure 2.27. or a small flashlight.9 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series opposing when the plus (+) terminal of one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of the other voltage source or when the minus (−) of one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of the other voltage source.10 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel aiding when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have the same direction. Definition 2.25.26. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-17 . Two series opposing voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2.

Addition of current sources in parallel when all have same direction Definition 2. Addition of current sources in parallel when they have opposite direction 2.26. it is possible to replace these resistors by a single resistor to simplify the computations of the voltages and currents. With either of these connections. i1 18 A i2 iT = –i1 + i2 iT 6A 24 A Figure 2.27. They can be replaced by an equivalent current source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual current sources as shown in Figure 2. Addition of voltage sources in series when they have different polarity i1 12 A i2 i3 iT = i1 + i2 + i3 iT 18 A 24 A 54 A Figure 2.28. Figure 2. resistors are connected in series or in parallel. series or parallel.11 Resistance and Conductance Combinations Often.11 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel opposing when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have opposite direction. 2-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29 shows n resistors connected in series.28.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V v2 v AB = v 1 – v 2 B + 200 − 64 = 136 V − Figure 2.

= -----.+ … + ------i i i i i or R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = For Resistors in Series k=1 ∑ RK n (2.Resistance and Conductance Combinations A .4 For the circuit of Figure 2. we add the resistances in accordance with (2.30.37) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-19 .30. and we apply Ohm’s law.+ -----.. Addition of resistances in series The combined or equivalent resistance R eq is vR n v AB v R1 v R2 v R3 R eq = ------.4 Solution: We add the values of the voltage sources as indicated in Definitions 8 and 9. Then.= ------------------------------------.= 56 = 2 A ----ΣR 28 28 (2. R1 R2 R3 RN i B Rest of the circuit Figure 2. find the value of the current i after combining the voltage sources to a single voltage source and the resistances to a single resistor...36) Example 2.29.36). Circuit for Example 2.+ -----. 4Ω v1 R1 v2 64 V 6Ω R2 v3 + − + − 200 V i R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2. Σv 200 – ( 64 + 80 ) i = ------.

+ ----. iT B By KCL.+ … + ----R AB R1 R2 Rn or 1 1 1 1 ------.39) can be written as 1 1 1 1 -------.= ----.+ ----R eq R1 R2 or R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 (2.= ----.31. we consider thecase where n resistors are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2. we get in iT i1 i2 ------.+ … + ----R eq R1 R2 Rn For Resistors in Parallel (2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-20 . . (2.38) by V AB .40) For the special case of two parallel resistors.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Next. Addition of resistances in parallel . .38) The same voltage exists across each resistor.+ ----. . iT = i1 + i2 + … + in (2.41) where the designation R 1 ||R 2 indicates that R1 and R2 are in parallel. then i ⁄ v = 1 ⁄ R and thus (2.40) reduces to 1 1 1 ------.39) and since v ⁄ i = R . therefore. .= ----.+ … + ------v AB v AB v AB v AB (2. R1 iT A .+ ------.31. . dividing each term of (2.= ------. i1 i2 R2 Rn in v AB Figure 2.

A 6 Figure 2.32. Replace all resistors with a single equivalent resistance R eq b. it is easier to form groups of two parallel resistors as shown in Figure 2.5 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω i Solution: a. from (2.5. parallel conductances combine as series resistors do. G eq = G 1 + G 2 + … + G n = k=1 ∑ Gk n (2.33.42) that is. 12 × 4 R 2 ||R 3 = -------------.5 In the circuit of Figure 2.40) to find the equivalent resistance R eq .= 3 Ω 12 + 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-21 .41) instead. Groups of parallel combinations for the circuit of Example 2. Then. since G = 1 ⁄ R . Circuit for Example 2.Resistance and Conductance Combinations Also.A 6 R1 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω Figure 2. a. We could use (2.33 and use (2. i v AB 11 ----.32. However. R1 v AB 11 ----. Example 2. Compute the voltage v AB across the current source.38).

and R 2 are known.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Also. The voltage v AB across the current source is 11 12 .12 Voltage Division Expressions In the circuit of Figure 2.= 1.36. Reduction of the circuit of Example 2.⋅ ----. 3×3 3||3 = ----------. i v AB 11 ----.5 × 4 12 R eq = 1.= 4 Ω 20 + 5 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2.= ----. 20 × 5 R 4 ||R 5 = -------------.Ω 1.34.5 Next.5 + 4 11 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2.5||4 = ---------------.43) 2.= 2 V 6 11 (2. v S .Ω 11 i Figure 2.A 6 R1 3Ω 3Ω 4Ω Figure 2.5 to its simplest form b.5 Ω 3+3 Finally.35 R eq v AB 11 ----. R 1 . 1.35. 2-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Partial reduction for the circuit of Example 2.v AB = IR eq = ----.34.A 6 12 ----.

v S R1 + R2 (2.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 These expressions enable us to obtain the voltage drops across the resistors in a series circuit simply by observation.36. a.36.6 In the network of Figure 2. Derivation: By Ohm’s law in the circuit of Figure 2.37. ( R 1 + R 2 )i = v S or vS i = ----------------R1 + R2 (2.45) and by substitution of (2.v S and v R2 = ----------------. we will derive the voltage division expressions which state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------.44) we obtain the voltage division expressions below.44) Also. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-23 . Compute v R1 and v R2 if R 1 and R 2 are adjusted for 7 Ω and 5 Ω respectively.v S R1 + R2 and R2 v R2 = ----------------. R1 v R1 = ----------------.46) VOLTAGE DIVISION EXPRESSIONS Example 2. the arrows indicate that resistors R 1 and R 2 are variable and that the power supply is set for 12 V .36 where i is the current flowing through i.45) into (2. we get v R1 = R 1 i and v R2 = R 2 i (2. Circuit for the derivation of the voltage division expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.Voltage Division Expressions vS R1 R2 + − Figure 2.

we get R1 7 v R1 = ----------------. Network for Example 2.v S = ----------. i S .× 12 = 7 V R1 + R2 7+5 and R2 5 v R2 = ----------------.37. Since v R1 + v R2 = 3 + 9 = 12 V .× 12 = 5 V R1 + R2 7+5 b. R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω . and G 2 are known. 2. v R2 = 9 V . Using the voltage division expressions of (2.38. Circuit for the derivation of the current division expressions 2-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .46).38.6 Solution: a.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits b. To what values should R 1 and R 2 be adjusted so that v R1 = 3 V . G 1 .13 Current Division Expressions In the circuit shown in Figure 2. it follows that if we let R 1 = 3 Ω and R 2 = 9 Ω . the voltage drops v R1 and v R2 will be 3 V and 9 V respectively. and the voltage drops are proportional to the resistances. and R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω ? + Power Supply (Voltage Source) − 12 V v R1 + − v R2 R1 + R2 − Figure 2. iS v i G1 G1 ( R1 ) i G2 G2 ( R2 ) Figure 2.v S = ----------.

i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 CURRENT DIVISION EXPRESSIONS (2.i S and i R2 = ----------------.49) we get R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------. compute the voltage drop v Solution: The current source i S divides into currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 2.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------.i S G1 + G2 1 R 2 = ----G2 (2.i S G1 + G2 and these expressions enable us to obtain the currents through the conductances (or resistances) in a parallel circuit simply by observation. we will derive the current division expressions which state that G1 i G1 = -----------------. we get i G1 = G 1 v and i G2 = G 2 v (2.40.48) and by substitution of (2.48) into (2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-25 .47) G1 i G1 = -----------------.Current Division Expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.50) Example 2. ( G1 + G2 ) v = iS or iS v = -----------------G1 + G2 (2.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------. Derivation: By Ohm’s law for conductances.49) Also. since 1 R 1 = ----G1 by substitution into (2.38.7 For the circuit of figure 2.39.47) Also.

A R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 12 + 4 + 5 + 20 41 and observing the passive sign convention. Also. Application of current division expressions for the circuit of Example 2.46 V 2.7 R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω i2 R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω i1 3A iS Figure 2.⋅ 12 = – ----------.40. Circuit for Example 2. In the United States.V 41 41 or v = – 25. the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers.14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices Standardization of electronic components such as resistors. capacitors and diodes is carried out by various technical committees.⋅ i S = -----------------------------------.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω 3A iS Figure 2. Therefore. Department of Defense or its agencies issue standards known 2-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .39.S.⋅ 3 = ----. we are only interested in current i 1 .7 We observe that the voltage v is the voltage across the resistor R 1 . This is found by the current division expression as R2 + R3 + R4 4 + 5 + 20 87 i 1 = -----------------------------------------. the U. the voltage v is 87 1044 v = – i 1 R 1 = – ----.

if they exist.15 Resistor Color Code The Resistor Color Code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors. the third represents the multiplier. that is.51) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-27 .42.Resistor Color Code as Military Standards. the number by which the first two digits are multiplied. Let A and B represent the first and second significant digits and C represent the multiplier. The tolerance is the maximum deviation from the specified nominal value and it is given as a percentage. 2. Then the resistance value is found from the expression R = ( 10 × A + B ) ×10 C (2.3 that is based on MILSTD-1285A color code. the first and second bands designate the first and second significant digits respectively.41.41 and 2. indicate the tolerance and failure rate respectively. Figures 2. The interested reader may find the latest revisions in the Internet or the local library. and the fourth and fifth bands. Significant 1st 2nd Figures 3rd Tolerance Wider Space to Identify Direction of Reading Left to Right Multiplier Figure 2. The failure rate is the percent probability of failure in a 1000-hour time interval. Resistor Color Code per MIL-STD-1285A In a color coded scheme. All of the aforementioned standards are updated periodically. As shown in Figure 2. or conversely. or simply MIL-stds. Resistor Color Code per EIA Standard RS-279 Significant 1st Figures 2nd Multiplier Failure Rate Level on Established Reliability Levels Only Tolerance Figure 2.42 show the color coding scheme per EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD1285A respectively. each color represents a single digit number.42. a single digit number can be represented by a particular color band as shown in Table 2.

we find that the wattage of the 7 Ω and 2 2-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .75 MΩ. Gold. That is.25 0. Green. let us refer to the voltage divider circuit of Example 2.3 yields the following data: Brown (1st significant digit) = 1. Since the 5th band is Red.000 × ±0.6. and Blue (multiplier) = 1.01 5 10 20 Multiplier (3rd Digit) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 0. tolerance. and common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt.16 Power Rating of Resistors As it was mentioned in Section 2.000. 1 watt.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2.01 0.000.1% probability that this resistor will fail after 1000 hours of operation. and probability of failure for that resistor? Solution: Table 2.000. 5 watts and so on.2.25 MΩ and 15.000 ±5% = 15. Therefore. Using the power relation p R = i R . this resistor can have a value anywhere between 14.000. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating (watts) commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor.000.1 0. there is a 0. left to right: Brown. a resistor.1 0.3 Resistor values per MIL-STD-1285A Color Code Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color 1st & 2nd Digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.8 The value of a resistor is coded with the following colored band code.1 1 2 1 0. Figure 2.05 = ±750.000 Ohms or 15 MΩ. 2. the nominal value of this resistor is 15.37 where the current is 12 V ⁄ 12 Ω = 1 A . Green (2nd significant digit) = 5. Blue.5 0. What is the value. ½ watt.000 Ohms or ±0. To appreciate the importance of the wattage of a resistor. The 4th band is Gold indicating a ±5% tolerance meaning that the maximum deviation from the nominal value is 15.75 MΩ. 2 watts.001 Tolerance (Percent) Fail Rate (Percent) Example 2. Red.

up to about 200 °C . The wattage of the 7 kΩ and 5 kΩ resistors would then be ( 10 ) × 7 × 10 = 7 × 10 –3 2 3 –3 W = 7 mW and ( 10 ) × 5 × 10 = 5 mW respectively. the resistance increases 0.393% for every degree rise.66 = 53. From Figure 2. This represents an increase of 0. In general.393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 degrees Celsius. the resistance decreases 0. the resistance of any pure metal at temperature T in degrees Celsius is given by R = R 20 [ 1 + α 20 ( T – 20 ) ] (2. Therefore the resistance increases by 30 × 0.9 The resistance of a long piece of copper wire is 48 Ω at 20 °C . This percentage of change in resistance is called the Temperature Coefficient of Resistance.66 Ω. Therefore. The temperature rise is 50 – 20 = 30 degrees Celsius and the resistance increases 0. for each degree that the temperature drops below 20 °C .17 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance The resistance of any pure metal. The relation of (2.1179 × 48 Ω in resistance or 5.79% . a.52) where R 20 is the resistance at 20 °C and α 20 is the temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 °C . Example 2.393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 °C . down to about – 50 °C .Temperature Coefficient of Resistance 5 Ω resistors would be 7 watts and 5 watts respectively. the resistance at 50 degrees Celsius is 48 + 5. Similarly.393 = 11. Construct a curve showing the relation between resistance and temperature. –3 2 3 2. What would the resistance be at 50°C ? b. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-29 . Solution: a. We could also divide the 12 volt source into two voltages of 7 V and 5 V using a 7 kΩ and a 5 kΩ resistor. This straight line is easily constructed with the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet shown in Figure 2.66 Ω . such as copper. changes with temperature.52) is an equation of a straight line with slope = R 20 α 20 . b. Then.43.43. we observe that the resistance reaches zero value at approximately – 235 °C . For each degree that the temperature of a copper wire rises above 20 °C Celsius. with this arrangement the current would be 12 V ⁄ 12 kΩ = 1 mA .

4 are for copper wires. television sets etc.9312 -140 17. The NEC contains tables with correction factors at higher temperatures. these rating are for not more than three conductors in a cable with temperature 30°C or 86°F .7264 -210 4.52) 2. and the area of a circle one mil in diameter is one circular mil. Table 2. Table 2. the area of any circle in circular mils is the square of its diameter in mils. fuses.19 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment There are also standards for the internal wiring of electronic equipment and chassis. A circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 1 mil (one-thousandth of an inch).43. are the circular mils and these denote the area of the cross section of each wire size.9328 -240 -1. Listed also. circuit breakers. Moreover.5 provides recommended current ratings for copper wire based on 45°C ( 40°C for wires smaller than 22 AWG.272 -170 12. primarily on the National Electric Code (NEC) and the National Electric Safety Code.84 -220 2. radios. The ratings in Table 2.0448 -150 15. Also. outlet boxes and appliances are governed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standards which approves consumer products such as motors. Spreadsheet for construction of equation (2. 2-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .18 Ampere Capacity of Wires For public safety. Since the area of a circle is proportional to the square of its diameter.3856 -180 10.4 shows the NEC allowable current-carrying capacities for copper conductors based on the type of insulation.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Temp Resistance (deg C) (Ohms) -250 -2. 2. The ratings for aluminum wires are typically 84% of these values.1584 -160 14.8176 Resistance of Copper Wire versus Temperature 100 80 Ohms 60 40 20 0 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Degrees Celsius Figure 2.6128 -200 6.0464 -230 0. A mil-foot wire is a wire whose length is one foot and has a cross-sectional area of one circular mil. state and federal boards. many products such as wire and cable. electric power supply (mains) wiring is controlled by local.4992 -190 8.

SA. RHW.Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment TABLE 2.4 Current Carrying Capacities for Copper Conductors Copper Conductor Insulation RH. TW. FEP. UF TFE‡ 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 † Dry Locations Only 15 20 30 40 55 70 80 95 110 125 145 165 195 15 20 30 45 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 25 30 40 50 70 90 105 120 140 155 185 210 235 40 55 75 95 120 145 170 195 220 250 280 315 370 ‡ Nickel or nickel-coated copper only Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-31 . RUH. THWN. FEPB. TBS. XHHW TA. (14-2) THW. RHH. THHN XHHW† Size (AWG) RUH(14-2) T.

2 3.4 2.5 159.52 0.7 6.5 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment and Chassis Copper Wires Wire Size Nominal Resistance (Ohms/1000 ft) at 100 °C 188 Maximum Current (Amperes) AWG 32 Circular Mils 63.53) 2-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 2.2 28.117 0.32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 0 00 000 0000 100.185 0.074 0.8 254.459 0.83 1.53 Wire Confined in Insulation 0.86 1.059 0.3 2.02 1.1 404 642.31 0.734 0.4 10.4 22 13.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2.1 5 7.092 0.5 10 13 17 23 33 46 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 The resistance of a wire of length l can be computed by the relation ρl R = ---2 d (2.29 0.2 Wire in Free Air 0.15 3.22 1624 2583 4107 6530 10380 16510 26250 41740 66370 83690 105500 133100 167800 211600 116 72 45.5 5.5 7 11 16 22 32 41 55 73 101 135 181 211 245 283 328 380 0.151 0.

Solution: ( 1 ⁄ 8 ) in = 0.53) 10.004 ( 30 – 100 ) ] = 1. Correction factors must be applied to determine the resistance at other temperatures or for other materials.02 [ 1 + 0.11 Compute the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 30°C .45 Ω 2. R 100 is the resistance at 100°C for copper. the resistance of the same wire at 30°C is R 30°C = 2.54) where R T is the resistance at the desired temperature.4.Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring where ρ = resistance per mil-foot.02 Ω .= 3. The wiring size in each section must be selected such that the current shall not exceed the current carrying capacities as defined by the NEC tables. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-33 . the electrical contractor must accurately determine the current which each wire must carry and make a tentative selection of the size listed in Table 2. by (2.5 shows the copper wire resistance at 100°C .4 Ω at 20 °C .004 ( T – 100 ) ] (2. and R is the resistance at 20 °C .20 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring In the design of an interior electrical installation.10 Compute the resistance per mile of a copper conductor 1 ⁄ 8 inch in diameter given that the resistance per mil-foot of copper is 10. For copper. d = diameter of wire in mils. Example 2.4 × 5280 ρl R = ---. Example 2. Then. and T is the desired temperature. the conversion equation is R T = R 100 [ 1 + 0. Solution: From Table 2. the electrical contractor must consider two important factors: a. l = length of wire in feet.125 in = 125 mils and from (2.54).= ---------------------------.51 Ω 2 2 125 d Column 3 of Table 2. Therefore.5 we find that the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 100°C is 2.

It is therefore necessary to install larger than 12 AWG main line. The computations in Parts III through V of the spreadsheet of Figures 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-35 .46 indicate that we should not use a conductor less than size 6 AWG . or shorten their life considerably.Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring A much higher voltage than the rated 120 V would cause these lamps to glow far above their rated candle power and would either burn them immediately.45 and 2.

45. Spreadsheet for Example 2.269 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 26 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications * No size smaller can be installed.02 2 400 2.41 0.4 Step 2 x Step 7 Table 2. smaller sizes have insufficient mechanical strength .50 14 22. Parts I and II 60 2 120 25 3.54) (Step 20 x Step 22) /1000 Step 9 x Step 23 Step 18 + Step 24 (Step 25 / Step 4) x 100 0 Part I Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sizing in Accordance with NEC (Table 2.02 1.50 12 Units ft V w w A AWG Carries up to 15 A A AWG Carries up to 20 A Step 3 x Step 5 Step 6 / Step 4 Table 2.2) Description Meter to Panel Board Distance No.74 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Distance from panel to load center Number of wires in each branch Total length of wire in each branch 0 Specified Temperature in C 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at Spec.12. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in each branch Number of wires in each main Total length of wire in main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at Spec.5 Equation (2.73 14.4 ft Step 11 x Step 12 Table 2.5 Equation (2.29 % Figure 2.54) (Step 13 x Step 16) / 1000 Step 7 x Step 17 Step 1 x Step 19 Table 2.20 2. of Branches from Panel Board Outlets per branch Outlet Voltage Rating Power drawn from each outlet Power required by each branch Current drawn by each branch Required wire size for branches * Current required by the main line Required wire size for main line Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Part II Check for Voltage Drops ft C Ω Ω Ω V ft Ω Ω Ω V V 12.57 12.2-36 Calculation Value 200 3 12 120 75 900 7.24 0.

4 Table 2. Spreadsheet for Example 2.129 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 40 Percent line drop Figure 2.5 Equation (2.46. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring 47 Percent line drop 2-37 . IV.5 Equation (2.514 0.5 Equation (2.Orchard Publications Table 2.91 AWG Carries up to 55 A Ω Ω Ω V V 4.27 8.64 AWG Carries up to 40 A Ω Ω Ω V V 5.310 0.62 6. and V Part V Recalculation Using 6 AWG Conductor Size 41 42 43 44 45 46 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at Spec.4 Table 2.54) (Step 20 x Step 29)/1000 Step 9 x Step 30 Step 18 + Step 24 10 1. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 33 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Part IV Recalculation Using 8 AWG Conductor Size 34 35 36 37 38 39 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at Spec.917 0.09 % Part III Recalculation Using 10 AWG Conductor Size 27 28 29 30 31 32 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at Spec.734 0.54) (Step 20 x Step 36)/1000 Step 9 x Step 37 Step 18 + Step 38 (Step 39 / Step 4) x 100 8 0.53 % Table 2.321 0.25 10.89 4.206 4. Parts III.54) (Step 20 x Step 43)/1000 Step 9 x Step 44 Step 18 + Step 45 (Step 46 / Step 4) x 100 6 0.4 Table 2.459 0.12.367 8.56 % (Step 32 / Step 4) x 100 AWG Carries up to 30 A Ω Ω Ω V V Table 2.

• A branch is part of a network that contains a device and its nodes. they can be replaced by a single current source with the proper current direction. • A parallel circuit with a single node pair can be easily analyzed by KCL. • A node is a common point where one end of two or more devices are connected. • Short circuit refers to a branch (defined below) in a network that contains no device between its terminals.21 Summary • Ohm’s Law states that the voltage across a device is proportional to the current through that device and the resistance is the constant of proportionality. • Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering (or leaving) a node is zero. The voltage across the terminals of a short is always zero whereas the current may have a finite value or may be zero. • If two or more current sources are in parallel. • If two or more resistors are connected in series. • A resistor does not store energy.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2. • Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across their terminals. • Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them. • A series circuit with a single mesh can be easily analyzed by KVL. that is. The energy is dissipated in the form of heat. It can be thought of as a resis- tor with infinite resistance (or zero conductance). • A mesh is a closed path that does not contain other closed paths • A loop contains two or more closed paths. a piece of wire with zero resistance. • If two or more voltage sources are in series. • Open circuit refers to an open branch (defined below) in a network. they can be replaced by a single voltage source with the proper polarity. The voltage across the terminals of an open may have a finite value or may be zero whereas the current is always zero. • A resistor absorbs power. • Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (or voltage rises) around a closed mesh or loop is zero. they can be replaced by an equivalent resistance whose value is 2-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

= ----. the equivalent resistance is found from the relation R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 • Conductances connected in series combine as resistors in parallel do. they can be replaced by an equivalent resis- tance whose value is 1 1 1 1 ------.Summary R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = k=1 ∑ RK n • If two or more resistors are connected in parallel.v S and v R2 = ----------------.i S and i R2 = ----------------. • Conductances connected in parallel combine as resistors in series do. • For the simple series circuit below vS R1 R2 + − the voltage division expressions state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------.+ ----.i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-39 .+ … + ----R1 R2 Rn R eq • For the special case of two parallel resistors.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 • For the simple parallel circuit below iS v i R1 R1 i R2 R2 the current division expressions state that: R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------.

the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers. • Besides their resistance value. resistors have a power rating. Two standards are the EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD-1285A. • The resistor color code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors. • The resistance of a wire increases with increased temperature and decreases with decreased tem- perature. • The current ratings for wires and electronic equipment are established by national standards and codes.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits • In the United States. 2-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Ohm’s Law states that A.22 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. the sum of the currents through all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the voltages across all the devices D. the conductance is the reciprocal of resistance B. the sum of the currents in a closed path is zero B. Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KCL) states that A. none of the above 2. the sum of the resistances around a closed loop is zero E. the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the currents through all the devices D. the sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that node E. For the three resistors connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. R AB = B. the resistance is the slope of the straight line in a voltage versus current plot C. the voltage across a device is directly proportional to the current through that device B. the equivalent resistance R AB is computed with the formula A. the resistance is the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path divided by the sum of the currents through all the devices in the closed path D.47.Exercises 2. R AB = R1 + R2 + R3 R1 + R2 + R3 2 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-41 . the current that flows through a device is inversely proportional to the voltage across that device C. the sum of the voltages in a node is equal to the sum of the currents at that node E. none of the above 3. the voltage across a device is inversely proportional to the current through that device C. Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that A. none of the above 4.

G AB = B. the equivalent conductance G AB is A. R AB = R1 R2 R3 -----------------------------R1 + R2 + R3 E.47.48.5 Ω 2-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . --------. none of the above A R1 R2 R AB R3 B Figure 2. G AB = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 + G2 + G3 G G G G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 G3 2 2 2 1 2 3 C.= -----.48. 21 Ω –1 –1 B. the equivalent conductance G AB is computed with the formula A. For the three resistances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. G AB = -------------------------------- 11 1 1 D.49. none of the above A G1 G2 G AB G3 B Figure 2. Network for Question 4 5. R AB = ------------------------------ R R R R1 + R2 + R3 D. 1.+ -----G AB E.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 1 2 3 C. Network for Question 5 6.+ -----. For the three conductances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2.

the voltage v R = 6 V . When R = ∞ . The value of the voltage v X is A. 16 V E. v R is A.51 are relative to some reference node not shown. Network for Question 6 4Ω R2 12 Ω R3 3Ω 7.50. When R = 0 Ω . 10 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-43 . The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 2. – 6 V B. i R = 2 A . 0 V D. when R = 4 Ω .50. none of the above iR + Rest of the Circuit vR − Figure 2. 8 V D.49. none of the above A R1 G AB B Figure 2. 2 ⁄ 3 Ω –1 –1 D. 6 V B. 24 V C. In the network shown in Figure 2.Exercises C. Network for Question 7 R 8. 16 V C. 144 ⁄ 19 Ω E.

52. – 8 V E.53 the value of the current i is A. ∞ A D. 0 A C.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits E.51. Network for Question 9 10. – 2 V D. For the network of Figure 2. Network for Question 8 + − vX 6V 9. 2 V C. 8 V B. none of the above 2-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 A B. 1 A E. none of the above 10 V 2A 2V 8Ω 3Ω 8V 2A 4Ω 20 V Figure 2. none of the above 4Ω + v − + 8V − Figure 2. For the circuit of Figure 2.52 the value of the voltage v is A.

compute the power delivered or absorbed by the dependent voltage source. p E = 216 w 4. compute the power supplied or absorbed by each device. In the circuit of Figure 2.57. each resistor is 10 Ω. In the network of Figure 2. Compute the equivalent resistance R eq .57.56.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Compute: a. v LOAD Answer: 20 V c. 24 A B D 6A + A 12 V − C + 60 V − + E − 36 V Figure 2. p C = – 1800 w . R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω iR 2 + − 5i R V 2 R4 10 Ω Figure 2. Circuit for Problem 4 Answer: 62. p LOAD Answer: 160 w 3.56. i LOAD Answer: 8 A b. For the circuit of Figure 2. 2-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . p D = 144 w .5 w 5. p B = 1152 w .58. Circuit for Problem 3 Answers: p A = 288 w .

Compute the current i supplied by the 15 V source. Circuit for Problem 6 Hint: Start at the right end and by series and parallel combinations of the resistors. v Y = – 16 ⁄ 3 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-47 .59. R 1 = 10 Ω and R 2 = 20 Ω .60. In the network of Figure 2. reduce the circuit to a simple series circuit.58. + 5Ω vX − 20 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V − vY 40 Ω + 16 V − + Figure 2.59.Exercises Req Figure 2. Circuit for Problem 7 Answers: v X = 8 ⁄ 3 V . This method is known as analysis by network reduction. In the circuit of Figure 2. R1 i R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 + − 15 V Figure 2. Answer: 0.75 A 7. use the voltage division expression to compute v X and v Y . Circuit for Problem 5 Answer: 360 ⁄ 21 Ω 6.60.

61. Each of these conductors must have insulation type THHN and must carry a maximum current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment.48 Ω at 20 degrees Celsius. Circuit for Problem 8 Answers: i X = – 16 ⁄ 3 V . The electrical contractor and the utility company have made load calculations. and decided that the main lines from the substation to the facility will require several copper conductors in parallel. only few are shown. There are many turns in both the primary and secondary coils but. for simplicity.32 Ω. In the circuit of Figure 2. Primary Coil Secondary Coil Iron Core Figure 2. A transformer consists of two separate coils (inductors) wound around an iron core as shown in Figure 2. iX 16 A 5Ω iY 24 A 10 Ω 40 Ω 20 Ω Figure 2. Answer: 70 V 2-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it is found that the primary coil resistance has risen to 6.61.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8.62. It is known that the primary coil has a resistance of 5. i Y = – 8 ⁄ 3 V 9. Circuit for Problem 9 Answer: 36°C 10. After two hours of operation. A new facility is to be constructed at a site which is 1. a.62. use the current division expression to compute i X and i Y .5 miles away from the nearest electric utility company substation. Compute the temperature rise of this coil. Compute the voltage drop on each of these conductors from the substation to the facility when they carry the maximum required current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment.

02 w ⁄ cm 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-49 .Exercises b. The power absorbed by each conductor under the conditions stated above. Answer: 15. Answer: 0. The power absorbed per square cm of the surface area of each conductor under the conditions stated above.4 Kw c.

we observe that the triangles abc and dbe 6 ---------------------------are similar. B When R = 4 Ω .23 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. C 7.5 b 2.0 vR = ∞ vR = ∞ a vR ( V ) 6.and thus v R = ∞ = 24 V bc ac 2. Also. and thus v R = 0 (short circuit). Then be = de or 2. Then. i R = 6 ⁄ 4 = 1. D 6.0 iR ( A ) 8.0 d e 1.5 1.0 c 0. when R = 0 Ω . Therefore. the voltage v R = 6 V . we observe that ---------------.= 2 or v A = 16 and v – 10 3 thus v X = – 6 + 16 = 10 V 2-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . D We denote the voltage at the common node as v A shown on the figure of the next page. Now. i R = 0 but v R has a finite value and it is denoted as v R = ∞ in the figure below. E 5.5 = ------------. A from the branch that contains the 3 Ω resistor. E 4. B 2. When R = ∞ .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2.0 – 1. D 3.5 A . i R = 2 A .

the circuit is as shown below.= ------.× 120 = 50 V 2 70 + 50 Then. pR 2 vR 2 50 2 = ------. R 1 = 70 Ω . we get 50 v R = ----------------.Answers to Exercises 10 V 2A 2V 3Ω vA 2A 4Ω 20 V 8V + − 8Ω vX 6V 9. Accordingly. A The 12 Ω resistor is shorted out by the short on the right side of the circuit and thus the only resistance in the circuit is the 4 Ω resistor. 10. With v S = 120 V . A This is an open circuit and therefore no current flows through the resistor. vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω We observe that v R = v s = 120V 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-51 . the circuit is as shown below. a. 70 Ω vS R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω Using the voltage division expression. Problems 1. With v S = 120 V and R 1 = 0 Ω . there is no voltage drop across the resistor and thus v = 8 V . and R 2 = 50 Ω .= 50 w R2 50 2 b.

= 100 w R2 2 or vS -------.= 72 Ω 200 2 c. vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 100 Ω Then.= 200 w R2 2 or 120 R 2 = ----------.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits and vR 2 ------. vS ----.= 100 w 100 2 or v S = 100 × 100 = 10. 000 = 100 V 2. a. Application of KVL around Mesh 1 yields – 75 + 3 ( 5 ) + v AB = 0 2-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 200 w R2 2 or 120 ----------. Application of KCL at node A of the circuit below yields i LOAD = 3 + 5 = 8 A b. 000 2 or vS = 10. the circuit is as shown below. With R 1 = 0 Ω and R 2 = 100 Ω .

i R . 2 4 3 4 R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω iR 3 X iR 4 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω − + vR iR 2 + 2 + R4 vR 4 − iD 10 Ω 5i R V − 2 Figure 2. Circuit for Exercise 4 By KVL. and i D as shown in the circuit below.63. We assign voltages and currents v R . v R . v R = 50 – 2 × 10 = 30 V 2 and by Ohm’s law. 2-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i R .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits p A = v A i A = 12 × 24 = 288 w ( absorbed ) p E = v E i E = 36 × 6 = 216 w ( absorbed ) p C = v C ( – i C ) = 60 × ( – 30 ) = – 1800 w ( supplied ) By KVL vA + vB = vC or v B = v C – v A = 60 – 12 = 48 V and thus p B = v B i B = 48 × 24 = 1152 w ( absorbed ) Also by KVL vD + vE = vC or v D = v C – v E = 60 – 36 = 24 V and thus p D = v D i D = 24 × 6 = 144 w ( absorbed ) Check: We must show that Power supplied = Power absorbed p C = p A + p B + p C + p D = 288 + 216 + 1152 + 144 = 1800 w 4.

= 25 = 2.5 w ( absorbed ) 2 5. vR 4 ----i R = -----.5 = 2.5 = 62.= 30 = 5 A 2 6 R2 Therefore. Therefore. the value of the dependent voltage source is 5i R = 5 × 5 = 25 V 2 and v R = 5i R = 25 V 4 2 Then. p D = 5i R i D = 25 × 2. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 10 10 10 10 5 Req 10 Req 5 10 10 10 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-55 .5 A 4 10 R4 By KCL at Node X iD = iR – iR 3 4 where i R = 10 – i R = 10 – 5 = 5 A 3 2 and thus i D = i R – i R = 5 – 2.Answers to Exercises vR 2 ----i R = ------.5 A 3 4 with the indicated direction through the dependent source. The simplification procedure starts with the resistors in parallel which are indicated below.

addition of the left most resistor with its series equivalent yields 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and thus i = 15 ⁄ 20 = 0.75 A 2-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 10 5 10 15 5 10 6 Req 5 10 10 15 Req 5 10 6 5 16 180 ⁄ 21 Req 5 16 Req 180 ⁄ 21 Req 360 ⁄ 21 6. R1 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R1 + − 15 V i R2 Then. Next. Finally. We start with the right side of the circuit where the last two resistors are in series as shown below. R 1 + R 1 = 10 + 10 = 20 Ω 20 || 20 = 10 Ω 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and so on.

The simplified circuit is shown below.V 3 Check: By application of KVL starting at point A and going counterclockwise. 8 4 v X = ----------. Thus.× 8 = -. we get 8 16 v X + ( – v Y ) – 8 = -. Thus. The simplified circuit is shown below.+ ----.= 8 Ω 10 + 40 The voltage sources are in series opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single voltage source with value 24 – 16 = 8 V .× 8 = ----.Answers to Exercises 7. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-57 . We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the series resistors by their equivalents.V 3 4+8 and 16 8 – v Y = ----------.= 4 Ω 5 + 20 and 10 × 40 10 || 40 = ----------------. + vX − 8Ω i 4Ω A + − 8V − vY + Now.V 3 4+8 or 16 v Y = – ----.– 8 = 0 3 3 8. We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the parallel resistors by their equivalents. 5 × 20 5 || 20 = -------------. by the voltage division expression. 5 + 20 = 25 Ω and 10 + 40 = 50 Ω The current sources are in parallel opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single current source with value 24 – 16 = 8 A .

× ( – 8 ) = – -.× 254.= --------------------------------------.5 + T X 234.48 Ω 6.× ( – 8 ) = – ----. 50 16 i X = ----------------.5 – 254.5 + T 20 234.48 R 20 10.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8A iX 25 Ω iY 50 Ω By the current division expression. we get 254.059 Ω ⁄ 1000 ft at 100°C .A 25 + 50 3 Check: By application of KCL starting at point A and going counterclockwise.4 we find that the cable size must be 0000 AWG and this can carry up to 235 A .A 25 + 50 3 and 25 8 i Y = ----------------.32 ∆T = T X = ------.5 – 254.5 = --------. a.5 R 20 or RX 6. We construct the resistance versus temperature plot shown below. we get 16 8 8 + i X + i Y = 8 – ----.= 0 . R 20 RX T 20 TX a −234. Also.5 + T 20 + T X ------.32 Ω 20°C ∆T R (Ω) b RX R0 T 20 R 20 e TX d T ( °C ) c From the similar triangles acd and abe.3 3 9. Then. the resistance of this conductor that is 1.– -.5 = 36°C 5. from Table 2.= ------------------------234.5 + 20 + T X RX 234.= ------------------------------------.5 + 20 254.5 0 = = = = 5. From Table 2.× 254.5 miles long is 2-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 we find that the resistance of this conductor is 0.

× 1. the power absorbed per cm is p cm 2 2 2 Total power 15.4 Kw c.004 ( 20 – 100 ) ] = 0.5 miles × ----------------------. Then.54).001 ) = 7.072 cm circular mil –6 2 2 Therefore.035 cm The cross-section circumference of the cable is πd = π × 1.3178 Ω and the voltage drop on each of these conductors is v = iR = 220 × 0. To find the diameter in cm.32 ) = 0. Thus.059 --------------.851 × 10 cm 1 Km 1 mile 5 Then.3178 = 70 V b. We recall that a circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 0.067 × 10 cm 2 in 2 From Table 2.035 = 3.= 1.253 cm × 1. we perform the following conversion: π π 2 2 –7 2 1 circular mil = -.54 cm ) –6 2 in × -------------------------.5 miles = 0.4673 ( 1 – 0.d = -. The power absorbed by each conductor is p = vi = 70 × 220 = 15.851 × 10 cm Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-59 .253 cm and the surface area of the cable is 1.× --------------.067 × 10 cm 2 211.= 7.001 in . 600 circular mils × ----------------------------------------.= 0. we use the relation of (2. R 20 = R 100 [ 1 + 0. the cable diameter in cm is d= 1.× ----------------.= --------------------------------------. 400 w = 15.072 = 1.854 × 10 –7 2 ( 2.4673 Ω at 100°C 1000ft 1 mile To find the resistance of this cable at 20°C . the cross-section of this cable in cm is 5.609 Km 10 cm 5 2 Surface area = πdl = 3.= 5.854 × 10 in 4 4 = 7.( 0. 400 w = ------------------------------.Answers to Exercises Ω 5280 0. Table 2.5 we find that the cross section of a 0000 AWG cable is 211.02 w ⁄ cm 2 5 2 cm 7.600 circular mils.5 gives wire sizes in circular mils.

Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits NOTES 2-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the currents leaving each of the N – 1 nodes equal to zero. the maximum power transfer theorem. 2. 3.. superposition.2 Analysis with Nodal Equations In writing nodal equations. In this text. we will only be concerned with the following two theorems. linearity. Other topics included in this chapter are the voltage-to-current source transformations and vice versa. Mesh. we perform the following steps: 1. Theorem 3. we choose one of these as a reference node assumed to be zero volts or ground. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-1 . Theorem 3. B = number of branches .e.1 Nodal. we apply KCL and write a nodal equation for each of the node voltages v 1. ground. v n – 1 . …. At each non-reference node we assign node voltages v 1.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . efficiency. then L = M = B – N + 1 independent loop or mesh equations are required to completely describe that circuit. 3. If the circuit does not contain any voltage sources between nodes.1 Let N = number of nodes in a circuit . loop and mesh equations and how they are applied to the solution of circuits containing two or more node-pairs and two or more loops or meshes. 3. i.Circuit Theorems T his chapter begins with nodal. For a circuit containing N nodes. v 2. and regulation. …. and Loop Equations Network Topology is a branch of network theory concerned with the equations required to completely describe an electric circuit. These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the voltage drops around each of the L = M = B – N + 1 loops or meshes equal to zero.2 Let L = M = number of loops or meshes . N = number of nodes in a circuit. then N – 1 independent nodal equations are required to completely describe that circuit. v n – 1 where each of these voltages is measured with respect to the chosen reference node. v 2.

v1 8Ω i8 4Ω 12 A G .Circuit Theorems 4. Example 3.1 Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3. . and solve for the unknowns of these equations using matrix theory. we replace the voltage source with a short circuit thus forming a combined node and we write a nodal equation for this common node in terms of both v j and v k . Please refer to Appendix A for discussion and examples.2.1 Write nodal equations for the circuit shown in Figure 3. 3-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and G (for ground) as shown in v2 10 Ω i 10 6Ω i4 18 A i6 24 A Figure 3. say nodes j and k denoted as node variables v j and v k . v3 . we have denoted the currents with a subscript that corresponds to the resistor value through which it flows through. Verify your answers with Excel® or MATLAB®. If the circuit contains a voltage source between two nodes. thus.1. or the substitution method. Circuit for Example 3.1.2.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . then we relate the voltage source to the node variables v j and v k . 8Ω 10 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3. Cramer’s rule. the current that flows through the 4 Ω resistor is denoted as i 4 .1 For convenience. the current through the 8 Ω resistor is denoted as i 8 . and so on. We will follow this practice in the subsequent examples.

2.3) where i 8 is the current flowing from right to left * and i 10 is the current that flows from left to right. and from right to left in writing the nodal equation at Node 2. Expressing (3. that is. application of KCL at node yields i 4 + i 8 – 12 = 0 or i 4 + i 8 = 12 (3. any assumptions made in writing the first equation need not be held in writing the second since the latter is independent of the first.-. to assign a (+) sign to all currents leaving the node in which we apply KCL. these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G. in equation (3. or even write the node equations by inspection. we could have assumed that the current through the 8 Ω resistor flows in the same direction in both nodal equations. therefore. Remember that we wrote independent node equations at independent nodes and. we assign plus (+) values to self conductances and minus (−) to mutual conductances. Let us choose node G (ground) as our reference node. since G = 1/R. we need N – 1 = 4 – 1 = 3 nodal equations. It is advantageous. we get v1 v1 – v2 ---. The advantage is that we can check. Of course.⎝ 4 8⎠ 1 8 2 or 3v 1 – v 2 = 96 (3. and we assign voltages v 1. however.1) where i 8 is the current flowing from left to right.1) in terms of the node voltages.1) for example. we can write a nodal equation at a particular node by inspection.+ --------------. With reference to the above circuit and equation (3.2) Next. Now. .3) the coefficients of v2 (1/8 and 1/10 siemens) are the self conductances and the coefficients of v1 (−1/8) and v3 (−1/10) are the mutual conductances.Analysis with Nodal Equations For the circuit of Figure 3.= 12 8 4 or ⎛ 1 + 1 ⎞ v – 1 v = 12 --. should not be confusing. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-3 . Therefore. and v 3 at nodes . application of KCL at node or yields i 8 + i 10 + 18 = 0 i 8 + i 10 = – 18 (3. v 2 . Likewise. we denote the coefficients of v1 (1/4 and 1/8 siemens) as self conductances and the coefficient of v2 (−1/8) as mutual conductance. * The direction of the current through the 8 Ω resistor from left to right in writing the nodal equation at Node 1. and respectively.

-– ----.v 1 + ⎛ 1 + -----⎞ v 2 – ----.2).1– -. We write them in matrix form as follows: 3 –1 0 5 –9 4 0 1 –6 G v1 v2 v3 V = 96 720 – 240 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3.Circuit Theorems Expressing (3. Then.4) Similarly.3) in terms of node voltages. (3.+ ---. and (3. application of KCL at node or yields i 10 + i 6 – 24 = 0 i 10 + i 6 = 24 where i 10 is the current flowing from right to left.+ --------------. v3 – v2 v3 --------------.7) 3-4 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------.6) Equations (3.v 2 + ⎛ ----.v 3 = – 18 ⎝ 8 10⎠ 8 10 or 5v 1 – 9v 2 + 4v 3 = 720 (3.+ 1 ⎞ v 3 = 24 ⎝ 10 6 ⎠ 10 or – 3v 2 + 18v 3 = 720 or v 2 – 6 v3 = – 240 (3.= 24 6 10 (3.= – 18 8 10 or 1 1-. in terms of node voltages.6) constitute a set of three simultaneous equations with three unknowns.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .4).5) or 1 1.

2 For the circuit of Figure 3.00 volts v3 = 30. V=G\I. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.. Cramer’s rule.100 V= -60 8 0.417 -0. fprintf('v2 = %5. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.183 30 9 Figure 3.. Then construct a table showing the voltages across. 5 −9 4. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.2f volts \t'. fprintf(' \n').050 -0.7) Example 3. 0 1 −6].150 -0.025 -0. or Gauss’s elimination method.3 shows the solution of the equations of (3. write nodal equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.042 -0. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -1 0 96 3 G= 5 -9 4 I= 720 4 0 1 -6 -240 5 6 0..4. Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V .5. . fprintf('v3 = %5. and G (for ground) as shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-5 . With these values we can determine the current in each resistor. to solve (3. Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3. I=[96 720 -240]'. v 2 = – 60 V . . and v 3 = 30 V . fprintf('v1 = %5.250 -0.00 volts The spreadsheet of Figure 3.Analysis with Nodal Equations We can use Cramer’s rule or Gauss’s elimination method as discussed in Appendix A... fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12. and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. Check with MATLAB®: G=[3 −1 0.033 12 7 -1 G = 0.3. V(1)). V(2)).2f volts \t'. The procedure is discussed in Appendix A. . the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.7) for the unknowns. .2f volts'.00 volts Check with Excel®: v2 = -60. V(3)).7).

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .6. To work around this problem.5. Therefore.2 with assigned nodes and voltages We assign voltages v 1. and for the 18 A source. Circuit for Example 3. our next nodal equation will contain three terms. and one down. that is. we encounter a problem with the third term because we cannot express it as term representing the current flowing from node to node . these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G . we temporarily remove the 10 V voltage source and we replace it with a “short” thereby creating a combined node (or generalized node or supernode as some textbooks call it). Circuit for Example 3.8) Next. .4. v 2 . v 1 = 12 V and thus our first equation is v 1 = 12 (3. and respectively. and the circuit now looks as shown in Figure 3. we move to node where we observe that there are three currents flowing out of this node. one to the left.2 v1 8Ω v2 − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G v3 + 12 V − 4Ω 24 A Figure 3. We observe that v 1 is a known voltage. We have no difficulty writing the term for the current flowing from node to node .Circuit Theorems 8Ω − + 10 V 6Ω + 12 V − 4Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. however. and v 3 at nodes . 3-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . one to the right.

2 with a combined node Now.v 1 + -. we express the current i 6 as ---.10) and .9) or 1 1 1 – -.11) are * The combined node technique allows us to combine two nodal equations into one but requires that we use the proper node designations. we reinsert the 10 V source between nodes v 3 – v 2 = 10 In matrix form.6. Circuit for Example 3. In this example..v 2 + -. we express the current i 8 as v2 – v1 v3 --------------. equations (3.v 3 = 6 8 6 8 or – 3v 1 + 3v 2 + 4v 3 = 144 (3. at node 3.10). 8 6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-7 .. Likewise.Analysis with Nodal Equations v1 8Ω i8 v2 v3 Combined Node − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G + 12 V − 4Ω i6 24 A Removed and replaced by a short Figure 3. Then.8).+ ---.11) To obtain the third equation. (3. (3. and (3. to retain the designation of node 2. application of KCL at this combined node yields the equation i 8 + 18 + i 6 – 24 = 0 or i8 + i6 = 6 or v2 – v1 v3 --------------.= 6 * 8 6 (3.

2f volts \t'.429 0.143 -0.2f volts'.3 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations In writing mesh or loop equations. and v 3 = 30 V . i n – 1 for each mesh or loop. fprintf('v2 = %5.429 0. fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12.2f volts \t'. we assign a mesh or loop current i 1. −3 3 4.12) Table 3. V=G\I.. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3. V(3)).1 shows that the power delivered is equal to the power absorbed. From these we can find the current through each device and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .12) Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V . fprintf(' \n').. . fprintf('v1 = %5. 3-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .000 12 7 G-1= 0. Check with MATLAB: G=[1 0 0.7. we apply KVL around each mesh or loop.000 0.143 0. 3. ….00 volts Check with Excel: v2 = 20. V(2)). For a circuit containing M = L = B – N + 1 meshes (or loops). V(1))..Circuit Theorems 1 0 0 –3 3 4 0 –1 1 G v1 v2 v3 V = 12 144 10 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3.. fprintf('v3 = %5.571 V= 20 8 0. I=[12 144 10]'.00 volts ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ v3 = 30.429 30 9 Figure 3..00 volts A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 1 0 0 12 3 G= -3 3 4 I= 144 4 0 -1 1 10 5 6 1. 2.000 0. we follow these steps: 1. If the circuit does not contain any current sources. v 2 = 20 V . 0 −1 1]. i 2.

Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations TABLE 3. the currents through.2 Device 12 V Source 10 V Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12 10 20 30 12 30 8 Current (amps) 2 19 18 24 3 5 1 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 24 190 360 720 36 150 8 744 744 3. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3. Then. we relate the current source to the mesh or loop variables i j and i k .8. and we write a mesh or loop equation for this common mesh or loop in terms of both i j and i k .8.1 Table for Example 3. and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. say meshes or loops j and k denoted as mesh variables i j and i k . or Gauss’s elimination method.3 For the circuit of Figure 3. we replace the current source with an open circuit thus forming a common mesh or loop. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB. Circuit for Example 3. Then construct a table showing the voltages across. If the circuit contains a current source between two meshes or loops. Cramer’s rule. Example 3.3 + 24 V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-9 .

going clockwise. and observing the passive sign convention. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω − − 12 V i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 12 Ω Figure 3.14) Mesh #3: Starting with the lower end of the 6 Ω resistor.13) Mesh #2: Starting with the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor.15) 3-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9.3 + 24 V − Applying KVL around each mesh we get: Mesh #1: Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor.Circuit Theorems Solution: For this circuit we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations and we arbitrarily assign currents i 1 . i 2 . and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .9. and observing the passive sign convention. going clockwise. we get the equation for this mesh as 2i 1 + 4 ( i 1 – i 2 ) – 12 = 0 or 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 (3. and observing the passive sign convention. we get the equation 4 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + 36 + 8i 2 + 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 or – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 (3. we get: 6 ( i 3 – i 2 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 = 0 or – 6i 2 + 28i 3 = – 24 (3. going clockwise. Circuit for Example 3.

This. clockwise. i. i. 18. Their sum. then in accordance with the passive sign convention.13). We call this resistance the mutual resistance between the first and the second mesh.15) are similarly related to the self and mutual resistances in the third mesh. the voltage drops due to the mutual resistances in the second equation have a minus (-) sign.4271 . 8 Ω . The advantage here is that we can check.13).14).17) (3. and 6 Ω resistors whose sum. We observe that current i 2 also flows through the 4 Ω resistor. It is advantageous. This is best explained with the following observations: 1.3593 .13).13) we have assumed that the upper end of this resistor has the plus (+) polarity. however. i 2 = – 2.18) and in matrix form 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 3 – 14 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 12 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. In Mesh 2. we could have assigned any direction in any mesh.e. With reference to the circuit of Figure 3. we see that current i 1 flows through the 2 Ω and 4 Ω resistors. Simplifying and rearranging (3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 3-11 . the voltage drop due to current i 2 is – 4i 2 and this is the second term on the left side of (3.16) (3. The signs of the coefficients of i 2 and i 3 in (3. and i 3 = – 1. Since i 2 enters the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor.. was not mandatory. we assigned all three currents with the same direction..19) Simultaneous solution yields i 1 = 0.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Note: For this example. and in writing equation (3. The 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are also the mutual resistances between the first and second.14) and (3. is the coefficient of i 2 in equation (3. or even write the mesh equations by inspection. of course. and the second and the third meshes respectively. the self resistances are the 4 Ω . (3. 3. 2. We call these the self resistances of the first mesh.3627 where the negative values for i 2 and i 3 indicate that the actual direction for these currents is counterclockwise.9 and equation (3. – 4i 1 and – 6i 3 .15) we get: 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 3i 2 – 14 i 3 = 12 (3.e.e. 2 + 4 = 6 is the coefficient of current i 1 in that equation. to assign the same direction to all currents. Accordingly. i.

I(3)).000 24.359 0. fprintf('i1 = %5.365 30.031 -0.363 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 5.020 -0. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 0.397 -0.854 11.2 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors.669 122.000 0.359 1.124 84..996 1. fprintf('i3 = %5.627 16..874 5.142 -0. I(2)).3 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12.363 0.952 18..095 -0.352 Current (amps) 0. fprintf('i2 = %5.964 44.10.000 36.10.976 13.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . I=R\V. I(1)).144 18.924 32. 2 −9 3.3627 9 Figure 3.2f amps \t'.4271 7 R-1= 0.427 2..570 22.36 amps i3 = -1.031 I= -2.288 122.427 2.020 0. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -2 0 6 3 R= 2 -9 3 V= 18 4 0 3 -14 12 5 6 0.19) Table 3.095 -0.078 -1.363 1. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.2 Table for Example 3.786 2. .Circuit Theorems Check with MATLAB: R=[3 −2 0.2f amps \t'.43 amps i2 = -2.2f amps'. 0 3 −14]. TABLE 3.712 0.760 3-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . fprintf(' \n')..530 5.36 amps Excel produces the same answers as shown in Figure 3. V=[6 18 12]'.3593 8 0.

i 2 . and we assign currents i 1 .11.12. Then.4 with assigned loops Applying of KVL around each loop. We choose our loops as shown in Figure 3. a 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω c d b + 12 V h + − − i3 i2 i1 g 4Ω 6Ω e 12 Ω + 24 V − f Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3. write loop equations in matrix form. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Example 3. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3.4 For the circuit of Figure 3.4 + 24 V − Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example where we found that we need 3 mesh or loop equations. we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 4i 1 – 12 = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-13 . we get: Loop 1 (abgh): Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. Cramer’s rule. Circuit for Example 3. the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.11. construct a table showing the voltages across. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.12. or Gauss’s elimination method. all in a clockwise direction. and i 3 .

2f amps \t'.00 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = -1.20) Loop 2 (abcfgh): As before. we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 – 12 = 0 or or 2i 1 + 10i 2 + 32i 3 = – 48 i 1 + 5i 2 + 16i 3 = – 24 (3.23) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 1 1. I(2)).79 amps i2 = -1.. 1 8 5. fprintf('i2 = %5. 1 5 16]. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2. we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 6i 2 – 12 = 0 or 2i 1 + 16i 2 + 10i 3 = – 24 or i 1 + 8i 2 + 5i 3 = – 12 (3..2f amps'. starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. fprintf('i1 = %5.21) Loop 3 (abcdefgh): Likewise. I(3)). I(1)).. V=[6 −12 −24]'.2f amps \t'. fprintf(' \n'). I=R\V..Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .36 amps 3-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. .Circuit Theorems or 6i 1 + 2i 2 + 2i 3 = 12 or 3i 1 + i 2 + i 3 = 6 (3.. fprintf('i3 = %5.22) and in matrix form 3 1 1 1 8 5 1 5 16 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 – 12 – 24 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.

627 16.359 84.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Excel produces the same answers.872 5.854 11.13.13. TABLE 3.924 1.427 0.146 18.3 Table for Example 3. Table 3.758 For the circuit of figure 3.124 2.4 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Example 3.427 5.712 0. Cramer’s rule.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-15 .997 1.574 22.000 36.359 0.283 122. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.000 24. Circuit for Example 3.352 Power (watts) Current (amps) Delivered Absorbed 0.363 32.363 122. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − + + 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω 5A Figure 3.5 Voltage (volts) 12.365 2.3 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors and the values are approximately the same as those of the previous example.982 13. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.053 44.786 2. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.363 1.760 31. or the substitution method.964 18.519 5.000 0.

3 where we found them to be 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 or 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 (3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .14. As before. 3-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 5A 12 Ω Figure 3.24) and – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 or 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 (3. the equations are the same as in Example 3. and we assign currents i 1 . i 2 .25) For Mesh 3. and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3. we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations.Circuit Theorems Solution: This is the same circuit as those of the two previous examples except that the 24 V voltage source has been replaced by a 5 A current source.26) and in matrix form.14. Circuit for Example 3.5 with assigned currents For Meshes 1 and 2. we observe that the current i 3 is just the current of the 5 A current source and thus our third equation is simply i3 = 5 (3.

2f amps'. . The currents i 3 and i 4 for Meshes 3 and 4 respectively present no problem. we will encounter a problem as explained below.27) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 −2 0. we would be tempted to assign mesh currents as shown in Figure 3.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 0 1 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. 0 0 1]..6 i2 = 0. Circuit for Example 3.15 and solve for the unknowns using MATLAB or Excel. Then. fprintf('i3 = %5.15. fprintf('i2 = %5. 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω 6Ω 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω 18 Ω 24 V 20 Ω − + 12 V − Figure 3. compute the voltage drop across the 5 A source. fprintf('i1 = %5. I(2)).13 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = 5. I(3)). 2 −9 3. However.09 amps Example 3. fprintf(' \n').2f amps \t'..2f amps \t'.. I(1))..00 amps Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3.16..6 Solution: Here. V=[6 18 5]'. but for Meshes 1 and 2 we cannot write mesh equations for the currents i 1 and i 2 as shown because we cannot write a Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − + − 36 V 8Ω 3-17 . I=R\V. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2.

Circuit for Example 3. Circuit for Example 3. we apply KVL around this combined mesh. 3-18 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Circuit Theorems term which represents the voltage across the 5 A current source.6 with erroneous current assignments 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 12 V + − Mesh − Combined 4Ω 6Ω + − 16 Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − i3 18 Ω 12 Ω i4 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3.17. 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω i1 i2 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω i4 + − 36 V 8Ω − 6Ω + 12 V − i3 18 Ω 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3. and we express the voltage drop across this resistor as 2i 1 since in Mesh 1 the current is essentially i 1 . We start at the left end of the 2 Ω resistor.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .17. To work around this problem we temporarily remove (open) the 5 A current source and we form a “combined mesh” (or generalized mesh or supermesh as some textbooks call it) and the current that flows around this combined mesh is as shown in Figure 3.6 with correct current assignments Now.16.

Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Continuing. and the voltage drops across the 8 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are 8i 2 and 6i 2 respectively since in Mesh 2 the current now is really i 2 .32) We find the solution of (3. the equations are 10 ( i 3 – i 1 ) + 12 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 18i 3 – 12 = 0 or 5i 1 – 20 i 3 + 6i 4 = – 6 (3. we reinsert the 5 A current source between Meshes 1 and 2 and we obtain our second equation as i1 – i2 = 5 (3. we observe that there is no voltage drop across the 4 Ω resistor since no current flows through it.29) For meshes 3 and 4.30) and 16 ( i 4 – i 2 ) + 20i 4 – 24 + 12 ( i 4 – i 3 ) = 0 or 4i 2 + 3i 3 – 12 i 4 = – 6 (3.28) Now. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-19 . The current now enters Mesh 2 where we encounter the 36 V drop due to the voltage source there.32) with the following MATLAB code. The voltage drops across the 16 Ω and 10 Ω resistors are expressed as in the previous examples and thus our first mesh equation is 2i 1 + 36 + 8i 2 + 6i 2 + 16 ( i 2 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 1 – i 3 ) – 12 = 0 or 12i 1 + 30i 2 – 10 i 3 – 16 i 4 = – 24 or 6i 1 + 15i 2 – 5 i 3 – 8 i 4 = – 12 (3.31) and in matrix form 6 15 – 5 – 8 1 –1 0 0 5 0 – 20 6 0 4 3 – 12 R i1 i2 i3 i4 I = – 12 5 –6 –6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.

.455 We can verify this value by application of KVL around Mesh 2 where starting with the lower end of the 6 w resistor and going counterclockwise we get ( 6 + 8 ) × 1.18 (a). We also stated that a current source maintains a constant current regardless of the terminal voltage.Circuit Theorems R=[6 15 −5 −8. fprintf(' \n') i1=3.2737 amps Now. 5 0 −20 6.18 (b). 0 4 3 −12]. for instance.4f amps \t'.6025 – 36 + 4 × ( 3...4f amps'. This statement applies to an ideal voltage source which.3975 + 1. no current source can supply infinite voltage when its terminals are open-circuited.3975 amps i2=-1. no voltage source can supply infinite current to a short circuit.2315 ) – 12 = 0 This yields v 5A = – 36.I(1)). for instance. A practical voltage source has an internal resistance which. 3-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. we can also compute the power delivered or absorbed by each of the voltage sources and the current source. This statement applies to an ideal current source which also does not exist.4 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources In the previous chapter we stated that a voltage source maintains a constant voltage between its terminals regardless of the current that flows through it. fprintf(' \n').I(4)).I(2)). 3.. we can find the voltage drop across the 5 A current source by application of KVL around Mesh 1 using the following relation: 2 × 3. 1 −1 0 0..3975 – 1.6025 ) + v 5A + 10 × ( 3. V=[−12 5 −6 −6]'. fprintf('i4 = %5.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .6025 ) – 36.6025 amps i3=1.. fprintf('i1 = %5.. it is represented with an external resistance R S in series with the voltage source v S as shown in Figure 3.2315 amps i4=0.2737 ) = 0 With these values. fprintf('i3 = %5. fprintf('i2 = %5.3975 + 1.455 + 16 × ( 1.4f amps \t'.6025 + 0. I=R\V. of course.4f amps \t'..3975 + 4 × ( 3. Likewise a practical current source has an internal conductance which is represented as a resistance R p (or conductance G p ) in parallel with the current source i S as shown in Figure 3.I(3)). does not exist. to be accounted for.

19.18 (b) can be made equivalent to each other.18 (b) the current of s the source will always be i S but the terminal current i ab will be i ab = i S – i RP if a load is connected at points a and b . we will show that the networks of Figures 3.18.19 (a) and 3.19 (a). in Figure 3. a RS − − + i ab RP RL iS (b) a + v ab − b i ab RL + v ab − b vS (a) Figure 3.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources a RS − − (a) b iS (b) b a + vS Rp Figure 3.33) and vS i ab = -----------------RS + RL (3.18 (a). the load resistor R L is the same in both. the voltage of the source will always be v S but the terminal voltage v ab will be v ab = v S – v R if a load is connected at points a and b .19 (b). Practical voltage and current sources In Figure 3. RL v ab = -----------------. In the networks of Figures 3.34) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-21 . Equivalent sources From the circuit of Figure 3.v S RS + RL (3. Now.18 (a) and 3. Likewise.

we want i ab to be the same in both circuits 3.35) and RP i ab = -----------------. a voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be transformed to a current source i S whose value is equal to v S ⁄ R S .19 (b).Circuit Theorems From the circuit of Figure 3.i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3. it applies to any load no matter how complex.7 Find the current i 10 through the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3. The voltage-to-current source or current-to-voltage source transformation is not limited to a single resistance load.35) we get: RP RL RL v ab = -----------------.v S = -----------------.34) and (3.19 (b).= -----------------. from (3.i S Rp + RL (3. Example 3. from (3.39) and Rp = RS (3. a current source i S in parallel with a resistance R p can be transformed to a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S .38) vS = Rp iS (3. Likewise.40) Therefore.19 (b). Then. in parallel with a resistance R p whose value is the same as R S .36) we get: Rp vS i ab = -----------------.19 (a) and 3.38) and for any R L . from (3.37) Likewise.33) and (3.36) Since we want v ab to be the same in both circuits 3.20. in series with a resistance whose value is the same as R p .19 (a) and 3. 3-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3. RP RL v ab = -----------------.37) and (3.i S Rp + RL (3.

Circuit for Example 3.20.5 Ω –1 i 10 10 Ω 0.7 Solution: This problem can be solved either by nodal or by mesh analysis. i 10 0.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources 2Ω − − 32 V − + 4Ω i 10 10 Ω 12 V + Figure 3.21. we will transform the voltage sources to current sources and we will replace the resistances with conductances except the 10 Ω resistor.23. –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-23 .75 Ω conductance to a resistance and performing current-to-voltage source transformation.22.25 Ω –1 Figure 3. 8A 6A 0. Circuit for Example 3.21.75 Ω 2A –1 10 Ω Figure 3. however. Circuit for Example 3. Then.7 where voltage sources have been transformed to current sources Combination of the two current sources and their conductances yields the circuit shown in Figure 3. We will treat the 10 Ω resistor as the load of this circuit so that we can compute the current i 10 through it.22.7 after combinations of current sources and conductances Converting the 0. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 3. we get the circuit of Figure 3.

7 in its simplest form Thus. the current through the 10 Ω resistor is –8 ⁄ 3 i 10 = ---------------------.24.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .23. It states that we can replace a two terminal network by a voltage source v TH in series with a resistance R TH as shown in Figure 3.41) 3-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Circuit Theorems 4/3 Ω − + + − i 10 10 Ω 8/3 V Figure 3. v TH = v xy open (3.24.5 Thevenin’s Theorem This theorem is perhaps the greatest time saver in circuit analysis.= – 4 ⁄ 17 A 10 + 4 ⁄ 3 3. Circuit for Example 3.24 (b) will be equivalent to the network of Figure 3. especially in electronic circuits.24 (a) if the load is removed in which case both networks will have the same open circuit voltages v xy and consequently. Replacement of a network by its Thevenin’s equivalent The network of Figure 3. v TH = v xy Therefore. x × v xy × y (a) x × v xy Network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent circuit Load (Rest of the circuit) R TH Load (Rest of the circuit) + v TH − × y (b) Figure 3.

26. First step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3.25.27. Example 3. 3Ω − − 12 V × x 3Ω 7Ω × x' + 6Ω 10 Ω v LOAD + i LOAD RLOAD v TH R TH x × + + y 5Ω × × − y' 8 Ω − y × Figure 3.42) where i SC stands for short-circuit current. and it is found from the relation v xy open v TH R TH = -------------------. we can find the Thevenin resistance R TH by first shorting all (independent) voltage sources. If the network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent contains independent sources only.= -------i xy short i SC (3.25.8 Solution: We will apply Thevenin’s theorem twice.Thevenin’s Theorem The Thevenin resistance R TH represents the equivalent resistance of the network being replaced by the Thevenin equivalent. opening all (independent) current sources.26. first at terminals x and y and then at x' and y' as shown in Figure 3. 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-25 . we are left with the circuit shown in Figure 3. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction that is opposite to the load when it has been disconnected from the rest of the circuit at terminals x and y .8 Breaking the circuit at x – y .8 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.

8 Next. Second step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3. R TH v TH 2Ω × x + − 8V × y Figure 3.27.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . we get 6 v TH = v xy = -----------. First Thevenin equivalent for the circuit of Example 3.28.× 12 = 8 V 3+6 R TH V =0 s 3×6 = -----------.8 with first Thevenin equivalent 3-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .28.28. we attach the remaining part of the given circuit to the Thevenin equivalent of Figure 3.8 Applying Thevenin’s theorem at x and y and using the voltage division expression.29. and the new circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.43) and thus the equivalent circuit to the left of points x and x is as shown in Figure 3. R TH 2Ω v TH 8V 3Ω 7Ω × x′ + i LOAD RLOAD − − 5Ω + v LOAD 10 Ω y′ × − 8Ω Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.= 2 Ω 3+6 (3.Circuit Theorems × x 6Ω R TH 3Ω + − 12 V ×y Figure 3.29.

we get 10 v' TH = v x'y' = ----------------------------------. we must always look towards the network portion which remains after disconnectinf the load at the x and y terminals.30. Entire circuit of Example 3. This is illustrated with the two examples that follow. R TH 2Ω − − 8V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω v TH × x′ + 5Ω × y′ Figure 3.Thevenin’s Theorem Now.2 A 12 + 8 It is imperative to remember that when we compute the Thevenin equivalent resistance.30. is shown in Figure 3.= 0. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' for the circuit for Example 3.8 simplified by Thevenin’s theorem The voltage v LOAD is found by application of the voltage division expression.31. R' TH v' TH 12 Ω x′ + i LOAD RLOAD + 4V − − v LOAD − 8Ω y′ Figure 3.31. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-27 . 8 v LOAD = -------------. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' and we get the circuit of Figure 3.× 4 = 1.6 V 12 + 8 4 i LOAD = -------------.8 Using the voltage division expression. and the current i LOAD by Ohm’s law as shown below.× 8 = 4 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 R' TH v TH = 0 = [ ( 2 + 3 + 5 ) 10 ] + 7 = 12 Ω This Thevenin equivalent with the load resistor attached to it.

therefore.32 (b). 300 × 100 R TH = ( 250 + 50 ) 100 = -----------------------. Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the left This network contains no dependent sources.32.= 93. therefore. and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3.Circuit Theorems Let us consider the network of Figure 3. we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source.33. we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .33 (b). compute the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y × x Load 250 Ω 50 Ω 100 Ω 240 V x × RTH 50 Ω 100 Ω 250 Ω + y × − (a) y× (b) Figure 3.75 Ω 150 + 250 3-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus. and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3. 50 Ω 250 Ω × x 100 Ω Load Begin with this series combination Then. Thus. 150 × 250 R TH = ( 50 + 100 ) 250 = -----------------------. let us consider the network of Figure 3.32 (a). Begin with this series combination Then.33 (a). compute the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y 50 Ω 250 Ω 100 Ω × x R TH + − 240 V y × (a) (b) × y Figure 3. Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the right This network contains no dependent sources.= 75 Ω 300 + 100 Now.

9 with first Thevenin equivalent Next. that is.35.35.32 (a) and 3.9 Solution: This is the same circuit as the previous example except that a voltage source of 24 V has been placed in series with the 7 Ω resistor. + − − RTH v TH 2Ω x × 24 V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω x′ × + i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω + − − 8V v LOAD y 5Ω × y′ × − Figure 3. the Thevenin resistance is different since it depends on the direction in which we look into (left or right). By application of Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y as before.× 8 – 24 = – 20 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-29 . Circuit for Example 3.Thevenin’s Theorem We observe that. the Thevenin voltage across the x' and y' points is the algebraic sum of the voltage drop across the 10 Ω resistor and the 24 V source. There is no current flow in the 7 Ω resistor.36. we get the circuit of Figure 3.34. and connecting the rest of the circuit.9 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3. although the resistors in the networks of Figures 3. Example 3.34. therefore. + − − 7Ω 10 Ω v LOAD 24 V 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω + 12 V + i LOAD RLOAD − − − 8Ω Figure 3. 10 v' TH = v x 'y ' = ----------------------------------. disconnecting the load resistor and applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' we get the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.33 (b) have the same values.

10 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω × a + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω + + − v LOAD b × Figure 3.39. Application of Thevenin’s theorem for Example 3.= ------------------------------i SC i LOAD RL → 0 (3.38.10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-31 .39. × a + − 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω + iX b × Figure 3.40.10 For the circuit of Figure 3.44) To find the open circuit voltage v OC = v ab . Circuit for Example 3. we disconnect the load resistor and our circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.40. Circuit for finding v OC = v ab of Example 3. we cannot short the dependent source. therefore. we will find the Thevenin resistance from the relation v LOAD v OC RL → ∞ R TH = -------.Thevenin’s Theorem + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3.

247 -0.41.42 I= -1. Spreadsheet for Example 3.176 0. we must first compute the short circuit current I SC .165 -0. we write the three mesh equations for this network as 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4i 3 + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 (3. Observing that i X = i 1 – i 2 .41.882 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ C -2 -12 -15 -0.36 -3.42 and we can find the short circuit current i SC from the circuit of Figure 3.294 D 0 5 7 0.43 where i SC = i 4 3-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .118 0. we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 0 3 – 12 5 10 – 15 7 R I1 I2 I3 I = 4 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. Please refer to Exercise 16 at the end of this chapter for a solution requiring nodal analysis.353 E F G 4 H Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication V= 0 0 0. We chose mesh analysis since we only need three mesh equations whereas we would need five equations had we chosen nodal analysis. to find the Thevenin resistance R TH .Circuit Theorems We will use mesh analysis to find v OC which is the voltage across the 4 Ω resistor.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .18 V Next.53 A A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B 3 R= 3 10 0.45) and after simplification and combination of like terms. we place a short across points a and b and the circuit now is as shown in Figure 3. we find that i 3 = – 3.53 Figure 3.341 -0. Accordingly.10 Thus. the Thevenin voltage at points a and b is v TH = ( – 3.46) Using the spreadsheet of Figure 3.53 ) × 4 = – 14.106 R-1= -0.

Circuit for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3.43 are 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 – 4i 3 + 11i 4 = 0 (3.47) and after simplification and combination of like terms.Thevenin’s Theorem × a i SC + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω + iX 5Ω b × Figure 3. Mesh equations for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3. we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 3 – 12 10 – 15 0 0 R 0 5 7 –4 0 0 –2 11 i1 i2 i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 4 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.48) We will solve these using MATLAB as follows: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-33 .10 The mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3.43.10 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω i4 × a i SC + + iX − b × Figure 3.42.

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
R=[3 −2 0 0; 3 −12 5 0; 10 −15 7 −2; 0 0 −4 11]; V=[4 0 0 0]'; I=R\V; fprintf(' \n');... fprintf('i1 = %3.4f A \t',I(1,1)); fprintf('i2 = %3.4f A \t',I(2,1));... fprintf('i3 = %3.4f A \t',I(3,1)); fprintf('i4 = %3.4f A \t',I(4,1));... fprintf(' \n');...fprintf(' \n')

i1 = 0.0173 A Therefore,

i2 = -1.9741 A

i3 = -4.7482 A

i4 = -1.7266 A

i SC = i 4 = – 1.727

and
v OC --------------R TH = -------- = – 14.18 = 8.2 Ω – 1.727 i SC

The Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure 3.44.
8.2 Ω a vTH RTH

×

+

− −14.18 V

×
Figure 3.44. Final form of Thevenin’s equivalent for the circuit of Example 3.10

b

Finally, with the load RLOAD attached to points a and b, the circuit is as shown in Figure 3.45.
8.2 Ω vTH RTH

× +

a

+

− −

−14.18 V

×
b Figure 3.45. Circuit for finding v LOAD and i LOAD in Example 3.10

Therefore, using the voltage division expression and Ohm’s law we get

3-34

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Norton’s Theorem
8 v LOAD = ---------------- × ( – 14.18 ) = – 7.00 V 8.2 + 8 – 14.18 i LOAD = ---------------- = – 0.875 A 8.2 + 8

3.6 Norton’s Theorem
This theorem is analogous to Thevenin’s theorem and states that we can replace everything, except the load, in a circuit by an equivalent circuit containing only an independent current source which we will denote as i N in parallel with a resistance which we will denote as R N , as shown in Figure 3.46.
x × v xy × y x ×

Network to be replaced by a Norton equivalent circuit (a)

+
iN

v xy RN (b) × y

Figure 3.46. Replacement of a network by its Norton equivalent

The current source i N has the value of the short circuit current which would flow if a short were connected between the terminals x and y, where the Norton equivalent is inserted, and the resistance R N is found from the relation
v OC R N = -------i SC

(3.49)

where v OC is the open circuit voltage which appears across the open terminals x and y. Like Thevenin’s, Norton’s theorem is most useful when a series of computations involves changing the load of a network while the rest of the circuit remains unchanged. Comparing the Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalent circuits, we see that one can be derived from the other by replacing the Thevenin voltage and its series resistance with the Norton current source and its parallel resistance. Therefore, there is no need to perform separate computations for each of these equivalents; once we know Thevenin’s equivalent we can easily draw the Norton equivalent and vice versa.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-35

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
Example 3.11 Replace the network shown in Figure 3.47 by its Thevenin and Norton equivalents.
iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x

+
− 20i X V

y

Figure 3.47. Network for Example 3.11

Solution: We observe that no current flows through the 3 Ω resistor; Therefore, i X = 0 and the dependent current source is zero, i.e., a short circuit. Thus,
v TH = v OC = v xy = 0

and also
i SC = 0

This means that the given network is some mathematical model representing a resistance, but we cannot find this resistance from the expression
v OC R TH = R N = -------i SC

since this results in the indeterminate form 0 ⁄ 0 . In this type of situations, we connect an external source (voltage or current) across the terminals x and y. For this example, we arbitrarily choose to connect a 1 volt source as shown in Figure 3.48.
iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x
− − 1V

+
− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.48. Network for Example 3.11 with an external voltage source connected to it.

3-36

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Norton’s Theorem
In the circuit of Figure 3.48, the 1 V source represents the open circuit voltage v OC and the current i represents the short circuit current i SC . Therefore, the Thevenin (or Norton) resistance will be found from the expression
v OC R TH = R N = -------- = 1 V = 1 V --------------i iX i SC

(3.50) .

Now, we can find i from the circuit of Figure 3.49 by application of KCL at Node
v1 3Ω iX 3Ω 6Ω

x
− − 1V

+
− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.49. Circuit for finding i X in Example 3.11 v 1 – 20i X v 1 --------------------- + ---- + i X = 0 6 3

(3.51)

where
v1 – 1 i X = ------------3

(3.52)

Simultaneous solution of (3.51) and (3.52) yields v 1 = 34 ⁄ 25 and i X = 3 ⁄ 25 . Then, from (3.50),
1 R TH = R N = ------------ = 25 ----3 ⁄ 25 3

and the Thevenin and Norton equivalents are shown in Figure 3.50.
R TH v TH = 0

25/3 Ω

RN iN = 0

25/3 Ω

Figure 3.50. Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalents for Example 3.11

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-37

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.51. We want to find the value of R LOAD which will absorb maximum power from the voltage source v S whose internal resistance is R S .
RS − vS −

+

+

Figure 3.51. Circuit for computation of maximum power delivered to the load R LOAD

or
R LOAD - 2 p LOAD = ----------------------------------- v S 2 ( R S + R LOAD )

(3.53)

To find the value of R LOAD which will make p LOAD maximum, we differentiate (3.53) with respect to
R LOAD . Recalling that d d v (u) – u (v) d ⎛ u⎞ dx dx -- = --------------------------------------2 d x ⎝ v⎠ v

and differentiating (3.53), we get
( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) dp LOAD = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 d R LOAD (R + R )

(3.54)

and (3.54) will be zero if the numerator is set equal to zero, that is,
( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) = 0
2 2 2

or

or

3-38

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Linearity

(3.55)

Therefore, we conclude that a voltage source with internal series resistance R S or a current source with internal parallel resistance R P delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or
R LOAD = R P . For example, in the circuits of 3.52, the voltage source v S and current source i N

deliver maximum power to the adjustable* load when R LOAD = R S = R P = 5 Ω
RS 5 Ω

+

5Ω

+

RN iS

5Ω

Figure 3.52. Circuits where R LOAD is set to receive maximum power

We can use Excel or MATLAB to see that the load receives maximum power when it is set to the same value as that of the resistance of the source. Figure 3.53 shows a spreadsheet with various values of an adjustable resistive load. We observe that the power is maximum when R LOAD = 5 Ω . The condition of maximum power transfer is also referred to as resistance matching or impedance matching. We will define the term “impedance” in Chapter 6. The maximum power transfer theorem is of great importance in electronics and communications applications where it is desirable to receive maximum power from a given circuit and efficiency is not an important consideration. On the other hand, in power systems, this application is of no use since the intent is to supply a large amount of power to a given load by making the internal resistance R S as small as possible.

3.8 Linearity
A linear passive element is one in which there is a linear voltage-current relationship such as
v R = Ri R d vL = L iL dt d iC = C vC dt

(3.56)

*

An adjustable resistor is usually denoted with an arrow as shown in Figure 3.52.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-39

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

RLOAD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

PLOAD 0.00 2.78 4.69 4.94 5.00 4.96 4.86 4.73 4.59 4.44 4.15 4.01 3.88 3.75 3.63
Power (Watts)

Maximum Power Transfer 6 5
Power (Watts)

4.08

4 3 2 1 0
0 5 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Linear Scale 15 20

Maximum Power Transfer
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Log Scale 100

4.30

Figure 3.53. Spreadsheet to illustrate maximum power transfer to a resistive load

Definition 3.1
A linear dependent source is a dependent voltage or current source whose output voltage or current is proportional only to the first power of some voltage or current variable in the circuit or a linear combination (the sum or difference of such variables). For example, v xy = 2v1 – 3i 2 is a linear relationship but p = vi = Ri 2 = v 2 ⁄ R and i = I S e
v ⁄ nV T

are non-linear.

Definition 3.2
A linear circuit is a circuit which is composed entirely of independent sources, linear dependent sources and linear passive elements or a combination of these.

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Superposition Principle 3.9 Superposition Principle
The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. Note: Dependent sources (voltage or current) must not be superimposed since their values depend on the voltage across or the current through some other branch of the circuit. Therefore, all dependent sources must always be left intact in the circuit while superposition is applied. Example 3.12 For the circuit of Figure 3.54, compute i 6 by application of the superposition principle.
2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+
12 V

+

4Ω i6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.54. Circuit for Example 3.12

Solution: Let i' 6 represent the current due to the 12 V source acting alone, i'' 6 the current due to the 36 V source acting alone, and i''' 6 the current due to the 5 A source acting alone. Then, by the principle of superposition,
i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6

First, to find i' 6 we short the 36 V voltage source and open the 5 A current source. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 3.55. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y of Figure 3.55, we obtain the circuit of Figure 3.56 and from it we get
4 × 12 v xy = v TH = -------------- = 8 V 2+4

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3-41

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
2Ω 8Ω x × 10 Ω

+
12 V

4Ω

6Ω i' 6 ×

12 Ω

y

Figure 3.55. Circuit for finding i' 6 in Example 3.12 2Ω 8Ω x ×

− − 12 V

+

4Ω

y

×

Figure 3.56. Circuit for computing the Thevenin voltage to find i' 6 in Example 3.12

Next, we will use the circuit of Figure 3.57 to find the Thevenin resistance. 2Ω 8Ω x
×

4Ω

RTH

y

×

Figure 3.57. Circuit for computing the Thevenin resistance to find i' 6 in Example 3.12 28 4×2 R TH = 8 + ------------ = ----- Ω 3 4+2

We find the current i' 6 from Figure 3.58.

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Superposition Principle
RTH vTH 10 Ω

+
8V

− i' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.58. Circuit for computing i' 6 in Example 3.12 12 8 i' 6 = ---------------------- = ----- A 23 28 ⁄ 3 + 6

(3.57)

Next, the current i'' 6 due to the 36 V source acting alone is found from the circuit of Figure 3.59.
2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4Ω i'' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.59. Circuit for finding i'' 6 in Example 3.12

and after combination of the 2 Ω and 4 Ω parallel resistors to a single resistor, the circuit simplifies to that shown in Figure 3.60.
36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4 -- Ω 3 i'' 6

+
6Ω − 12 Ω

Figure 3.60. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i'' 6 for Example 3.12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-43

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
From the circuit of Figure 3.60, we get
54 36 i'' 6 = – ----------------------------- = – ----- A 23 4⁄3+8+6

(3.58)

Finally, to find i''' 6 , we short the voltage sources, and with the 5 A current source acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 3.61.
2Ω 8Ω 10 Ω

4Ω i''' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.61. Circuit for finding i''' 6 in Example 3.12

Replacing the 2 Ω , 4 Ω , and 8 Ω resistors by a single resistor, we get
28 2×4 ------------ + 8 = ----- Ω 3 2+4

and the circuit of Figure 3.61 reduces to that shown in Figure 3.62.
10 Ω 28 ----- Ω 3 i''' 6 6Ω 5A 12 Ω

Figure 3.62. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i''' 6 for Example 3.12

We will use the current division expression in the circuit of Figure 3.62 to find i''' 6 . Thus,
28 ⁄ 3 70 i''' 6 = ---------------------- × ( – 5 ) = – ----28 ⁄ 3 + 6 23

(3.59)

Therefore, from (3.57), (3.58), and (3.59) we get

3-44

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

We wish to find the voltage v D across the diode and the current i D through this diode using a graphical solution. Then. and all the other devices are linear.87 A (3. Example 3. the i – v characteristics of the diode D are shown in figure 3.10 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices Most electronic circuits contain non-linear devices such as diodes and transistors whose i .64. Then. If a circuit contains only one non-linear device. we can apply Thevenin’s theorem to reduce the circuit to a Thevenin equivalent in series with the non-linear element.13 Solution: The current i D through the diode is also the current through the resistor.60) and this is the same value as that of Example 3. A detailed discussion of these is beyond the scope of this text. we can analyze the circuit using a graphical solution. The procedure is illustrated with the following example.63.Circuits with Non-Linear Devices 112 i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6 = 12 – 54 – 70 = – -----------.----. such as a diode. 3. by KVL Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-45 .----23 23 23 23 or i 6 = – 4. conducts current only in the indicated direction + 1V − − vD D iD Figure 3. for small signals (voltages or currents) these circuits can be represented by linear equivalent circuit models. Circuit for Example 3.5.63. RTH vTH 1 KΩ Diode.13 For the circuit of Figure 3. However.v (current-voltage) relationships are non-linear. however we will see how operational amplifiers can be represented by equivalent linear circuits in the next chapter.

61) is an equation of a straight line and the two points are obtained from it by first letting v D = 0 .335 + 0. Diode i-v characteristics vR + vD = 1 V or Ri D = – v D + 1 or 1 1 i D = – -.3 0.7 0.335 V .1 0.4 1. i R = 0.0 0.335 mA = 0.6 0.9 1.65 which is plotted on the same graph as the given diode i – v characteristics. Therefore. Then.2 i D (milliamps) 1.0 0.2 0.335 mA also.665V and i D = 0.5 0. We obtain the straight line shown in Figure 3. by KVL v R + v D = 0.8 0.4 0.64.335 mA . the voltage drop v R across the resistor is v R = 1 kΩ × 0.Circuit Theorems 1.4 0. Check: Since this is a series circuit. i D = 0 .8 0.2 0.0 vD (volts) Figure 3.6 0.v D + -R R (3.665 = 1 V 3-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . The intersection of the non-linear curve and the straight line yields the voltage and the current of the diode where we find that v D = 0.0 0. then.61) We observe that (3.

16 0.06 0. this lost power is known as i R loss and thus the energy received by the load is equal to the energy transmitted minus the i R loss.2 0. Curves for determining voltage and current in a diode 3.08 0. The building receives its electric power from a 480 V source. while the total load of the second floor draws 40 amperes at the same time.4 1. such as copper.13 ID (milliamps) VD (volts) Figure 3.000 0.62) Obviously.2 0.65.× 100 = -----------------------------------.04 0.0 0. In a long length of a conductive material.000 1.12 0.9 1.Efficiency Diode Voltage (Volts) 0.30 Diode Current (milliamps) 0.000 0.0 ID=−(1/R)VD+1/R Diode I-V Relationship for Circuit of Example 3.10 0.2 1. Assuming that the total resistance of the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-47 .28 0.26 0. Thus.000 0.3 0.1 0. we define efficiency η as Output Efficiency = η = Output = ---------------------------------------------------Input Output + Loss 2 2 2 The efficiency η is normally expressed as a percentage.0 0.000 0.000 0. Output Output % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.14 0.000 0.000 0.20 0.0 0.000 0. Accordingly.24 0.8 0.000 0. a good efficiency should be close to 100% Example 3.000 0.000 0.6 0. the total load on the first floor draws an average of 60 amperes during peak activity.6 0.4 0.000 0.4 0.14 In a two-story industrial building.000 0.02 0.5 0.18 0.7 0.00 0.8 0.22 0.000 0.× 100 Input Output + Loss (3.11 Efficiency We have learned that the power absorbed by a resistor can be found from p R = i R and this power is transformed into heat.000 0.

This is shown in Figure 3.66) Total power p L received by 1st and 2nd floor loads: p L = p S – p loss = 48.8 Ω 0.× 100 = -----------.65) Total power loss: p loss = p loss1 + p loss2 = 3.16 kilowatts (3.84 kilowatts Output 41.Circuit Theorems cables (copper conductors) on the first floor is 1 Ω and on the second floor is 1.63) Power loss between source and 1st floor load: p loss1 = i 1 ( 0.5 Ω 0.14 Power p S supplied by the source: p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 × ( 60 + 40 ) = 48 kilowatts (3. we draw a circuit that represents the electrical system of this building.00 (3.00 – 6.56 kilowatts 2 2 (3.66.60 + 2.67) (3. 0.5 Ω + 0.5 Ω 60 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 40 A + 2nd Floor Load Figure 3.84 % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.68) 3-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .17 % Input 48.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .6 = 2.5 Ω ) = 60 × 1 = 3.8 Ω + 0.66.56 = 6. Circuit for Example 3.8 Ω ) = 40 × 1.× 100 = 87. Solution: First.6 Ω .6 kilowatts 2 2 (3.16 = 41.64) Power loss between source and 2nd floor load: p loss2 = i 2 ( 0. compute the efficiency of transmission.

and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load. by a voltage source denoted as v TH in series with a resistance denoted as R TH . If the circuit contains dependent sources. the value of R TH must be computed from the relation R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC • Norton’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load. and linear passive devices such as resistors. the value of R N must be computed from the relation R N = v OC ⁄ i SC • The maximum power transfer theorem states that a voltage source with a series resistance R S or a current source with parallel resistance R S delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or R LOAD = R N • Linearity implies that there is a linear voltage−current relationship. If the circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only. • A linear circuit is composed entirely of independent voltage sources.Circuit Theorems • A practical voltage source has an internal resistance and it is represented by a voltage source whose value is the value of the ideal voltage source in series with a resistance whose value is the value of the internal resistance. independent current sources. by a current source denoted as i N in parallel with a resistance denoted as R N . • A practical voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be replaced by a current source i S whose value is v S ⁄ i S in parallel with a resistance R P whose value is the same as R S • A practical current source i S in parallel with a resistance R P can be replaced by a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S in series with a resistance R S whose value is the same as R P • Thevenin’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load. the value of R TH can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources. The value of i N represents the short circuit current where the circuit is isolated from the load and R N is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit. the value of R N can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources. and capacitors. • A practical current source has an internal conductance and it is represented by a current source whose value is the value of the ideal current source in parallel with a conductance whose value is the value of the internal conductance. If the circuit contains dependent sources.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . If a given circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only. linear dependent sources. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load. opening all independent current sources. inductors. opening all independent current sources. 3-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The value of v TH represents the open circuit voltage where the circuit is isolated from the load and R TH is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit.

It is normally expressed as a percentage.Summary • The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-51 . It is normally expressed as a percentage. • Efficiency is defined as the ratio of output to input and thus it is never greater than unity. . • Regulation is defined as the ratio of v NL – v FL to v FL and ideally should be close to zero.

Circuit Theorems 3. Circuit for Question 1 2. 16 V C.68 is A. 6 V B.67. 5 A C. 4 A E. The voltage across the 2 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3. 3 A D. none of the above − 6V + 2Ω 8A + − 8A Figure 3.67 is A.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . – 2 A B.14 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 32 V E. Circuit for Question 2 3-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .68. The current i in the circuit of Figure 3. none of the above + 2Ω − 10 V − 4V 2Ω 2Ω i 2Ω + Figure 3. – 8 V D.

The current i is A. – 6 A E.70 is A. – 4 A B. – 5 A D. 6 A E. – 8 A C. 8 ⁄ 3 A C.70. The value of the current i for the circuit of Figure 3. none of the above 6Ω 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 8A i 3Ω + − Figure 3. – 9 A D.69 are relative to some reference node which is not shown. Circuit for Question 4 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-53 . The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 3. none of the above 4V 6V 2Ω + 6V i 2Ω − 12 V 8V + − 8V 8V 2Ω 13 V Figure 3.69. Circuit for Question 3 4.Exercises 3. – 3 A B.

8 V D. 6 V C. The value of the voltage v for the circuit of Figure 3. 0 E. For that circuit.71 is A. Circuit for Question 6 4Ω + kv − 3-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .71. none of the above + 2A 4Ω v − Figure 3. none of the above + + 2A 2Ω v − Figure 3. 2 B. no solution is possible if the value of k is A.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 1 C.72.72. 4 V B. Circuit for Question 5 vX 2Ω + 2v X − − 6.Circuit Theorems 5. ∞ D. For the circuit of Figure 3. 12 V E. the value of k is dimensionless.

Network for Question 8 2Ω + 2V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-55 . 1 V D. 5 V E. 2 C. For the network of Figure 3. none of the above a 2Ω 2A b Figure 3.73.74. – 2 V C. 5 D.74. 10 E.Exercises 7. – 3 V B. For the network of Figure 3.73. 1 B. none of the above a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω 4Ω 2Ω 2Ω 2Ω Figure 3. Network for Question 7 8. the Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH across terminals a and b is A. the Thevenin equivalent resistance R TH to the right of terminals a and b is A.

75. 2 Ω B. the current i due to the 4 V source acting alone is A. 0 A. – 2 A E. In applying the superposition principle to the circuit of Figure 3. – 1 A C.Circuit Theorems 9. 4 A D. Network for Question 10 3-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For the network of Figure 3. the Norton equivalent current source I N and equivalent parallel resistance R N across terminals a and b are A.5 Ω D. 2. 4 A. none of the above a 5Ω 5Ω b Figure 3. 25 Ω C. 8 A B. 1 A.76.5 A.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . none of the above i 2Ω 8A 2Ω − 2Ω + 4V Figure 3. 5Ω E. 1.76.75. Network for Question 9 2A 2A 10.

12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 36A in Figure 3. Answer: 21. Answer: 86.6 V + 12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω − + 4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A Figure 3. Answers: – 3.80.78. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3.5 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-57 . Answer: 1.34 V 5.Exercises Problems 1. Circuit for Problem 2 3. Circuit for Problem 1 2.78. Answers: – 3.82.9 A.33 w 6. Answer: 0. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3.79. Use nodal analysis to compute the current through the 6 Ω resistor and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3. Use mesh analysis to compute the current through the i 6 Ω resistor. – 499.77.77. – 499. Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 10 Ω in Figure 3.17 w 4. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage across the 18 A current source in the circuit of Figure 3.81.9 A.

80.79.Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A − i6 Ω 15 Ω + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 5 + − 36 V 3-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Problem 3 120 V 4Ω 8Ω 12 Ω 240 V 3Ω + + − 36 V + + 4Ω 12 A 36 A − v 36A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Circuit for Problem 4 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω − + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3.81.

In the circuit of Figure 3.83.82.84. Compute the power absorbed by the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3. Answer: 1.4 Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − 12 V 24 V Figure 3. Compute the power absorbed by the 20 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 8 3-59 .83 using any method. Circuit for Problem 6 + − 12 V 2Ω 6A 10 Ω + 24 V − 36 V 12 V 3Ω 8A Figure 3.32 w 2Ω 3Ω − 6Ω + 8.84 using any method. To what value should the load resistor R LOAD should be adjusted to so that it will absorb maximum power? Answer: 2.73 w + 20 Ω − 9.Exercises 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω − 15 Ω 8Ω 6Ω + iX 10 Ω v 10 Ω − + 7. Circuit for Problem 7 Figure 3.85: a. Answer: 73.

Circuit for Problem 9 10.87. Replace the network shown in Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 10 5Ω iX 11. What would then the power absorbed by R LOAD be? Answer: 135 w + 12 Ω − 36 V 15 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω R LOAD Figure 3.75 Ω a 15 Ω 4Ω 5iX b Figure 3.86 by its Norton equivalent.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Use the superposition principle to compute the voltage v 18A in the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 11 3-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Answers: i N = 0.87.Circuit Theorems b. Answer: 1.85.86.12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. R N = 23.

Exercises
12. Use the superposition principle to compute voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3.88. Answer: 21.6 V +
12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω −

+
4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

Figure 3.88. Circuit for Problem 12

13.In the circuit of Figure 3.89, v S1 and v S2 are adjustable voltage sources in the range
– 50 ≤ V ≤ 50 V, and R S1 and R S2 represent their internal resistances. Table 3.4 shows the results

of several measurements. In Measurement 3 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 1, and in Measurement 4 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 2. For Measurements 5 and 6 the load resistance is adjusted to 1 Ω . Make the necessary computations to fill-in the blank cells of this table.
TABLE 3.4 Table for Problem 13

Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6

Switch S 1 Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Switch S 2 Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

v S1 (V)

v S2 (V)

48 0 0 15

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5

0

Answers: – 15 V , – 7 A , 11 A , – 24 V

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-61

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
+
R S1 1 Ω R S2

1Ω − v S2 S2

v S1 S1

14. Compute the efficiency of the electrical system of Figure 3.90. Answer: 76.6%
0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.90. Electrical system for Problem 14 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

15. Compute the regulation for the 2st floor load of the electrical system of Figure 3.91. Answer: 36.4%
0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.91. Circuit for Problem 15 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

Figure 3.89. Network for Problem 13

+

+

+

3-62

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Exercises
16. Write a set of nodal equations and then use MATLAB to compute i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Example 3.10 which is repeated as Figure 3.92 for convenience. Answers: – 0.96 A, – 7.68 V +
3Ω 6Ω 5Ω Figure 3.92. Circuit for Problem 16 − 3Ω − − 12 V 7Ω 4Ω v LOAD

20i X 10 Ω

+

iX

+

− 8Ω

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-63

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.15 Answers to Exercises
Multiple Choice 1. E The current entering Node A is equal to the current leaving that node. Therefore, there is no current through the 2 Ω resistor and the voltage across it is zero.

6V

+
2Ω 8A A 8A 8A

+

− 8A

2. C From the figure below, V AC = 4 V . Also, V AB = V BC = 2 V and V AD = 10 V . Then,
V BD = V AD – V AB = 10 – 2 = 8 V a n d V CD = V BD – V BC = 8 – 2 = 6 V . T h e r e f o r e , i = 6 ⁄ 2 = 3 A.

+
2Ω

4V 2Ω C 2Ω i

A − 10 V

B 2Ω D

+

3. A From the figure below we observe that the node voltage at A is 6 V relative to the reference node which is not shown. Therefore, the node voltage at B is 6 + 12 = 18 V relative to the same reference node. The voltage across the resistor is V BC = 18 – 6 = 12 V and the direction of current through the 3 Ω resistor is opposite to that shown since Node B is at a higher potential than Node C. Thus i = – 12 ⁄ 3 = – 4 A
4V 6V A

2Ω

+
6V C 3Ω i B

12 V 8V

+

8V

8V

2Ω 13 V

3-64

+

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

4. E We assign node voltages at Nodes A and B as shown below.
6Ω 12 V A 3Ω 6Ω B i 8A 3Ω

+

At Node A
V A – 12 V A V A – V B ----------------- + ----- + ------------------ = 0 6 3 6

and at Node B
VB – VA VB ------------------ + ----- = 8 3 3

These simplify to
2 -- V A – 1 V B = 2 -3 3

and
2 1 – -- V A + -- V B = 8 3 3

Multiplication of the last equation by 2 and addition with the first yields V B = 18 and thus
i = – 18 ⁄ 3 = – 6 A .

5. E Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
A + vX + 2A 2Ω v − 2Ω + 2v X − −

v v – 2v X -- + ---------------- = 2 2 2

or
v – vX = 2

Also by KVL
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-65

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
v = v X + 2v X

and by substitution
v X + 2v X – v X = 2

or
vX = 1

and thus
v = v X + 2v X = 1 + 2 × 1 = 3 V

6. A Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
A + 2A 4Ω v − 4Ω + kv −

v v – kv -- + ------------- = 2 4 4

or
1 -- ( 2v – kv ) = 2 4

and this relation is meaningless if k = 2 . Thus, this circuit has solutions only if k ≠ 2 . 7. B The two 2 Ω resistors on the right are in series and the two 2 Ω resistors on the left shown in the figure below are in parallel.
a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω

2Ω 4Ω

2Ω

2Ω

Starting on the right side and proceeding to the left we get 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || 4 = 2 , 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || ( 3 + 2 || 2 ) = 4 || ( 3 + 1 ) = 4 || 4 = 2 Ω .

3-66

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8. A Replacing the current source and its 2 Ω parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source in series with a 2 Ω resistance we get the network shown below. +
− 2V 2Ω 2Ω i − 4V b a

By Ohm’s law,
4–2 i = ----------- = 0.5 A 2+2

and thus
v TH = v ab = 2 × 0.5 + ( – 4 ) = – 3 V

9. D The Norton equivalent current source I N is found by placing a short across the terminals a and b. This short shorts out the 5 Ω resistor and thus the circuit reduces to the one shown below.
a 5Ω 2A b I SC = I N A 2A

By KCL at Node A,
IN + 2 = 2

and thus I N = 0 The Norton equivalent resistance R N is found by opening the current sources and looking to the right of terminals a and b. When this is done, the circuit reduces to the one shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

+

3-67

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
a 5Ω 5Ω b

Therefore, R N = 5 Ω and the Norton equivalent circuit consists of just a 5 Ω resistor. 10. B With the 4 V source acting alone, the circuit is as shown below.
i − + 2Ω − B 2Ω + − A 2Ω

+ 4V

We observe that v AB = 4 V and thus the voltage drop across each of the 2 Ω resistors to the left of the 4 V source is 2 V with the indicated polarities. Therefore,
i = –2 ⁄ 2 = –1 A

Problems 1. We first replace the parallel conductances with their equivalents and the circuit simplifies to that shown below.
v 1 12 Ω 1 4Ω 12 A
–1 –1

v 2 15 Ω 2

–1

v3 3

+
v 18 A 18 A − 6Ω
–1

24 A

Applying nodal analysis at Nodes 1, 2, and 3 we get: Node 1:
16v 1 – 12v2 = 12

Node 2:
– 12 v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = – 18

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Node 3:
– 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 24

Simplifying the above equations, we get:
4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3 – 4 v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = – 6 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

Addition of the first two equations above and grouping with the third yields
6v 2 – 5v 3 = – 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

For this problem we are only interested in v 2 = v 18 A . Therefore, we will use Cramer’s rule to solve for v 2 . Thus,
D2 v 2 = ----∆ D 2 = – 3 – 5 = – 21 + 40 = 19 8 7 ∆ = 6 – 5 = 42 – 25 = 17 –5 7

and
v 2 = v 18 A = 19 ⁄ 17 = 1.12 V

2. Since we cannot write an expression for the current through the 36 V source, we form a combined node as shown on the circuit below. +
v1 1 4Ω 12 A 36 V v3 12 Ω 2 v 2 15 Ω 3 −

+
6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

At Node 1 (combined node):
v1 v1 – v2 v3 – v2 v3 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + ---- – 12 – 24 = 0 4 6 12 15

and at Node 2,
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-69

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------- + --------------- = – 18 12 15

Also,
v 1 – v 3 = 36

Simplifying the above equations, we get:
7 1 3 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 + ----- v 3 = 36 30 3 20 311 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36

Addition of the first two equations above and multiplication of the third by – 1 ⁄ 4 yields
1 --- v 1 + 1 v 3 = 18 6 4 1 1 – -- v 1 + -- v 3 = – 9 4 4

and by adding the last two equations we get
5----- v 3 = 9 12

or
108 v 3 = v 6 Ω = -------- = 21.6V 5

Check with MATLAB:
format rat R=[1/3 −3/20 7/30; −1/12 3/20 −1/15; 1 0 −1]; I=[36 −18 36]'; V=R\I; fprintf('\n'); disp('v1='); disp(V(1)); disp('v2='); disp(V(2)); disp('v3='); disp(V(3))

v1= 288/5 v2= -392/5 v3= 108/5 3. We assign node voltages
v1 , v2 , v3 , v4

and current i Y as shown in the circuit below. Then,

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

v1 v1 – v2 ---- + --------------- + 18 – 12 = 0 4 12

and
v2 – v1 v2 – v3 v2 – v4 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 12 12 6

v1

12 Ω v 2 iX 6Ω

18 A 15 Ω

v3

+
i6 Ω − 36 V −

4Ω 12 A

v4

5i X iY 24 A

Simplifying the last two equations above, we get
1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12

+

and
111 19 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 – -- v 4 = 0 12 15 6 60 5 1 2 Next, we observe that i X = --------------- , v 3 = 5i X and v 4 = 36 V . Then v 3 = ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) and by 12 v –v 12

substitution into the last equation above, we get
19 1 1 5 1 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- × ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) – -- 36 = 0 60 6 15 12 12

or
1 31 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 9 90

Thus, we have two equations with two unknowns, that is,
1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12 31 1 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 90 9

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-71

9 A 6 6 19 To compute the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source. v3 – v2 i Y – 24 – 18 + --------------.v 2 = 4 60 or v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 We find v 1 from 1 1 -. we find v 3 from 55-----------------.v 1 – ----. we must first find the current i Y .-------v 3 = ----.⎛ – 282 – 240⎞ = – 435 12 12 ⎝ 19 38 19 ⎠ Therefore.Circuit Theorems Multiplication of the first equation above by 1 ⁄ 3 and addition with the second yields 19 ----.= – 3.× 240 = – 6 12 19 3 or v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 Now.-------1 -.= 0 15 or 3-72 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the node voltages of interest are: v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 V v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 V v 3 = – 435 ⁄ 38 V v 4 = 36 V The current through the 6 Ω resistor is v2 – v4 74 240 ⁄ 19 – 36 i 6 Ω = --------------.= -----------------------------.v 1 – ----.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Thus. It is found by application of KCL at node voltage v 3 .( v 1 – v 2 ) = ----. 1.= – ----.v 2 = – 6 3 12 Thus.

− 120 V 4Ω + + 240 V 3Ω − i6 8Ω i5 12 Ω 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 i3 6Ω i4 24 A Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Combined mesh (2 and 3): – 4i 1 + 12i 2 + 18i 3 – 6i 4 – 8i 5 – 12i 6 = 0 or – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 We now re-insert the 36 A current source and we write the third equation as i 2 – i 3 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: – 8 i 2 + 12i 5 = 120 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-73 . Since we cannot write an expression for the 36 A current source. the dependent source supplies power to the circuit.Answers to Exercises – 435 ⁄ 38 – 240 ⁄ 19 i Y = 42 – ---------------------------------------------15 915 ⁄ 38 1657 = 42 + -----------------.= ----------15 38 and 1657 --------------------p = v 3 i Y = – 435 × ----------.= – 72379 = – 499. 4.17 w 38 145 38 that is. we temporarily remove it and we form a combined mesh for Meshes 2 and 3 as shown below.

.....Circuit Theorems – 2 i 2 + 3i 5 = 30 Mesh 6: – 12 i 3 + 15i 6 = – 240 or – 4 i 3 + 5i 6 = – 80 Thus.. V=[12 0 36 −24 30 −80]'. 3-74 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. fprintf('i1=%7. I=R\V. we have the following system of equations: i1 i2 – i3 i4 –2 i2 –4 i3 + 3i 5 = 12 = 36 = – 24 = 30 + 5i 6 = – 80 – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 and in matrix form 1 –2 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 –2 0 0 9 –1 0 0 –4 0 –3 0 1 0 0 0 –4 0 0 3 0 0 –6 0 0 0 5 i1 i2 i3 ⋅ i4 i5 i6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 0 36 – 24 30 – 80 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 6 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 0. fprintf('\n')........ I(1)). 0 −2 0 0 3 0. 0 0 0 1 0 0. fprintf('\n').2f A \t'.. I(2)).Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .. −2 6 9 −3 −4 −6.2f A \t'..2f A \t'. 0 0 −4 0 0 5].. 0 1 −1 0 0 0. fprintf('i2=%7.. I(3))... fprintf('i3=%7.

fprintf('i6=%7. Thus. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 3. fprintf('i5=%7. we find that 4 × [ 6.79 ) ] + 6 × [ ( – 29.. We assign mesh currents as shown below...2f A \t'.00 A i4= -24.27 A 14..Answers to Exercises fprintf('i4=%7.00 A i2= i5= 6. I(5)).27 – 12 ] + 8 × [ 6.. I(4)).. we can find the voltage v 36 A by application of KVL around Mesh 3.79 A Now. we apply KVL around Mesh 2. Thus.2f A \t'.73 A i6= -39. I(6)).34 V To verify that this value is correct..18 A i3= -29.14 5.18 ] + 86.73 ) – ( – 39..27 – 14.34 = 0. 120 V 4Ω + + − 240 V 3Ω − i5 8Ω i6 12 Ω + 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 36 A v 36 A − i3 6Ω i4 24 A v 36 A = v 12 Ω + v 6 Ω = 12 × [ ( – 29. fprintf('\n') i1= 12. We will show that we obtain the same answers using mesh analysis..00 ) ] or v 36 A = 86.73 ) – ( 24. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-75 . we must show that v 4 Ω + v 8 Ω + v 36 A = 0 By substitution of numerical values.2f A \t'.

Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω i5 + i3 − 5i X i4 24 A + i1 i2 − 36 V Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Mesh 2: – 4i 1 + 22i 2 – 6i 3 – 12i 5 = – 36 or – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – 6i 5 = – 18 Mesh 3: – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i X = 36 and since i X = i 2 – i 5 . 3-76 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . the above reduces to – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i 2 – 5i 5 = 36 or – i 2 + 21i 3 – 20i 5 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: i 5 = 18 Grouping these five independent equations we get: i1 – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – i 2 + 21i 3 i4 = 12 – 6i 5 = – 18 – 20i 5 = 36 = – 24 i 5 = 18 and in matrix form.

9 A Next. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-77 . V=[12 −18 36 −24 18]'. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ i2= i5= 15.2f A \t'. . I(1)).. I=R\V.. I(5)). I(2))..71 A 18.00 A i4= -24.61 A i 6 Ω = i 2 – i 3 = 15. fprintf('i1=%7. fprintf('i5=%7. p 5i = 5i X ( i 3 – i 4 ) = 5 ( i 2 – i 5 ) ( i 3 – i 4 ) X = 5 ( 15. We assign mesh currents as shown below and we write mesh equations....... fprintf('\n') i1= 12.. 0 0 0 1 0.2f A \t'.. I(4)).33 w These are the same answers as those we found in Problem 3.00 ) ( 19. 0 −1 21 0 −20. fprintf('i3=%7.00 A i3= 19...61 = – 3.2f A \t'..71 – 19.Answers to Exercises 1 –2 0 0 0 0 11 –1 0 0 0 –3 21 0 0 R 0 0 0 –6 0 – 20 1 0 0 1 i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 i5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 – 18 36 – 24 18 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 5 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 .. fprintf('\n'). 0 0 0 0 1]... 6.2f A \t'.00 ) = – 499.00 A By inspection..2f A \t'..61 + 24. fprintf('i4=%7...71 – 18. I(3)). fprintf('i2=%7. −2 11 −3 0 −6... fprintf('\n').

Circuit Theorems 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω i1 − i4 15 Ω 8Ω i2 24 V 6Ω + iX i3 10 Ω v 10 Ω − 12 V Mesh 1: or 24i 1 – 8i 2 – 12i 4 – 24 – 12 = 0 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3i 4 = 9 Mesh 2: Mesh 3: or – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 – 6 i 2 + 16i 3 = 0 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 = 0 Mesh 4: or i 4 = 10i X = 10 ( i 2 – i 3 ) 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 Grouping these four independent equations we get: 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 – 3i 4 = 9 = 0 – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 and in matrix form. 6 –8 0 0 –2 0 –3 29 – 6 – 15 –3 8 0 10 – 10 – 1 R i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 9 – 24 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V 3-78 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ + + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

fprintf('\n') i1= 1. that is..Answers to Exercises We find the currents i 1 through i 4 with the following MATLAB code: R=[6 −2 0 −3.. I(1)). I(3)).. V=[9 −24 0 0]'. we get 4 1 i 10 Ω = -------------.2f A \t'. I(4)).× 4 = ----..94 A i2= 0.× 10 = 160 = 1. Voltage-to-current source transformation yields the circuit below.48 V 7.13 – 0. that is.A 11 1 + 10 and thus 4. v 10 Ω = 10i 3 = 10 × 0. fprintf('i2=%7.2f A \t'..⎞ × 10 = -------. v 6 Ω = 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 6 ( 0.05 A i4= 0.05 ) = 0.05 = 0. we find v 10 Ω by Ohm’s law... 2Ω 6A 8A 6Ω 6A 10 Ω 3Ω By combining all current sources and all parallel resistors except the 10 Ω resistor. 0 10 −10 −1]. 1Ω 4A 10 Ω Applying the current division expression.2f A \t'. fprintf('i4=%7.. I=R\V. −8 29 −6 −15.. we obtain the simplified circuit below. fprintf('i1=%7..2f A \t'. fprintf('i3=%7.13 A i3= 0. fprintf('\n')..32 w ⎝ 11 ⎠ 121 121 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-79 .....5 V The same value is obtained by computing the voltage across the 6 Ω resistor. 0 −3 8 0 .79 A Now. I(2)).2 162 -------p 10 Ω = i 10 Ω ( 10 ) = ⎛ ----.

v 3 = 12 3 30 20 Node 2: 3-80 − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − − + + 24 V . Current-to-voltage source transformation yields the circuit below. 2Ω − 20 Ω 12 V + 3Ω 12 V i From this series circuit.+ ---. We remove R LOAD from the rest of the rest of the circuit and we assign node voltages v 1 . v 2 . 36 V 3 2 v 2 15 Ω 12 Ω 6Ω 18 A × y v3 × x + 1 v1 4Ω 12 A Node 1: v3 – v2 v3 v1 v1 – v2 ---.v 2 + ----.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .= 0 4 6 12 15 or 1 7 3 -. 48 Σv i = -----.73 w ⎝ 25 ⎠ 625 9.⎞ × 20 = ----------.A 25 ΣR and thus 48 2 2304 2 p 20 Ω = i ( 20 ) = ⎛ ----.= ----.– 12 + --------------.+ --------------.v 1 – ----.× 20 = 73.Circuit Theorems 8. We also form the combined node as shown on the circuit below. and v 3 .

2f V \t'. −1/12 3/20 −1/15.. V(3)). v 1 – v 3 = 36 For this problem. v2= -136.⋅ 15 –1 v1 v2 v3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 12 – 18 36 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I We find the voltages v 1 through v 3 with the following MATLAB code: G=[1/3 −3/20 7/30. 7 1 3 -. we will group these three independent equations. we are interested only in the value of v 3 which is the Thevenin voltage v TH .00 V Thus. fprintf('v2=%7.– ----3 20 1..v 3 = 12 30 3 20 311– ----. I=[12 −18 36]'.v 2 – ----. and we could find it by Gauss’s elimination method. V(1)).v 3 = – 18 20 12 15 Also.2f V \t'.v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36 and in matrix form. 1 3 -. fprintf('v3=%7. fprintf('v1=%7. 1 0 −1]. However.= – 18 12 15 or 311– ----.2f V \t'. for convenience. express these in matrix form. fprintf('\n'). and use MATLAB for their solution..v 1 + ----. fprintf('\n') v1= 0.v 1 + ----. V(2)).3– ----.00 V ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ v3= -36.v 2 + ----.00 V v TH = v 3 = – 36 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-81 .v 1 – ----.+ --------------.----12 20 1 0 G 7 ----30 1– ----. V=G\I.Answers to Exercises v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------.v 2 – ----.

− + R LOAD = 2. Power under maximum power transfer condition is 3-82 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 12 Ω 4Ω 15 Ω 6Ω × x R TH × y We observe that the resistors in series are shorted out and thus the Thevenin resistance is the parallel combination of the 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors. The circuit then reduces to the resistive network below.4 Ω and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as shown below. R LOAD = 2.4 Ω Now. we connect the load resistor R LOAD at the open terminals and we get the simple series circuit shown below.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .4 Ω 36 V a. − + 36 V 2. that is.4 Ω 2.4 Ω b.Circuit Theorems To find R TH we short circuit the voltage source and we open the current sources. 4 Ω || 6 Ω = 2. For maximum power transfer.

Answers to Exercises 36 .4 = 7.= ------------. the Norton current source is open as shown below. v1 1 4Ω 5iX iX b iX 15 Ω 5Ω iX a At Node 1: v1 ---.5 × 2. v OC v ab 5 × iX 5×0 i N = -------. 20i X ---------. Then.+ i X = 5i X 4 Mesh on the right: ( 15 + 5 )i X = v 1 and by substitution into the node equation above.= 0 RN RN RN RN Thus.= -----.4 + 2. We assign a node voltage Node 1 and a mesh current for the mesh on the right as shown below.= ----------.2 2 2 p MAX = i R LOAD = ⎛ -------------------.⎞ × 2. a RN iX b To find R N we insert a 1 A current source as shown below. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-83 .4 = 135 w ⎝ 2.4 ⎠ 10.+ i X = 5i X 4 or 6i X = 5i X but this can only be true if i X = 0 .

v A + ----. we will use MATLAB for their solution. However.= 1 15 5 or 1 4 – ----.+ ---------------.v B = 0 60 15 At Node B: vB – vA vB ---------------.+ ---. we are interested only in the value of v B which we could find by Gauss’s elimination method.v A – 16 v B = 0 ----60 15 4 1 – ----.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . for convenience.v A + ----.+ ---------------.Circuit Theorems vA A 4Ω 5iX iX b iX v B 15 Ω 5Ω B iX 1A a At Node A: vA vA – vB ---.v B = 1 15 15 For this problem.= v B 4 15 or 19 16 ----.= 5i X 4 15 But v B = ( 5 Ω ) × i X = 5i X and by substitution into the above relation vA vA – vB ---. 19 ----.v B = 1 15 15 3-84 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v A – ----.

19 16 ----. fprintf('vB=%7.– ----60 15 1 4. −1/15 4/15].. V=G\I.. V(2)). we can find the Norton equivalent resistance from the relation 11.75 V V ab VB R N = ------. v 1 12 Ω –1 v 2 15 Ω v3 + 4Ω 12 A − –1 v' 18A 6Ω –1 The nodal equations at the three nodes are 16v 1 – 12v 2 = 12 – 12v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = 0 – 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 0 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-85 . The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.----15 15 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ G vA vB ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 0 1 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I –1 We find the voltages v 1 and v 2 with the following MATLAB code: G=[19/60 −16/15.= 23.2f V \t'.Answers to Exercises and in matrix form. I=[0 1]'. fprintf('\n') vA= 80.2f V \t'. V(1)).⋅ – ----.75 Ω I SC 1 Now. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 1. fprintf('vA=%7.00 V vB= 23.. fprintf('\n'). Let v' 18A be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone.= ----.

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3

– 4v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = 0 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

Since v 2 = v' 18A , we only need to solve for v 2 . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain
6v 2 – 5v 3 = 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
42v 2 – 35v 3 = 21 – 25 v 2 + 35v 3 = 0

and by addition of these we get
21 v 2 = v' 18A = ----- V 17

Next, we let v'' 18A be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.
vA 12 Ω
–1

v B 15 Ω

–1

vC

+
4Ω
–1

v'' 18A 18 A −

6Ω

–1

The nodal equations at the three nodes are
16v A – 12v B = 0 – 12v A + 27v B – 15v C = – 18 – 15 v B + 21v C = 0

or

3-86

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

4v A – 3v B = 0

– 4v A + 9v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

Since v B = v'' 18A , we only need to solve for v B . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain
6v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
42v B – 35v C = – 42 – 25 v B + 35v C = 0

and by addition of these we get
– 42 v B = v'' 18A = -------- V 17

Finally, we let v''' 18A be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.
v X 12 Ω
–1

v Y 15 Ω

–1

vZ

+
4Ω
–1

v''' 18A −

6Ω

–1

24 A

The nodal equations at the three nodes are
16v X – 12v Y = 0 – 12v A + 27v Y – 15v Z = 0 – 15 v B + 21v Z = 24

or

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-87

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
4v X – 3v Y = 0

– 4v X + 9v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 8

Since v Y = v''' 18A , we only need to solve for v Y . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain
6v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 0

Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
42v Y – 35v Z = 0 – 25 v Y + 35v Z = 40

and by addition of these we get
40 v Y = v''' 18A = ----- V 17

and thus
--------- -------- ----v 18A = v' 18A + v'' 18A + v''' 18A = 21 + – 42 + 40 = 19 = 1.12 V 17 17 17 17

This is the same answer as in Problem 1.

12. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 2. Let v' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.
12 Ω 15 Ω

+
4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and the circuit is further simplified to the one shown below.

3-88

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

+
4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The voltage v' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,
144 4 v' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 12⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Next, we let v'' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. The letters A, B, and C are shown to visualize the circuit simplification process.
15 Ω A 12 Ω B 15 Ω A A B 12 Ω 4Ω 18 A C A 12 || 15 Ω B

+
4Ω 18 A C 6Ω v'' 6 Ω −

+
v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω

+
v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω C 4Ω 18 A

The voltage v'' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,
– 216 4 v'' 6 Ω = ----------- × ( – 18 ) × 6 = ----------- V 5 4+6

Now, we let v''' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-89

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

12 Ω

15 Ω

+
4Ω 6Ω

v''' 6 Ω 24 A

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and voltage v''' 6 Ω is computed by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,
288 4 v''' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 24⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Finally, we let v 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 36 V voltage source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. +
A 12 Ω 36 V − 15 Ω B A 4Ω
iv

iv

12 Ω

+
4Ω C 6Ω v −
6 Ω

C 6Ω

+

+
v −
iv 6 Ω

36 V

15 Ω B

By application of the voltage division expression we find that
v
iv 6 Ω

6 = ----------- × ( – 36 ) = – 108 -------4+6 5
iv 6 Ω

Therefore,
v 6 Ω = v' 6 Ω + v'' 6 Ω + v''' 6 Ω + v 144 216 288 108 108 = -------- – -------- + -------- – -------- = -------- = 21.6 V 5 5 5 5 5

This is the same answer as that of Problem 2. 13. The circuit for Measurement 1 is shown below.

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

R S1 v S1 1Ω

+

Let R eq1 = R S1 + R LOAD1 . Then,
v S1 ----R eq1 = ---------------- = 48 = 3 Ω 16 i LOAD1

For Measurement 3 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 1 and the load current is given as – 5 A . Therefore, for Measurement 3 we find that
v S1 = R eq1 ( – 5 ) = 3 × ( – 5 ) = – 15 V

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 2 is shown below.
R S2 v S2 1Ω

+

Let R eq2 = R S1 + R LOAD2 . Then,
v S2 36 R eq2 = ---------------- = ----- = 6 Ω i LOAD2 6

For Measurement 4 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 2 and v S2 is given as
– 42 V . Therefore, for Measurement 4 we find that v S2 42 i LOAD2 = ---------- = – ----- = – 7 A 6 R eq2

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 5 is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

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Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
R S1

+

v S1 15 V

1Ω R S2

Replacing the voltage sources with their series resistances to their equivalent current sources with their parallel resistances and simplifying, we get the circuit below.

Application of the current division expression yields
0.5 i LOAD = ---------------- × 33 = 11 A 0.5 + 1

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 6 is shown below.
R S1 1Ω R S2 A vA 1Ω v S2 i LOAD R LOAD 1Ω

We observe that i LOAD will be zero if v A = 0 and this will occur when v S1 = – 24 . This can be shown to be true by writing a nodal equation at Node A. Thus,
v A – ( – 24 ) v A – 24 ------------------------ + ---------------- + 0 = 0 1 1

+

+
− 18 V −

v S1

+

+
− 24 V

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

or v A = 0 Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Switch
S1

Switch
S2 v S1 (V) v S2 (V) i L (A)

Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

48 0 -15 0 15 −24

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5 −7 11 0

14. The power supplied by the voltage source is
p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 ( 100 + 80 ) = 86, 400 w = 86.4 Kw

The power loss on the 1st floor is
p LOSS1 = i 1 ( 0.5 + 0.5 ) = 100 × 1 = 10, 000 w = 10 Kw
2 2

0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

The power loss on the 2nd floor is
p LOSS2 = i 2 ( 0.8 + 0.8 ) = 80 × 1.6 = 10, 240 w = 10.24 Kw
2 2

and thus the total loss is
Total loss = 10 + 10.24 = 20.24 Kw

Then,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-93

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
Output power = Input power – power losses = 86.4 – 20.24 = 66.16Kw

and
66.16 Output % Efficiency = η = ----------------- × 100 = ------------ × 100 = 76.6% 86.4 Input

This is indeed a low efficiency. 15. The voltage drop on the second floor conductor is
v cond = R T i 2 = 1.6 × 80 = 128 V 0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

and thus the full-load voltage is
v FL = 480 – 128 = 352 V

Then,
v NL – v FL 480 – 352 % Regulation = ---------------------- × 100 = ----------------------- × 100 = 36.4% 352 v FL

This is a very poor regulation. 16. We assign node voltages and we write nodal equations as shown below.

3-94

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

v1 3Ω − − 12 V v2 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω v5 v 1 = 12 v2 – v1 v2 v2 – v3 --------------- + ---- + --------------- = 0 3 3 6 v3 – v2 v3 – v5 v4 – v5 v4 – v5 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 3 10 4 7+8 v 3 – v 4 = 20i X
2 where i X = ---- and thus

+

v3

20i X

v4

combined node 7Ω

+

iX

10 Ω

4Ω

+

− 8Ω

v 6

10 v 5 = ----- v 2 3 v5 v5 – v3 v5 – v4 v5 – v4 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 10 4 7+8 5

Collecting like terms and rearranging we get
v1 –1 5 –1 ----- v 1 + -- v 2 + ----- v 3 3 6 3 = 12 = 0

–1 ----------------- v 2 + 13 v 3 + 19 v 4 – 19 v 5 = 0 30 60 60 3 10 – ----- v 2 3 + v3 – v4 = 0

19 37 1– ----- v 3 – ----- v 4 + ----- v 5 = 0 60 60 10

and in matrix form

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-95

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
1 –1 ----3 0 5 -6 –1 0 ----3 ----0 – 10 3 0 0 0 0 –1 ----0 0 3 13 19 19 ----- ----- – ----30 60 60 1 –1 0

v1 v2 ⋅ v3 v4 v5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V =

12 0 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I

1- ----- 37 0 – ----- – 19 ----10 60 60 G

We will use MATLAB to solve the above.
G=[1 0 0 0 0;... −1/3 5/6 −1/3 0 0;... 0 −1/3 13/30 19/60 −19/60;... 0 −10/3 1 −1 0;... 0 0 −1/10 −19/60 37/60]; I=[12 0 0 0 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf('\n');... fprintf('v1 = %7.2f V \n',V(1));... fprintf('v2 = %7.2f V \n',V(2));... fprintf('v3 = %7.2f V \n',V(3));... fprintf('v4 = %7.2f V \n',V(4));... fprintf('v5 = %7.2f V \n',V(5));... fprintf('\n'); fprintf('\n')

v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 Now,

= = = = =

12.00 13.04 20.60 -22.87 -8.40

V V V V V
v4 – v5 ) ----------------------------------------i LOAD = --------------- = – 22.87 – ( – 8.40 - = – 0.96 A 15 8+7

and
v LOAD = 8i LOAD = 8 × ( – 0.96 ) = – 7.68 V

3-96

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

vin vout Electronic Amplifier Figure 4. 4.1 Signals A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication.2. The symbol of a typical amplifier is a triangle as shown in Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers T his chapter is an introduction to amplifiers. television. A typical signal which varies with time is shown in figure 4.1 where f ( t ) can be any physical quantity such as voltage. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity.2. or radar.1. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator. A signal that changes with time 4. f (t) t Figure 4. current. current. temperature. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. Symbol for electronic amplifier An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. image. Numerous formulas for the computation of the gain are derived and several practical examples are provided. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-1 . telephony. radio. sound. electric or magnetic field strength. It discusses amplifier gain in terms of decibels (dB) and provides an overview of operational amplifiers. such as voltage.2 Amplifiers An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. their characteristics and applications. pressure. and so on.

The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. By definition. the common (base 10) logarithm of a number x will be denoted as log ( x ) while its natural (base e) logarithm will be denoted as ln ( x ) . or power amplifier.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers An amplifier can be classified as a voltage amplifier. We must remember that a negative voltage or current gain G v or G i indicates that there is a 180° phase difference between the input and the output waveforms. Thus for a voltage amplifier. current amplifier. For instance. voltage and current when these are expressed in dB. p out dB = 10 log --------p in (4. Output Voltage Voltage Gain = ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or v out G v = -------v in (4.2) Therefore. 4. 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 n It is useful to remember that 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1000000 4-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB .3 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). it means that the output is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. Therefore. we use absolute values of power. For instance. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels ( dB ) . Note 1: Throughout this text.1) The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. if an amplifier has a gain of −100 (dimensionless number). the output is equal to the input. to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss.

the dB values for voltage and current ratios become: v out 2 dB v = 10 log -------.25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these.Decibels Also.1 Compute the gain in dB w for the amplifier shown in Figure 4.1 Solution: p out dB w = 10 log --------. 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 × 5 = 500 .3 .4.3.= 10 log 10 = 10 log 10 = 10 × 1 = 10 dBw ----1 p in Example 4. Amplifier for Example 4. Amplifier for Example 4.= 20 log v in v out -------v in 2 (4.25 = 2. Likewise. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 × 1. 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1. Since y = log x = 2 log x and p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R .5 .= 20 log i in i out ------i in (4.3. p in 1w p out 10 w Figure 4.3) and i out 2 dB i = 10 log ------. we can estimate other values. given that log 2 = 0.2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-3 .4) Example 4. if we let R = 1 .2 Compute the gain in dB v for the amplifier shown in Figure 4.4. For instance. v in 1v v out 2v Figure 4.

Gain amplifiers used with feedback In Figure 4. 1 0. the bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the lower and upper cutoff frequencies respectively. that is. They derive their name from the fact that power p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R . At these frequencies.6.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: v out dB v = 20 log -------. Typical bandwidth of an amplifier As shown above.6. the power is 1 ⁄ 2 . v out = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. for example. the power is “halved”. is combined with the input signal.5.707 Bandwidth v out ω1 ω2 ω Figure 4. the magnitude of the output voltage v out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency ω as shown in Figure 4.= 20 log 2 = 20 log 0. or portion of it. Alternately. Most amplifiers are used with a feedback path which returns (feeds) some or all its output to the input as shown in Figure 4.3 = 20 × 0.707 .6.3 = 6 dBv -1 v in 4. we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between half-power points. In + − Σ Gain Amplifier Out In + − Feedback Circuit Partial Output Feedback Σ Gain Amplifier Feedback Path Out Entire Output Feedback Figure 4.707 or i = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. amplifiers exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant. This summing point may 4-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the symbol Σ (Greek capital letter sigma) inside the circle denotes the summing point where the output signal.5.4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Like electric filters. and for R = 1 and v = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. Consider.707 and these two points are known as the 3-dB down or half-power points.

V CC is +15 volts and V EE is −15 volts.7. Practically. On the other hand. For this reason it is referred to as differential input. integration etc.. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4.5 The Operational Amplifier The operational amplifier or simply op amp is the most versatile electronic amplifier. and so on. i. capacitors. or portion of it.6 An Overview of the Op Amp The op amp has the following important characteristics: 1.8 shows the internal construction of a typical op amp. Symbol for operational amplifier As shown above the op amp has two inputs but only one output. Figure 4. Typically. 4. is added to the input. The positive (+) sign below the summing point implies positive feedback which means that the output. addition. This figure also shows terminals V CC and V EE . the negative (−) sign implies negative feedback which means that the output. 1 2 − + 3 Figure 4. or portion of it. all amplifiers use used with negative feedback since positive feedback causes circuit instability. single ended output amplifier. integration. It derives it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many mathematical operations such as addition. These terminals are not shown in op amp circuits since they just provide power. and do not reveal any other useful information for the op amp’s circuit analysis. These are the voltage sources required to power up the op amp. 4. Very good stability 6. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. analog-to-digital conversion or vice versa. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter. Operation to be performed. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. It is also the basic block in analog computer design. is subtracted from the input. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. diodes. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-5 . Its symbol is shown in Figure 4.7.e. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. differentiation. multiplication.The Operational Amplifier be also indicated with a large plus (+) symbol inside the circle.

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers VCC 1 NON-INVERTING INPUT 2 INVERTING INPUT 3 OUTPUT 1 2 3 VEE Figure 4.= – ------v in R in (4. For the circuit of Figure 4.9.5) 4-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8. Internal Devices of a Typical Op Amp An op amp is said to be connected in the inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the inverting (−) input through an external resistor R in whose value along with the feedback resistor R f determine the op amp’s gain. the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------.9. The non-inverting (+) input is grounded through an external resistor R as shown in Figure 4.

9. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. Thus. Note 3: The input voltage v in and the output voltage v out as indicated in the circuit of Figure 4. should not be interpreted as open circuits. For AC (sinusoidal) signals. the output will be −5 volts AC or 5 volts AC with 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. Therefore. and thus it does not influence the op amp’s gain. if the input is +1 volt DC and the op amp gain is 100.An Overview of the Op Amp Rf R in v in + − R Figure 4. given that v in = 1 mV . hence the name inverting amplifier. these designations imply that an input voltage of any waveform may be applied at the input terminals and the corresponding output voltage appears at the output terminals.5). the gain for this op amp configuration is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the input.10. It will be omitted in our subsequent discussion. the output will be 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input.3 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.9. Example 4. if the input is 1 volt AC and the op amp gain is 5. the output will be −100 volts DC. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-7 . Circuit of Inverting op amp − + − + v out Note 2: The resistor R connected between the non-inverting (+) input and ground serves only as a current limiting device. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be negative (−) and vice versa. As shown in the formula of (4. The minus (−) sign in the gain ratio – R f ⁄ R in implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. For example.

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4. vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 vIN = 1 mV vOUT = −6 mV Time Figure 4.3 Solution: This is an inverting amplifier and thus the voltage gain G v is Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.11. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.10.3 4-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11. Circuit for Example 4.= – ------------------20 KΩ R in or Gv = –6 and since v out G v = -------v in the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × 1 or v out = – 6 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.

Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4. Circuit for Example 4. Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-9 .13.= – ------------------.14. given that v in = sin t mV . 8 6 v OUT / v IN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 vOUT = −6sint vin = sint Time Figure 4.4 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. and the inverting (−) input is grounded through an external resistor R in as shown in Figure 4.13. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.12.12.= – 6 20 KΩ R in and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × sin t = – 6 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. In our subsequent discussion.4 Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example except that the input is a sine wave with unity amplitude and the voltage gain G v is the same as before. the resistor R will represent the internal resistance of the applied voltage v in .4 An op amp is said to be connected in the non-inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the non-inverting (+) input through an external resistor R which serves as a current limiter.An Overview of the Op Amp Example 4. that is.

the name non-inverting amplifier.5 V AC and the op amp gain is G v = 1 + 19 KΩ ⁄ 1 KΩ = 20 . For AC signals the output will be in-phase with the input. if the input is +1 mV DC and the op amp gain is 75 . the gain for this op amp configuration is 1 + R f ⁄ R in and therefore.14.15. hence.= 1 + ------v in R in (4. given that v in = 1 mV . if the input is 0. For example.5 Solution: The voltage gain G v is 4-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the output will be +75 mV DC . For example.15. Circuit of non-inverting op amp For the circuit of Figure 4. Example 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + − − R + + v out − Figure 4. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be also positive and if the input is negative. Circuit for Example 4. Thus.14.6) As indicated by the relation of (4. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------. in the non-inverting mode the op amp output signal has the same polarity as the input signal. the output will be also negative.5 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4. the output will be 10 V AC and in-phase with the input.6).

= 1 + ------------------. the voltage gain G v is the same as before.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-11 .17. given that v in = sin t mV .An Overview of the Op Amp v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4. v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------.16.= 1 + ------------------.6 Solution: This is the same circuit as in the previous example except that the input is a sinusoid.5 Example 4.6 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.17.= 1 + ------. 8 vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 vOUT = 7 mV vIN = 1 mV Time Figure 4.16. Circuit for Example 4. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.= 1 + ------.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ and thus v out = G v v in = 7 × 1 mV = 7 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. that is. Therefore.

Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.19 it is called unity gain amplifier.7) and thus v out = v in (4.18.19.6 Quite often an op amp is connected as shown in Figure 4. Circuit of unity gain op amp + R + − + v out For the circuit of Figure 4.19. 8 6 vOUT = 7sint vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Time vIN = sint Figure 4. and if the input voltage is 2 mV AC . The unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it.18.8. An example will be given in Section 4. 4-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = 7 × sin t = 7 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. − v in − Figure 4.= 1 v in (4.8) For this reason. the op amp circuit of Figure 4. For example. if the input voltage is 5 mV DC the output will also be 5 mV DC . the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------.19. the output will also be 2 mV AC .

4 0. a passive filter is a circuit which consists of passive devices such as resistors. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in .20. falls to 0. capacitors and inductors.21. the gain G v . A low-pass active filter vout Low Pass Filter Frequency Respone 1 Ideal 0. that is. this is the half power or the – 3 dB point. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) low-pass filter characteristics. Operational amplifiers are used extensively as active filters. A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff ) frequency denoted as ω C . In contrast.6 0.7 Active Filters An active filter is an electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and other devices such as resistors and capacitors. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. Frequency response for amplitude of a low-pass filter In Figure 4. vin Figure 4. and as mentioned before. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency.21. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-13 .8 |vOUT / vIN| Half-Power Point 0.2 0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4.Active Filters 4.707 × Gv .21.20 and its frequency response in Figure 4. An op amp low-pass filter is shown in Figure 4.

A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . where the maximum value of G v which is unity. falls to 0. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in . the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) high-pass filter characteristics. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity..707 × Gv . while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band.6 0. An op amp band-pass filter and its frequency response are shown below.23.0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4. An op amp high-pass filter is shown in Figure 4.0 0.25. Frequency response for amplitude of a high-pass filter In Figure 4. A high-pass active filter vout High-pass Filter Frequency Response 1.23.707 × G v . and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. 4-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the gain G v . that is.24 and its frequency response in Figure 4. i.4 0.e.23.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c . falls to 0. the half power or the – 3 dB point. vin Figure 4. An op amp band-pass filter is shown in Figure 4.22.8 Ideal Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| 0.2 0.22 and its frequency response in Figure 4.

707 × G v .4 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-15 . while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. An op amp band-stop filter is shown in Figure 4. Frequency response for amplitude of a band-pass filter A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . An active band-pass filter Band Pass Filter Frequency Response 1 0.9 0.1 0 Ideal Half-Power Points Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| Realizable ω ω ωcω1 ω2 Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4.24.Active Filters vin vout Figure 4.2 0.8 0.6 0.3 0. where the maximum value of G v which is unity.5 0.27.7 0. falls to 0.26 and its frequency response in Figure 4.25.

When analyzing an op amp circuit. superposition. That is.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers vin vout Band Elimination Active Filter Circuit Figure 4.6 0.4 0.9 0. we will assume that the reference (ground) is the common terminal of the two power supplies. Frequency response for amplitude of a band-elimination filter 4. For simplicity.26.8 0. 4-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 0 Ideal Half-Power Half-Power PointPoints Realizable |vOUT / vIN| ω1 ωc ω2 ω ω Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems.27. currents and power) is the same as for the other circuits which we have studied thus far. The currents into both input terminals are zero b.7 0.3 0. we can apply Ohm’s law. KCL and KVL. we must remember that in any op-amp: a.8 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits The procedure for analyzing an op amp circuit (finding voltages. the power supplies will not be shown. The voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp is zero c. For circuits containing op amps. An active band-elimination filter Band-Elimination Filter Frequency Response 1 0.2 0.5 0.

28 is called inverting op amp. v out = – R f i where v in i = ------R in and thus Rf v out = – ------.= – ------v in R in i − + − + v out (4. From the circuit of Figure 4.7 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.9) Proof: No current flows through the (−) input terminal of the op amp. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.9) below. Also. Circuit for deriving the gain of an inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------. Example 4. the (−) input is said to be at virtual ground.v in R in or v out Rf G v = -------.28. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4. since the (+) input terminal is grounded and there is no voltage drop between the (−) and (+) terminals. therefore the current i which flows through resistor R in flows also through resistor R f . Rf R in v in + − i R Figure 4.28.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits We will provide several examples to illustrate the analysis of op amp circuits without being concerned about its internal operation.= – ------v in R in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-17 . this is discussed in electronic circuit analysis books.

as mentioned in Chapter 1.v in R in + − v out Figure 4. Equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp Example 4. Rf R in − + v in − + + v out − Figure 4. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.10) 4-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10) below.8 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. This is the equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp and. the dependent source is a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS).29 with the virtual ground being the same as the circuit ground.29.31.30. + v in − R in − + Rf ------. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4.= 1 + ------v in R in (4. Input and output parts of the inverting op amp These two circuits are normally drawn with the output as a dependent source as shown in Figure 4.31 is called non-inverting op amp. v in+ − R in + − i i − Rf + v out − + Figure 4.30.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers The input and output parts of the circuit are shown in Figure 4. Circuit of non-inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------.

+ -------------------. v 1 – v 2 = 0 or v 1 = v 2 = v in .11) then can be written as v in v in – v out ------.+ ---.11) There is no potential difference between the (−) and (+) terminals.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Proof: Let the voltages at the (−) and (+) terminals be denoted as v 1 and v 2 respectively as shown in Figure 4. Non-inverting op amp circuit for derivation of (4.33. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-19 . The dependent source of this equivalent circuit is also a VCVS. + R in i1 v1 v2 v in − Rf − − i2 + + − + v out Figure 4.32.= 0 Rf R in or 1 1 ⎛ ------.= 0 R in Rf (4.= 1 + ------v in R in and its equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 4. Relation (4.+ --------------------.32.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R Rf R f ⎠ in in Rearranging. we get Rf v out G v = -------. therefore.10) By application of KCL at v 1 i1 + i2 = 0 or v 1 v 1 – v out ------.

prove that the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------.13) Proof: With R in open and R f shorted..= 1 v in (4. the gain reduces to G v = 1 and for this reason this circuit is called unity gain 4-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . then v out = v in .9 If.⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + Figure 4.34. − v in − + + − + v out Figure 4.12) and thus v out = v in (4.32 with R in open and R f shorted The voltage difference between the (+) and (−) terminals is zero. Circuit of Figure 4. Equivalent circuit of the non-inverting op amp Example 4. out f We will obtain the same result if we consider the non-inverting op amp gain G v = --------. - v R v in R in Then. in the non-inverting op amp circuit of the previous example.= 1 + ------.⎞ v .33. the non-inverting amplifier of the previous example reduces to the circuit of Figure 4. we replace R in with an open circuit ( R in → ∞ ) and R f with a short circuit ( R f → 0 ).Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------.34. letting R f → 0 .

40. and thus the voltage at the (−) terminal is at “virtual ground”. we get v in 1 v in 2 v out --------.39.12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-23 .= 0 R in 1 R in 2 R f and solving for v out we get (4.40. Then. we can apply the principle of superposition to derive this relation. Circuit for Example 4. Two-input summing op amp circuit Proof: We recall that the voltage across the (−) and (+) terminals is zero.14).+ --------.12 Compute the output voltage v out for the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4.+ -------. We also observe that the (+) input is grounded. R in 1 10 KΩ v in 1 R in 2 Rf − 1 MΩ + R in 3 + 1 mV 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV + v out − − + − + − 30 KΩ v in 3 10 mV Figure 4.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R in 1 Rf − + + v in 1 − R in 2 + + v out − v in 2 − Figure 4. Example 4. Alternately. by application of KCL at the (−) terminal.

41. 4-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Example 4. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4.12 with v in 1 acting alone We recognize this as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 100 and thus v out 1 = ( 100 ) ( – 1 mV ) = – 100 mV (4. v out 2 be the output due to v in 2 acting alone.42 as a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 First. Then by superposition. with v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 and v in 3 shorted.15) Next.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: Let v out 1 be the output due to v in 1 acting alone. Rf R in 1 v in 1 10 KΩ 1 MΩ − + R in 3 30 KΩ v out 1 − + − 1 mV R in 2 20 KΩ + Figure 4.43.42. The circuit of Figure 4.41. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. with v in 2 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 3 shorted. and v out 3 be the output due to v in 3 acting alone.

Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 + − 4 mV R in 3 30 KΩ 1 MΩ − + + v out 2 − Figure 4.4 mV (4. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 2 acting alone Then.43.4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 2 = 101 × 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-25 . Circuit for Example 4.44 is also a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. R in 3 30 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------. with v in 3 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 2 shorted. The circuit of Figure 4.4 mV = 242.16) Finally.42.45.44.× v in 2 = ---------------.× 4 mV = 2.12 with v in 2 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV R in 3 − + To v ( + ) + 30 KΩ − Figure 4.

R in 2 20 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------. Circuit for Example 4.4 + 404 = 546.× 10 mV = 4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 3 = 101 × 4 mV = 404 mV (4. and R f . from (4.12 with v in 3 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + 30 KΩ + v in 3 − 10 mV − To v ( + ) Figure 4.44.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 1 MΩ − + + v out 3 − 30 KΩ − + v in 3 10 mV Figure 4. 4-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 mV Example 4.46. (4.15).45.17). derive an expression for the voltage gain G v in terms of the external resistors R 1 . R 2 .17) Therefore.16) and (4.13 For the circuit shown in Figure 4. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 3 acting alone Then.× v in 2 = ---------------. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 = – 100 + 242. R 3 .

13 At node v 1 : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out ---------------.47.⎟ v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 Rf ⎝ R1 Rf ⎠ or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-27 . Circuit for Example 4.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R1 Rf − + + − v in R2 R3 v out − + Figure 4.⎞ v = v in + -----------⎝R ⎠ 1 Rf R1 Rf 1 or R f v in + R 1 v out ⎛ R 1 + R f⎞ ⎜ ---------------.+ ---.46.= 0 R1 Rf or v out 1.1⎛ ----. R1 v1 v2 Rf − + v out − + − v in R2 R3 + Figure 4. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 4.+ -------------------.47.13 Solution: We apply KCL at nodes v 1 and v 2 as shown in Figure 4.

+ ----.( R 1 + R f ) R2 + R3 Dividing both sides of the above relation by R 1 v in and rearranging.22) 4-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R f v in + R 1 v out v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 + Rf (4.= ----------------------------.9 Input and Output Resistance The input and output resistances are very important parameters in amplifier circuits. we rewrite (4.= ----------------R2 + R3 R1 + Rf or R 3 v in R f v in + R 1 v out = ----------------.21) 4.20) we get R f v in + R 1 v out R 3 v in ----------------------------------.18) and (4.18) At node v 2 : v 2 – v in v 2 ---------------.= 0 R2 R3 or R 3 v in v 2 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4.– ----R1 ( R2 + R3 ) R1 v in and after simplification R1 R3 – R2 R v out G v = -------.= -----------------------------f v in R1 ( R2 + R3 ) (4.19) as R 3 v in v 1 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4. The input resistance R in of a circuit is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. that is.19) and since v 2 = v 1 . we get v out R 3 ( R 1 + R f ) R f -------. vS R in = ---iS (4.20) Equating the right sides of (4.

for a large gain. a large gain can be achieved with the circuit of Problem 8. we want i S to be as small as possible.24) we observe that R in = R 1 (4. we must make the input resistance R in as high as possible. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-29 .14 Compute the input resistance R in of the inverting op amp amplifier shown in Figure 4. say 100 . R1 vS − Rf iS − + + + v out − Figure 4.Input and Output Resistance Therefore.23) and since no current flows into the minus (−) terminal of the op amp and this terminal is at virtual ground. Fortunately.49. vS R in = ---iS (4. Obviously. the value of the feedback resistor R f should be 1 GΩ . Of course. Example 4.25) It is therefore.14 Solution: By definition. this is an impractical value.23) and (4. However.24) From (4. accordingly. if we make R 1 very high such as 10 MΩ . it follows that vS i S = ----R1 (4.47 in terms of R 1 and R f . Example 4.15 Compute the input resistance R in of the op amp shown in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4. desirable to make R 1 as high as possible.48. in an op amp circuit the input resistance provides a measure of the current i S which the amplifier draws from the voltage source v S .

The output resistance provides a measure of the change in output voltage when a load which is connected at the output terminals draws current from the circuit. Rf v in iX 100 KΩ − + + v out − Figure 4. not the source voltage v S . there is no current i S drawn by the op amp.49.49. and we treat v in as the source voltage.= --. Therefore. In this case. that is. Circuit for Example 4. v in is the voltage at the minus (−) terminal. we apply a test (hypothetical) current i X as shown in Figure 4. v in 0 R in = -----.15 with a test current source We observe that v in is zero (virtual ground).Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf 100 KΩ v in − + + v out − Figure 4.49. It is desirable to have an op amp with very low output resistance as illustrated by the following example. 4-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .15 Solution: In the circuit of Figure 4.= 0 iX iX By definition.26) The output resistance R out is not the same as the load resistance. Therefore.50. Circuit for Example 4. v OC R out = -------i SC (4. the output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current.

is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. and so on. television. integration etc. Operation to be performed. radio. A unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. sound. • In a unity gain op amp the output is the same as the input. such as voltage. • The operational amplifier (op amp) is the most versatile amplifier and its main features are: 1. i. • Op amps are also used as active filters. The output signal has the same polarity from that of the input signal.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4. 4-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. It is normally expressed in decibel (dB) units where by definition dB = 10 log p out ⁄ p in • Frequency response is the band of frequencies over which the output remains fairly constant. telephony. • An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. or portion of it. elec- tric or magnetic field strength. Very good stability 6. diodes.707 of its maximum value. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. They are also known as half-power points. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. • The gain of an inverting op amp is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input.10 Summary • A signal is any waveform representing a fluctuating electric quantity. • The gain of an non-inverting op amp is 1 + R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input which is grounded through the R in resistor. • Most amplifiers are used with feedback where the output. is fed back to the input. • The lower and upper cutoff frequencies are those where the output is 0. • The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. addition. or radar. The minus (−) sign implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. capacitors.e. current. image. al that changes with time.

• A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . falls to 0.707 × G v . • A summing op amp is a circuit with two or more inputs. to the short circuit current which is the current that flows through a short circuit connected at the output terminals.Summary • A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff) frequency denoted as ω C and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency. that is. R o = v OC ⁄ i SC Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-33 .707 × Gv . • The input resistance is the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. R in = v S ⁄ i S • The output resistance (not to be confused with the load resistance) is the ratio of the open circuit voltage when the load is removed from the circuit. • A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c . and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. • A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. that is. falls to 0.

3 KΩ D. In the circuit of Figure 4.53.52. – 4 V D. and R f = 3 KΩ . In the op amp circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Question 1 2. 2 KΩ C.53 v in = 6 V . none of the above R in Rf − v in − + R + + v out − Figure 4.11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. and it is desired to have v out = 8 V . 1 KΩ B. – 9 V B. Then v out will be A. R in = 2 KΩ . none of the above R in v in + − Rf − + − + v out Figure 4. Circuit for Question 2 4-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .52 v in = 2 V . 4 KΩ E. R in = 1 KΩ . This will be obtained if the feedback resistor R f has a value of A.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4. 9 V C. 4 V E.

indeterminate D. Then v out will be A.Exercises 3. none of the above − + R iS − + v out Figure 4. – 12 V E. In the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Question 4 5. 0 V C. 10 V D. In the circuit of Figure 4.54.55 i S = 4 mA and R = 3 KΩ . and R LOAD = 6 KΩ . In the circuit of Figure 4. ∞ V B.54 i S = 2 mA and R f = 5 KΩ . ∞ V B. Then i will be Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-35 . Circuit for Question 3 4.56 v in = 4 V . R in = 12 KΩ . Then v out will be A. 0 V C. – 10 V E. none of the above Rf − iS + − + v out Figure 4.55. R f = 18 KΩ .

57 v in = 1 V and all resistors have the same value. – 1 mA B. Then v out will be A. 2 V C. none of the above R in v in + − − Rf i R LOAD + + v out − Figure 4. – 2 V B. – 4 V D. none of the above Rf − R in 1 Rf − R in 1 2 2 v in − + + + v out − + Figure 4.56. 4 ⁄ 3 mA E. 4 V E. – 4 ⁄ 3 mA D. 1 mA C.57.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A. Circuit for Question 5 6. In the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Question 6 4-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Circuit for Question 7 8. – 15 V D. – 90 V E. – 5 V B. v in2 = 4 V .59.Exercises 7. Circuit for Question 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-37 .58 v in1 = 2 V . In the circuit of Figure 4. none of the above R in Rf +v − − in 1 + v in 2 − + − + v out Figure 4. Then v out will be A. – 10 V C. none of the above 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v in + − 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + 10 KΩ + v out − Figure 4. – 8 V D. and R in = R f = 1 KΩ . 8 V E. 2 V C. Then v out will be A.59 v in = 30 V .58. In the circuit of Figure 4. – 2 V B.

61. none of the above 4 KΩ v in + − R in 4 KΩ − + 2 KΩ + 2 KΩ v out − 1 KΩ Figure 4. 400 A E.61. – 400 A D. 40 A C.60. Network for Question 10 4-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 9. none of the above + 5Ω 2A vX − 10 Ω + i − 40v X Figure 4. – 40 A B. 4 KΩ D. 8 KΩ E. For the circuit of Figure 4.60. the input resistance R in is A. 1 KΩ B. 2 KΩ C. Network for Question 9 10. the current i is A. For the circuit of Figure 4.

and the feedback resistance R f . Circuit for Problem 1 2. For the circuit of Figure 4. R in 1 . compute v out 2 .62. Answer: – 0. in3 in2 in1 Answer: v out = R f ⎛ --------. Derive an expression for v out in terms of the input voltage sources and their internal resistances. Circuit for Problem 2 3. compute i 5KΩ . R in 2 .63. For the circuit of Figure 4. v in 2 .– --------. and v in 3 respectively.⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 v v v Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-39 .9 V v in 1 3 KΩ 10 mV − + 27 KΩ − 10 KΩ − v ou t1 − 90 KΩ + + v in 2 − + + − + v out 2 Figure 4.64.62. Answer: 4µA − + 60 mV 4 KΩ i 5KΩ 5 KΩ + − 3 KΩ 6 KΩ Figure 4.Exercises Problems 1. For the circuit of Figure 4.63. and R in 3 represent the internal resistances of the input voltages v in 1 .– --------.

66. 4-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Answer: – 40 mV 10 KΩ 50 KΩ − + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − Figure 4.65.67 (c).75 KΩ R2 R1 v in+ − v out − + v out − + (a) + v in − R1 − R2 v ----+ R 1 in v out − + (b) Figure 4.66 (a) can be represented by its equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R in1 − R in2 R in3 Rf + + vout − + v in1 − + v in2 − v in3 − + Figure 4. Circuit for Problem 3 4. Answer: 3. For the circuit of Figure 4.66 (b). compute v out .64. compute the value of R L so that it will receive maximum power. Circuit for Problem 4 5. For the circuit of Figure 4. The op-amp circuit of Figure 4.65.

68. compute the gain G v = v out ⁄ v in . Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-41 .68. Answer: 20 mV 84 KΩ 100 KΩ 12 KΩ 4 KΩ − + + − + 72 mV 5 KΩ v 5KΩ − Figure 4. For the circuit of Figure 4. For the circuit of Figure 4.69.69. Circuit for Problem 6 20 KΩ v out − + 7. Circuits for Problem 5 6. Answer: – ( 2 ⁄ 37 ) R3 40 KΩ R2 R1 40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ + 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Figure 4.67.Exercises 20 KΩ 2 KΩ v in+ − − 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ + v out R LOAD − (c) Figure 4. compute v 5KΩ using Thevenin’s theorem.

R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----. For the circuit of Figure 4.70. show that the gain is given by v out R5 1 G v = --------. Circuit for Problem 8 R2 + v out − 4-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 8.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ v in R1 4 R3 R5 R4 R1 + v in − Figure 4.70.= – ----.

i LOAD = v out ⁄ R LOAD = – 6 V ⁄ 6 KΩ = – 1 mA . E By superposition. E All current flows through R and the voltage drop across it is 4 mA × 3 KΩ = 12 V . it follows that v out = 12 V also. D All current flows through R f and the voltage drop across it is – ( 2 mA × 5 KΩ ) = – 10 V 4. C v out = – ( 18 ⁄ 12 ) × 4 = – 6 V . v in = 30 V .= – 1 – -. Therefore. A v out = – R f ⁄ R in × v in = – 9 V 3. C For v in = 2 and v out = 8 . D The gain of each of the non-inverting op amps is 2. the output of the first op amp is 2 V and the output of the second is 4 V . Applying KCL at the plus (+) terminal of v out we get 4 –6 V –6 V–4 V 1 i = ------------.mA 3 6 KΩ 18 KΩ + 12 KΩ 3 6.= – -.Answers to Exercises 4.12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-43 . Thus. v out 1 due to v in1 acting alone is – 2 V and v out 2 due to v in2 acting alone is 8 V . 7. R f = 3 KΩ 2. Since this circuit is a unity gain amplifier. B We assign node voltage v A as shown below and we replace the encircled port by its equivalent. the gain must be G v = 4 or 1 + R f ⁄ R in = 4 . Then v out will be 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v A v in + − 10 KΩ 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + v out − We now attach the remaining resistors and the entire equivalent circuit is shown below. Therefore.+ --------------------------------------. 5. v out = – 2 + 8 = 6 V 8. Therefore.

the magnitude of the voltage is less than the magnitude of the input voltage. Op amps are not configured for attenuation. 4 KΩ v in + − i R in 2 KΩ 1 KΩ v 4 KΩ − + + 2 KΩ v out − v – v in v – ( – v in ) -------------.+ --------------------------.= 0 10 10 5 and thus v A = 30 ⁄ 6 = 5 V Therefore. C The voltage gain for this circuit is 4 KΩ ⁄ 4 KΩ = 1 and thus v out = – v in . v out = – 2v A = – 10V NOTE: For this circuit. This circuit is presented just for instructional purposes. this circuit is an attenuator.+ ---------------------. 9.= 0 4 4 or v = 0 Then v in i = ------------4 KΩ 4-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ ---. A better and simpler attenuator is a voltage divider circuit. The voltage v at the minus (−) input of the op amp is zero as proved below. not an amplifier. Therefore.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + vA − A 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 KΩ + + − v out 2v A − + v in 30 V − Application of KCL at Node A yields v A – 30 v A v A – ( – 2v A ) ---------------.

We assign R LOAD . i = – 400 ⁄ 10 = – 40 A Problems 1.Answers to Exercises and v in R in = -----------------------. − + 60 mV 4 KΩ + 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − v1 + v LOAD − i 5KΩ + − 5 KΩ 3 KΩ || 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ and by the voltage division expression 2 KΩ v 1 = --------------------------------. v 1 . we get v LOAD = v 1 = 20 mV Then Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-45 .⎞ × ( – 90 ) = – 0.× 60 mV = 20 mV 4 KΩ + 2 KΩ and since this is a unity gain amplifier.9 V ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2. v X = – 10 V and thus 40v X = – 400 V .= 4 KΩ v in ⁄ 4 KΩ 10. Then. and v LOAD as shown below. A For this circuit. v out1 = – ( 27 ⁄ 3 ) × 10 = – 90 mV and thus v in2 = v out1 = – 90 mV Then 90 v out2 = ⎛ 1 + ----.

= 4 × 10 A = 4 µA 3 R LOAD 5 KΩ 5 × 10 3.– --------.⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 4.= ---------------------.( – v in3 ) R in3 Then.= --------------.v in1 R in1 We observe that the minus (−) is a virtual ground and thus there is no current flow in R in1 and R in2 . v in3 v in2 v in1 v out = R f ⎛ --------. We assign voltages v − and v + as shown below.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers –3 v LOAD –6 20 mV 20 × 10 i 5KΩ = --------------. v out2 Rf = – --------. 10 KΩ v − 50 KΩ − v+ + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − 4-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v in2 R in2 v in1 = 0 v in3 = 0 and v out3 v in1 = 0 v in2 = 0 Rf = – --------.– --------. Also. By superposition v out = v out1 + v out2 + v out3 where v out1 v in2 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf = – --------.

v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 –3 Multiplication by 50 × 10 yields –6 3 2 × 80 × 10 × 50 × 10 ---------------------------------------------------------. R2=20000.Answers to Exercises At the minus (−) terminal v − – 40 mV v − – v out --------------------------. and R LOAD resistors to the equivalent circuit as shown below.v + = 2 × 10 – 6 3 40 × 10 or ---------------------v + = 80 × 10 3 –3 Since v + = v − we equate the nodal equations and we get 6 .= 0 40 KΩ 20 KΩ or 3 -------------------.= 0 10 KΩ 50 KΩ or 1 6 ------------------. By Thevenin’s theorem Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-47 . Vout=(R1*R3-R2*Rf)*Vin/(R1*(R2+R3)) Vout = -0. Vin=40*10^(−3).0400 5.– v out = 4 × 10 × 50 × 10 3 50 × 10 –3 3 3 or v out = – 40 mV Check with (4.⎞ – ------------------.v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3 − 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 At the plus (+) terminal v+ v + – 40 mV --------------------------.21) using MATLAB: R1=10000. R3=40000.---------------------1 ------------------. Rf=50000. We attach the 5 KΩ . 15 KΩ .+ -------------------.+ ---------------.v – ------------------.⎛ 80 × 10 .

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × + v in − 2 KΩ + − 10v in 15 KΩ v TH = v OC = v ab = -----------------------------------. 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × i SC + − 10v in We observe that the short circuit shorts out the 15 KΩ and thus – 10v in –3 i SC = --------------.= 3. for maximum power transfer we must have R LOAD = R TH = 3. we must compute the Thevenin resistance using the relation R TH = v TH ⁄ i SC where i SC is found from the circuit below.= – 2 × 10 v in 5 KΩ Then – 7.75 KΩ 4-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5v in Because the circuit contains a dependent source.75 KΩ –3 – 2 × 10 v in and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown below. R TH = 3.( – 10v in ) 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ or v TH = – 7.75 KΩ R LOAD v TH + − Therefore.5v in R TH = ----------------------------.

⎞ v . + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------.⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + For this circuit v in = v 5KΩ and the value of the VCVS is Rf ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⎜ 1 + ------. This is a non-inverting op amp whose equivalent circuit is shown below.Answers to Exercises 6. When this is done there is no current in the 4 KΩ and the circuit simplifies to the one shown below.⎞ v 5KΩ = 6v 5KΩ ⎝ 20 ⎠ R in ⎠ ⎝ Attaching the external resistors to the equivalent circuit above we get the circuit below.⎟ v 5KΩ = ⎛ 1 + -------. 84 KΩ 12 KΩ ×a + − 72 mV 4 KΩ 5 KΩ + + v 5KΩ − ×b − 6v 5KΩ To find the Thevenin equivalent at points a and b we disconnect the 5 KΩ resistor. 12 KΩ a v ab − b 84 KΩ + − 72 mV i + + 6v 5KΩ − By KVL ( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ )i + 6v 5KΩ = 72 mV or 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ i = -------------------------------------------( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ ) Also Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-49 .

5 KΩ and by the current division expression 126 10.5 KΩ + 4 KΩ Therefore.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 72 mV – ( 12 KΩ )i = 72 mV – 12 KΩ ⎛ -------------------------------------⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 96 KΩ 3 = 72 mV – 9 mV + -.v 5KΩ = 63 mV 4 and thus v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 252 mV The Thevenin resistance is found from R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC where i SC is computed with the terminals a and b shorted making v 5KΩ = 0 and the circuit is as shown on the left below.= -----------------. 12 KΩ + 4 KΩ a i SC b 84 KΩ 6 µA 12 KΩ 84 KΩ − 72 mV 4 KΩ a i SC b Now 12 KΩ || 84 KΩ = 10.v 5KΩ 4 or 3 v 5KΩ – -.= 58 KΩ i SC 126 ⁄ 29 and the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the 5 KΩ resistor is shown below. a R TH = 12 KΩ + − v TH = 252 mV 5 KΩ b 4-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We also perform voltage-source to current-source transformation and we get the circuit on the right below.5 KΩ i SC = i ab = ----------------------------------------.µA 29 10. v OC 252 R TH = -------.× 6 µA = -------.

× 252 = 20 mV 58 + 5 7.+ ----------------.+ ---------------.= 0 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ or v in v out 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ------------------. 5 v 5KΩ = -------------.= 0 50 KΩ 40 KΩ or 5 v 1 = – -.⎞ v = ------------------.+ ---------------.v out 4 14 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-51 . We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).+ ---------------.Answers to Exercises Finally.( v in + 5v out ) 14 Node 2: 0 – v 1 0 – v out ---------------.v out 4 Equating the right sides we get 5 1 ----.+ ---------------.+ ---------------.+ ---------------⎝ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ ⎠ 1 200 KΩ 40 KΩ Multiplication of each term by 200 KΩ and simplification yields 1 v 1 = ----. R3 40 KΩ 40 KΩ R4 v 2 50 KΩ 50 KΩ R2 + R1 v 1 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Node 1: v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – 0 v1 ------------------.( v in + 5v out ) = – -.+ ------------------.

= 0 R1 R3 or R3 v 2 = – ----.v out R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 4-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v out = – ----.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R R5 R4 R5 ⎠ 2 3 or 1 v 2 = ----------------------------------------------.v in R1 Node 2: v 2 – 0 v 2 v 2 – v out ------------.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 37 1 ----.+ ----.+ ----.+ ----. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 1 = 0 (virtual ground). v2 R3 R4 R5 R1 + v in − v1 R2 + v out − Node 1: 0 – v in 0 – v 2 -------------.+ ------------.= – ----v in 37 8.+ ------------------.= 0 R3 R5 R4 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.v in 28 14 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out 2 G v = -------.

= – ----.Answers to Exercises Equating the right sides we get R3 1 ----------------------------------------------.v out = – ----.v in R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 R1 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out R5 1G v = --------.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ R1 v in 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-53 .R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----.

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers NOTES 4-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Figure 5. their voltage-current relationships. Procedures for analyzing circuits with inductors and capacitors are presented along with several examples. resistance is not the only property that an electric circuit possesses. Magnetic field around a loop of wire The direction of the magnetic field (not shown) can be determined by the left-hand rule if conventional current flow is assumed. circuits with resistors and constant voltage and current sources. 5. We will study inductance first.2 Inductance Inductance is associated with the magnetic field which is always present when there is an electric current. and energy stored in inductors and capacitors. 5. Thus. We will see through some examples that will be presented later in this chapter. that is.1 shows a simple loop of wire and its magnetic field represented by the small loops. The effects of the inductance and capacitance properties can best be stated in simple differential equations since they involve the changes in voltage or current with time. or by the right-hand rule if electron current flow is assumed.1.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance T his chapter is an introduction to inductance and capacitance. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb). power absorbed.1 Energy Storage Devices In the first four chapters we considered resistive circuits only. Figure 5. when current flows in an electric circuit the conductors (wires) connecting the devices in the circuit are surrounded by a magnetic field. that inductance and capacitance have an effect on an electric circuit as long as there are changes in the voltages and currents in the circuit. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-1 . The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are referred to as lines of magnetic flux. in every circuit there are two other properties present and these are the inductance and the capacitance. However.

= --------------------amperes di L --------------------sec onds dt (5. Obviously.6) we can say that one henry is the inductance in a circuit in which a voltage of one volt is induced by a current changing at the rate of one ampere per second.8) where i L ( t 0 ) . the voltage-current relationship is v L = L -----di L dt (5. By separation of the variables we rewrite (5.Inductance For an inductor.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-3 . and it is referred to as the initial condition. Since vL volts L = -----.v L dt L 1 = -L (5. more often denoted as i L ( 0 ) .8) as 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫ 1 v L dt = -L –∞ t ∫ 1 v L dt + -L –∞ 0 ∫0 vL dt t (5. The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H .7) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or i(t) i ( t0 ) di L ∫ t t0 v L dt 1 i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt or iL ( t ) 1 = -L ∫ t t0 v L dt + iL ( t0 ) (5. We can also express (5.5) where v L and i L have the indicated polarity and direction.5) as di L 1 = -. v L has a non-zero value only when i L changes with time. is the current flowing through the inductor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 .

Compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5.4.4. and t = 11 ms For time interval 0 < t < 3 ms . Compute the flux linkage λ at t = 2. Then. t = 5 ms . i = mt + b where m is the slope of the straight line segment.1 The current i L ( t ) passing through a 50 mH inductor is shown in Figure 5. then from (5. Waveform for Example 5. The flux linkage λ is directly proportional to the current. t = 9 ms . and b is the i – axis intercept which. 5. 9.1) and (5. a. Example 5.10) At t = 2 ms .2) λ = N ϕ = Li Therefore. (5.10) yields i = – 5 mA . is 25 mA .Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance where the first integral on the right side represents the initial condition. The slope m is --------------------m = – 20 – 25 = – 15 3–0 and thus i 3 ms t=0 = – 15 t + 25 (5. we need to compute the current i at t = 2 ms .1 Solution: a. by inspection. and 11 ms b. the flux linkage is 5-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

= ----3–0 3 and thus 35 i = ----.11) For the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms .4.15) and with (5. Then.14) Also. i = mt + b where 15 – ( – 20 ) 35 m = ------------------------.Inductance λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 × ( – 5 ) × 10 –3 and λ t = 2 ms = – 250 µWb (5. Thus. λ t = 9 ms = Li = – 125 µWb (5. i = – 20 mA as seen in Figure 5.12) and therefore at t = 5 ms .× 10 3 or λ t = 5 ms = -------.16) Likewise. 35 – 20 = ----.5t – 70 (5.13) Using the same procedure we find that i 8 ms t = 6 ms = – 12. and the flux linkage is λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 10 –3 × ----.µWb 3 500 (5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-5 .15). i 10 ms t = 8 ms = 7. the straight line equation for the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms is i 6 ms t = 3 ms 35 = ----.5 t + 90 (5.t – 55 3 (5. i = 10 ⁄ 3 mA .t + b 3 To find b we use the fact that at t = 3 ms .× 3 + b 3 from which b = – 55 .

24) 12 < t < 14 ms 5-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .17). Then. λ t = 11 ms = Li = 125 µWb (5.5 mA ⁄ ms = – 12.5 = 375 mV (5.10).5 ) = – 625 mV (5.5 t + 30 (5. (5. that is.12). slope vL slope vL –∞ < t < 0 –∞ < t < 0 = 0 = L × slope = 0 = – 15 mA ⁄ ms = – 15 A ⁄ s –3 (5. (5.23) slope vL 10 < t < 12 ms = – 2. compute the slope of the straight line segments for this interval.19) 0 < t < 3 ms 0 < t < 3 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 3 < t < 6 ms v--------.5 mA ⁄ ms = – 2.18) b.5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope × ( – 2. Since di L v L = L -----dt to compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms .15). and (5.22) = 7. we only need to differentiate.17) and with (5.14). These were found in part (a) as (5.3 mV (5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i 12 ms t = 10 ms = – 2.5 mA ⁄ ms = 7.17).5 A ⁄ s –3 vL 8 < t < 10 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 10 < t < 12 ms × 7.5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 8 < t < 10 ms × ( – 12.20) = 35 ⁄ 3 mA ⁄ ms = 35 ⁄ 3 A ⁄ s –3 vL 3 < t < 6 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 6 < t < 8 ms × ( 35 ⁄ 3 ) = 583.21) slope vL 6 < t < 8 ms = – 12.× ( – 15 A ⁄ s ) = – 750 mV A⁄s (5. (5.5 ) = – 125 mV = 0 (5.

vL(t) t -5.750 Figure 5.6.550 0 -4. Waveform for Example 5.1 Example 5.500 −0.5.600 0 -4.900 0 -4.5.6.1 800 Voltage (mV) 400 0 t (ms) -400 -800 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Figure 5.650 0 -4.125 −0. Compute and sketch the current which flows through this inductor in the interval – 5 < t < 5 ms vL ( t ) 0.500 0. and it is given that the initial condition is i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA .500 0 Voltage waveform for Example 5.250 −0.625 0.625 −0.25) to sketch v L as a function of time.950 0 -4.250 0.375 0.2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-7 .Inductance vL 12 < t < 14 ms = L × slope = 0 (5. We can do this easily with a spreadsheet such as Excel as shown in Figure 5.25) We now have all values given by (5. Voltage waveform for Example 5.75 ⁄ 3 2 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) −0.000 0 -4.2 The voltage across a 50 mH inductor is as shown on the waveform of Figure 5.850 0 -4.375 −0.800 0 -4.125 (V) 1.700 0 -4.750 0 -4.19) through (5.

Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Solution: The current i L ( t ) in an inductor is related to the voltage v L ( t ) by (5.2 The same result can be obtained by graphical integration.7.75 V Then. vL 0 < t < 3 ms = – 0. Thus. iL –∞ < t < 0 = 25 mA From the given waveform. that is. Inductor current for 0 < t < 3 ms . Example 5. iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 t (ms) Figure 5. iL 1 = ---------------------–3 0 < t < 3 ms 50 × 10 ∫0 3 ms ( – 0. the current has dropped linearly from 25 mA at t = 0 to – 20 mA at t = 3 ms as shown in Figure 5.7.25 × 10 ) + 20 × 0 + 25 × 10 ⎠ –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = – 20 × 10 –3 = – 20 mA that is.75 ) dt + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ – 0. 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt + i L ( t 0 ) where i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA is the initial condition.75t ⎝ = – 45 × 10 3 0 × 10 ⎞ –3 –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = 20 ( – 2. 5-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8) which is repeated here for convenience.

the current has decreased linearly from 15 mA at t = 6 ms to – 10 mA at t = 8 ms as shown in Figure 5. we get iL 8 ms 1 = -.( Area t = 3 ) + initial condition L t = 6 ms 1. Example 5.× 3 × 10 ⎞ – 20 × 10 = 15 mA ⎝ 3 ⎠ and now the current has increased linearly from – 20 mA at t = 3 ms to 15 mA at t = 6 ms as shown in Figure 5. we get iL 6 ms 1 = -.750 × 3 × 10 ) + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = – 20 mA and the value of i L 3 < t < 6 ms .8.625 × 2 × 10 ) + 15 × 10 –3 –3 = – 10 mA Therefore.Inductance iL 3 ms 1 = -.9.( Area t = 6 ) + initial condition L t = 8 ms = 20 ( – 0. Inductor current for 0 < t < 6 ms . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-9 .2 For the time interval 6 < t < 8 ms .75 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ --------.( Area t = 0 ) + initial condition L t = 3 ms = 20 ( – 0. iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 t (ms) Figure 5. t = 3 ms = – 20 mA now becomes our initial condition for the time interval Continuing with graphical integration.8.

5-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Finally.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 t (ms) Figure 5.( Area t = 8 ) + initial condition L t = 10 ms = 20 ( 0.375 × 2 × 10 ) – 10 × 10 –3 –3 = 5 mA that is.( Area t = 10 ) + initial condition L t = 12 ms = 20 ( – 0.125 × 2 × 10 ) + 5 × 10 –3 –3 =0 that is.9. Example 5.10.11. for the time interval 10 ms < t < 12 ms we get iL 12 ms 1 = -.2 For the time interval 8 ms < t < 10 ms we get iL 10 ms 1 = -. the current has decreased linearly from 5 mA at t = 10 ms to 0 mA at t = 12 ms and remains at zero for t > 12 ms as shown in Figure 5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 8 ms . the current has increased linearly from – 10 mA at t = 8 ms to 5 mA at t = 10 ms as shown in Figure 5.

However. 6. the current through the inductor never changes instantaneously. and 12 ms . 5. 3. Inductor current for 0 < t < 10 ms .11.2 Example 5. 8. Example 5.3 Power and Energy in an Inductor Power in an inductor with inductance L is found from Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-11 .2 iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5.2 confirms the well known fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time.Power and Energy in an Inductor iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 t (ms) Figure 5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 12 ms . 10. We observe that the voltage across the inductor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 0.10. This can be observed from the voltage and current waveforms for this and the previous example. that is. Example 5.

3 For the circuit shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance di L di L p L = v L i L = ⎛ L ⎞ i L = Li L ⎝ dt ⎠ dt (5. WL t i ( t ) di L i(t) t p L dt = L = i L dt = L i L di L t0 t0 i ( t0 ) d t i ( t0 ) ∫ ∫ ∫ or WL i(t) 1 1 2 2 2 = -. Electric circuits that contain inductors can be simplified if the applied voltage and current sources are constant as shown by the following example. compute the power absorbed and the energy consumed by the 5 mH inductor. Transients will be in Chapter 10. Example 5. compute v 1 . after some transient disturbances. Since vL di L L -----dt d ( cons tan t ) dt = = L = 0 * By steady state conditions we mean the condition (state) where the voltages and currents. that is.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 t0 2 i ( t0 ) t or 2 2 1 W L ( t ) – W L ( t 0 ) = -. Solution: Since both the voltage and the current sources are constant. and v 3 . v 2 . after steady-state*conditions have been reached.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting i L = 0 at t = 0 . the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring.Li L = -. designated as W L is the integral of the power.27) Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat). 5-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the voltages and the currents in all branches of the circuit will be constant after steady-state conditions have been reached.26) and the energy in an inductor.Li L ( t ) 2 (5.12. Then. we get the energy stored in an inductor as 1 2 W L ( t ) = -. have subsided.

12.-. The given circuit then reduces to the one shown in Figure 5.= 0 4 5+2 9 or ⎛ 1 + 1 + 1⎞ v – 1 v = 6 --. in Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5.+ ---------------.13. Circuit for Example 5.13.28) At Node v B Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-13 .Power and Energy in an Inductor 6Ω 4Ω 40 mH 3Ω 25 mH 9Ω 5Ω + − v3 15 A − + 35 mH v2 8Ω + − 24 V 30 mH 5 mH + v1 − 12 Ω 20 mH 10 Ω 60 mH 15 mH Figure 5.3 then.-.3 after steady-state conditions have been reached Now.13 where the 3 Ω and 6 Ω parallel resistors have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor. let us first find v A and v B using nodal analysis.+ ---. To find v 2 and v 2 . by inspection. vA 4Ω 9Ω 5Ω 2 Ω vB + v2 − + v3 15 A 8Ω + − 24 V + v1 − − Figure 5.⎝ 4 9 7⎠ A 7 B (5. At Node v A .. v A – 24 v A v A – v B ---------------. v 1 = 0 since the 12 Ω resistor was shorted out by the 60 mH inductor. all voltages across the inductors will be zero and therefore we can replace all inductors by short circuits.

+ --⎞ v B = 15 . −1/7 1/7+1/8].14 (a) so that the current i will be the same for both circuits.5 × 5 × 10 × ⎛ ------------------⎞ ⎝ 8 ⎠ 2 2 ⎝8⎠ or W 5 mH = 0.Li 5 mH = -. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Seq in terms of L 1. p 5 mH = 0 watts Also. disp('vA=').29) We will use the MATLAB code below to find the solution of (5.– 15 + ---. v A = 360 ⁄ 11 V v B = 808 ⁄ 11 V v 2 = v A – v 2 = – 448 ⁄ 11 V v 3 = v 2 = 808 ⁄ 11 V and p 5 mH = v 5 mH × i 5 mH = 0 × i 5 mH = 0 that is.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance vB vB – vA ---------------.211 J 5.= 0 5+2 8 or 1 1 1 – -. …. I=[6 15]'. V=G\I.L ⎛ ---. 1 2 1 v3 2 808 ⁄ 11 2 –3 W 5 mH = -.28) and (5. disp('vB=').⎞ = 0. disp(V(1)). L 2. format rat % Express answers in rational form G=[1/4+1/9+1/7 −1/7.29).4 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors Consider the circuits of figures 5.⎝ 7 8⎠ 7 (5. 5-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v A + ⎛ -. L N in Figure 5.14 (a) and 5.14 (b) where the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits. disp(V(2)) vA= 360/11 vB= 808/11 Therefore.

iS + v − i1 L1 (a) i2 L2 iS iN LN + v − (b) L Peq Figure 5.14 (b).30) From the circuit of Figure 5. Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.15 (a) and 5. di L Seq ---.15 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same for both circuits.30) and (5. L 2.32) Thus.15.Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors + vS L1 − + L2 − − + LN − vS + + − + − i (a) i (b) L Seq − Figure 5. we will consider the circuits of Figures 5. di di di L 1 ---.31) we get: L Seq = L 1 + L 2 + … + L N (5.15 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits.31) Equating the left sides of (5.= v S dt dt dt or di ( L 1 + L 2 + … + L N ) ---.= v S dt (5.14. …. L N in Figure 5.15 (a) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-15 .= v S dt (5. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Peq in terms of L 1. Next.+ L 2 ---. inductors in series combine as resistors in series do. Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5.14 (a).+ … + L N ---.

inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do.⎞ S ⎝L L2 L N⎠ – ∞ 1 ∫ (5.11---------.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or 1.34) we get: 11. replace all inductors by a single equivalent inductor.+ ---. 35 mH L eq 45 mH 125 mH 30 mH 40 mH 60 mH 120 mH 90 mH 15 mH Figure 5.33) From the circuit of Figure 5.t 1.+ ---.16.1⎛ ---. Example 5.4 5-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ---.36) Thus.4 For the network of Figure 5. Network for Example 5.t v dt = i 1.34) Equating the left sides of (5.16.t ---v dt + ---v dt + … + ----v dt = i S LN –∞ L2 –∞ L1 –∞ ∫ ∫ ∫ or 1.15 (b) 1 ---------L Peq ∫– ∞ v d t t = iS (5.t 1.33) and (5.+ … + ----.35) and for the special case of two parallel inductors L1 L2 L Peq = ----------------L1 + L2 (5.+ … + ----L Peq L1 L2 LN (5.

A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric.19. we find that 60 mH || 120 mH = 40 mH . Now.5 mH .Capacitance Solution: Starting at the right end of the network and moving towards the left end. 30 mH || 15 mH = 10 mH . a n d a l s o 45 mH || 90 mH = 30 mH .18. RS S C vS − + Figure 5.5 mH Figure 5.5 mH = 92. is the standard symbol for a capacitor.19 where the device denoted as C .17.17. 75 mH L eq 30 mH 125 mH 40 mH 10 mH Figure 5. Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5.2 we learned that inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow.5 Capacitance In Section 5.16 5. just as we considered the entire inductance to be concentrated in a single inductor.18. capacitance is associated with an electric field. let us consider the simple series circuit of Figure 5. Simple circuit to illustrate a charged capacitor Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-17 . L eq 92. with reference to Figure 5. First step in combination of inductances Finally. ( 40 mH + 35 mH + 10 mH ) || 125 mH = 62. In a simple circuit we can represent the entire capacitance with a device called capacitor. Similarly.17. 40 mH + 35 mH = 75 mH . The network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5.5 mH as shown in Figure 5. and L eq = 30 mH + 62.

Figure 5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance When the switch S closes in the circuit of Figure 5. The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F and since 5-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .38) obey the passive sign convention. we have the relation dq d i = ----.20 shows the distribution of the electric field between the two plates of a capacitor. in an electric field the lines of force start at the positive plate and terminate at the negative plate.20. an electric field has been established between the plates of the capacitor. Thus. whereas magnetic lines of force are always complete loops. q = Cv (5. but it decreases in density beyond the edges of the plates. the voltage source will force electrons from its negative terminal through the conductor to the lower plate of the capacitor and it will accumulate negative charge. The distribution of the electric field set up in a capacitor is usually represented by lines of force similar to the lines of force in a magnetic field. The charge q on the plates is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. Electric field between the plates of a capacitor We observe that the electric field has an almost uniform density in the area directly between the plates.19. However. At the same time. + + + + + + − − − − − − Figure 5. electrons which were present in the upper plate of the capacitor will move towards the positive terminal of the voltage source. Therefore. This action leaves the upper plate of the capacitor deficient in electrons and thus it becomes positively charged.38) where i C and v C in (5.= ( Cv ) dt dt or dv C i C = C -------dt (5.37) and recalling that the current i is the rate of change of the charge q.

Capacitance iC amperes C = ------.= --------------------volts dv C -------------------sec onds dt (5.21 represents the current flowing through a 1 µF capacitor.5 The waveform shown in Figure 5. and denoted as v C ( 0 ) . the voltage across a capacitor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 . Example 5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-19 .38) as 1 dv C = --. We can also write (5.41) where v C ( t 0 ) is the initial condition.i C dt C (5. Compute and sketch the voltage across this capacitor for the time interval 0 < t < 4 ms given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 .39) we can say that one farad is the capacitance in a circuit in which a current of one ampere flows when the voltage is changing at the rate of a one volt per second.41) as 1 v C ( t ) = --C 1 i C dt = --C –∞ t ∫ ∫ 1 i C dt + --C –∞ 0 ∫0 iC dt t where the initial condition is represented by the first integral on the right side. By separation of the variables we rewrite (5.40) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or vC ( t ) 1 dv C = --C vC ( t0 ) ∫t t 0 i C dt 1 v C ( t ) – v C ( t 0 ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt or 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt + v C ( t 0 ) (5. that is.

00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.00 0.25 (V) ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 0 vC ( 0 ) −0.75 −1.50 0.5 Solution: The initial condition v C ( 0 ) = 0 .50 −0.( 1 × 10 –3 × 1 × 10 –3 ) = 1 volt –6 ⎠ 1 × 10 and this value establishes the second point of the straight line segment passing through the origin as shown in Figure 5.21.22.25 (mA) 1 0 2 3 4 t (ms) −0.75 0.5 5-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Waveform for Example 5. 0 ) on the v C ( t ) versus time plot of Figure 5. establishes the first point at the coordinates ( 0.22. vC ( t ) 1. Next.00 0.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) 1.⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 1 ⎞ = ------------------.75 0.50 0.25 −0. vC t = 1 ms 1 = --C –3 ∫0 1 × 10 –3 i C dt + or vC t = 1 ms 1 = --.75 −1.50 −0.25 −0. Straight line segment for 0 < t < 1 ms of the voltage waveform for Example 5.22.00 Figure 5.

75 0. and the initial conditions and the areas are the same as before. the capacitor voltage v c waveform of figure (b) starts repeating itself also as shown in Figure 5.25 −0.25 −0.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.50 0.25 (V) −0.24.75 0.23.23.( – 1 × 10 × ( 2 – 1 ) × 10 ) + 1 = 0 volts –6 1 × 10 Thus. vC ( t ) 1.25 (V) −0.5 There is no need to calculate the values of the capacitor voltage v c at t = 3 ms and at t = 4 ms because the waveform of the current i c starts repeating itself at t = 2 ms .00 0.24.⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 –3 ⎞ +1 ⎠ 1 –3 –3 = ------------------.50 0. we get vC t = 2 ms 1 = --.Capacitance This value of 1 volt at t = 1 ms becomes our initial condition for the time interval 1 < t < 2 . Accordingly.75 −1.00 0.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-21 . vC ( t ) 1.50 −0.50 −0.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.75 −1. the capacitor voltage then decreases linearly from 1 volt at t = 1 ms to 0 volts at t = 2 ms as shown in Figure 5. Continuing. Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 4 ms of Example 5. Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 2 ms of Example 5.

25.24. we observe that the current through the capacitor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 1. it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time as shown in Figure 5. the voltage and current sources are constant.21.6 In the circuit of figure 5. denoted as W C is the integral of the power. 5.42) where we observe that if the current in an inductor or the voltage across a capacitor could change instantaneously. then the energies W L and W C would also change instantaneously but this is.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting v C = 0 at t = 0 . a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy. that is.6 Power and Energy in a Capacitor Power in a capacitor with capacitance C is found from dv C ⎞ pC = vC iC = vC ⎛ C ⎝ dt ⎠ and the energy in a capacitor. Example 5.42) Like an inductor.5 has illustrated the well known fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. Referring to the current and voltage waveforms for this example. These facts can also be seen from the expressions of the energy in an inductor and in a capacitor.Cv c 2 1 2 2 = -. the voltage across the capacitor never changes instantaneously. However. It was stated earlier that the current through an inductor and the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. a physical impossibility.Cv C ( t ) 2 (5. 2. that is. and 4 ms in Figure 5.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 or 1 2 2 W C ( t ) – W C ( t 0 ) = -. of course.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Example 5. we get the energy stored in a capacitor as 1 2 W C ( t ) = -.27) and (5. 5-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 3. equations (5. WC t t0 = ∫t t 0 p C dt = C i(t) i ( t0 ) ∫ v(t ) 0 v(t) vC dv C dt = C dt ∫ v (t ) vC dvc 0 v(t) 1 2 = -.

26 by first exchanging the 15 A current source and resistor R 8 for a voltage source of 15 × 8 = 120 V in series with R 8 as shown in Figure 5. Compute the power and energy in the 2 µF capacitor. Thus. First simplification of the circuit of Example 5. Therefore. But Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-23 . The voltage and current sources are constant. thus. R1 4Ω C1 R2 7Ω R3 2Ω 1 µF L3 5Ω C2 30 mH 15 A C3 R7 3 µF 5Ω R8 i L1 L 1 40 mH R 4 R6 8Ω − 24 V + L2 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω v C2 + − 2 µF L4 L5 25 mH 60 mH 20 mH Figure 5. We also combine the series-parallel resistors R 1 through R 4 .Power and Energy in a Capacitor a.6 We can simplify the circuit of figure 5. R eq = ( 4 + 2 ) || ( 7 + 5 ) = 4 Ω . Circuit for Example 5. the voltages across the inductors will be zero and the currents through the capacitors will be zero.27.25.6 Solution: a.26. R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω + − 24 V v C2 + − Figure 5. Compute i L1 and v C2 b.26. after steady-state conditions have been reached. we can replace the inductors by short circuits and the capacitors by open circuits and the given circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 5.

R=[20 −6.6 5-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . disp(I(2)) i1= -96/61 i2= -564/61 Therefore. I=R\V. −6 14]. shown in Figure 5. disp(‘i2=’). is found. this presents no problem since we can apply the current division expression once i. however. Final simplification of the circuit of Example 5. The simplified circuit then is i + R eq 4Ω R6 R8 + v C2 8Ω − 24 V i1 R5 10 Ω 6Ω − i2 + − 120 V Figure 5. disp(I(1)). we will write two mesh equations and we will solve using MATLAB.6 We can apply superposition here.27. These in matrix form are 20 – 6 i 1 = 24 – 6 14 i 2 – 120 Solution using MATLAB: format rat. V=[24 −120]'.28 R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω − 24 V + 6Ω − + v C2 Figure 5.27. disp(‘i1=’). Circuit for computation of i L1 and v C2 for Example 5. with reference to the circuit of Figure 5. Instead.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance now we observe that the branch in which the current i L1 flows has disappeared.28.

⎞ = ----------. v C1 + v C2 + … + v CN = v S or 1 ----C1 ∫ 1 i dt + ----C2 –∞ t ∫ 1 i dt + … + ------CN –∞ t t ∫–∞ i dt t = vS or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.03 V ⎝ 61 61 ⎠ 61 b.29 (a). p 2 µF = v 2 µF × i 2 µF = v C2 × 0 = 0 and 2808 2 1 2 –6 W 2 µF = -.525 A ( 4 + 2 ) + ( 7 + 5 ) ⎝ 61⎠ 61 and 96 564 2808 v C2 = 6 ⎛ – ----.29 (a) so that the current i will be the same in both circuits.Capacitance Combinations (4 + 2) --------i L1 = ---------------------------------------. + − + C1 − vS + − C2 − (a) vS i + CN − i (b) + + − C Seq Figure 5.+ … + ------.× ⎛ – 96⎞ = – 32 = – 0.= 46.29.⎞ ⎝C C C ⎠ 1 2 N ∫– ∞ i d t = vS (5. We want to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Seq in terms of C 1.+ -------. C 2.43) From the circuit of Figure 5.5 × 2 × 10 × ⎛ -----------⎞ = 2 mJ ⎝ 61 ⎠ 2 5. Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.+ ----.7 Capacitance Combinations Consider the circuits of figures 5.29 (b) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-25 . ….Cv 2 µF = 0. C N in Figure 5.29 (b) in which the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits.29 (a) and 5.

47) and (5.44) we get: 1 1 1 1 ---------. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Peq in terms of C 1.= i S dt (5. dv C Peq ----.+ C 2 ----.+ ----.48) Equating the left sides of (5. i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or dv dv dv C 1 ----.30. …. Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5. we will consider the circuits of figures 5.= ----.30 (a) and 5. iS + v − i1 C1 (a) i2 C2 + iN CN iS v − (b) C Peq Figure 5.30 (a).46) Thus capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do.30 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same in both circuits.= i S dt dt dt or dv ( C 1 + C 2 + … + C N ) ----.43) and (5.47) From the circuit of Figure 5.+ … + ------C Seq C1 C2 CN (5. Next.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 1---------C Seq ∫–∞ i dt t = vS (5.44) Equating the left sides of (5.30 (b).30 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits. C 2.45) and for the special case of two capacitors in series C1 C2 C Seq = -----------------C1 + C2 (5.= i S dt (5.48) we get: 5-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . C N in Figure 5.+ … + C N ----.

Example 5.µF 31 4 µF 6 µF C eq 20 µF Figure 5. C eq 20 µF Figure 5.µF 31 2 µF 1 µF 3 µF 8 µF 12 µF 4 µF Figure 5. we find that 3 µF || 1 µF = 4 µF . 2 µF || 4 µF = 6 µF . 4. Finally.32. capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. replace all capacitors by a single equivalent capacitor.7 For the network of Figure 5.31.31. 10 µF 560 -------.49) Thus.7 Solution: Starting at the right of the network and moving towards the left.33. 15 µF in series with 30µF = 10µF . Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5. and 8 µF || 12 µF = 20 µF . the series combination of 20 µF and 20 µF yields C eq = 10 µF as shown in Figure 5. and 6µF capacitors y i e l d s 60 ⁄ 31 µF a n d 60 ⁄ 31 µF || 560 ⁄ 31 µF = 20 µF .16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-27 . T he network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5.33. Network for Example 5.Capacitance Combinations C Peq = C 1 + C 2 + … + C N (5. t h e s e r i e s c o m b i n a t i o n o f 10. 15 µF 30 µF C eq 560 -------. First step in combination of capacitances N e x t .32.

However.+ C ---. Thus. Circuit for Example 5. R1 v S1 − C L + v S2 + − R2 Figure 5. the steadystate circuit analysis could be performed by nodal. v1 R1 v S1 − v2 v4 C L v3 R2 + v S2 + v0 − Figure 5.( v 2 – v 4 ) + -dt L R1 ∫– ∞ ( v 2 – v 3 ) d t v3 = 0 t = 0 At Node 3: 1 -L ∫–∞ ( v3 – v2 ) dt + -----R2 t 5-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we need N – 1 = 5 – 1 = 4 nodal equations.35.35.8 Solution: Nodal Analysis: We assign nodes as shown in Figure 5. Nodal analysis for the circuit of Example 5.8 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms In Examples 5. if the voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities we must apply KCL or KVL in general terms as illustrated by the following example.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5.34. mesh or any other method of analysis as we learned in Chapter 3. Example 5.34.3 and 5.6 the voltage and current sources were constant and therefore.8 At Node 1: v 1 = v S1 At Node 2: v2 – v1 d 1 --------------.8 Write nodal and mesh equations for the circuit shown in Figure 5.

the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring. R1 v S1 − C L + i1 v S2 + − R2 i2 Figure 5. we can add the initial condition terms and replace the lower limit of integration – ∞ with zero in the integrodifferential equations above. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-29 . the initial conditions are included in the limits of integration. λ = N ϕ • For an inductor. • The magnetic flux is denoted as ϕ and.Summary At Node 4: v 4 = – v S2 Mesh Analysis: We need M = B – 1 = 6 – 5 + 1 = 2 mesh equations. Thus. denoted as λ . the voltage-current relationship is v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) • The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H.36. Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 5.8 For Mesh 1: 1 R 1 i 1 + --C ∫–∞ ( i1 – i2 ) dt – vS1 – vS2 t t = 0 For Mesh 2: 1 dL ---.9 Summary • Inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow.i 2 + R 2 i 2 + v S2 + --C dt ∫– ∞ ( i 2 – i 1 ) d t = 0 In both the nodal and mesh equations. • The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are called lines of magnetic flux. 5. Alternately. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb). • Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat). Then.36. we assign currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 5. is called flux linkage. the total flux. if there are N turns and we assume that the flux ϕ passes through each turn.

a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. • Like an inductor. if the applied voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities. • The energy stored in a capacitor is W C ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Cv C ( t ) • The voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. • Inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do. • In a circuit that contains inductors and/or capacitors. q = Cv • In a capacitor. 5-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • The charge q on the plates of a capacitor is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. the voltage-current relationship is i C = C ( dv C ⁄ dt ) • The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F. • Capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do. • Inductors in series combine as resistors in series do. a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants. • Capacitance is associated with an electric field. integrodifferential equations. • Capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached. an inductor behaves like a short circuit. Thus. in general. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance • The energy stored in an inductor is W L ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Li L ( t ) • The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. • A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric. the nodal and mesh equations are. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached.

mH D. λ = Li C. Weber E. are unpredictable E. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that A. v = dλ ⁄ dt E. µF B. Ohm C. Ohm C. None of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-31 .Exercises 5. None of the above 2. v = L ( di ⁄ dt ) D. are complete loops B. None of the above 4. Coulomb E. λ = Nϕ B. Farad B. None of the above 3. The unit of inductance is the A. start at the positive plate and end at the negative plate C. In an electric field of a capacitor. the lines of force A. The unit of capacitance is the A. start at the negative plate and end at the positive plate D. Farad D.10 Exercises Multiple Choice 1.

the current cannot change instantaneously C. In the circuit of Figure 5. both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Cv ) C. None of the above 7. dissipated in the form of heat E. the current cannot change instantaneously C. The energy in a capacitor is A. neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D. None of the above 8. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. In a capacitor A. dissipated in the form of heat E. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Li ) B. neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. v C i C D. In an inductor A. v L i L D.37 after steady-state conditions have been established. None of the above 6. the current i L through the inductor will be 2 2 2 2 5-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Ci ) B. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Lv ) C. The energy in an inductor is A. both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. None of the above 9.

a. In the circuit of Figure 5.37. Compute and sketch the voltage v L across this inductor for t > 0 b.5 A D. ∞ V C. 0 A B. The current i L flowing through a 10 mH inductor is shown by the waveform of Figure 5. None of the above Problems 1. the voltage v C across the capacitor will be + − + C 2 µF R 5Ω vS − 10 V Figure 5. 0 V B.38 after steady-state conditions have been established. – 10 V D. None of the above 10. 2. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = 50 µw Answer: t = 5 ms Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-33 . 10 V E. 5 A E.Exercises iL 5 mH 5Ω iS 5 A Figure 5.39. Circuit for Question 9 A. Circuit for Question 10 A. ∞ A C.38.

4 mJ b.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance c. Waveform for Problem 1 2. Answer: 1 mJ 5-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and inductor at t = 10 ms if: a. capacitor.56 ms 3. compute the energy stored in the 5 mH inductor at t = 1 s given that i ( 0 ) = 0 .40. For the network of Figure 5.39.4 mH C 100 µF Rest of the Network Figure 5. Network for Problem 3 4.85 ms c. Answer: 3. For the circuit of Figure 5. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = – 5 mw . Answer: 50 µJ vC ( t ) + − i(t) R 5Ω L 0. Answer: 7. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = 5 mw . and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 a. i ( t ) = 0. Compute and sketch the voltage v C across this capacitor for t > 0 b. Answer: 23.1e – 100t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = – 10 V . Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = – 50 µw Answer: t = 25 ms 10 iL (mA) 40 0 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) −10 Figure 5. The current i C flowing through a 1 µF capacitor is given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA .40. i ( t ) = 0. compute the total energy stored in the series combination of the resistor.41.5 cos 5t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 .

Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-35 . C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − R1 C2 L Figure 5. replace all capacitors with an equivalent capacitance C eq and then compute the energy stored in C eq at t = 1 ms given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 in all capacitors.Exercises i(t ) + − 5 mH 3 mH 10 mH 7 mH v S ( t ) 10e – t mV Figure 5.43. Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 5.44. C1 R1 L2 C2 L1 + − vS ( t ) R2 Figure 5. Answer: 10 pJ 10 µF 3 µF 6 µF 8 µF iS ( t ) 10 µA Figure 5.42.41. Write nodal equations for the circuit of Figure 5.44. Circuit for Problem 6 7. For the circuit of Figure 5. Circuit for Problem 4 5.42. Circuit for Problem 5 6.43.

E Henry 2. D Problems 1. vL 10 ms 0 –3 ∆i L A – 3 10 × 10 = L × slope = L ------. we need to compute the slope of each segment of the given waveform and multiply it by L . C 3. D 4.= 10 × 10 × ---------------------------. Thus. E – 5 A 10.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. vL vL 40 ms 20 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 = L × slope = 10 × 10 vL 50 ms 40 [ – 10 – ( 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------. A 6.= 10 mV –3 ∆t 10 × 10 s 20 ms 10 Likewise. 5-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and power waveforms are shown below. B 7. voltage.= – 10 mV –3 ( 40 – 20 ) × 10 s –3 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 vL 10 ms 0 = L × slope = 10 × 10 [ 0 – ( – 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------. A 9. B 5. B 8.= 10 mV –3 ( 60 – 50 ) × 10 s –3 The current.11 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. a. In an inductor the voltage and current are related by v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) = L × slope .

For this problem C = 1 µF = 10 –6 F and the current i C is a sinusoid given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA as shown below. The voltage v C ( t ) across this capacitor is found from 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 3 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 3 6 ∫0 ( 10 t –3 ) cos 100τ dτ + 0 = 10 ∫0 10 cos 100τ dτ = -------. a. From the power waveform above.sin 100τ 100 t = 10 sin 100t 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-37 . we observe that p L = v L i L = 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 5 ms c.Answers to Exercises 10 10 mH 0 iL (mA) 40 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) iL ( t ) −10 vL 10 (mV) + vL ( t ) − 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 t (ms) −10 pL ( µ w ) 100 A pL = vL iL 20 0 10 30 40 50 60 t (ms) B −100 b. From the power waveform above. we observe that p L = v L i L = – 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 25 ms 2.

Since v C ( t ) is a sine function and i C ( t ) a cosine function. vC ( t ) (V) 10 10 sin 100t π -------100 – 10 T π ----50 Now. ωT = 2π or ω = 2π ⁄ T .Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) ( mA ) cos 100t t (s) and the waveform of v C ( t ) is shown below. 10 sin ----.t = 10 sin 100t or 2π ⁄ T = 100 and T = 2π ⁄ 100 or T = π ⁄ 50 2π T b. the first time after zero that their product will be positive is in the interval 0 < t < π ⁄ 200 where we want p C = v C i C = 5 mw or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( 10 cos 100t ) = 5 × 10 –3 –3 w or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( cos 100t ) = 5 w Recalling that 5-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Then.

4f J'.00785 s = 7. For this part Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-39 .1e t – 100τ dτ – 10 – 100t 10 × 0.1*exp(−1))^2+((−10)*exp(−1))^2).4 mJ –4 –1 2 –1 2 We’ve used MATLAB as a calculator to obtain the answer. The time where p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time is 7.85 ms after t = π ⁄ 200 s or after t = 1000π ⁄ 200 ms = 5π ms .Li L + -.× 0.1e ) + -. Thus. Therefore.1e ) + ( – 10e ) ] = 3.1e – 100t and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 4 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 4 ∫0 0.85 ms 200 200 400 –1 c. 1 2 1 2 W T = W L + W C = -.1 – 100τ – 100τ = --------------------.WT).56 ms 3.85 + 15. that is.× 10 × ( – 10e ) 2 2 = 2. fprintf('WT=%7. a. p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time at t = 7. it is dissipated in the form of heat.e – 10 = 10e – 100 0 0 t = 10 – 10e – 10 or v C ( t ) = – 10e – 100t Then.71 = 23.= 0. WT=2. fprintf(' \n').Cv C 2 2 where i L = i ( t ) = 0. fprintf(' \n') WT= 0.4 × 10 × ( 0.= --------.5 × 10 [ ( 0. the total energy is stored in the capacitor and the inductor.= -------.0034 J b.85 + 5π = 7.5*10^(−4)*((0.Answers to Exercises sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that p C = 5 sin 200t = 5 w or sin 200t = 1 or sin 1 π⁄2 π t = -------------. that is. WT t = 10 ms 1 –3 – 100t 2 1 –4 – 100t 2 = -. There is no energy stored in the resistor.

5 cos 5t mA and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 × 10 t 0 4 –4 ∫0 5 cos 5τ dτ + 0 t = sin 5τ = sin 5t Then.× 10 × ( sin 5t ) 2 2 = 0.× 5 × 10 ( 1 – e ) 2 ∫0 t e dτ = – e –τ –τ t 0 =e –τ 0 t = 1–e –t Then. W 5 mH t=1 s t=1 s = 2. v1 C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − v2 R1 C2 v3 L Then.4 × 10 × ( 0. the series-parallel combination of 7 + 3 = 10 .5 × 10 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 –4 cos 5 t + sin 5 t 2 2 = 0. 1 –4 2 1 –4 2 W T = W L + W C = -. Starting with the right side and proceeding to the left. v 2 . and 5 + 5 = 10 mH reduces the given circuit to the one shown below. 4. + v S ( t ) 10e iL ( t ) 10 mH –t − mV The current i L ( t ) is i L ( t ) = -1 L ∫0 t 1 –3 v S dτ + i L ( 0 ) = ---------------------.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i L = i ( t ) = 0.5 cos 5t ) + -. We assign node voltages v 1 . and v 3 as shown below. 10 || 10 = 5 .5 × 10 –3 × ( 1 – e ) ≈ 1 mJ –1 2 6.05 mJ = 50 µJ We observe that the total power is independent of time.× 0. 5-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .× 10 × 10 –3 10 × 10 1 –3 –t 2 = -.

C1 R1 + − vS ( t ) i2 L2 C2 L1 i1 R2 i3 Then. and i 3 as shown below. We assign mesh currents i 1 .( v 3 – v 2 ) + -dt L R2 ∫–∞ v3 dτ t = 0 7.( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 dt dt 1 ----C2 ∫–∞ ( i3 – i1 ) dτ + L2 ----.= 0 dt dt R1 v3 – v1 d1 --------------.+ L 2 ---.+ C 2 ---. 1----C1 ∫ 1i 1 dτ + R 1 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + ----C2 –∞ t ∫– ∞ ( i 1 – i 3 ) d τ t = vS di 2 dR 1 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + L 1 -----. i 2 .( v 2 – v 3 ) + ----.( v 2 – v 1 ) + C 2 ---.( i3 – i2 ) + R2 i3 dt t d = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-41 .Answers to Exercises v1 = vS v2 d d C 1 ---.

Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance NOTES 5-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

In Chapters 1 through 4 we considered circuits that consisted of excitations (active sources) and resistors only as the passive devices. an inductor behaves like a short circuit and a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. In Chapter 5 we learned that when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached.1 Excitation Functions The applied voltages and currents in electric circuits are generally referred to as excitations or driving functions. the response is the voltage or current at the output of a circuit. Thus the response may be anything we define it as a response. inductors and capacitors behave entirely different as we will see in our subsequent discussion. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but different amplitude and phase. However. we will consider the simple series circuit of Example 6.1 For the circuit shown in Figure 6. Thus. Generally. we say that a circuit is “excited” or “driven” by a constant. If not. C . but we need to specify what the output of a circuit is. R . The time and frequency domains are defined and phasor relationships are developed for resistive. this may be the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it. susceptance.1. inductive and capacitive circuits. if the excitation is a constant voltage or current. Example 6. or a sinusoidal. if the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current. 6. superposition. derive an expression for v C ( t ) in terms of V p . We used various methods such as nodal and mesh analyses. and the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-1 . it is strongly recommended that Appendix B is reviewed thoroughly before reading this chapter.1.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis T his chapter is an introduction to circuits in which the applied voltage or current are sinusoidal. that is. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with sinusoids and complex numbers.2 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs We can apply the circuit analysis methods which we have learned in previous chapters to circuits where the voltage or current sources are sinusoidal. the response will also be some constant value. To find out how easy (or how difficult) the procedure becomes. when the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid. Another term used in circuit analysis is the word response. impedance and admittance are also defined. 6. or an exponential function of time. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems to find the desired response such as the voltage and/or current in any particular branch. Reactance. and ω where the subscript p is used to denote the peak or maximum value of a time varying function. The circuit analysis procedure for these circuits is the same for DC and AC circuits.

1.2) must have the form v C ( t ) = A cos ( ωt + θ ) (6.2) yields – AωRC sin ( ωt + θ ) + A cos ( ωt + θ ) = V p cos ωt (6. vR + vC = vS (6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sine symbol inside the circle denotes that the excitation is a sinusoidal function.2) As we know.+ v C = v S = V p cos ωt dt (6.4) and recalling that sin ( x + y ) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y and cos ( x + y ) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y 6-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1) where v R = Ri = Ri C and dv C i C = C -------dt Then. differentiation (and integration) of a sinusoid of radian frequency ω results in another sinusoid of the same frequency ω . the solution of (6. R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6. R .1 Solution: By KVL. and ω .3) into (6. Accordingly. Circuit for Example 6. C . Substitution of (6. dv C v R = RC -------dt and by substitution into (6.1) we get dv C RC -------.3) where the amplitude A and phase angle θ are constants to be determined from the circuit parameters of V p .

The complex excitation function does not imply complexity of a circuit. Complex numbers are discussed in Appendix B. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-3 . We should remember also that when we say that the imaginary part of a complex number is some value. inductors and capacitors. Thus. 6.cos ( ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ) 2 1 + ( ωRC ) (6. if v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) then dv = – ω A sin ( ω t + θ ) dt and if i ( t ) = B sin ( ω t + φ ) then di = ω B cos ( ω t + φ ) dt Let us consider the network of Figure 6.4) as – AωRC sin ωt cos θ – AωRC cos ωt sin θ + A cos ωt cos θ – A sin ωt sin θ = V p cos ωt Collecting sine and cosine terms. solving for amplitude A and phase angle θ we get: Vp –1 v C ( t ) = -------------------------------. Thus we display the real part of a complex function on the axis of the reals (usually the x-axis). it just entails the use of complex numbers. In other words.5) Obviously. there is nothing “imaginary” about this value.3 The Complex Excitation Function We recall that the derivatives and integrals of sinusoids always produce sinusoids of the same frequency but different amplitude and phase since the cosine and sine functions are 90 degrees out-of-phase. the imaginary part is just as “real” as the real part of the complex number but it is defined on a different axis. and the imaginary part on the imaginary axis or the y-axis. We will see on the next section that the complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits. after some more tedious work. using the above procedure is impractical.The Complex Excitation Function we rewrite (6.2 which consists of resistors. equating like terms and. analyzing circuits with sinusoidal excitations when they contain capacitors and/or inductors. and it is driven (excited) by a sinusoidal voltage source v S ( t ) .

the real component is the response due to cos ω t and the imaginary component is the response to sin ω t We will use Example 6.3 using the complex excitation method. using the complex function Ae tion. Inductors and Capacitors vS ( t ) Figure 6. which is excited by a sinusoidal source. in this text. and it is shown in differential equations textbooks† that the forced response or particular solution of these circuits have the form v LD ( t ) = A cos ( ω t ) + B sin ( ω t ) We also know from Euler’s identity that A cos ω t + jA sin ω t = Ae jωt LOAD i LOAD ( t ) + v LOAD ( t ) − (6. As we stated previously.1. that is. jωt approach. In this text.2 * Some textbooks denote the voltage across and the current through the load as v L and i L respectively.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Excitation Linear Network Consisting of Resistors.2 Repeat Example 6.6) and therefore. † This topic is also discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications by this author 6-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . find the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 6. As we know from Chapter 5. we will represent all sinusoidal variations in terms of the cosine func- Example 6.3.2 to illustrate the ease by which we can obtain the response of a circuit. Circuit for Example 6. General presentation of a network showing excitation and load Let us also define the voltage across the load as v LOAD ( t ) * as the response. we use the v LOAD and i LOAD notations to avoid confusion with the voltage v L across and the current i L through an inductor.2. R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6. the nodal and mesh equations for such circuits are integrodifferential equations.

e –1 j ω RC + 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] 1+ω R C 1+ω R C e This expression above shows the response as a function of the maximum value of the excitation.e 2 2 2 1+ω R C jωt and Finally. dv C jωt RC -------. we use Euler’s identity on both Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-5 .7) or dj ( ωt + ϕ ) j ( ωt + ϕ ) jωt RC ---.( V C e ) + VC e = Vp e dt or ( j ω RC + 1 )V C e j ( ωt + ϕ ) = Vp e jωt The last expression above shows that radian frequency ω is the same for the response as it is for the excitation.1. its radian frequency and the circuit constants R and C . we can eliminate the radian frequency ω by dividing both sides of that expression by e jωt and thus the input-output (excitation-response) relation reduces to ( jωRC + 1 )V C e jϕ = Vp from which VC e jϕ –1 Vp Vp Vp – j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] = ---------------------.j [ ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ] = -------------------------------. we simply multiply both sides by e we get VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) –1 Vp .The Complex Excitation Function Solution: Since cos ωt = Re { e jωt } we let the excitation be vS ( t ) = Vp e jωt and thus the response will have the form vC ( t ) = VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) As in Example 6. since the excitation is the real part of the complex excitation. Accordingly.+ v C = V p e dt (6.= --------------------------------------------------------------. therefore we only need to be concerned with the magnitude and the phase angle of the response.= -------------------------------. If we wish to express the response in complete form.

3 Transform the sinusoid v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) to its equivalent jω – domain expression. we have v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 60° – 90° ) or ° ⎧ j ( 100t – 150 ) ⎫ v ( t ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 150° ) = Re ⎨ 10e ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 6-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we will denote the time domain as the t – domain . and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) and in the jω – domain it is expressed as M = Ae j ( θ – 90 ) ° Vp –1 (6. Solution: For this example. the second part where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as frequency-domain to timedomain transformation. Thus.9) where M represents a phasor (rotating vector) voltage V or current I∗ .cos [ ω t – tan ( ω RC ) ] 2 2 2 1+ω R C The first part of the above procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase relationship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sides and equating reals parts. Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3. Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it. Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2. we must first convert it to a cosine function. For brevity. the t – domain . we get v C ( t ) = V C cos ( ω t + φ ) = ------------------------------.8) = A ∠( θ – 90° ) (6. Example 6. If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function. to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. In summary.

Compute the sum i ( t ) = i1 ( t ) + i2 ( t ) . Example 6. Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2. I = 120 ∠– 90° = 120e – j90 ° Next. and we get the phasor V as V = 10e – j150 ° = 10 ∠– 150° The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1.5 It is given that i 1 ( t ) = 10 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) and i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) . Solution: First. ° ⎧ j ( ωt – 90 ) ⎫ i ( t ) = Re ⎨ 120e ⎬ = 120 cos ( ω t – 90° ) = 120 sin ω t ⎩ ⎭ j ( ωt – 90 ) ° We can add. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-7 .4 Transform the phasor I = 120 ∠– 90° to its equivalent time-domain expression. subtract.The Complex Excitation Function Since the jω – domain contains only the amplitude and phase. Example 6. adding the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponent of the above expression we get i ( t ) = 120e and finally we extract the real part from it. Then. multiply and divide sinusoids of the same frequency using phasors as illustrated by the following example. Extract the real part from it. we express the given phasor in exponential form. that is. we extract these from the bracketed term on the right side of the above expression. Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3.

that is. 1. and C devices. we express i 2 ( t ) as a cosine function. we get i ( t ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) Also.4 (b). that is. we perform the t – domain to jω – domain transformation and we obtain the phasors I 1 = 10 ∠45° and I 2 = 5 ∠– 135 ° and by addition. is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we will represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively.+ j ------⎞ = 5 ∠45° ⎝ 22⎠ and finally transforming the phasor I into the t – domain . V and I phasor relationship in R branches Consider circuit 6. inductive and capacitive circuits as R . and which are excited by sinusoidal sources. 6. for brevity. 2 2 2 2 I = I 1 + I 2 = 10 ∠45° + 5 ∠– 135 ° = 10 ⎛ -----. We must always remember that phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain . that is.+ j ------⎞ + 5 ⎛ – -----.4 Phasors in R. and C Circuits The circuit analysis of circuits containing R .– j ------⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 2⎠ or 2 2 I = 5 ⎛ -----. We will show that this relationship also holds for the phasors V R and I R shown in circuit 6. and C respectively.4 (a) we let v R ( t ) be a complex voltage. L . in our subsequent discussion we will designate resistive. We know from Ohm’s law that v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) where the resistance R is a constant. 6-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . L .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Solution: As a first step. i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 45 ° – 90° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 135 ° ) Next. We will now derive V and I phasor relationships in the jω – domain . we will prove that V R = RI R Proof: In circuit 6. L.4 (a) below where the load is purely resistive.

we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = RI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = RI p ∠φ Since the phasor current I is in-phase with the voltage V (both I and V have the same phase φ ).5.4.Phasors in R.10) and since R is a constant.12) Therefore. the phasor V and I relationship in resistors. obeys Ohm’s law also.11) Transforming (6.6 For the network of Figure 6. it will produce a current of the same frequency ω and the same phase φ * whose form will be Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) and by Ohm’s law. find i R ( t ) when v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) . * The phase will be the same since neither differentiation nor integration is performed here. we let V p ∠φ = V R and I p ∠φ = I R and it follows that V R = RI R (6. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = RI p e (6. L. Voltage across a resistive load in t – domain and jω – domain j ( ωt + φ ) Vp e = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6. and the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor. Example 6. and C Circuits vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) − vR ( t ) VS IR + VR − v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) = V p cos ( ω t + θ ) ( a ) t – domain network V R = RI R ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-9 .11) to the jω – domain .

= 8 ∠– 165° A R 5 Therefore. VR 40 ∠– 165° I R = -----. we can compute i R ( t ) directly from the t – domain expression for v R ( t ) .e.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) R=5Ω v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) − vR ( t ) Figure 6.6 (a) below where the load is purely inductive. that is.= -------------------------------------------.5. Voltage across an inductive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V L and I L shown in circuit 6.6 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.6. V and I phasor relationship in L branches Consider circuit 6. vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt ( a ) t – domain network − vL ( t ) VS IL V L = j ω LI L + VL − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6. v R ( t ) ⇔ V R transformation as follows: v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 377t – 165° ) ⇔ V R = 40 ∠– 165° Then.6 (b) is 6-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A 5 R 2. since the resistance R is a constant.. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I R = 8 ∠– 165° A ⇔ i R ( t ) = 8 cos ( 377t – 165° ) = 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A Alternately. vR ( t ) 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) i R ( t ) = ----------.= ------------------------. Voltage across the resistive load of Example 6.

that is.16) to the jω – domain .7. v L ( t ) ⇔ V L transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-11 .15) and since then.17) indicates that the voltage across an inductor leads the current through it by 90° .Phasors in R.13) Proof: In circuit 6. and C Circuits V L = j ω LI L (6. the current through the inductor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt (6..7 For the network of Figure 6.17) The presence of the j operator in (6.6 (a) we let v L ( t ) be a complex voltage. that is. find i L ( t ) when v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) . Example 6.e.14) and recalling that if x ( t ) = sin ( ωt + φ ) then dx ⁄ dt = ω cos ( ωt + φ ) . we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = j ω LI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = j ω LI p ∠φ and letting V p ∠φ = V L and I p ∠φ = I L we get V L = j ω LI L (6. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6. transforming (6. differentiation (or integration) does not change the radian frequency ω or the phase angle φ .( I p e ) = jωLI p e dt (6. Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.16) Next. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = L ---. L.

7. V and I phasor relationship in C branches Consider circuit 6.= 40 ∠– 165° = 4 ∠– 255° = 4 ∠105° A –3 10 ∠90° jωL j10 × 10 Therefore. vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) dv C i C ( t ) = C -------dt ( a ) t – domain network − vC ( t ) VS IC I C = j ω CV C + VC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I L = 4 ∠105° A ⇔ i L ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2t + 105° ) = 4 sin ( 2t – 165° ) A 3. Voltage across the inductive load of Example 6.18) Proof: In circuit 6.8 (a) we let v C ( t ) be a complex voltage. that is.8 (a) below where the load is purely capacitive. 6-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 2t – 165° ) ⇔ V L = 40 ∠– 165° mV and –3 VL ----------------------------------------------------------------------I L = --------.8.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) vL ( t ) − L = 5 mH v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) Figure 6.8 (b) is I C = jωCV C (6.= ( 40 ∠– 165° ) × 10 . Voltage across a capacitive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V C and I C shown in the network of Figure 6.

19) Next.9.( V p e ) = j ω CV p e dt (6. v C ( t ) ⇔ V C transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-13 . L.19) to the jω – domain . Voltage across the capacitive load of Example 6.Phasors in R. and C Circuits Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) then the current through the capacitor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) dv C i C ( t ) = -------dt and since then Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = C ---.. find i C ( t ) when v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) .e.8 For the circuit shown below. vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) vC ( t ) − C=106 nF v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) Figure 6.26) indicates that the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° .8 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i. we obtain the phasor relationship Ip e jφ = jωCV p e jφ or I p ∠φ = j ω CV p ∠φ and letting I p ∠φ = I C and V p ∠φ = V C we get I C = j ω CV C (6. Example 6. transforming (6.20) The presence of the j operator in (6.

+ --.Ri ( t ) + L ---.10.⎞ I = V S ⎝ jωC⎠ 6-14 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ .4 × 10 ∠45° = 3.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) ⇔ V C = 170 ∠– 45° Then.I jωC VR + VL + VC = VS 1RI + jωLI + --------.10 (b).5 Impedance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6.10 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain R L I C = 3.4 cos ( 60 π + 45° ) mA 6.∫ i dt C –∞ vR ( t ) + vL ( t ) + vC ( t ) = vS ( t ) di 1 t .4 ∠45° mA ⇔ i C ( t ) = 3.∫ i dt = v S ( t ) dt C – ∞ ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network V R = IR V L = jωLI 1 V C = --------.4 × 10 –3 × 1 ∠– 45° = 3. I C = jωCV C = j × 60π × 106 × 10 –3 –9 × 170 ∠– 45° = 1 ∠90° × 3. The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a series RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1⎛ R + jωL + --------.I = V S jωC Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.4 ∠45° mA Therefore. R L vS ( t ) V + v (t) − + v (t) − C + v (t) S R L C i (t) − + I VR −+ VL − C + − VC ( a ) t – domain network v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) di v L ( t ) = L ---dt 1 t v C ( t ) = --.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-15 .= – j -.23) We must remember that the impedance is not a phasor.26) by I we obtain the impedance which.j -2 j j j j then 1 1 --------. We can express the impedance Z as the sum of a real and an imaginary component as follows: Since j1 = 1 ⋅ .= – j ------ωC jωC and thus 1Z = R + j ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⎝ ω C⎠ (6.= -----. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C .21) Expression (6. is VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------. by definition.e.21) is referred to as Ohm’s law for AC Circuits. Like resistance.= --.25) (6.22) We can also express (6.27) The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω).= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC (6.. The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C . the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω).26) (6. 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC (6. X = X L + X C = ωL – 1 ⁄ ω C XL = ω L XC = 1 ⁄ ω C (6.24) The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X .⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ωC ⎠ (6.22) in polar form as Z = 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω C⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω L – ------. that is. i.Impedance and dividing both sides of (6.

− Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis In terms of reactances. Circuit for Example 6.9 For the circuit below. the impedance can be expressed as Z = R + jX = R + j ( X L – X C ) = R + ( X L – X C ) ∠ tan [ ( X L – X C ) ⁄ R ] 2 2 –1 (6. Phasor circuit for Example 6. find the current i ( t ) given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) . a much easier solution is with the transformation of the given circuit to a phasor circuit. Example 6. vS ( t ) − + 5Ω − + 100 mH C + i (t) − 100 µF R L v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) Figure 6.9 Solution: If we attempt to solve this problem in the time-domain directly.= – j100 2 2 –6 ωC jωC 10 × 10 × 10 Also.11. V S = ZI S VS + 5Ω −+ I − j10 Ω C + − −j100 Ω Figure 6.12. V S = 100 ∠– 30° and the phasor circuit is as shown in Figure 6.9 From the phasor circuit of Figure 6. Here. But as we now know. we can show that impedances combine as resistances do.12 6-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ω = 100 rad ⁄ s and thus j ω L = jX L = j100 × 0.= – j ------.12. we will need to solve an integrodifferential equation.1 = j10 Ω and 11 1--------.= – jX C = – j ---------------------------------------.28) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2.

+ -.14 ∠– 86.Admittance Z = 5 + j10 – j100 = 5 – j90 = 5 + 90 ∠ tan ( – 90 ⁄ 5 ) = 90.∫ v dt L –∞ iG ( t ) + iL ( t ) + iC ( t ) = iS ( t ) dv 1 t .13.V = I S jωL Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.Gv ( t ) + C ----.11 cos ( 100t + 56. The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a parallel RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1 ⎛ G + --------.11 ∠[ – 30° – ( – 86. that is.82° ⇔ i ( t ) = 1.+ jωC⎞ V = I S ⎝ ⎠ jωL ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (6.6 Admittance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6. I = 1.82 ) 6.29) Dividing both sides of (6.14 ∠– 86.82° 2 2 –1 and VS 100 ∠– 30° I = -----.13 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6.82° Z Therefore. we obtain the admittance.29) by V .11 ∠56. + v (t) iS ( t ) iR ( t ) iL ( t ) − ( a ) t – domain network i G ( t ) = Gv ( t ) dv i C ( t ) = C ----dt 1 t i L ( t ) = -.= ------------------------------------.13 (b).82° ) ] 90.= 1. by definition Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-17 .V jωL IR + IL + IC = IS 1 GV + jωCV + --------.∫ v dt = i S ( t ) dt L – ∞ R L C + V R L C iC ( t ) IR IL IC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network IS I G = GV I C = jωCV 1 I L = --------.

The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive susceptance B L .= G + --------.31) and in polar form Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----.33) The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B . In terms of susceptances.+ jωC = -V jωL Z Phasor Voltage (6. that is.32) Like the impedance Z . that is. As with the impedance Z .34) (6. B = BC + BL = ω C – 1 ⁄ ω L BC = ω C BL = 1 ⁄ ω L The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis IS 1 1 Phasor Current Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------.35) (6.⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----.37) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2. the unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) . we can express the admittance Y as the sum of a real component and an imaginary component as follows: 1Y = G + j ⎛ ω C – -----.. Like conductance. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the 1 conductance G and the imaginary part is ω C – -----.30) Here we observe that the admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R . the admittance Y can be expressed as Y = G + jB = G + j ( B C – B L ) = G + ( B C – B L ) ∠ tan [ ( B C – B L ) ⁄ G ] 2 –1 (6. we can show that admittances combine as conductances do.⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ (6. ωL 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL (6.= ---. 6-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .36) 2 –1 (6. the admittance Y it is not a phasor.⎞ ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 (6.

10 Solution: For these circuits to be equivalent.15.= G + jB = -------------.1.= -----------------.38) Relation (6.– j -----------------2 2 2 2 2 2 R + jX R – jX Z R + jX R +X R +X R +X and equating reals and imaginaries we get R G = -----------------2 2 R +X and –X B = -----------------2 2 R +X (6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-19 .= -------------.= -----------------.14. How should their real and imaginary terms be related so that they will be equivalent? R Z L C Y G L C Figure 6.⋅ -------------.Admittance Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others. R X 1 R – jX R – jX 1 1 Y = -.10 Parallel Current Conductance Norton Capacitance Susceptance Admittance Consider the series and parallel networks shown in Figure 6.14. The dual quantities we have encountered thus far are listed in Table 6.1 Dual quantities Series Voltage Resistance Thevenin Inductance Reactance Impedance Example 6. their impedances Z or admittances Y must be equal. Networks for Example 6.38) is worth memorizing. Therefore. TABLE 6. Example 6.11 Compute Z and Y for the network of Figure 6.

16 – j0.= j5 + ---------------------------------------------.12 Solution: Let the given network be represented as shown in Figure 6. Z2 Z3 ( 10 + j5 ) ( 20 – j16 ) ( 11. Z 2 = 10 + j5 .61 ∠– 38.2 ∠– 36.25 = 8.12 Compute Z and Y for the circuit shown below. it is easier to compute the admittance Y first.16.= j5 + --------------------------------------------------------------------------Z2 + Z3 10 + j5 + 20 – j16 31.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Z.7° ) Z = Z 1 + ----------------.18 ∠26.15.95 ∠– 20.+ jωC = 4 – j2 + j5 = 4 + j3 = 5 ∠36.9 ° = 0.12 Y 5 ∠36. it follows that 1 1 Z = -.11 Solution: Since this is a parallel network. and Z 3 = 20 – j16 Then.9° jωL Since the impedance is the reciprocal of admittance. 1 Y = G + --------. Y G 4Ω –1 L – j2 Ω –1 C –1 j5 Ω Figure 6. Y R2 −j16 Ω C2 Figure 6.96 ∠8° = j5 + 8. Network for Example 6. L1 j13 Ω C1 −j8 Ω R1 L2 j5 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω Z. Verify your answers with MATLAB.9° Example 6.= -------------------.2° 6-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .85 ∠35.1° = j5 + 8.6° ) ( 25.87 + j6. Thus.87 + j1.25 = 10. Network for Example 6.= 0.17 where Z 1 = j13 – j8 = j5 .

• A response is anything we define it as a response. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-21 .Summary Z1 Z. the response will also be some constant value. z2=10+j*5.= 0.531 Z 10. Y Z2 Z3 Figure 6. Typically response is the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it. • The complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits when excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid.= -----------------------------.12 and 1 1 Y = -.0.092 ∠– 35.2° = 0.0754 – j0. • The procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase rela- tionship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation. z3=20−j*16. in general. inductors and capacitors do not behave like short circuits and open circuits respectively as they do when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached.8737+ 6.85 ∠35. • Circuit analysis in circuits where the excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid is very difficult and thus impractical in the t – domain .17. Simplified network for Example 6. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but with different amplitude and phase.0531i 6.2° Check with MATLAB: z1=j*5.7 Summary • Excitations or driving functions refer to the applied voltages and currents in electric circuits. • If the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid. • If the excitation is a constant voltage or current. • If the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current. They behave entirely different. z=z1+(z2*z3/(z2+z3)) % Find impedance z z = 8.0753.2537i y=1/z % Find admittance y y = 0.

Extract the real part from it. • For brevity. that is. we denote the time domain as the t – domain .= -----.= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC • Like resistance. Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3. and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively. • The circuit analysis of circuits containing R . • The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3. • Impedance is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R . • Phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain • In the jω – domain the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor • In the jω – domain the current through an inductor lags the voltage across that inductor by 90° • In the jω – domain the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across that capacitor by 90° • In the jω – domain the impedance Z is defined as VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------. and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C . • The t – domain to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it. Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2. L . the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω).Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • The procedure where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as fre- quency-domain to time-domain transformation. • If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function. 6-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2. and C devices. it is convenient to convert it to a cosine function using the identity m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) before converting it to the jω – domain . and which are excited by sinusoidal sources.

+ jωC = -Phasor Voltage V jωL Z • The admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R . i.= G + --------. 1B = B C – B L = ω C – -----ωL • In polar form the admittance is expressed as Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----.. • The admittance Y is a complex quantity whose real part is the conductance G and the imaginary 1part is ω C – -----.⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----.⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 • The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) . • The unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) . 1 X = X L – X C = ωL – ------ωC • The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω).Summary 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC • In polar form the impedance is expressed as Z = –1 2 1 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ωC ω C⎠ • The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X . • In the jω – domain the admittance Y is defined as IS Phasor Current 1 1 Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------.. that is.= ---. The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C . that is. The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive suscep- tance B L . ωL –1 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL • The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-23 .e.

6-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Admittances combine as conductances do. Although the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) could yield some value. • In phasor circuit analysis. this value is not impedance. the ratio i ( t ) ⁄ v ( t ) is not admittance. the admittance is always the reciprocal of the impedance • The ratio V ⁄ I of the phasor voltage to the phasor current exists only in the jω – domain and it is not the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) in the t – domain . conductance is not necessarily the reciprocal of resistance. Similarly. and when we deal with conductance and susceptance we must think of devices in parallel. • Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others. and suscep- tance is not the negative reciprocal of reactance. However. Whenever we deal with resistance and reactance we must think of devices in series.

radian frequency ω but different amplitude A and different phase angle θ C. amplitude A but different radian frequency ω and different phase angle θ B. V = 120e C. and the circuit contains resistors. If the excitation in a circuit is a single sinusoidal source with amplitude A . V = 120e j ( ωt + 90° ) jωt j90° j0° E. all voltages and all currents in that circuit will be of the same A. and phase angle θ . radian frequency ω . V = 120e B. independent and dependent sources with resistors. none of the above 3. inductors. V = 120e D. none of the above 2. inductors. We can transform this circuit to a phasor equivalent to find the cur- rent by first replacing these with a single voltage source v ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) whose value is A. independent and dependent sources with resistors and capacitors only D. A series RLC circuit contains two voltage sources with values v 1 ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10t + 45° ) and v 2 ( t ) = 200 sin ( 5t – 60 ° ) . and capacitors. independent and dependent sources with resistors and inductors only C. v ( t ) = 300 cos ( 15t – 15 ° ) B. independent and dependent sources with resistors only B. and capacitors E. phase angle θ but different amplitude A and different radian frequency ω D. The sinusoid v ( t ) = 120 sin ( ω t + 90° ) in the jω – domain is expressed as A. Phasor voltages and phasor currents can be used in the t – domain if a circuit contains A. v ( t ) = 100 cos ( 5t + 105° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-25 .Exercises 6. amplitude A same radian frequency ω and same phase angle θ E.8 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. none of the above 4.

18. 1 + j1 B. The resistance of a coil is R = 1.18 is A. 1 – j1 C. none of the above 2Ω j0. The equivalent impedance Z eq of the network of Figure 6.5 6 ----B. 2 + j0 E. – j1 D. v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7.3 mH . 12 + j ----37 D. If a current of i ( t ) = 4 cos ωt A flows through that coil and operates at the frequency of f = 60Hz . 4 – j 1. the phasor voltage V across that coil is A. v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7. Network for Questions 5 and 6 6. 2 – j2 E.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis C.5t + 15° ) E.5 Ω Z eq −j2 Ω 2Ω Figure 6.5 Ω and the inductance of that coil is L = 5. 16 + j ----73 73 37 2----C. The equivalent admittance Y eq of the network of Figure 6. none of the above 7. none of the above 5.5t – 15 ° ) D.1° V 6-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 10 ∠53.18 is A.

5 sin ( ωt + 53. The t – domain voltage across this series combination is A. 56.2° ) D. 3 cos ωt + j3 sin ωt B. 80 cos ωt B. cos ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) B.3 × 10 ∠90° V D. then in the t – domain i ( t ) is 6-27 . 56. none of the above 9.Exercises B. none of the above 10. none of the above 8. A resistor with value R = 5 Ω is in series with a capacitor whose capacitive reactance at some particular frequency ω is – jX C = – 5 Ω . If the phasor I = je A. – sin ωt E.3 Ω . A phasor current with value I = 8 ∠0° A is flowing through this series combination. 3 cos ωt – j 3 sin ωt C. The t – domain total current through this parallel combination is A.3 Ω –1 –3 is in parallel with a capacitor whose capacitive suscep–1 tance at some particular frequency ω is jB C = j0.2° ) E. 6 ∠0° V C.6 cos ( ωt + 45° ) E. A conductance with value G = 0. 5. A phasor voltage with value V = 10 ∠0° is applied across this parallel combination. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications j(π ⁄ 2) . – cos ωt D.8 ∠45° V E. 80 sin ωt C. 5 cos ( ωt + 53.6 cos ( ωt – 45° ) D. sin ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) C. 6.

00 mA at 1.20. find A .62 mA I i (mA) i = 15.21.94 ms 0 t (ms) Figure 6.533 KHz R 8Ω 1 mH L C 1 µF vS i Figure 6. ω . Circuit for Problem 3 6-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 ms 1. Express the sinusoidal voltage waveform of Figure 6. and θ .9° ) A ? Answer: f = 5. Circuit for Problem 1 2.62 V 0.21 operating if it is known that v S = 120 cos ω t V and i = 12 cos ( ω t – 36.1° ) v (V) −2.20.000 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t (ms) Figure 6. that is. and two values are known as indicated. Compute i ( 1 ) .19.18 as v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Problems 1. The current i ( t ) through a device decays exponentially as shown by the waveform of Figure 6. Answer: v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36. At what frequency f is the network of Figure 6. 23.605 ms I = 5. the current at t = 1 ms Answers: i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA . that is.27 mA at 3. Circuit for Problem 2 3.

5 mH Figure 6. Answer: C = 89.6 µF A R vS Other Part of the Network 2Ω V L C 0. it will suffice to say that these instruments indicate the magnitude (absolute) values of voltage and current. if C = 1 F and R 1 = 1 Ω vS Other Part of the Network ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Figure 6.23. what are these values? Answer: Yes. Find the value of the capacitor.22. For this exercise. For the circuit shown on Figure 6. v S = V cos ( 2000t + θ ) V and the symbols V and A inside the circles denote an AC voltmeter* and ammeter respectively. Network for Problem 4 5. In the circuit of Figure 6. Assume that the ammeter has negligible internal resistance.23.Exercises 4.22. Network for Problem 5 * Voltmeters and Ammeters are discussed in Chapter 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-29 . The variable capacitor C is adjusted until the voltmeter reads 25 V and the ammeter 5 A. is it possible to adjust the variable resistor R 1 and the variable capacitor C so that Z IN and Y IN have the same numerical value regardless of the operating frequency? If so.

28 ms . T ⁄ 2 = 2.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis 6.5 This value is obtained with the MATLAB code z1=2+0.13° × 4 ∠0° = 10 ∠53.5j. A ω = 2πf = 2π × 60 = 377 r ⁄ s .28 = 10 ⁄ 2π . ω = 2πf or ω = 2π × 10 ⁄ 2π = 1000 r ⁄ s 3 3 3 Next.94 = 3.2 ms v (V) −2. C Problems 1. Then.5 + j2 = 2.14 ms .13° . D 10.5000i 6.2 + 0.13° 8. D 4. V = ZI = 2. Thus.5 ∠53.0000-0. E The voltage sources v 1 ( t ) and v 1 ( t ) operate at different frequencies.62 V 0. C 9. and one period is T = 6. z=z1+z2 z = 3.3 × 10 –3 = j2 Ω Z = 1. 5.9 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.5 ∠53.94 ms 0 t (ms) θ or 6-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore. jX L = jωL = j × 377 × 5. we find the phase angle θ from the figure above observing that π ⁄ 2 + θ = 2. C 7.2 ms 1. The frequency is f = 1 ⁄ T = 10 ⁄ 6. E 3 – j0. B 3. z2=2*(−2j)/(2−2j). to find the current we must apply superposition. The t – axis crossings define half of the period T.E Phasors exist in the jω – domain only 2.

000 × 10 )α Ae – ( 1.395 3 and thus i ( t ) = Ae Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 750t mA 6-31 .28 × 10 s = 2.27 mA = Ae – ( 3.1° ) 2.= 750 1.000 × 10 )α –3 Division of the first equation by the second yields Ae 15 mA ------------------------------------.62 V .605 × 10 )α + ( 3.1° ) or 1. v = 1.605 × 10 )α –3 or e – ( 1.2 × 2 × 180° – π = 126.= -------------------–3 5.2ms – π = 2.1° ---------------------------------.395 × 10 α –3 15 = --------5.27 or 15 –3 ln ⎛ --------.⎞ = 1.= 2 V cos 36.27 ⎠ or ln ( 15 ⁄ 5.-2 6. that is.1° – 90° = 36.605 × 10 )α –3 and i t = 3. i t = 1.2 × 10 s × ------------------------------.27 ) × 10 α = -------------------------------------------.395 × 10 α ⎝ 5.62 A = --------------------. The decaying exponential has the form i ( t ) = Ae mA where the time is in ms and thus for this problem we need to compute the values of A and α using the given values.000 × 10 )α –3 –3 15 = --------5. v ( 0 ) = 1.28 Finally.--θ = 2.Answers to Exercises 2π rad 180° –3 .1° Therefore.27 or e 1.62 = A cos ( 0 + 36.000 ms = 5.– π –3 π rad 2 2 6. v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36.27 mA – ( 3.605 ms – αt = 15 mA = Ae – ( 1.× ------------. Then. we find the amplitude A by observing that at t = 0 .

Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis To find the value of A we make use of the fact that i 5. Then.9° A . jωL = j10 ω .27 = Ae t = 3 ms –3 = 5.= -------------------------------.9° I 12 ∠– 36. I = 12 ∠– 36. – 750 × 3 × 10 or A = 5. i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA = 23.25 e –3 or A = 0.= 10 ∠36.27 mA .050 A = 50mA Therefore.62 mA and i t = 1 ms = 50e – 750 × 10 –3 3.27 × 10 -------------------------– 2. R 8Ω L jωL C 1 µF –3 6 vS I j– ------ωC In the jω – domain V S = 120 ∠0° V . VS 120 ∠0° V Z = ----.9° A and Z = 10 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) 2 2 2 or R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 or 8 + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 2 or ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 36 2 or ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC = 6 or 6-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and – j ⁄ ωC = – j10 ⁄ ω Then. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-33 . 765 r ⁄ s 2 3 6 9 and ω 34. r=roots(p) and this yields C = 89. 533 Hz = 5.9° 4. We group the series devices as shown below. phasor current. and impedance. Since the instruments read absolute values. we are only need to be concerned the magnitudes of the phasor voltage.⎞ ⎝ ⎠ C × 25 625 × 10 250 × 10 = 100 + 25 – ------------------------.ω – -----. Thus.6 µF The second root of this polynomial is negative and thus it is discarded. 5.= 5.= ---------------------------.765 ) = 8 + j6 = 10 ∠36.= 12 ∠– 36.9° 10 ∠36.= 0 L LC or ω – 6 × 10 ω – 10 = 0 2 3 9 Solving for ω and ignoring the negative value. we get p=[500 250*10^(−4) −625*10^(−8)].= 625 2 C C –4 –8 and after simplification we get 500C + 250 × 10 C – 625 × 10 2 –4 –8 = 0 Using MATLAB.Answers to Exercises 2 6 1ω – -. – j ⁄ ωC = – j28.765 – 28.= 34. 765 r ⁄ s f = ----.9° and 120 ∠0° I = ----------------------.765 Z = R + j ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ( ωC ) ) = 8 + j ( 34. we get -----------------------------------------------------------------------ω = 6 × 10 + 36 × 10 + 4 × 10 .765 . V = Z I = 25 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) × 5 –4 2 2 2 or V 2 2 2 2 5 × 10 = 25 = [ R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) ] × 25 = 4 + ⎛ 1 – ------------------.+ ------------------------.533 KHz 2π 2π Check: jωL = j34.

Z 2 = 1 – j ⁄ ( ωC ) . that is. if the condition Y IN = Z IN is to hold for all frequencies.= R 1 + 1 C R1 1ω – ------.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Z1 Z2 Thus Z 1 = R 1 + jω .= --------------------------------------------------Z1 + Z2 R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC and at any frequency ω R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC 1 Y IN = ------.⎞ + jω = ( R + 1 ) + j ⎛ ω – ------.⎞ ⎝ ωC ωC ⎠ C R1 11 ⎛ R + --.⎞ + j ⎛ ω – ------. the right sides of Z IN and Y IN must be equal. and Z1 ⋅ Z2 ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Z IN = ----------------.= --------------------------------------------------R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) [ ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) ] = [ R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ] ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) = R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC R1 11 R 1 – j ------.⎞ 1 ⎝ ⎝ 1 C⎠ ⎝ ωC ⎠ ωC ⎠ 2 2 Equating reals and imaginaries we get 1 R 1 + --.= R 1 + 1 + j ⎛ ω – ------. ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC --------------------------------------------------.= --------------------------------------------------Z IN ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Therefore.= ω – ------ωC ωC From the first equation above we get C = 1 F and by substitution of this value into the second equation we get R 1 = 1 Ω 6-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ jω + --.

except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities.1 Nodal Analysis The procedure of analyzing a phasor* circuit is the same as in Chapter 3.6° * A phasor is a rotating vector Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-1 . Then.211 ∠–56.1. and then we write the nodal equations in terms of these impedances. and Z 3 as shown. The following example illustrates the procedure. superposition. we designate the devices in series as Z 1. Also.1 VB Solution: As before. and Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems in phasor circuits.2.606 ∠56. VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. we choose a reference node as shown in Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7. Z 2.1 Use nodal analysis to compute the phasor voltage V AB = V A – V B for the circuit of Figure 7. Z 1 = 4 – j6 = 7. mesh analysis.1. Example 7. and the input-output relationships for an RC low-pass filter and an RC high-pass filter are developed. for convenience.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis T his chapter begins with the application of nodal analysis.3° Z 3 = 8 – j3 = 8. phasor diagrams are introduced. and we write nodal equations at the other two nodes A and B .3° Z 2 = 2 + j3 = 3. 7.544 ∠– 20.

Nodal analysis for the circuit for Example 7.+ ---.V A – -----------------------------.277 ∠– 56. at V B : VB – VA VB ------------------.606 ∠56.6° )V A – ( 0.V – ( 0.277 ∠– 56.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26.2) Next.3 ) ( 3.3° 6 – j3 -------------------.211 ∠– 56.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26 ∠0° ( 0. VA VA – VB -----.⎞ V – ---.258 ∠– 26.= 5 ∠0° Z2 Z1 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ---.V B = 5 ∠0° ( 7.606 ∠56.3° ) 3.+ -----.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis VB 2Ω Z2 Z1 VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.V = 5 ∠0° ⎝Z Z ⎠ A Z2 B 1 2 (7.+ -----------------.0 ∠0° A 6.V A – ( 0.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° (7.V = 5 ∠0° ----------------⎝ Z1 Z2 ⎠ A Z B 2 and by substitution for Z 1 and Z 2 we get 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------.2.= – 10 ∠0° Z2 Z3 or 7-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 By application of KCL at V A .708 ∠– 26.6° ---------------------------------.277 ∠– 56.1) or 1⎛ Z 1 + Z 2⎞ V – ----.

V A + ⎛ -----------------⎞ V B = 10 ∠180° ⎝ Z2 Z3 ⎠ Z2 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 1 – -----------------------------.3° 10 – ( 0.3) as Z2 + Z3 1 – ---.⎞ V B ⎝Z Z ⎠ = 5 – 10 (7.⎞ V B = – 10 ∠0° ⎝Z Z2 Z3 ⎠ 2 (7.+ ---.3) are 1 1 ⎛ ---.3° ) ( 8.810 ∠35.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° – ( 0.606 ∠56.3° )V A + ( 0.3° )V A + ( 0.V B = 10 ∠180° 30.3° )V A + --------------------------------.+ ---.4) We will follow a step-by-step procedure to solve these equations using Cramer’s rule.258 ∠– 26.325 ∠– 35.277 ∠– 56.⎞ ⎝Z Z ⎠ 1 2 1 – ---Z2 2 3 VA 1 – ---Z2 1 1 ⎛ ---.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.7) and D2 V B = ----- ∆ (7. please refer to Appendix A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-3 .544 ∠–20.6° ) 3.277 ∠– 56.277 ∠– 56.6° )V A – ( 0.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.5) and thus with (7.8) The determinant ∆ is * If unfamiliar with MATLAB.3) In matrix form (7. We rewrite (7.325 ∠– 35.6) We find V A and V B from D1 V A = ----- ∆ (7.V A + --------------------------------------------------------------------------. and we will use MATLAB®* to verify the results.1) and (7.7° – ( 0.V A + ⎛ ---.277 ∠– 56.606 ∠56.1– ---.5) the system of equations is ( 0.Nodal Analysis 1 1.V B = 10 ∠180° ( 3.2) and (7.+ ---.

277 ∠– 56.770 ∠123. z3=8−j*3.277 ∠– 56.9° = – 4.1° and D2 = ( 0.8° ∆ Finally.277 ∠– 56. fprintf(' \n').258 ∠– 26.580 ∠153.570 + j21.325 ∠– 35.= 22.1).062 ∠– 2.277 ∠– 56.7° ) – ( 10 ∠180° ) [ – ( 0.385 ∠– 56.3° ) 10 ∠180° ( 0.6° ) ( 10 ∠180° ) – ( – 0.7° ) = ( 0. disp('Vb = '). by substitution into (7.1° V A = ----. % Elements of matrix Z I=[5 −10]'.258 ∠– 26. disp(Vb).6° ) ⋅ ( 0.217 + j1. we get D1 1.6° ) – ( 0.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ∆ = ( 0.9° Therefore.= 24.277 ∠– 56. z2 and z3 Z=[1/z1+1/z2 −1/z2.258 ∠– 26.155 + 0.003 = 0.325 ∠– 35.8).7° + 2. 7-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Va=V(1.7° ) – ( 0.3° ) ⋅ ( – 0.374 ∠99.625 ∠– 35.357 = 1.023 – j0.3 ) = ( 0.769 – j1.3° = – 24.3° ) ( 5 ∠0° ) = 2.685 – ( – 24.3° ) 10 ∠180° = ( 0.780 – j1. z2=2+j*3.6 ) – ( 0. Vb=V(2.277 ∠– 56.4° + 1.320 – j0.7) and (7.21 + j22. disp(Vab).258 ∠– 26.6° ) 5 ∠0° – ( 0.5 ∠48.5° Check with MATLAB: z1=4−j*6. % Define z1. Vb = V(2) are also acceptable % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp fprintf(' \n').948 + ( – 1.3° ) – ( 0.= ------------------------------. Vab=Va−Vb.85 = 30.062 – j0.325 ∠– 35.= --------------------------------.277 ∠– 56. V AB = V A – V B = – 4.3° = ( – 2. disp(Va).685 0.807 ∠– 177.1).3° ) ] = ( 1. disp('Va = ').062 ∠– 2.071 ) = ( 0.169 ) = 20. disp('Vab = '). D1 = 5 ∠0° – ( 0.305 ) = – 0.374 ∠99.537 + j2. % Va = V(1).780 – j1.307 + j1.8° ∆ and D2 1.277 ∠– 56.3° ) – ( 0.570 + j21.358 ∠179.3° ) ( 0. % Column vector I V=Z\I.062 ∠– 2.039 – j0.358 + j0.7° ) = ( 5 ∠0° ) ( 0.161 ∠101.084 ∠– 62.8° ) Also.358 ∠179.169 0.7° ) = 1.074 ) – ( – 0.9° V B = ----.003 = 1. −1/z2 1/z2+1/z3].325 ∠– 35.077 ∠– 112.152 ) = – 1.

MATLAB performs calculations with accuracy of 15 decimal places. the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source.4138 . 7.2 Mesh Analysis Again.2759 + 20. use mesh analysis to find the voltage V 10A . Example 7.2 For the circuit of Figure 7. Z 2. We observe that the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source is the same as the voltage across the 8 Ω and – j 3 Ω series combination. Circuit for Example 7.Mesh Analysis Va = -4. Accordingly. we should accept the MATLAB values as more accurate.6897i These values differ by about 10% from the values we obtained with Cramer’s rule where we rounded the values to three decimal places. although it only displays four decimal places in the short (default) number display format. The following example illustrates the procedure.2 Solution: As in the previous example. By inspection. and Z 3 . and we write mesh equations in terms of these impedances.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-5 . that is. the procedure of analyzing a phasor circuit is the same as in Chapter 3 except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities. we denote the passive devices in series as Z 1.1. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 7.3.3. for convenience.6552i Vb = -22. I 1 = 5 ∠0° (7.0345i Vab = 18. for Mesh 1.4 with the mesh currents assigned in a clockwise direction.1379 + 19. 2Ω 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.

0345i i3 = 10 Therefore. fprintf(' \n'). and (7. disp(i2).417 – j1. disp(i3).12) We use MATLAB for the solution of 7.4. i1 = 5 i2 = 7.1.1. Accordingly. I=Z\V. disp(i1). disp('i3 = ').10) Also.9).11) and in matrix form. fprintf(' \n'). I 3 = 10 ∠0° (7.12.035 – 10 ) = – 22.586 – j1. the voltage across the 10 ∠0° A current source is V 10A = Z 3 ( I 2 – I 3 ) = ( 8 – j3 ) ( 7. by inspection for Mesh 3. disp('i2 = ').2 By application of KVL around Mesh 2. the computation of phasor voltages and currents becomes quite tedious. Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 7. in our subsequent discussion we will use MATLAB for the solution of simultaneous equations with complex coefficients. −(4−j*6) 14−j*6 −(8−j*3).Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Z2 4Ω Z1 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω I1 I2 2Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 I3 V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. i1=I(1). 0 0 1]. (7. (7. disp('i1 = '). – Z 1 I 1 + ( Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 )I 2 – Z 3 I 3 = 0 or – ( 4 – j6 ) I 1 + ( 14 – j6 )I 2 – ( 8 – j3 )I 3 = 0 (7. V=[5 0 10]'. i3=I(3). 7-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .038 We observe that this is the same value as that of the voltage V B in the previous example.11) are written as 1 – ( 4 – j6 ) 0 I1 5 0 0 ( 14 – j6 ) – ( 8 – j3 ) I 2 = 0 – 10 0 1 I3 (7.10). * As we experienced with Example 7.* Z=[1 0 0. i2=I(2).5862 .

232 ∠– 23. Example 7. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7. The following example illustrates the application of the superposition principle in phasor circuits. Circuit for Example 7.5.211 ∠–56. Then.6. the current I ' C2 through C 2 is 7.1° 15.3 Use the superposition principle to find the phasor voltage across capacitor C 2 in the circuit of Figure 7.Application of Superposition Principle 7.5 ∠0° = 2. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V ' C2 C2 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω Figure 7.6.3 Solution: Let the phasor voltage across C 2 due to the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone be denoted as V ' C2 .2° 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 The voltage across C 2 with the 5 ∠0° current source acting alone is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-7 . the superposition principle is most useful when a circuit contains two or more independent voltage or current sources.5. V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 With the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone.3° 4 – j6 I ' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------.3 with the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone By application of the current division expression. 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω C2 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.3 Application of Superposition Principle As we know from Chapter 3.5 ∠0° = ------------------------------------. and that due to the 10 ∠0° A current source as V '' C2 .367 ∠– 33.

102 ∠– 123. with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone.6° = ------------------------------------.6° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 4.094 + j7.6° 15.189 ) (7.1° (7.1° = – 3. Example 7.7. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V '' C2 C2 4Ω –j 6 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.7.784 + j13.873 ∠113.189 or V C2 = – 3.367 ∠– 33.949 + 0.878 – j5.10 ∠180° = 4.4 For the circuit of Figure 7.13) with (7.1° ) = 7. Circuit for Example 7. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7. apply Thevenin’s theorem to compute I X and then draw Norton’s equivalent circuit.4 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems These two theorems also offer a very convenient method in analyzing phasor circuits as illustrated by the following example.878 – j5.708 ∠– 26.784 + j13. 7-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .15) 7.8. the current I '' C2 through C 2 is 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 I '' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------.14) Addition of (7.6 = 0.1° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 2.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V ' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 2.3 with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone and by application of the current division expression.240 = 7.404 ∠176.367 ∠– 33.( – 10 ∠0° ) 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 6.949 (7.404 ∠176.6° ) = ( 13.14) yields V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 = – 3.232 ∠– 23.213 ∠86.2° The voltage across C 2 with the 10 ∠0° current source acting alone is V '' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 4.404 ∠176.13) Next.

6 ° (7. 200 ∠90° j200 V 1 = ---------------------.170 ∠0° = ----------------------------.4° = 34 + j68 50 – j100 111.4 with the 100 Ω resistor disconnected By application of the voltage division expression.87 = 110.8 ∠( – 63. Circuit for Example 7.46 ∠23° = 144 + j61.16) and 50 50 V 2 = ---------------------. from (7.10.8.13 217.9. 85 Ω V1 170 ∠0° V j200 Ω – j100 Ω V2 50 Ω Figure 7.170 ∠0° = 76 ∠63.16) and (7. we find the Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH by shorting the 170 ∠0° V voltage source.170 ∠0° = --------------------------------------.17).17) Then. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7.9.170 ∠0° = 156.18) Next.Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 85 Ω IX 170 ∠0° V 100 Ω j200 Ω 50 Ω – j100 Ω Figure 7.21 ∠– 3.4 )° (7. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7. V TH = V OC = V 12 = V 1 – V 2 = 144 + j61.13 – ( 34 + j68 ) or V TH = 110 – j6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-9 .31 ∠67° 85 + j200 (7.4 Solution: With the 100 Ω resistor disconnected.

4 −j100 Ω 85 Ω From Figure 7.11.6 = 112.4 with the voltage source shorted 85 Ω – j100 Ω Y ZTH 50 Ω – j100 Ω j200 Ω 85 Ω We observe that the parallel combinations j200 || 85 and 50 || j100 are in series as shown in Figure 7. Zth=85*200j/(85+200j) + 50*(−100j)/(50−100j) Zth = 1. Network for the computation of Z TH for Example 7.11. Circuit for Example 7.12. X j200 Ω ZTH 50 Ω Y Figure 7.4° Ω The Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 7. 85 × j200 50 × ( – j100 ) Z TH = ---------------------.+ -----------------------------85 + j200 50 – j100 and with MATLAB.10.0598e+001i or Z TH = 112.1200e+002 + 1.11.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis X 85 Ω X j200 Ω – j100 Ω Y 50 Ω X j200 Ω 50 Ω Y Figure 7.5 ∠5. 7-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0 + j10.

19) The same answer is found in Example C.= 0. Simplified circuit for computation of I X in Example 7. Norton’s equivalent is obtained from Thevenin’s circuit by exchanging V TH and its series Z TH with I N in parallel with Z N as shown in Figure 7.5160 .= 0. disp('Ix = ').12. V TH I X = -------------------------------.058 = 0.87 Y Figure 7.21∠−3.21 ∠– 3.516 – j0.4° Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-11 .4° A Z TH + 100 Ω (7. X 112 Ω j10.98 ∠– 9° A Z TH 112.4 VTH = 110−j6. V TH 110. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 7.18 of Appendix C where we applied nodal analysis to find IX .6 Ω IX 100 Ω Y Figure 7. fprintf(' \n').87j.13.5 ∠5.4 With the 100 Ω resistor connected at X-Y. Zth=112+10. Ix=Vth/(Zth+100).4° and Z N = Z TH = 112. fprintf(' \n').0.6j. Thus.6° I N = --------.5 ∠5.Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ZTH 112 Ω j10. Thevenin equivalent circuit for Example 7.519 ∠– 6.14.13.6° = 110−j6. disp(Ix).= ---------------------------------. Ix = 0.0582i that is.6 Ω X VTH = 110.87 We find I X using MATLAB: Vth=110−6.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis

IN

ZN

Figure 7.14. Norton equivalent circuit for Example 7.4

7.5 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
Other circuits such as those who contain op amps and op amp equivalent circuits can be analyzed using any of the above methods. Example 7.5 Compute i X ( t ) for the circuit below where v in ( t ) = 2 cos ( 30000 ω t ) V .
2Ω 50 Ω 10 Ω

iX ( t )

v in ( t )

8Ω 0.2 mH

+

vC ( t )

+
− 5v ( t ) C

4Ω

10 ⁄ 3 µF

Figure 7.15. Circuit for Example 7.5

Solution: As a first step, we perform the t – domain , to jω – domain transformation. Thus,
jX L = j ω L = j0.2 × 10
–3

× 30 × 10 = j6

3

and
1 1 – jX C = – j ------- = – j ------------------------------------------------- = – j10 ωC 3 10 –6 30 × 10 × ----- × 10 3

Also,
V IN = 2 ∠0°

and the phasor circuit is shown in Figure 5.16.

7-12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
V1
2Ω

V2
10 Ω 8Ω j6 Ω

50 Ω

V3

IX

+

V IN 2 ∠0°

+

VC −j10 Ω

+
− 5V C

4Ω

Figure 7.16. Phasor circuit for Example 7.5

At Node

:
V1 V 1 – V C V 1 – 5V C V 1 – 2 ∠0° ------------------------- + ------------- + ------------------ + ---------------------- = 0 2 10 50 8 + j6

(7.20)

and since
3 1 8 –j 6 8 –j 6 4 1 ------------- = ------------- ⋅ ---------- = ---------- = ----- – j ----8 + j6 8 – j 6 100 50 50 8 + j6

the nodal equation of (7.20) simplifies to
3 ⎛ 35 – j -----⎞ V – 1 V = 1 ∠0° -----⎝ 50 50⎠ 1 5 C

(7.21)

At Node

:
VC – V1 VC ------------------ + ---------- = 0 10 – j10

or
111 – ----- V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V C = 0 ⎝ 10 10⎠ 10

(7.22)

At Node

:
V 3 = 5V C

We use MATLAB to solve (7.21) and (7.22).
G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176 - 1.7546i

magIx = 2.75 A

theta = -39.64 deg

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-13

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
Therefore,
I = 2.75 ∠– 39.6° ⇔ i ( t ) = 2.75 cos ( 30000t – 39.6° )

Example 7.6 Compute the phasor V out for the op amp circuit of Figure 7.17.
−j5 Ω 4Ω 5Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V −j10 Ω 10 Ω V out

Figure 7.17. Circuit for Example 7.6

Solution: We assign phasor voltages V 1 and V while observing that V out = V
+ +

as shown in Figure 7.18, and we apply KCL at these nodes,

V1 4Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V 5Ω −j10 Ω V
+

10 Ω

V out

Figure 7.18. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 7.6

At Node

:
V 1 – 4 ∠0° V 1 – V out V 1 – V out V1 ------------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------- = 0 4 – j10 – j5 5

or
39 ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V – ⎛ 1 + j 1 ⎞ V -- -= 1 ∠0° ⎝ 20 10⎠ 1 ⎝ 5 5 ⎠ out

(7.23)

At Node

,
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-14

Phasor Diagrams
V2 = V
+

= V out

and thus,
V out V out – V 1 V out – V 1 ---------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- = 0 5 – j5 10

or
1 1 1 3 – ⎛ -- + j -- ⎞ V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -- ⎞ V out = 0 ⎝5 5 ⎠ ⎝ 10 5 ⎠

(7.24)

Solving (7.23) and (7.24) with MATLAB we get:
format rat G=[9/20+j*3/10 −1/5−j*1/5; −1/5−j*1/5 3/10+j*1/5]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf(' \n');disp(‘V1 = ’); disp(V(1,1)); disp(‘Vout = ’); disp(V(2,1)); format short magV=abs(V(2,1)); thetaV=angle(V(2,1))*180/pi; fprintf('magIx = %5.3f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n')

V1 = 68/25 - 24/25i magIx = 2.750 A Therefore,

Vout = 56/25 - 8/25i theta = -39.64 deg
V out = 2.263 ∠– 8.13°

(7.25)

7.6 Phasor Diagrams
A phasor diagram is a sketch showing the magnitude and phase relationships among the phasor voltages and currents in phasor circuits. The procedure is best illustrated with the examples below. Example 7.7 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.19. +
VS I
2Ω j3 Ω

− +

VR

VL VC

+
− −j5 Ω

Figure 7.19. Circuit for Example 7.7

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-15

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
Solution: Since this is a series circuit, the phasor current I is common to all circuit devices. Therefore, we assign to this phasor current the value I = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.20. Then,
V R = ( 2 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = 2 ∠0° V V L = ( j3 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = j3 = 3 ∠90° V V C = ( – j 5 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = – j5 = 5 ∠– 90 ° V V S = V R + ( V L + V C ) = 2 – j2 = 2 2 ∠– 45° VL VR VL+VC VC Figure 7.20. Phasor diagram for the circuit of Example 7.7 I = 1∠0°

VS=VR+(VL+VC)

Example 7.8 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.21. +
V IS − IR
10 Ω

IL
j20 Ω

IC −j10 Ω

Figure 7.21. Circuit for Example 7.8

Solution: Since this is a parallel circuit, the phasor voltage V is common to all circuit devices. Therefore let us assign this phasor voltage the value V = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference phasor as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.22. Then,

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Phasor Diagrams
I R = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 = 100 ∠0° mA I L = 1 ∠0° ⁄ j20 = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 20 ∠90° = 50 ∠– 90 ° m I C = 1 ∠0° ⁄ ( – j 10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 ∠– 90 ° = 100 ∠90° mA I C + I L = 50 ∠90° mA I S = I R + ( I C + I L ) = 100 + j50 = 111.8 ∠26.6° IC IC+IL IS=IR+(IC+IL) V = 1∠0° IR IL Figure 7.22. Phasor diagram for Example 7.8

We can draw a phasor diagram for other circuits that are neither series nor parallel by assigning any phasor quantity as a reference. Example 7.9 Compute and sketch all phasor voltages for the circuit of Figure 7.23. Then, use MATLAB to plot these quantities in the t – domain . +
VS VR1
2Ω

+ +

VL
j3 Ω

+
5Ω

IR2 VR2

−j5 Ω −

VC

Figure 7.23. Circuit for Example 7.9

Solution: We will begin by selecting I R2 = 1 ∠0° A as our reference as shown on the phasor diagram of Figure 7.24. Then,
V R2 = 5 Ω × I R2 = 5 × 1 ∠0° = 5 ∠0° V L = j3 Ω × I R2 = 3 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 3 ∠90° V C = V L + V R2 = 5 ∠0° + 3 ∠90° = 5 + j3 = 5.83 ∠31°

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-17

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
VC ----------------------V R1 = 2 Ω × I R1 = 2 ( I C + I R2 ) = 2 ⎛ ------- + I R2⎞ = 2 ⎛ 5.83 ∠31° + 5 ∠0° ⎞ ⎝ 5 ∠– 90° ⎠ ⎝ – j5 ⎠ = 2.33 ∠121° + 10 ∠0° = – 1.2 + j2 + 10 = 8.8 + j2 = 9 ∠12.8°

and
V S = V R1 + V C = 8.8 + j2 + 5 + j3 = 13.8 + j5 = 14.7 ∠20° V C = 5.83 ∠31° V S = 14.7 ∠20° V L = 3 ∠90° V R1 = 9 ∠12.8° V R2 = 5 ∠0° I R2 = 1 ∠0° A

Figure 7.24. Phasor diagram for Example 7.9

Now, we can transform these phasors into time-domain quantities and use MATLAB to plot them. We will use the voltage source as a reference with the value V S = 1 ∠0° , and we will apply nodal analysis with node voltages V1, V2, and V3 assigned as shown in Figure 7.25.
V1 + VR1 − V2 + VL − V3 j3 Ω IR2 2Ω + VS + 5Ω VR2 VC − − −j5 Ω 1 ∠0° V Figure 7.25. Circuit for Example 7.9 with the voltage source taken as reference

The node equations are shown below in matrix form.
1 –1 -2 0 0 1 - 1⎛ 1 + ------- + ---- ⎞ -⎝ 2 – j5 j3 ⎠ 1– ---j3 G 0 1– ---j3 1- -⎛ ---- + 1 ⎞ ⎝ j3 5 ⎠ V1 V2 V3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 1 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I Orchard Publications

The MATLAB code is as follows:

7-18

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications

Phasor Diagrams
% Enter the non-zero values of the G matrix G(1,1)=1; G(2,1)=−1/2; G(2,2)=1/2−1/5j+1/3j; G(2,3)=−1/3j; G(3,2)=−1/3j; G(3,3)=1/3j+1/5; % % Enter all values of the I matrix I=[1 0 0]'; % % Compute node voltages V=G\I; % VR1=V(1)−V(2); VL=V(2)−V(3); % Compute magnitudes and phase angles of voltages magV1=abs(V(1)); magV2=abs(V(2)); magV3=abs(V(3)); phaseV1=angle(V(1))*180/pi; phaseV2=angle(V(2))*180/pi; phaseV3=angle(V(3))*180/pi; magVR1=abs(VR1); phaseVR1=angle(VR1)*180/pi; magVL=abs(VL); phaseVL=angle(VL)*180/pi; % % Denote radian frequency as w and plot wt for 0 to 2*pi range wt=linspace(0,2*pi); V1=magV(1)*cos(wt-phaseV(1)); V2=magV(2)*cos(wt-phaseV(2)); V3=magV(3)*cos(wt-phaseV(3)); VR1t=magVR1*cos(wt-phaseVR1); VLt=magVL*cos(wt-phaseVL); % % Convert wt to degrees deg=wt*180/pi; % % Print phasor voltages, magnitudes, and phase angles fprintf(' \n'); % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp disp('V1 = '); disp(V(1)); disp('V2 = '); disp(V(2)); disp('V3 = '); disp(V(3)); disp('VR1 = '); disp(VR1); disp('VL = '); disp(VL); fprintf('magV1 = %4.2f V \t', magV1); fprintf('magV2 = %4.2f V \t', magV2); fprintf('magV3 = %4.2f V', magV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('phaseV1 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV1); fprintf('phaseV2 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV2); fprintf('phaseV3 = %4.2f deg', phaseV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVR1 = %4.2f V \t', magVR1); fprintf('phaseVR1 = %4.2f deg ', phaseVR1); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVL = %4.2f V \t', abs(VL)); fprintf('phaseVL = %4.2f deg ', phaseVL); fprintf(' \n'); % plot(deg,V1,deg,V2,deg,V3,deg,VR1t,deg,VLt) fprintf(' \n');

V1 = 1 V2 = 0.7503 - 0.1296i
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-19

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
V3 = 0.4945 - 0.4263i VR1 = 0.2497 + 0.1296i VL = 0.2558 + 0.2967i magV1 = 1.00 V phaseV1 = 0.00 deg magVR1 = 0.28 V magVL = 0.39 V and with these values we have
v S ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) = cos ω t v 2 ( t ) = 0.76 cos ( ω t – 9.8° ) v 3 ( t ) = 0.65 cos ( ω t – 40.8° ) v L ( t ) = 0.39 cos ( ω t + 49.2° )

magV2 = 0.76 V phaseV2 = -9.80 deg phaseVR1 = 27.43 deg phaseVL = 49.24 deg

magV3 = 0.65 V phaseV3 = -40.76 deg

v R1 ( t ) = 0.28 cos ( ω t + 27.4° )

These are plotted with MATLAB as shown in Figure 7.26.
1
0 .8
0 .6
0 .4
0 .2
0
-0 .2
-0 .4
-0 .6
-0 .8
-1

v1 ( t ) = vS ( t ) v2 ( t ) v R1 ( t ) v3 ( t )

vL ( t )

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Figure 7.26. The t – domain plots for Example 7.9

7.7 Electric Filters
The characteristics of electric filters were introduced in Chapter 4 but are repeated below for convenience. Analog filters are defined over a continuous range of frequencies. They are classified as low-pass, highpass, band-pass and band-elimination (stop-band). Another, less frequently mentioned filter, is the all-pass

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Basic Analog Filters
or phase shift filter. It has a constant amplitude response but is phase varies with frequency. This is discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications, ISBN 0-9709511-3-2, by this author. The ideal amplitude characteristics of each are shown in Figure 7.27. The ideal characteristics are not physically realizable; we will see that practical filters can be designed to approximate these characteristics. In this section we will derive the passive RC low and high-pass filter characteristics and those of an active low-pass filter using phasor analysis.
V out --------V in 1
PASS BAND

V out --------V in
STOP (CUTOFF) BAND

1
STOP BAND PASS BAND

ωc Ideal low− pass filter V out --------V in

ω

ωc Ideal high− pass filter

ω

1
STOP BAND PASS BAND STOP BAND

V out --------V in

1
PASS BAND STOP BAND PASS BAND

ω1

ω2

ω

ω1

ω2

ω

Ideal band− pass Filter

Ideal band − elimination filter

Figure 7.27. Amplitude characteristics of the types of filters

A digital filter, in general, is a computational process, or algorithm that converts one sequence of numbers representing the input signal into another sequence representing the output signal. Accordingly, a digital filter can perform functions as differentiation, integration, estimation, and, of course, like an analog filter, it can filter out unwanted bands of frequency. Digital filters are discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications by this author, Orchard Publications.

7.8 Basic Analog Filters
An analog filter can also be classified as passive or active. Passive filters consist of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors and inductors. Active filters are, generally, operational amplifiers with resistors and capacitors connected to them externally. We can find out whether a filter, passive or active, is a low-pass, high-pass, etc., from its the frequency response that can be obtained from its transfer function. The procedure is illustrated with the examples that follow. Example 7.10 Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses of the series RC network of Figure 7.28, and sketch their characteristics.
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-21

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
+
V in −

R

C

+

V out

Figure 7.28. Series RC network for Example 7.10

Solution: By the voltage division expression,
1 ⁄ jωC V out = -------------------------- V in R + 1 ⁄ jωC

and denoting the ratio V out ⁄ V in as G ( jω ) , we get
V out 1 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = ----------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------1 + jωRC V in 2 2 2 ( 1 + ω R C ) ∠ atan ( ωRC ) 1 = -------------------------------- ∠– atan ( ωRC ) 2 2 2 1+ω R C

(7.26)

The magnitude of (7.26) is
V out 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = -------------------------------2 2 2 V in 1+ω R C

(7.27)

and the phase angle θ , also known as the argument, is
V out θ = arg { G ( jω ) } = arg ⎛ ---------⎞ = – atan ( ωRC ) ⎝ V in ⎠

(7.28)

We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( jω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.27) at ω = 0 , ω = 1 ⁄ RC , and ω → ∞ . Thus, as ω → 0 , G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC , G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.707 and as ω → ∞ , G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 To obtain a smooth curve, we will use a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel to plot G ( jω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω . This is shown in Figure 7.29 where, for convenience, we let

7-22

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

040 0. again for convenience.99682 0. although not a good one.000 0. This is shown in Figure 7.9992 0.200 0.97664 Series RC Low-pass Filter Frequency Response |G(jω)| 1 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .4 0. we let RC = 1 Example 7. where the positions of the resistor and capacitor have been interchanged.220 |G(jω)| 1 0.31 where. ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . i.120 0. ω → – ∞ and ω → ∞ . Thus. ω 0.98418 0.99288 0. RC network for Example 7.. θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ . Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses.060 0.2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0. θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ .3) at ω = 0 .29. θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° We use Excel to plot θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω .30 is also a series RC circuit.99034 0.9998 0.9982 0.080 0. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .160 0.Basic Analog Filters RC = 1 .100 0.6 0.180 0.140 0. The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation.707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7. and sketch their characteristics. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . as ω → 0 . Amplitude characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle. to the amplitude characteristics of a low-pass filter.8 0.020 0.e. + V in − C R V out − + Figure 7.11 The network of Figure 7.30.99504 0.11 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-23 .98058 0. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω by evaluating of (11.98744 0.

18 85.00 -45.00 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 1------RC –1 ------RC 2 RC = 1 4 6 8 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.00 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45.= -------------------------------.16 85.74 θ 85.= ------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 V in 1 + j ωRC 1+ω R C 1+ω R C 1 2 2 2 ωRC 1 + ω R C ∠ atan ⎛ ----------.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 1 1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.23 85.∠ atan ⎛ ----------.92 -11.29) The magnitude of (7.j ωRC + ω R C G ( j ω ) = --------.13 Series RC Low-Pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90.= ----------------------.21 85.80 -11.24 85.V in R + 1 ⁄ j ωC or 2 2 2 V out ωRC ( j + ωRC ) j ωRC .00 -90.94 -11.90 -11.88 -11.20 85.00 0.78 -11. Phase characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter Solution: R V out = -------------------------.29) is 1 G ( j ω ) = -------------------------------1 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7.76 -11.20 85.= ---------------------------------------.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 2 2 2 1 1+ω R C 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ (7. is 1 θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } = atan ⎛ ----------.19 85.22 85.00 -11.86 -11.30) and the phase angle or argument.98 -11.31.15 85.96 -11.16 85.82 -11.31) 7-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.84 -11.14 85.17 85.

and ω → ∞ .100 0. as ω → 0 . G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 Figure 7.05989 0.15799 0. to the amplitude characteristics of a high-pass filter..21486 Series RC High-Pass Filter |G(jω)| versus ω |G(jω)| 1 0.30) at ω = 0 . Amplitude characteristics of a series RC high-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle.6 0.200 0. The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . ω = 1 ⁄ RC . Thus. by evaluating (7.03997 0. ω 0.Basic Analog Filters We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( j ω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.32 shows G ( j ω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω where RC = 1 .17715 0.8 0.32.120 0.180 0. ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . as ω → 0 . i.e.33 shows the phase angle θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω .000 0.07975 0.13865 0.2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0.020 0. where RC = 1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-25 .4 0. although not a good one.707 and as ω → ∞ . θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° Figure 7.11915 0. ω → – ∞ . θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ .31) at ω = 0 . and ω → ∞ .080 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .060 0.220 |G(jω)| 1E-07 0.140 0.040 0. G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7. Thus.160 0.19612 0. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC . G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.0995 0. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω . θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ .02 0.

8115345 -4.+ ----------------------.+ -------------------.900 -11.760 -11.7636417 -4. using phasor circuit analysis.34. C 2 10 nF v2 v out 25 nF R2 R1 200 kΩ v in C1 40 kΩ v1 R3 50 kΩ Figure 7.12 Solution: We write the phasor circuit nodal equations as follows: At Node : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – v 2 v1 ----------------.8196102 -4.800 -11. Phase characteristics of an RC high-pass filter 7.= 0 R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C1 ) R1 R2 (7.740 θ -4.980 -11.960 -11.8603978 -4.880 -11.8440004 -4.7954638 -4.7715577 -4.835843 -4.9 Active Filter Analysis We can analyze active filters.840 -11.8686381 Series RC High-pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45 0 -45 -90 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 RC=1 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.940 -11.920 -11.7794999 -4.8521853 -4.000 -11.7874686 -4.32) 7-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Low-pass filter for Example 7.8034858 -4.860 -11. such as those we discussed in Chapter 4.12 Compute the approximate cut-off frequency of the circuit of Figure 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.827713 -4. Example 7.820 -11.780 -11.+ --------------.34 which is known as a Multiple Feed Back (MFB) active low-pass filter.33.

^(−3).*10.37) and now we can use MATLAB to find and plot the magnitude of (7.37) with the following code. The plot is shown in Figure 7. semilogx(w.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------–6 2 v in 2.32).+ j ω C 1 ⎞ ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) – ----⎝ R ⎠ R2 R3 R2 1 By substitution of given values of resistors and capacitors. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-27 .35 where we see that the cutoff frequency occurs at about 700 rad ⁄ s .35) or v out 1 --------. ylabel('|Vout/Vin|').34) (7.1v in R 1 ⎛ ----./(2.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11.*10.33) and since v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).+ ----. hold on xlabel('Radian Frequency w').36) or v out –1 G ( j ω ) = --------. Radian Frequency') (7.+ ----.Active Filter Analysis At node : v2 – v1 C2 --------------.34) into (7.5 × 10 ω – j5 × 10 –3 ω + 5 w=1:10:10000.33) reduces to v 1 = ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) v out and by substitution of (7. and collecting like terms.+ ----.= ----------------------R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C2 ) (7. We observe that the half-power point for this plot is 0.+ ----. grid.*w+5).v = ----.*j.141 .+ j ω C ⎞ ( – j ω R C ) – ----.^2−5.+ j2.^(−6). relation (7.5.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 ⎛ –8 ⎞ 4 –8 1 1 v in 2 × 10 -------------------.5 × 10 ω ( – j5 × 10 × 10 ω ) – ----------------⎝ ⎠ 3 4 20 × 10 4 × 10 (7.707 = 0.abs(Gjw)). we get: 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ----. rearranging.2 × 0.1. we get v out 1 --------. title('Magnitude Vout/Vin vs.*w. Gjw=−1.v in 1 ⎠ 3 2 ⎝ R R1 R2 R3 R 2 out 1 (7.

and admittances.02 0 10 0 10 1 Radian Frequency w 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure 7. • The use of complex numbers make the phasor circuit analysis much easier. Plot for the magnitude of the low-pass filter circuit of Example 7.14 Magnitude Vout/Vin vs.1 0. They serve as a good introduction to electric filters. and Norton’s theorem can also be applied to phasor circuits. When constructing a phasor diagram.16 0. and all other phasors must be drawn with the correct relative angles. it is highly recommended that they are grouped and denoted as z 1 . z 2 .06 0. 7-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . mesh analysis. the principle of superposition.2 0. resistances and conductances.04 0. • Nodal analysis. impedances. and so on before writing nodal or mesh equations. • Whenever a branch in a circuit contains two or more devices in series or two or more devices in parallel. In this chapter we were concerned with alternating voltage and alternating current sources. usually with zero phase angle.12 0.10 Summary • In Chapter 3 we were concerned with constant voltage and constant current sources. Thevenin’s theorem.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 0. • Phasor diagrams are sketches that show the magnitude and phase relationships among several pha- sor voltages and currents. • MATLAB can be used very effectively to perform the computations since it does not require any special procedures for manipulation of complex numbers. the first step is to select one phasor as a reference.12 7.08 0. • The RC low-pass and RC high-pass filters are rudimentary types of filters and are not used in prac- tice.18 0. Radian Frequency |Vout/Vin| 0.35.

50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-29 . 1 – j 0 V D.37. none of the above VS 2 ∠0° V I 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω −j1 Ω j1 Ω Figure 7. In the circuit of Figure 7. In the circuit of Figure 7. In the circuit of Figure 7. 0 + j2 A B.36.38 the voltage across the capacitor C 2 is A. Circuit for Question 1 2. 1 + j V E.36 the phasor voltage V is A.11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. none of the above IS 1 ∠0° A + j0. 2 + j0 V B.5 Ω V − −j Ω 1Ω Figure 7.37 the phasor current I is A.Exercises 7. 2 + j2 A E. 1 + j0 V C. 8 × 10 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) V B. Circuit for Question 2 3. 0 – j2 A C. 1 + j0 A D.

The Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7.39. 50 cos ( 2000t + 45° ) V 50 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) V E. 4 sin 2000t B. none of the above 7-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .39 the current i C ( t ) through the capacitor is A. none of the above L1 vS ( t ) 4Ω 3 mH C1 500 µF L2 2 mH C2 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) 100 µF Figure 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C. 4 sin ( 2000t + 180° ) C. 32 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) 32 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) E.40 is A. D. Circuit for Question 4 iC 500 µF 0. 10 ∠53. 10 ∠– 45° V E.13° V C.5 mH 5. 10 ∠– 53. none of the above iS ( t ) 1Ω i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t Figure 7. Circuit for Question 3 4.13° V D. In the circuit of Figure 7.38. 10 ∠– 90° V B. D.

5 ∠– 45° V C. none of the above VS 20 ∠0° V IX + − 4Ω j3 Ω + − IX −j4 Ω 4IX V Figure 7.42 the phasor voltage V R A. 4 + j2 Ω C.Exercises 4Ω VS 10 ∠0° V j2 Ω A −j5 Ω B Figure 7. 4 ∠53. – j 5 Ω E. 4 – j 2 Ω D. none of the above 7.41. 5 ∠– 90° V B. Circuit for Question 7 8. 0 + j20 V 5Ω is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-31 . In the circuit of Figure 7.40 is A. 20 + j0 V B.1° V D.41 the phasor voltage V C is A. 2 + j4 Ω B. In the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Questions 5 and 6 6.1° V E. 4 ∠– 53. The Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7.40.

2 + j0 V B.43 the phasor voltage V OUT 2 is A.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C. 4 – j 0 V D. Circuit for Question 8 9.89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) V B.1° ) V 7-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In the circuit of Figure 7.44 the t – domain voltage v AB ( t ) is A. 1 + j1 V E. 4 + j0 V C. none of the above IS + 4Ω j4 Ω VX − + 5 Ω VR − 5Ω 2V X A 4 ∠0° A Figure 7. 80 – j80 V E. 0.5 cos ( ωt + 53. In the circuit of Figure 7. 20 + j20 V D. 1. none of the above j5 Ω V IN 1 ∠0° − V OUT 1 V OUT 2 10 Ω –j 5 Ω 10 Ω Figure 7.42.43. 2 cos ωt V D.53 cos ( ωt – 45 ° ) V C. 0. Circuit for Question 9 10.

Exercises E. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-33 . Write mesh equations and use MATLAB to compute i L ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7. Write nodal equations and use MATLAB to compute i C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7.44. none of the above A j2 Ω 2Ω VS −j Ω 2Ω 2 ∠0° V B Figure 7. 4Ω 2Ω vS ( t ) 10 Ω 5Ω + − iC ( t ) 20 Ω 5 mH 100 µF Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 1 2. Circuit for Question 10 Problems 1. Compute v AB ( t ) and i C ( t ) . A 8Ω 20 mH 6Ω iC ( t ) 1000 ⁄ 6 µF 2Ω iS ( t ) 7Ω 5Ω B Figure 7.46. For the circuit of Figure 7.45. Circuit for Problem 2 3.45.46 given that v S ( t ) = 12 cos ( 1000t + 45° ) V . i S ( t ) = 2 cos 1000t A .47 given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10000t + 60° ) V .

Circuit for Problem 3 4. find the value of Z LD which will receive maximum power. L1 2 mH R1 10 Ω R2 25 Ω L2 5 mH + v S1 ( t ) − 20 µF + vC ( t ) − + − v S2 ( t ) Figure 7. and i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t A .48.49. find v C ( t ) if v S1 = 15 V . it is given that v S1 ( t ) = 40 cos ( 5000t + 60° ) V and v S2 ( t ) = 60 sin ( 5000t + 60° ) V .48.47. 10 Ω 1 mH 2 mH v S1 + + − + 500 µF − vC ( t ) 5Ω iS ( t ) v S2 ( t ) − Figure 7.49.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 4Ω 10 Ω 2Ω 5Ω + − v (t) S 20 Ω 2 mH iL ( t ) 10 µF Figure 7. 7-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Plot v C ( t ) using MATLAB or Excel.50. Circuit for Problem 4 5. For the circuit of Figure 7. Use superposition to find v C ( t ) . For the circuit of Figure 7. For the circuit of Figure 7. v S2 ( t ) = 20 cos 1000t V . Circuit for Problem 5 6.

Exercises + vS − ZS Z LD Figure 7.50. Circuit for Problem 6 7. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-35 . draw a phasor diagram which shows the voltage and current in each branch. Find v out ( t ) . 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − 20 Ω j5 −j10 Figure 7.51. For the circuit of Figure 7. v in ( t ) = 3 cos 1000t V .52.51.52. Circuit for Problem 8 9. to what value should the load impedance Z LD be adjusted so that it will receive maximum power from the voltage source? Z LD 10 Ω 5Ω 4Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° Figure 7. For the op amp circuit of Figure 7. For the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 6 8.53.

53. Circuit for Problem 9 7-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C R2 R1 v in ( t ) 1 KΩ v out ( t ) 3 KΩ Figure 7.

jωL 2 = j4 .= 1 – j1 . L1 VS + 8 ∠0° V − 4Ω C1 j6 Ω −j1 Ω L2 j4 Ω C2 I −j5 Ω Z = 4 + j6 – j1 + j4 – j5 = 4 + j4 .= 1 + 2 = 2 + j0 2 1 – j1 + 1 + j1 z2 + z3 and VS 2 + j0 I = ----. the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 2 .= ------------. jωL 1 = j6 .Answers to Exercises 7.= ---------j = 1 – j -. and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below. – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 .= 1 + ------------------------------------. D 4 cos 2000t ⇔ 4 ∠0° . B 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) = 8 cos 2000t ⇔ 8 ∠0° V . and the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 3 . jωC = j1 Ω .× --------. 1 –j 1+j 1–j 2 2 2 V = j1 ⁄ 2 + 1 ⁄ 2 – j1 ⁄ 2 = 1 ⁄ 2 + j0 V 2. – j ⁄ ωL = – j1 Ω . IS 4 ∠0° A 1Ω –1 IC j1 Ω –1 – j1 Ω –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-37 .-tion -----. the equivalent impedance is z2 ⋅ z3 ( 1 – j1 ) ( 1 + j1 ) -Z eq = z 1 + --------------. G = 1 ⁄ R = 1 Ω . E V = V L + V C where V L = 1 ∠0° × j1 ⁄ 2 = j1 ⁄ 2 V and V C is found from the nodal equaVC VC 1 1 1–j 1– .V .= ------------------.= 1 + j0 A Z 2 + j0 3.⋅ ------------.= ------------.= ------------. C Denoting the resistor in series with the voltage source as z 1 . 2 VS 8 + j0 4 – j4 32 – j32 8 + j0 I = ----. – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below. Therefore.= 1 + j0 or ( 1 + j )V C = 1 or V C = ---------.12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 4 + j4 4 – j4 32 Z 4 + j4 50 ∠– 45° ⇔ 50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –1 –1 and thus V C = – j5 × ( 1 – j ) = 5 – j5 = –1 4.+ -----.

= 4 – j2 -------------------------------------------------) 4 – j3 4 + j3 25 4 – j3 4 + j2 – j5 20 ∠0° 20 ∠0° 7.× 4 ∠0° × j4 = ----------------------. A We write the nodal equation at Node A for V AB as 7-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .⋅ I S = -----------------------.9° and 4I X -------------------------I C = ------.9° 4 – j3 6.1° V 4 + j2 – j5 5 ∠– 36.= 16 ∠– 36.= j1 × 4 ∠0° = 1 ∠90° × 4 ∠0° = 4 ∠90° A jωC + Y 1 j1 + 1 – j1 and thus i S ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) A 5.1° 4 ∠– 90° – j4 64 × 32 4 64 ∠90° 8.× V OUT 1 = – j 2 × 2 ∠0° = 2 ∠– 90 ° × 2 ∠90° = 4 ∠0° = 4 + j0 –j 5 10.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Denoting the parallel combination of the conductance and inductance as Y 1 = 1 – j1 and using the current division expression for admittances we get jωC j1 I C = --------------------.= 4 ∠– 36. 10 – j20 4 + j3 100 – j50 Z TH = ( – j5 ) ( 4 + j2 . D I X = ---------------.9° 4 + j3 5 ∠36.× 1 ∠0° = j2 × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° 10 j5 and V OUT 2 10 = – ------.+ j ------⎞ = 80 + j80 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 9. E V X = ------------.= -------------------.= 10 ∠– 53.9° = 4 ∠53.∠45° = 2 32 ∠45° 4 + j4 32 ∠45° 32 and VR 5Ω 2 2 = 2V X × 5 = 20 × 32 ∠45° = 20 32 ⎛ -----. B V OUT 1 = – ----.9° . Thus.= 10 – j20 = ------------------.⋅ 10 ∠0° = 5 ∠– 90° × 10 ∠0° = ----------------------. 4I X = 16 ∠– 36. B By the voltage division expression – j5 50 ∠– 90° -----------------------------------------V TH = V AB = -----------------------.= --------------------. C We short the voltage source and looking to the left of points A and B we observe that the capacitor is in parallel with the series combination of the resistance and inductance.⋅ ------------.= ---------------------.

Answers to Exercises V AB – 2 ∠0° V AB V AB ---------------------------.06 ∠45° or V AB = 1.+ ------------. jωL = j10 × 20 × 10 3 3 –6 3 –3 = j20 Ω and – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ⁄ 6 × 10 ) = – j6 .89 ∠45° and in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 1.+ --.+ ------------------.= ----------------------1⁄2+j+1⁄4–j⁄4 3 ⁄ 4 + j3 ⁄ 4 1.⎞ V = 10 ∠0° --------------⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ A 1 1 1 10 ∠0° ⎛ 1 + ------------------. At Node A.= --------------------------. A z2 8Ω j20 Ω z1 6Ω 5Ω IC z3 – j6 Ω 8Ω + 15 Ω − C VS 10 ∠0° V B For this phasor circuit. we combine the series resistors. and we draw the phasor circuit below. and z 3 = ( 8 – j 6 ) Ω We observe that V A = V AB = V AC + V CB = V AC + 10 ∠0° V and V B = 0 . V A – V B V A – 10 ∠0° V A – V B ------------------.= 0 –j 2 2 + j2 1 ⎛ 1 + j + ------------.⎞ V = --------------.= 2 ∠0° -⎝ 5 15 + j20 8 – j 6 ⎠ A 5 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-39 .+ --. We transform the current source and its parallel resistance to a voltage source series resistance. z 1 = 5 Ω . z 2 = ( 15 + j20 ) Ω .+ --------.+ ---------.+ ---------------------------.⎞ V = 2 ∠90° -⎝2 2 + j2 ⎠ AB 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° V AB = -----------------------------------------------. V S = 2 ∠0° × 5 = 10 ∠0° V .89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) Problems 1.= 0 z2 z1 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.

= 6.1 sin 36.1° 10 ∠– 36.9° z3 and i C ( t ) = 0.+ -------------------------25 ∠53.55 ∠– 5.26° = 0. fprintf(' \n').. fprintf('phaseVA = %5.04 ∠– 53. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 5 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω = j5 and z7 z3 10 Ω 20 Ω 2Ω VS + − 12 ∠45° V1 V2 z5 5Ω V3 IC z 6 – j 10 Ω j5 Ω z4 z2 Node V 1 : V1 – VS V1 – V2 V1 V1 – V3 -----------------.1 × 0.abs(VA)).7° 10 ∠– 36.angle(VA)*180/pi).= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1 0.= ---------------------------------0. z2=15+20j.26° ) ..+ -----------------.04 cos 53. magVA = 6.2f deg \t'.305 ∠5. fprintf('magVA = %5. Also.= 6.2 + 0.26° Then.304 + j0.8 + 0.6 0.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° V A = ----------------------------------------------------------------------.8 + j0.55 cos ( 1000 + 5..028 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------.2 + ----------------------.1 ∠36.1 cos 36..9° + j0.1° + 0..55 V 3 –4 phaseVA = -5. VA=(10+0j)/(z1*(1/z1+1/z2+1/z3)).1° – j0.55 ∠– 5.26° 0.26 deg 3 –3 2.9° 1 0.04 × 0.+ ----. z3=8−6j.655 ∠31.04 sin 53.+ -----------------z2 z1 z3 z7 7-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .655 cos ( 1000 + 31..2 + 0.9° 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.6 – j0.2 + 0. fprintf(' \n').9° 2 ∠0° = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.1 × 0.1 ° + 0. fprintf(' \n').2f V \t'. VA ------------------------------I C = -----.04 × 0.7° ) Check with MATLAB: z1=5. in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 6.

. V1 = 5.+ --. z3=10.1... z6=−10j... z5=5.V – --.V 3 = 0 ⎝z ⎠ z3 z5 z4 z5 3 Node V 3 : V3 – V2 V3 – V1 V2 – V3 -----------------.9950 . disp('V1='). Vs=12*(cos(pi/4)+j*sin(pi/4))..= 0 z5 z7 z6 or 111.V ⎝z ⎠ 1 z3 2 z7 3 z1 S z2 z3 z7 1 Node V 2 : V2 – V1 V2 V2 – V3 -----------------. −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5 −1/z5..+ ----. disp(V(2)).⎞ V – --.+ --.+ --. magIc=abs(Ic).+ --.+ --. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIc='). disp('V2=').. Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3+1/z7 −1/z3 −1/z7.1⎛ --..⎞ ⎝z z z z ⎠ 1 2 3 7 1 – --z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.+ --. disp(magIc).V 1 + ⎛ --.⎞ V 2 – --.+ --. disp(Ic). disp('phaseIc='). I=[Vs/z1 0 0]'. z7=2.1.+ -----------------..⎞ V 3 = 0 ⎝z z7 z5 z6 z7 ⎠ 5 and in matrix form 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --. −1/z7 −1/z5 1/z5+1/z6+1/z7].1– --..+ --.. disp('Ic=')..4... disp(V(3)). phaseIc=angle(Ic)*180/pi..+ -----------------.+ --. % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4.. z2=20. Ic=V(3)/z6. z4=5j.V 1 – --...+ --. disp('V3=').V 2 + ⎛ --..V S z1 0 0 1– --z5 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations.⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 5 6 7 1 – --z3 1– --z7 V1 ⋅ V2 = V3 1 --...V = --.+ --.⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 3 4 5 1 – --z7 1 – --z5 1.+ --. V=Y\I. disp(phaseIc).+ --.Answers to Exercises or 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --. fprintf(' \n'). disp(V(1))..+ --..+ -----------------..8789i Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-41 .= 0 z4 z3 z5 or 111 1 1 – --...

9658 . I C = 0.5960i V3 = 5.46 Therefore.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V2 = 5.69 cos ( 1000t + 50.0.4.4203i Ic = 0.5355i magIc = 0.3552 .46° ) A 3.46° ⇔ i C ( t ) = 0.4420 + 0.69 ∠50. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 2 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω 4 –6 4 –3 = j20 and z7 I2 z 3 10 Ω 2Ω z5 5Ω + − V S = 100 ∠60° I1 z2 I3 20 Ω z4 IL j20 Ω I4 z6 – j10 Ω Mesh I 1 : ( z 1 + z 2 )I 1 – z 2 I 3 = V S Mesh I 2 : ( z 1 + z 2 + z 7 )I 2 – z 3 I 3 – z 5 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 3 : – z 2 I 1 – z 3 I 2 + ( z 2 + z 3 + z 4 )I 3 – z 4 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 4 : – z 5 I 2 – z 4 I 3 + ( z 4 + z 5 + z 6 )I 4 = 0 and in matrix form 7-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .69 phaseIc = 50.

. z3=10.Answers to Exercises z1 + z2 0 –z2 0 0 z1 + z2 + z7 –z3 –z5 –z2 –z3 z2 + z3 + z4 –z4 0 –z5 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations.4110i I2 = 4.82° ) 4. disp('I2=').. z6=−10j. −z2 −z3 z2+z3+z4 −z4.4150.. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL 1 = j5 × 10 × 2 × 10 jωL 2 = j5 × 10 × 5 × 10 3 3 3 –3 4 = j10 = j25 –6 –3 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 20 × 10 ) = – j10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-43 . 0 z3+z5+z7 −z3 −z5. disp(phaseIL). I1 = 5. disp('I1=')....0214 + 0.. z2=20....81 cos ( 10 t – – 153.1..5527 + 0. disp('phaseIL=').. disp(I(4))... I=Z\V.. z7=2.. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIL='). disp(I(3))... Z=[z1+z2 0 −z2 0.. magIL=abs(IL)..9157i IL= -3.81 phaseIL = -153.81 ∠– 153. IL=I(3)−I(4)... fprintf(' \n').4364 + 1.82° ⇔ i L ( t ) = 3.3. phaseIL=angle(IL)*180/pi. Vs=100*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)). disp('I4=').... disp(I(2)).. I L = 3..4345 . V=[Vs 0 0 0]'.. disp(magIL). 0 −z5 −z4 z4+z5+z6].7028i I3 = 4. z4=20j.. disp(IL).82 Therefore.. disp('I3=').. disp(I(1)).6787i magIL = 3. z5=5. disp('IL=')...2369i I4 = 7. % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4.

7595 .+ ----.2962i Therefore.1.30 V C Next.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω j25 Ω V S1 + − 40 ∠60° V – j 10 Ω + − VC + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V We let V C = V' + V'' C where V' is the capacitor voltage due to V S1 acting alone. V1c=Vs1/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3) V1c = 36.⎞ ⎛ 1 + z 1 + --. z2=−10j. z3=25+25j.⎞ V' = V S1 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S1 V S1 V' = -------------------------------------------. With V S1 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below.76 – j5. z1 V S1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω + − 40 ∠60° V z3 – j 10 Ω + − V' C By KCL V' – V S1 V' V' C C C -------------------.= --------------------------------C z1 1. and V'' C is the C C capacitor voltage due to V S2 acting alone.+ --.+ --.1⎛ --. V' = 36.1.1⎛ --.⎞ z1 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs1=40*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)). 7-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ --.+ --. with V S2 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below.+ ----.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1. z1=10+10j.5.

..58 – j27.27.35° C phaseVc = -39.2962j..+ --. fprintf(' \n').Answers to Exercises z1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω z3 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V By KCL V'' V'' V'' – V S2 C C C -----.2f deg \t'.7595−5.= 0 z3 z1 z2 1 1 1 ⎛ --. z3=25+25j. disp(V1c). z2=−10j.35 = 43.. V2c=Vs2/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1).5818 .35° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-45 .0557i Vc = V1c+V2c Vc = 33. fprintf('phaseVc = %4.⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z3 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------. fprintf(' \n').abs(Vc)).. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n').+ --.= --------------------------------C z3 1 1 1 ⎛ z 3 + --. disp(Vc)...⎞ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=60*(cos(pi/6)−j*sin(pi/6))..3519i magVc = 43.+ --------------------..+ 1 ⎞ z 3 ⋅ ⎛ --.31 cos ( 5000t – 27.2962i V2c = -3.5.+ -----.. disp('Vc = ').+ --.22. Vc=V1c+V2c.angle(Vc)*180/pi)..31 ∠27. V C = V' + V'' C = 33. disp('V2c = '). V1c = 36. V1c=36. fprintf('magVc = %4.31 V Then..7595 .. z1=10+10j..1777 ..2f V \t'.+ --.. disp(V2c).16 deg and v C ( t ) = 43. disp('Vc=V1c+V2c')..... disp('V1c = ')..

7-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and V''' the capacitor voltage due to i S ( t ) acting alone. Then. 10 Ω + V' C VR + 5Ω + − 15 V 5Ω − − By the voltage division expression V' = V R C 5 = -------------. after steady-state conditions have been reached the inductors behave like short circuits and the capacitor as an open circuit and thus the circuit is simplified as shown below. with the sinusoidal voltage source v S2 ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 1 L 1 = j10 × 1 × 10 jω 1 L 2 = j10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j1 Ω = j2 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 1 C = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 2 Ω –4 and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below. V'' the capacitor voltage due to v S2 ( t ) C C acting alone.⋅ 15 = 5 V DC 10 + 5 5Ω v'C ( t ) = 5 V DC and Next.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 5. Therefore. This circuit is excited by a DC (constant) voltage source. Let V' be the capacitor voltage due to v S1 acting alone. we will apply the superposition principle. and an AC current source of different frequency. the capacitor voltage C due to all three sources acting simultaneously will be V C = V' + V'' + V''' C C C With the DC voltage source acting alone. an AC (sinusoidal) voltage source.

+ -----. V2c = 1.9° ) C Finally. disp(V2c).3.. fprintf('magV2c = %4. V2c=Vs2/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3).54 = 3.angle(V2c)*180/pi).97 V phaseV2c = -62.8089 . fprintf(' \n'). with the sinusoidal current source i S ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 2 L 1 = j2 × 10 × 1 × 10 jω 2 L 2 = j2 × 10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j2 Ω = j4 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 2 C = – j ⁄ ( 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 1 Ω –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-47 .= 0 z1 z2 z3 1. fprintf(' \n').abs(V2c)).. z3=5+2j.⎞ z1 ⋅ ⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=20+0j. fprintf(' \n').9 ° and v'' ( t ) = 3. disp('V2c = ').+ --.1⎛ --.97 ∠– 62.81 – j3.+ --..2f V \t'.⎞ ⎛ 1 + --.1.+ --. fprintf('phaseV2c = %4.Answers to Exercises z1 V S2 j1 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z3 j2 Ω + − 20 ∠0° V z2 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C By KCL V'' – V S2 V'' V'' C C C --------------------..1⎛ --.+ --.+ -----. V'' C = 1. z1=10+j.⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------.2f deg \t'.97 cos ( 1000t – 62.5362i magV2c = 3. z2=−2j.1.= ---------------------------------C z1 z1 1..+ --.91 deg Then..

+ ---------------------.2f V \t'. fprintf(' \n').8 ° C or v''' ( t ) = 3.8° ) C C These waveforms are plotted below using the following MATLAB code: wt=linspace(0. z1 j2 Ω 10 Ω z3 5Ω j4 Ω z2 –j 1 Ω + − V''' C + V S3 − 20 ∠0° V By KCL V''' V''' V''' – V S3 C C C ------..9° ) + 3.43 cos ( 2000t – 114.2f deg \t'.1. z2=−j. 7-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . fprintf(' \n'). z1=10+2j.44 – j3. deg=wt*180/pi. V1c=5.9. fprintf('phaseV3c = %4.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below where the current source and its parallel resistance have been replaced with a voltage source with a series resistor.43 V phaseV3c = -114.1⎛ --.43 cos ( 2000t – 114.8° ) C and v C ( t ) = v' C + v'' ( t ) + v''' ( t ) = 5 + 3.2*2*pi).+ --.+ --.*cos(wt−62. V2c=3.3.+ --.1170i magV3c = 3... disp(V3c).79 deg Then.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.. V3c=Vs3/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1).= --------------------------------C z3 1. V''' = – 1..abs(V3c)).+ 1 ⎞ z3 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs3=20+0j.12 = 3.angle(V3c)*180/pi). V3c = -1.+ ------. fprintf(' \n').97. disp('V3c = ')./180).⎞ ⎛ z 3 + --.43 ∠– 114.97 cos ( 1000t – 62. z3=5+4j.4395 .+ --.⎞ V''' = V S3 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z3 1 V S3 V S3 V''' = -------------------------------------------.*pi.. fprintf('magV3c = %4.

Therefore. Moreover. X z3 z 12 z4 z5 z6 Y But this circuit cannot be simplified further unless we perform Wye to Delta transformation which we have not discussed.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and. to find Z TH we remove Z LOAD and we short the voltage source. we will begin our computations with the Thevenin voltage. it is best to replace the circuit with its Thevenin equivalent. X z3 z1 z2 z4 z5 z6 Y We observe that z 1 is in parallel with z 2 and this combination is shown as z 12 in the simplified circuit below. This and the Delta to Wye transformation are very useful in threephase circuits and are discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications by this author. For this problem. the load impedance Z LOAD will receive maximum power when Z LOAD = Z S∗ that is. we only need to compute Z TH . when Z LOAD is adjusted to be equal to the complex conjugate of Z S . as we found in Chapter 3. for maximum power transfer R LOAD = R S . We disconnect Z LOAD from the circuit at points X and Y as shown below. The remaining circuit then is as shown below. we will compute Z TH using the relation Z TH = V OC ⁄ I SC where V OC is the open circuit voltage. V TH and I SC is the current that would flow between the terminals when the load is replaced by a short. Therefore. that is. 7-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus. For this. and other similar problems involving the maximum power transfer theorem. 7.

+ --.+ --. z1=4.= 0 z1 z3 z2 VS 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --. z5=5−10j. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-51 ..⎞ V – --..+ -----------------. Thus.. 4Ω X 10 Ω 2 V2 z4 j5 Ω – j 10 Ω 5Ω Y VY z5 + VS − z1 z2 1 V z3 1 20 Ω 170 ∠0° Now. z2=20. z4=5j. with Z LOAD disconnected the circuit simplifies to that shown below.+ --. z3=10.2 1 ⎝z z3 z1 z2 z3 ⎠ 1 At Node 2: V2 – V1 V2 V2 -----------------.+ ----.Answers to Exercises X 4Ω 10 Ω Z LD Y 5Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° We will replace the remaining circuit with its Thevenin equivalent.V = ----.+ ----. we will find V TH = V XY = V X – V Y = V 1 – ( V 2 – V R 5Ω ) At Node 1: V1 – VS V1 V1 – V2 -----------------.⎞ V 2 ⎝z z3 z4 z5 ⎠ 3 and with MATLAB Vs=170.+ --.+ ----.V 1 + ⎛ --.= 0 z3 z4 z5 1 1 1 1 – --.

2f deg '..2f V '..85 V phaseVTH = -6.. disp('V1 = '). VX=V1.. Observing that a and b are the same point the mesh equations are ( z1 + z2 ) I1 – z2 I2 = VS – z2 I1 + ( z2 + z3 + z4 ) I2 – z4 I3 – z3 I4 = 0 – z4 I2 + ( z4 + z5 + z6 ) I3 – z5 I4 = 0 – z3 I2 – z5 I3 + ( z3 + z5 ) I4 = 0 and in matrix form z1 + z2 –z2 0 –z2 z2 + z3 + z4 – z4 –z3 0 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 –z5 0 –z3 –z5 z3 + z5 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 7-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. we must find I SC from the circuit shown below..91° Next. z1 4Ω a X 10 Ω I SC Y I4 5Ω + VS 20 Ω b z2 I2 z3 z4 j5 I3 z5 z6 −j10 − I 1 170 ∠0° We will write four mesh equations as shown above but we only are interested in phasor current I 4 .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3 −1/z3. disp(V1).91 deg Thus.1538e+001i V2 = 44. I=[Vs/z1 0]'. V TH = 127.1. fprintf('phaseVTH = %4. disp('V2 = '). disp(VTH).85 ∠– 6.abs(VTH)). V2=V(2). V1 = 1... VTH=VX−VY. fprintf('magVTH = %4. disp('VTH = '). fprintf(' \n')..angle(VTH)*180/pi).. fprintf(' \n').1538i VTH = 1. V=Y\I.5385e+001i magVTH = 127. disp(V2)... VY=(5/z5)*V2. −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5]. fprintf(' \n').2692e+002 .1731e+002 + 1.2308+46. V1=V(1).

4° V and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-53 .09 – j6.4260i Thus... z6=−10j. V 5 = 5 ∠0° V and since I C = I 5 V C = I C ⁄ ( – j10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⋅ 10 ∠– 90° = 10 ∠– 90° V Next.. I=Z\V. z3=10.18 ∠– 63. I1=I(1).. −z2 z2+z3+z4 −z4 −z3.6745 . we let I 5 = 1 ∠0° A Then. disp(I2). disp('ZTH =').92−15. z4=5j. disp('I1 = '). disp(I4)... I4=I(4).4728i ZTH = 18.39j. I2=I(2). Z TH = 18.1559i I3 = -1.3. VTH=126. Z=[z1+z2 −z2 0 0.2. fprintf(' \n').. disp('I4 ='). 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − I4 I 20 I 10 20 Ω I5 j5 IL −j10 IC We choose I 5 as a reference.43 Ω and by Problem 6. that is. ZTH=VTH/I4. disp(I1).6300i I2 = 10. for maximum power transfer there must be Z LOAD = Z∗ or TH Z LOAD = 18. We assign phasor currents as shown below.Answers to Exercises With MATLAB Vs=170.0520 + 10. V=[Vs 0 0 0]'. 0 −z3 −z5 z3+z5].09 + j6. z1=4.. fprintf(' \n').. z5=5.. V L = V 5 + V C = 5 ∠0° + 10 ∠– 90° = 5 + ( – j10 ) = 5 – j10 = 11. 0 −z4 z4+z5+z6 −z5.3094 . I3=I(3). disp('I2 = ').5223 + 1.43 Ω 8. disp(I3).7302i I4 = 6. I1 = 15. z2=20. disp('I3 = ')..0084 ..6. disp(ZTH).

25 – j A Also.7° V The magnitudes (not to scale) and the phase angles are shown below. it would be more practical if we rotate it by 109.25 – j2 A and V 4 = 4I 4 = 4 × ( – 1. However. V S = V 4 + V 20 = – 5 – j8 – 5 – j20 = – 10 – j28 = 29. I4 IL V 10 V4 VS VL I10 I20 I5 = IC V 20 V C The phasor diagram above is acceptable.7° to show the voltage source V S as reference at 0° as shown below.25 – j – 1 – j = – 1.25 – j2 ) = – 5 – j8 V Finally.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis I L = V L ⁄ j5 = ( 11.24 ∠– 153.4° = – 2 – j A Now I 10 = I L + I 5 = – 2 – j + 1 = – 1 – j = 2 ∠– 135° A and V 10 = 10 × 2 ∠– 135° = 10 × ( – 1 – j ) = – 10 – j10 V Continuing we find V 20 = V 10 + V L = – 10 – j10 + 5 – j10 = – 5 – j20 V and I 20 = V 20 ⁄ 20 = ( – 5 – j20 ) ⁄ 20 = – 0.18 ∠– 63.4° ) ⁄ ( 5 ∠90° ) = 2. I5 = IC I20 I4 VL VC V 20 I10 V4 V 10 VS IL 7-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . I 4 = I 20 + I 10 = – 0.73 ∠– 109.

.2f deg \t'. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n'). V OUT = – 5..abs(Vout)). z3=−4000j.13° V phaseVout = 143.2f V \t'. z1=1000. fprintf(' \n').13° ) V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-55 . The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where z 1 = R 1 = 1 KΩ .13 deg and v out ( t ) = 7.2 cos ( 1000t + 143. fprintf('phaseVout = %5.. z2=3000..+ --.7600 + 4.+ ---------------------.angle(Vout)*180/pi).+ --.1⎛ z1 + z1 ⎞ z 1 ⋅ ⎛ --..32 = 7.+ ---------------------.= 0 z1 z2 z3 and since V = 0 the above relation reduces to – V IN 1 1 ⎛ --.76 + j4.= -----------------------1. z 2 = R 2 = 3 KΩ . disp('Vout = ').25 × 10 ) = – j4 KΩ z3 z2 1 KΩ z1 V IN = 3 ∠0° V V OUT 3 KΩ V 3 –6 Application of KCL yields V – V IN V – V OUT V – V OUT -----------------. disp(Vout).2 ∠143. and z 3 = – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 0.--⎝z ⎝z z3 ⎠ z3 ⎠ 2 2 and with MATLAB Vin=3.20 V Thus. fprintf('magVout = %5. Vout = -5.3200i magVout = 7.. Vout=−Vin/(z1/z2+z1/z3).⎞ V OUT = ----------⎝z z1 z3 ⎠ 2 or – V IN – V IN V OUT = --------------------------------.Answers to Exercises 9.⎞ --.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis NOTES 7-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

1) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-1 .1. resistance.1 are examples of periodic functions of time. Complex Power. and Instruments T his chapter defines average and effective values of voltages and currents. and complex power. the power triangle. cos(ωt+θ) cosωt θ T T T T T T T T Figure 8.1 Periodic Time Functions A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) (8. and energy. power. voltage. It also discusses electrical instruments that are used to measure current. Examples of periodic functions of time Other periodic functions of interest are the square and the triangular waveforms. power factor.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. The sinusoidal and sawtooth waveforms of Figure 8. instantaneous and average power. 8.

1 Solution: By definition.( cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----. f (t) a b t Figure 8. Waveform for Example 8.2 over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b. and Instruments 8. Complex Power.( area a ) b–a (8. Example 8.( 1 – 1 ) = 0 2π 8-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A continuous time function f ( t ) is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) d t b 1 b = ----------.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. v(t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 π /2 π 3π /2 ω t (r) 2π −V p T Figure 8.2. 1 V ave = -T ∫0 T 1 v ( t ) dt = -----ωT 2π 0 ∫0 ωT Vp V p sin ω t d( ωt ) = ----2π 0 2π ∫0 2π sin ω t d( ω t ) Vp = ----.2 Average Values The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) such as that shown in Figure 8.2) The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period.3.1 Compute the average value of the sinusoid shown in Figure 8.( – cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----. where V p denotes the peak (maximum) value of the sinusoidal voltage.3.

4) In other words.Effective Values as expected since the net area of the positive and negative half cycles is zero.2 Solution: This waveform is defined as ⎧ I p sin ω t i(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π (8.cos ω t 2π 2π Ip Ip = ----.[ 1 – ( – 1 ) ] = --2π π (8. Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Current (I) I p sin ω t π T 2π Radians Figure 8. Average Power = P ave = RI eff = RI dc 2 2 (8.3 Effective Values The effective current I eff of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) is defined as the current which produces heat in a given resistance R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc . the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform is equal to its peak value divided by π .4. its average value is found from 1 I ave = ----2π ∫0 2π 1 I p sin ω t d( ω t ) = ----2π 0 π ∫0 π I p sin ω t d( ω t ) + ∫π 2π 0 d( ω t ) Ip Ip π = ----.3) Then. Example 8.2 Compute the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8. in a periodic current waveform i ( t ) . Waveform for Example 8. the instantaneous power is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-3 .5) Also. that is.4.( – cos ω t 0 ) = ----. 8.

sqrt(ave(i2)) ≠ 0 ave(i2) ≠ 0 0 i2 i iave = 0. then V ave = 0 .7) Equating (8.8) Caution 1: In general. However.5 illustrates this point. ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 since the expression ave ( i 2 ) implies that the function i must first be squared and the average of the squared value is then to be found. P ave = 0 . if 8-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Complex Power. Thus. and Instruments p(t) = R i 2(t) (8. The waveform of Figure 8.5. P ave ≠ V ave × I ave .Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.7) we get R RI eff = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt or 1 2 I eff = -T ∫0 i T 2 dt or 1 -T I eff = ∫ T i 0 2 dt = I Root Mean Square = I RMS = Ave ( i ) 2 (8. i2ave = 0 and sqrt(i2ave) = 0 Figure 8.6) and 1 P ave = -T ∫ T 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ T 0 R Ri dt = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt (8. Waveforms to illustrate that ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 Caution 2: In v ( t ) = V p cos ω t and i ( t ) = I p cos ( ω t + ϕ ) .5) with (8. and also I ave = 0 . On the other hand. ( i ave ) 2 implies that the average value of the function must first be found and then the average must be squared. general. For example.

V RMS .6. I p – p .6.( cos 2 φ + 1 ) 2 we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-5 . We will denote the peak values of voltages and currents as V p and I p respectively. The value from positive to negative peak will be denoted as V p – p and I p – p . RMS Value = 0. Their notations and relationships are shown in Figure 8. Definitions of V p – p .707 × Peak = 120 V Peak (Max) Value = 170 V 90 180 Time (Degrees) 270 360 Peak (Max) Value = −170 V Peak-to-Peak Value = 340 V Figure 8.4 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids Now. we will derive an expression for the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of a sinusoid in terms of its peak (maximum) value. and the RMS values as V RMS and I RMS . 1 2 I RMS = -T ∫0 T 2 1 i dt = ----2π ∫0 2π I p cos ( ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) 2 2 and using the identity 1 2 cos φ = -. and I RMS in terms of V p and I p Let i = I p cos ( ω t – θ ) then.Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids T T T 1 P ave = -T ∫ 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ v ( t )i ( t ) dt = 0 1 -T ∫ ( V p cos ωt ) [ I p cos ( ωt + ϕ ) ] dt ≠ 0 0 8.

and Instruments I RMS 2 Ip = ----4π 2 2 ∫0 2π cos ( 2 ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) + 2π 0 ∫0 2π d( ω t ) 2 I p sin ( 2 ω t – θ = ----.+ 2 π = ----. Complex Power.3 Compute the I ave and I RMS for the sawtooth waveform shown in Figure 8.---------------------------------------------------.9) Using the trigonometric identities sin ( x – y ) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y and – sin ( – α ) = sin α by substitution into (8. Ip I RMS = -----.9). it is dependent on the amplitude of the sinusoid only. 8-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .--------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 Solution: By inspection.7. i(t) 10 A t Figure 8. Waveform for Example 8.8.+ 2 π 4π 2 (8.7.( 2 π ) = ---4π 4π 2 2 2 Ip 1 2 2 and therefore.707I p 2 FOR SINUSOIDS ONLY (8. in other words.= 0.10) We observe that the RMS value of a sinusoid is independent of the frequency and phase angle.-----------------------------) 4π 2 I p sin ( 4 π – θ ) – sin ( – θ ) 2π + ( ω t 0 ) = ----. we get 0 I RMS 2 Ip Ip . Example 8.sin 4 π cos θ – cos 4 π sin θ + sin θ = ----.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. the period T is as shown in Figure 8.

this is for sinusoids only.⎟ = 100 -------T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 3 or I RMS = 10 100 = -----.10). Defining the period for the waveform of Example 8. is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS values of each sinusoid.RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies i(t) 10 A t T Figure 8.12) or I RMS = 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 I 0 + -. Accordingly.11) where I 0 represents a constant current.I + -.---.⎛ 100 ⋅ t ⎞ ----.77 A -------3 3 8. I 2 ….5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies The RMS value of a waveform which consists of a sum of sinusoids of different frequencies.3 The average value is Area ----------------------------------I ave = ----------------.13) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-7 . Thus.= ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) × 10 × T = 5 A T Period To find I RMS we cannot use (8. Then.8.⎟ ⎝T ⎠ T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 0 3 1 ⎛ 100 T ⎞ = -. if i = I 0 + I 1 cos ( ω 1 t ± θ 1 ) + I 2 cos ( ω 2 t ± θ 2 ) + … + I N cos ( ω N t ± θ N ) (8. and I 1.⎜ -------.⋅ ----.I 2 1p 2 2p 2 Np (8. we must use the definition of the RMS value as derived in (8.8).⎜ -------.= 5. the RMS value of i is found from I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS 2 2 2 2 (8. Then. I N represent the amplitudes of the sinusoids. I RMS 2 T 1 = -T ∫0 T 1 i ( t ) dt = -T 2 ∫0 T 3 2 1 ⎛ 10 t⎞ dt = -.I + … + -.

and Instruments Example 8.4 Find the I RMS value of the square waveform of Figure 8.9. 1 π 2π ωt −1 Figure 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.sin 5 ω t + …⎞ ⎠ π⎝ 3 5 * Such a textbook is Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Waveform for Example 8.4 Solution: By inspection.9.15) 8-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .[ π + 2 π – π ] = 1 2π I RMS = 1 or (8.4 Then. Fourier series analysis textbooks* show that the square waveform above can be expressed as 4 1 1 i ( t ) = -.10.sin 3 ω t + -.14) b. ISBN 0-9709511-3-2 by this author.12) 1 ωt −1 Figure 8. Complex Power. (8. Determination of the period to the waveform of Example 8.[ ω t 0 + ω t 2π 2π ] π 1 = ----. the period T = 2π is as shown in Figure 8.9 by application of (8. a.⎛ sin ω t + -. 2 1 I RMS = -T ∫ 1 i 2 dt = ----2π 0 T ∫0 2π 2 1 i d( ω t ) = ----2π ∫0 π 1 d( ω t ) + 2 ∫ π ( –1 ) 2π 2 d( ω t ) 1 π = ----.

find the average power supplied by the voltage source. the inductor.---------.= -------------------------.= I RMS R R = -. the instantaneous power is zero only at specific instants. that is.= -.I p R R 2 R 2 R 2 2 (8. inductors and capacitors.5 For the circuit of Figure 8. and the capacitor.25) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-11 .= --------------------------------. 10 Ω j20 Ω I V S = 170 ∠0° – j 10 Ω Figure 8. the phase angle θ between V RMS LOAD and I RMS LOAD will be within 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90° .= 12 ∠– 45° 10 + j10 10 + j20 – j10 Z 10 2 ∠45° (8. VS 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° I = ----. if the load of a circuit contains resistors. denoting that inductive or capacitive branch with the subscript X we get: P ave X = V RMS X I RMS X cos 90° = 0 Of course.5 Solution: Since this is a series circuit. we need to find the current I and its phase relation to the source voltage V S . the average power absorbed by the resistor.12.8 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads With inductors and capacitors there is a 90° phase difference between the voltage and current. θ = 90° and therefore.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads P ave R = V RMS R I RMS R cos 0° = V RMS R I RMS R (8.11. Then. and the power factor cos θ will be within 0 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 . Obviously.24) 8.23) or P ave R V RMS R 1 Vm R 1 2 2 = ---------------. Circuit for Example 8. Example 8.= ------------------.

138 + j19.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.1 where we found that V A = – 4.707 = 721 w 2 2 (8. θ = – 45° .440 ∠– 177.26) The average power absorbed by the inductor and the capacitor is zero since the voltages and currents in these devices are 90° out-of-phase with each other.4 ° (8. Check: The average power delivered by the voltage source is Vp Ip ( 170 ) ( 12 ) P ave SOURCE = ---------.27) are in close agreement.27) and we observe that (8.cos θ = -----------------------. Solution: This is the same circuit as in Example 7.0.28) VB 5 ∠0° A −j6 Ω −j3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 8. and the power factor is cos θ = cos ( – 45° ) = 0.414 – j1. 8-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .035 = 22.25) indicates that I p = 12 A .( 12 ) 10 = 720 w 2 2 (8. using (8.707 Therefore.6 For the circuit of Figure 8.6 and V B = – 22.26) and (8. and Instruments Relation (8.13.086 ∠101. Complex Power.13. find the power absorbed by each resistor.29) Then. Example 8. Circuit for Example 8.I p R R = -.9° VA 4Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω (8.655 = 20. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the current sources.24) we find that the average power absorbed by the resistor is 1 2 1 2 P ave R = -.

3° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 2 Ω = -.999 ) = – 112.cos ( 101.4 ° I 8 Ω = ------------.29).54 ∠– 20.cos ( – 177.61 ∠56.× ( – 0.33) and the power absorbed by the 10 A source is Vp Ip V B 10 A P ave 10 A = ---------.× ( – 0.206 ) = – 10. Therefore.I ( 8 Ω ) = -.33) and (8.4 ° .28) and (8.440 ∠– 177.086 × 5 = ------------------------.2° 7.086 ∠101.= ---------------------------------------.276 + j20.08 w 2 (8.9° and – 177.440 × 10 = ---------------------------.31) Likewise.61 w 2 2 p8Ω (8.430 ∠145.983 × 2 = 80.30) Also.cos θ 2 = ----------------------. we let θ 1 = 101.61 ∠56.4 ° ) 2 2 22.786 ∠158.= -----------------------------------.3° 3.3° 4 – j6 and 1 1 2 2 P ave 4 Ω = -.627 × 8 = 27.= ---------------------------------------.× 8.× 2.52 w 2 2 p4Ω (8.7 ° 8 – j3 8.786 × 4 = 15. VA -----------------------------------I 4 Ω = ------------. Check: Total average power absorbed by resistors is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-13 .34) indicate that both current sources supply power to the rest of the circuit.9° ) 2 2 20.70 w 2 2 p2Ω (8. the power absorbed by the 5 A source is Vp Ip VA 5 A P ave 5 A = ---------.627 ∠– 156.I ( 2 Ω ) = -.cos θ 1 = -------------------.0° I 2 Ω = ------------------.690 32.35 w 2 (8.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads VA – VB 18.6° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 8 Ω = -.= 20.= 8.= 2.7° 2 + j3 3.4° out-of-phase respectively with the current sources as shown by (8.I ( 4 Ω ) = -. VB 22.× 2.983 ∠88.9° = 2.34) The negative values in (8.32) The voltages across the current sources are the same as VA and VB but they are 101. Then.9° and θ 2 = – 177.21 ∠– 56.

35) Example 8.7 Solution: We first need to find the numerical value of ω . The small difference is due to rounding of fractional numbers. and Instruments 80.08 + 10. the total average power supplied by the current sources is equal to the total average power absorbed by the resistors.83 w and the total average power supplied by current sources is 112. Waveform for Example 8.14.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Complex Power. P ave 1 = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----.= 10 π T and thus 10 sin ωt = 10 sin 10 π 3 Then.dt = ------------------–3 R 2 × 10 ∫0 10 –3 10 sin 10 π t --------------------------------.70 + 15.52 + 27.+ 5 2 2 3 ∫ 10 2 × 10 –3 –3 0 dt 8-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . It is found as follows: T = 2 ms = 2 × 10 –3 s ωT = 2π ω 3 2π = ----. Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Voltage (V) 10sinωt 1 2 t (ms) Figure 8.61 = 123.43 w Thus. we can compute the average power absorbed by a resistor from the relations 1 P ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p dt = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----.7 Compute the average power absorbed by a 5 Ω resistor when the voltage across it is the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8.14. 8.35 = 122.dt = -R T ∫0 i R dt 2 T (8.9 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms If the excitation in a circuit is non-sinusoidal.

Thus. the cosine of the angle θ 2 . The term “capacitive load” means that the load is more “capacitive” (with some resistance) than it is “inductive”.36) This relation can be represented by the so-called power triangle.16 (b) shows the power triangle for both a capacitive load. P real = P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = Q = Reactive Power = V RMS I RMS sin θ = P a = Apparent Power = V RMS I RMS (in watts) (8.17. and it is denoted as Q . Power triangles for inductive and capacitive loads In a power triangle. and Figure 8. for either triangle of Figure 8.37) (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Figure 8.17.V p I p cos θ = V RMS I RMS cos θ 2 (8. cos θ 2 is referred to as leading power factor and it is denoted as pf lead. the product V RMS × I RMS is referred to as the apparent power. and Instruments In Figure 8.Power Triangle We recall that 1 P ave = -.16. But in a “purely capacitive load” θ 2 = 90° and thus the power factor is cos θ 2 = cos 90° = 0 8. The apparent power is expressed in volt – amperes or VA . and it is denoted as P a . Complex Power.39) (in VARs) (in VAs) 8-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The product V RMS × I RMS × sin θ is referred to as the reactive power.38) (8.11 Complex Power . that is. P real = P ave θ Pa Q θ −Q Pa P real = P ave (a) Power Triangle for Inductive Load (b) Power Triangle for Capacitive Load Figure 8. The reactive power is expressed in volt – amperes reactive or VAR .17 (a) shows the power triangle of an inductive load.

Complex Power . we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-17 .8 Load 10 + j10 Solution: For simplicity. the relation of (8.8 with the line resistances combined From the circuit of Figure 8.19 where the line resistances have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor. that is. For this reason.40) where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. the power factor of the load e. the apparent power supplied by the voltage source d. the average power delivered to the load b. Circuit for Example 8.19.18. Circuit for Example 8. find: a. P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ (8. the power factor of the line plus the load R line = 1 Ω VS 480 ∠0° V RMS R line = 1 Ω Figure 8. we redraw the circuit as shown in Figure 8.8 For the circuit shown in Figure 8.19. R line = 2 Ω VS I RMS 480 ∠0° V RMS Z LD Load 10 + j10 Figure 8.41) is known as the complex power.Power Triangle The apparent power P a is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components. the average power absorbed by the line c.18. Example 8.

9 In the circuit shown in Figure 8. Power triangles for existing and desired power factors Since the voltage across the given load must not change (otherwise it will affect the operation of it).8 lag It is desired to “raise” the power factor of the load to 0.21.22.21. The power factor correction procedure is illustrated with the following example.21 must be modified as shown in Figure 8. VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz Figure 8. 1 Kw θ1 θ 1 = cos 0. say Q 3 . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-19 .9° –1 1 Kw θ2 Q2 Q1 θ 2 = cos 0. and thus can be neglected.85 . typically lower than 0. in opposite direction of Q 1 must be added. For this reason. Accordingly. it is evident that a load. Circuit for Example 8.2° –1 This is what we have This is what we want Figure 8.22. Obviously. Compute the size and the rating of a capacitor which. when added across the load.9 1 Kw Load @ pf =0.Power Factor Correction losses in the utility’s transmission and distribution system. the resistance of the lines between the voltage source and the load and the internal resistance of the source are considered small. Solution: The power triangles for the existing and desired power factors are shown in Figure 8. and must be connected in parallel with the existing load.95 = 18. the Q 3 load must be capacitive.23. the circuit of Figure 8. Accordingly.95 lagging. electric utility companies impose a penalty on industrial facility customers who operate at a low power factor. Example 8. will accomplish this. facility engineers must install the appropriate equipment to raise the power factor.8 = 36.

Q 1 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 36.2° = 329 VAR Therefore.= --------------. Complex Power. the VAR value of Q 2 must be reduced to Q 2 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 18.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. the capacitive load must consist of a capacitor with the value 1 1 1 C = ---------. we can choose a 5 µF capacitor rated at 700 volts or higher.95 . the added capacitive load must be a vector Q 3 such that Q 3 = Q 1 – Q 2 = 750 – 329 = 421 VAR The current I C through the capacitive load is found from Q3 = IC VC = IC VS Then. and Instruments VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz IC Capacitive Load with Leading pf 1 Kw Load @ pf =0.= 4.88 IC Therefore.23. not any 4.9° = 750 VAR and for the desired pf = cos θ 2 = 0.= -------.88 A 480 V S RMS and VC 480 X C = -----.= 547 Ω 0.= 0.85 µF 2 π f XC 2 π ( 60 ) ( 547 ) ω XC However.= -----------------------------.8 lag Figure 8. Circuit for power factor correction For the existing load.= --------.85 µF capacitor will do. 8-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Q3 421 I C = ---------------. the capacitor must be capable of withstanding a maximum voltage of V C max = 2 × 480 = 679 V and for all practical purposes.

milliammeters. Ohmmeters.24 shows a typical analog type VOM. a torque is produced that tends to rotate the coil. and a control spring. voltmeters measure voltage. is proportional to the current in the coil. an electromagnet which typically is a metal cylinder with very thin wire wound around it which is referred to as the coil. we can use a low range milliammeter with a shunt (parallel) resistor as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-21 . we cannot directly measure a current of 5 to 10 milliamperes with a milliammeter whose range is 0 to 1 milliampere. a milliammeter or microammeter may be used where the former measures current in milliamperes and the latter in microamperes. For example. Often. ohmmeters measure resistance. Figure 8. In such a case. The basic meter movement consists of a permanent horse shoe magnet. Figure 8. Voltmeters. Ammeters. and Figure 8. DC ammeters and voltmeters read average values whereas AC ammeters and voltmeters read RMS values. An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. A typical oscilloscope is shown in Figure 8. The coil is free to move on pivots. and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. Rotation of the coil is restrained by a helical spring so that the motion of the coil and the pointer which is attached to it. and watt-hour meters measure electric energy.26. and when there is current in the coil. the electric current to be measured. We will see how a digital VOM can be constructed from an analog VOM equivalent at the end of this section. A typical analog VOM An ammeter measures current in amperes. and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used.13 Instruments Ammeters are electrical instruments used to measure current in electric circuits. For currents less than one ampere.24. wattmeters measure power.25 shows a typical digital type VOM.Instruments 8. exceeds the range of the instrument.

where the circle with mA represents an ideal milliammeter (a milliammeter with zero resistance). R M is the milliammeter internal resistance.25. I S is the current through the shunt resistor. A typical oscilloscope 8-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and Instruments shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. A typical digital VOM Figure 8.26. and R S is the shunt resistance.27 I T is the total current to be measured.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. In Figure 8.27. Complex Power. I M is the current through the meter.

R M IS (8. that is. therefore. the total current entering the circuit is 5 mA and the milliammeter range is 0 to 1 milliampere.28.41) Also. RM IM = RS IS and since we normally need to calculate the shunt resistor.10 IT Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-23 . the voltages across these parallel branches are equal. the shunt resistor R S is in parallel with the milliammeter branch. then IM R S = ----.27.42) Example 8. we observe that the sum of the current flowing through the milliammeter I M and the current I S through the shunt resistor is equal to the total current I S . and its internal resistance is 40 Ω .28. the milliammeter has a full-scale current I fs of 1 mA .27.10 In the circuit of Figure 8. IT = IM + IS (8.Instruments IT IM IT mA RS IS Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8. Compute the value of the shunt resistor R S . Milliammeter with shunt resistor R S RM From the circuit of Figure 8. that is. that is. IM =Maximum allowable current through the milliammeter I fs = 1 mA IT IM mA RM 40 Ω RS IS Figure 8.

the remaining 4 milliamperes must flow through the shunt resistor. Complex Power. and Instruments Solution: The maximum current that the milliammeter can allow to flow through it is 1 mA and since the total current is 5 milliamperes. I S = I T – I M = 5 – 1 = 4 mA The required value of the shunt resistor is found from (8. i. A multi-range ammeter/milliammeter is an instrument with two or more scales. Circuit for a multi-range ammeter/milliammeter A voltmeter. IT + RS A IM RM − IT IS Figure 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.e. Figure 8. as stated earlier. the 10 Ω resistor will allow four times as much current as the milliammeter to flow through it. Therefore. that is. a voltmeter is a modified milliammeter where an external resistor R V is connected in series with the milliammeter as shown in Figure 8. IM 1 R S = ----. Typically.× 40 = 10 Ω IS 4 Check: The calculated value of the shunt resistor is 10 Ω .30 where I = current through circuit R M = internal resis tan ce of milliameter R V = external resistor in series with R M V M = voltmeter full scale reading 8-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29.42). measures voltage in volts.29 shows the circuit of a typical multi-range ammeter/milliammeter. this is one-fourth the value of the milliammeter internal resistor of 40 Ω .R M = -..

31. Solution: The voltmeter circuit consists of the milliammeter circuit and the external resistance R V as shown in Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8.Instruments RV = Voltmeter internal resistance VM = Voltmeter range IM mA + RM VM RV − Figure 8.43).– R M IM (8. Then. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-25 .43) Voltmeters must always be connected in parallel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured. Example 8. we only need to compute the value of the external resistor R V so that the voltage across the series combination will be 1 volt full scale.30.11 Here. IM ( RM + RV ) = VM or VM R V = -----. from (8. Typical voltmeter circuit For the circuit of Figure 8. IM mA + 100 Ω RM VM RV − Figure 8.11 Design a voltmeter which will have a 1 volt full-scale using a milliammeter with 1 milliampere fullscale and internal resistance 100 Ω .31.30.

– R M = --------. the 0 (zero) point appears on the right-most point of the Ohmmeter scale. the current I is maximum when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit). to convert a 1 milliampere full-scale milliammeter with an internal resistance of 100 Ω to a 1 volt full-scale voltmeter. and the current is zero when R X is infinite (open circuit).32. we only need to attach a 900 Ω resistor in series with that milliammeter. For this reason. and the infinity symbol appears on the left-most point of the scale. I VS + − mA + Figure 8. the resistor R X whose resistance is to be measured. and Instruments VM 1 R V = -----. Circuit for a multi-range voltmeter RM Zero Adjust RX ∞ 0 Figure 8. In the series type Ohmmeter.44) Therefore.9 kΩ 100 V I 9. 8-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .– 100 = 1000 – 100 = 900 Ω –3 IM 10 (8. 99. Figure 8. is connected in series with the Ohmmeter circuit shown in Figure 8.33. is in parallel with the Ohmmeter circuit.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.34 shows the circuit of a shunt (parallel) type Ohmmeter where the resistor R X whose value is to be measured.9 kΩ 100 Ω mA 900 Ω 1V RM 10 V IM = 1 mA fs VM − An Ohmmeter measures resistance in Ohms.32 shows a typical multi-range voltmeter. Circuit for a series type Ohmmeter We observe from Figure 8.33. Complex Power.33 that for the series type Ohmmeter. Figure 8.

R 3 R1 (8.35. For this reason.34.35. when R X is infinite (open circuit). An instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accurately is the Wheatstone Bridge shown in Figure 8. the 0 (zero) point appears on the left-most point of the Ohmmeter scale. is the unknown resistor whose value is to be measured. say R 4 . This balance occurs when R1 R3 ----.= ----R R2 4 from which the value of the unknown resistor is found from R2 R 4 = ----. and the infinity symbol appears on the right-most point of the scale.45) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-27 . R1 + − VA R2 µA R4 0 µA VS R3 VB − + Figure 8. the current through the milliammeter circuit is zero when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit) since all current flows through that short. until there is no current flow through the meter of this circuit. However. say R 3 is adjusted until the bridge is balanced.Instruments VS + − mA RX I RM Zero Adjust 0 ∞ Figure 8. that is. and another resistor. for the shunt type Ohmmeter. Wheatstone Bridge Circuit One of the resistors. Circuit for a parallel type Ohmmeter From Figure 8.34 we see that. the current through the milliammeter branch is maximum.

the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off. 600 Ω + − VA R2 200 Ω R1 µA R4 R3 120 Ω VB 0 VS µA − + Figure 8.36. resistor R 3 is adjusted until the meter reads zero. There are different types of analog-to-digital converters such as the flash converter. 8-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Electric utility companies use kilowatt-hour meters to bill their customers for the use of electricity.37. This and the other types are discussed in digital circuits textbooks. the flash type ADC consists of a resistive network. and an eight-to-three line encoder.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. comparators (denoted as triangles). It is constructed with two sets of coils. and when this occurs.× 120 = 40 Ω 600 R1 When measuring resistance values.45) holds. Complex Power. that is. A watt-hour meter is an instrument which measures electric energy W . Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC). R2 200 R 4 = ----. slope converter and tracking converter.12 Solution: When the bridge is balanced. and Instruments Example 8. We will discuss the flash converter only because of its simplicity. A wattmeter is an instrument which measures power in watts or kilowatts. relation (8.36. the time-window converter.R 3 = -------. a current coil and a voltage coil where the interacting magnetic fields of these coils produce a torque which is proportional to the V × I product. Compute the value of the unknown resistor R 4 .12 In the Wheatstone Bridge circuit of Figure 8. As shown in Figure 8. Then. W = Pt in watt-hours. Because of their great accuracy. that is. Wheatstone Bridges are also used to accept or reject resistors whose values exceed a given tolerance. Circuit for Example 8. and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit. its value is 120 Ω . when the current through the meter is zero. where W is the product of the average power P in watts and time t in hours.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-29 .5 V 0V − ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER Overflow A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Analog Input 8-to-3 Encoder B2 B1 B0 Comparator VX VY − + − + − − + + − − + Ai Inputs Output VX = VY Previous Value VX > VY Ai = 0 VX < VY Ai = 1 + + − + − − + + For Example. Typical analog-to-digital converter Analog Input A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 B2 B1 B0 Less than 0 V 0 to less than 1.5 V 7.5 to less than 3.2 V.5 V 10.0 to less than 10. that is. then A0 = A1 = A2 = A3 = 1 and A4 = A5 = A6 = A7 = A8 = 0 Figure 8.0 V 3.38 shows a four-bit R-2R ladder network and an op-amp connected to form a DAC.Instruments 12 V Supply 12 V 10. it converts digital values to equivalent analog values.5 to less than 6. Figure 8.5 V 3V 1.5 to less than 9.0 V 9.37.5 V 6V 4.5 V 9V 7.0 to less than 7.0 V 6.5 to 12 V Greater than 12 V † Underflow ‡ Overflow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x x† 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x‡ A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the inverse operation.5 V 1. if Analog Input = 5.5 V 4.0 to less than 4.

14 Summary • A periodic time function is one which satisfies the relation f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function. lsb = least significant bit msb = most significant bit Figure 8.38. and Instruments DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER 2R R 2R (lsb) B0 R R 2R − 2R 2R 2R B1 B2 B3 (msb) + V out − + − 1 Volt Switch Settings: For Logic “0” (ground) positioned to the right For Logic “1” (+5 V) positioned to the left With the switches positioned as shown. Complex Power.is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) dt b 1 b = ----------. A typical digital-to-analog converter 8. • The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b . • A half-wave rectification waveform is defined as ⎧ A sin ω t f(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π 8-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .( area a ) b–a • The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period. B3 B2 B1 B0 = 0100 Negative reference voltage is used so that the inverting op amp’s output will be positive.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.

• Ammeters are instruments used to measure current in electric circuits. P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. • Voltmeters.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. milliammeters. Ammeters. • An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. and Instruments • The apparent power P a . • DC ammeters and DC voltmeters read average values • AC ammeters and AC voltmeters read RMS values. the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off. When measuring resistance values. • Wattmeters are instruments used to measure power. is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components. • A power factor can be corrected by placing a capacitive load in parallel with the load of the cir- cuit. Complex Power. • A Wheatstone Bridge is an instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accu- rately. that is. • Ohmmeters are instruments used to measure resistance. 8-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Ohmmeters. • Watt-Hour meters are instruments used to measure energy. and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used. and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit. also known as complex power. and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. Voltmeters must always be connected in par- allel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured. • Voltmeters are instruments used to measure voltage.

6 V B. 12 × 2 V E. The average value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A. The average value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. 5 ⁄ 2 A D. 5 × 2 A C. The RMS value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A. none of the above 3. 12 ⁄ 2 V B. 5 × 2 A C.15 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 5 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-33 . 12 V C. The RMS value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. 5 A E. none of the above 4. 5 ⁄ 2 A D.Exercises 8. none of the above 2. 6 × 2 ⁄ 2 V C. 12 ⁄ 2 V D. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. 12 × 2 V E. 12 V D.

none of the above 5. 12 V D.67 w E. The RMS value of the waveform of Figure 8. Waveform for Question 6 A. none of the above 7.39 is v (V) 24 4 8 12 Figure 8. 10 ⁄ 2 V 8-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 352. and Instruments E. The voltage across a load whose impedance is Z = 75 + j38 Ω is 115 V RMS. Complex Power. 6 V E. 16 V C.3 w D.40 is i (A) 10 1 3 t (s) Figure 8.44 w C. Waveform for Question 7 A. 71. none of the above 6. 157. The average value of the waveform of Figure 8.39.33 w B. The average power absorbed by that load is A. 24 V B.40. 176.

10 ⁄ 3 V D. the apparent power is A. 10 w C. 0 VA B. and C = 10 µF . 500 VA C. A current with a value of i = 5 cos 10000t A is flowing through a load that consists of the series combination of R = 2 Ω . A load with a leading power factor of 0. 25 w B.85 by adding A. none of the above 10.Exercises B. 250 VA D. an inductor is series with the load D. 500 × 2 VA E. none of the above 9. none of the above 8. a capacitor in series with the load E.60 can be corrected to a lagging power factor of 0. 0 w E. 5 w D. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-35 . The average power absorbed by this load is A. an inductor in parallel with the load C. 10 × 2 V C. L = 1 mH . If the average power absorbed by a load is 500 watts and the reactive power is 500 VAR . a capacitor in parallel with the load B. 10 × 3 V E.

v( t) V 15 5 t(s) 0 Figure 8. 8-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The RMS values of the current and voltage. The current i L ( t ) through a 0. v( t) A V t(s) 0 Figure 8. Compute: a. 2. The average values of the current. Compute: a. It sends out one of these pulses every 1 ms .41. b. Compute the RMS value of i ( t ) = 10 + 2 cos 100t + 5 sin 200t 5. voltage and power for this inductor. Complex Power. Waveform for Problem 2 3.5 H inductor is given as i L ( t ) = 5 + 10 sin t A .42. It transmits for 5 µs and then rests.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. The average output power of this transmitter is 750 w . Waveform for Problem 3 4. The power output during the transmission of a pulse.41. Compute the average and RMS values of the voltage waveform of Figure 8. A radar transmitter sends out periodic pulses.42. Compute the RMS value of the voltage waveform of Figure 8. and Instruments Problems 1. The energy transmitted in each pulse. b.

For the circuit of Figure 8. For the circuit of Figure 8.45. the meter full scale is 1 mA . Multi-range ammeter for Problem 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-37 .44. vS ( t ) 2Ω 3 mH 5Ω 200 µF Figure 8.43. R 3.44. otherwise it will be damaged.45. the input impedance of the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω and the board must not absorb more that 200 mw of power.Exercises 6. R 2. Compute the average power delivered (or absorbed) by each device. Compute the values of R 1. VS ZIN PCB Figure 8. and R 4 so that the instrument will display the indicated values.43. Network for Problem 7 8. v s ( t ) = 100 cos 1000t V. Circuit for Problem 6 7. Compute the largest RMS value that the variable voltage source V S can be adjusted to. For the multi-range ammeter/milliammeter shown in Figure 8. 10 mA 980 Ω IT + 100 mA R1 R2 mA IM RM =20 Ω 1A − IT R3 Figure 8.

During the negative input half cycle. Compute the value indicated by the DC voltmeter. the voltage drop is approximately 0. through diode D 3 to point E . and returns to the other terminal point F of the input voltage source.46. and Instruments 9.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and returns to the other terminal point A of the input voltage source. During the positive input half cycle.47. through D 2 to point C . 8-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . through the diode D 1 to point B . through the resistor R to point D .46 is known as full-wave rectifier. current flows from point F to point E.47. Input and output waveforms for the network of Problem 9 * For silicon type diodes. The circuit of Figure 8. Complex Power. through the resistor R to point D . The input and output voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 8. There is a small voltage drop v D across each diode* but it can be neglected if v in » v D . current flows from point A to point B . through diode D 4 to point C .7 volt. I Diode − Allows current to flow in the indicated direction only B A vIN F D3 D1 D2 D − vOUT R + C D4 DC Voltmeter V E Figure 8. Network for Problem 9 v in (t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 ω t (r) Vp Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Figure 8.

I RMS = 115 ∠0° ⁄ 84. v L = L -----.87° and thus P ave = V RMS ⋅ I RMS cos θ = 115 × 1.37 × cos ( – 26.( 5 + 10 sin t ) = 5 cos t di dt d dt a.Answers to Exercises 8.87° . A 5. it follows that T T 0 ∫0 T 1 1 5 dt = -. B 7. B Problems L 1.08 ∠26. D 10. C 4.16 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.5T = 5 A . D 3. Likewise. 1 = -T 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p L dt = -T ∫0 T 1 v L i L dt = -T ∫0 5 cos t ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 50 sin t cos t ) dt and using sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that 50 sin t cos t = 25 sin 2t and thus 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 25 sin 2t ) dt = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-39 .= 0. 1 i L ave = -T 1 -T ∫0 T 1 i L dt = -T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 1 and since -. i L = 5 + 10 sin t .37 ∠– 26.87° = 1. B 2. C 8.08 ∠26.5 ---. Also. A 9.87° ) = 140. E Z = 75 + j38 = 84.∫ 10 sin t dt = 0 .54 w 6. v L ave = -T T ∫0 T 5 cos t dt = 0 .

⎛ t T⎝ T 0 25 4 T + -.t 0⎞ = ----.707V p and since V p = 5 it follows that V RMS = 0.( T + 2T ) = 75 and I L RMS = T 2 ⎠ 75 = 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.66 A For sinusoids V RMS = V p ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0. We choose the period T as shown below.∫ 4 sin t dt = 0 and -.06 V 3. v( t) V 15 τ 5 4τ T 0 1 2 V RMS = -T t(s) ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = ----5τ ∫0 τ ( 15 ) dt + 2 ∫τ 5τ 1 2 ( 5 ) dt = ----.∫ cos 2t dt = 0 we get 2 T 0 T 0 25 2 I L RMS = ----.( 225τ + 125τ – 25τ ) = 65 5τ and thus V RMS = 65 = 8. and Instruments b. 8-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . From the waveform below we observe that Period = T = 5τ and since V ave = Area ⁄ Period = ( 15τ + 20τ ) ⁄ 5τ = 7 V Also. 1 2 I L RMS = -T 1 = -T 1 = -T ∫0 ∫0 T 2 i L dt T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 2 25 2 [ 5 ( 1 + 2 sin t ) ] dt = ----T ∫0 T ( 1 + 4 sin t + 4 sin t ) dt 2 1 T 2 1 T ----------------------Using sin x = 1 – cos 2x and observing that -.54 V 2. Complex Power.707 × 5 = 3.

The effective (RMS) value of a sinusoid is a real number that is independent of frequency and phase angle and for current it is equal to I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 .2 + -.t .5 = 10. The waveform representing the transmitter output pulses is shown below.5 = 2 2 100 + 2 + 12.Answers to Exercises v( t) A V 2A v ( t ) = -----T t(s) 0 T T 2A Using the straight line equation y = mx + b we find that for 0 < t < T ⁄ 2 . 1 2 V RMS = -T ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = -T T⁄2 ∫0 T⁄2 2 1 ⎛ 2A t⎞ dt + ------⎝T ⎠ T ∫ 4A 0 ⋅ dt = -------3 T⁄2 T T 2 ∫0 T⁄2 t dt 2 4A 3 = -------. Since Area Area P ave = 750 w = ----------------. For this problem I RMS = 2 1 2 1 2 10 + -.7 A 5.41A 6 4. Then. A 5 µs 1 2 t(s) For this problem we do no know the amplitude A of each 5 µs pulse but we know the average power of one period T = 1 s .= ----------Period 1s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-41 .= A ⁄ 6 24 2 and V RMS = 6 2 A ⁄ 6 = -----. v ( t ) = -----.A = 0.t 3 3T 2 0 2 4A = -------. The RMS value of sinusoids with different frequencies is given by (8.13).

. I2=(Vs−Vc)/z1..+ -----.+ -----. disp(angle(Vc)*180/pi). Energy transmitted during each pulse is Area of each pulse = 750 w ⋅ s b. fprintf(' \n')... disp('phaseVc = '). disp(I2)..+ --. z2=−5j.... The phasor equivalent circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 3 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ 10 × 2 × 10 3 –4 = j3 Ω and = – j5 Ω z1 2 Ω VS VC j3 Ω IL 5Ω I2 Ω IC z2 – j5 Ω z3 100 ∠0° By application of KCL VC – VS VC VC -----------------..Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. disp('I2 = ').= 0 z1 z2 z2 or 1 1 1 ⎛ --.... disp(angle(I2)*180/pi). Complex Power. Vc=Vs/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3).+ --.. Ic=Vc/z2.. disp('Vc = ').⎞ ⎝ z z ⎠ 2 3 Also... and Instruments it follows that a. disp('magVc = ')... z3=5+3j. disp('phaseI2 = '). z1=2.+ --.⎞ V = V S ----⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 or VS V C = -------------------------------z1 z1 ⎛ 1 + --. disp(abs(I2)). The power during the transmission of a pulse is P = W ⁄ t = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 µs = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 × 10 –6 = 150 × 10 w = 150 Mw 3 –3 6 6. disp('magI2 = '). disp(abs(Vc)). IL=Vc/z3. VS – VC I 2 Ω = -----------------z1 VC I C = -----z1 VC I L = -----z3 and with MATLAB Vs=100. 8-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . disp(Vc).

1452 phaseVc = -9. disp(IL).4829 + 6..0647 phaseI2 = 27.5921 + 15. disp('IL = ').. disp(abs(IL))..5 × 100 × 14.07 ) × 2 = 197..2002 IL = 9. disp(angle(Ic)*180/pi). disp('phaseIc = ').4 w 2 Also.V p I p cos θ 2 where θ = 27.43° = 624..97 w 2 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-43 .7636 The average power delivered by the voltage source V S is computed from the relation 1 P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = -.Answers to Exercises disp('Ic = ').× V S × I 2 Ω cos θ = 0.5 × ( 14.0341-12.. Vc = 75..4350 Ic = 2.9604i magVc = 76. disp('phaseIL = ').4802i magI2 = 14. I2 Ω θ = 27.I p R 2 Ω = 0. disp(abs(Ic)).. 1 2 2 P 2 Ω ave = -.0068i magIc = 15.5266i magIL = 13.2290 phaseIc = 80. disp(Ic).0588 phaseIL = -40.7998 I2 = 12. 1 P S ave = -..8. disp(angle(IL)*180/pi). disp('magIc = ').43° VS Therefore. disp('magIL = ').8909 .43° as shown by the phasor diagram below.07 × cos 27.

Complex Power. and Instruments 1 2 2 P 5 Ω ave = -. that is.= 100 2 ∠– 45° 100 8-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .06 ) × 5 = 426.2 w .2 w 2 and therefore we must find the phase angle θ .I L R 5 Ω = 0.4 w The average power in the capacitor and the inductor is zero since θ = 90° and cos θ = 0 7.97 + 426. we can find its value from the given input impedance.41 w 2 Check: P 2 Ω ave + P 5 Ω ave = 197.5 × ( 13.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω or Z IN = Z IN ∠θ = – 1( – 100 ) 2 2 100 + 100 ∠ tan -------------------. Since θ appears also in the jω – domain .[ cos ( x + y ) + cos ( x – y ) ] 2 we get Vp Ip p = ---------. we must satisfy the condition Vp Ip p = ---------.41 = P S ave = 624. Let us consider the t – domain network below.[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] 2 We require that the power p does not exceed 200 mw or 0. p = v S i = V p I p cos ωt ⋅ cos ( ωt + θ ) v S = V p cos ωt i = I p cos ( ωt + θ ) and using 1 cos x ⋅ cos y = -. i(t) ZIN vS ( t ) PCB Let and Then.[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] ≤ 0. that is.

14 1.2 w 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Then. 980 Ω 10 mA + R1 9 mA R2 20 Ω mA 1 mA R3 10 mA − Then. With the switch at the 10 mA position. the circuit is as shown below.707 or Vp = 33.414 2 8. that is.76V RMS = -----. Vp Ip 2 p max = ---------.⎛ 1 + ------⎞ = 0.707 and now we can express I p in terms of V p using the relation Z IN = 100 2 and I p = V p ⁄ Z IN and by substitution 2 ----------------------------V p = 0.Answers to Exercises and in the t – domain Vp Ip p = ---------.= -----------. V p I p = 0.76 and Vp 5. 9 × 10 ( R 1 + R 2 + R 3 ) = ( 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or ----------R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 1000 (1) 9 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-45 .14 = 5.4 ⁄ 1.= 4.[ cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) + cos ( – 45° ) ] 2 The maximum power p occurs when cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) = 1 .4 × 100 2 = 33.07 V 1.

+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or 8-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 99 × 10 ( R 2 + R 3 ) = ( R 1 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 + 99R 2 + 99R 3 = 1000 (2) With the switch at the 1 A position. the circuit is as shown below. 999 × 10 R 3 = ( R 1 + R 2 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 – R 2 + 999R 3 = 1000 (3) Addition of (1) and (3) yields 1000 10000 1000R 3 = ----------. 980 Ω 1A + 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω 1A − 999 mA R3 Then. Complex Power. and Instruments With the switch at the 100 mA position. 980 Ω 100 mA + 99 mA R3 10 mA − 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω Then. the circuit is as shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-47 .Ω (4) 9 Addition of (1) and (2) yields 1000 10000 100R 2 + 100R 3 = ----------. DC instruments indicate average values. The period of the full-wave rectifier waveform is taken as π.+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or -------R 2 + R 3 = 100 (5) 9 Substitution of (4) into (5) yields R 2 = 10 Ω (6) and substitution of (4) and (6) into (1) yields R 1 = 100 Ω (7) 9. v OUT ave 1 = -π ∫ π Vp V p sin ωt d( ωt ) = ----. this average is twice the average value of the half-wave rectifier waveform of Example 8.cos ωt π Vp 2V p = ----. Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Vp π 2π π ωt = 0 Then.( – cos ωt ) π 0 0 π Vp = ----.Answers to Exercises 10 R 3 = ----. Therefore. the DC voltmeter will read the average value of the voltage v OUT across the resistor.( 1 + 1 ) = -------π π As expected.2.

Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and Instruments NOTES 8-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Complex Power.

− R + L + i − Figure 9.1). we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-1 . Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RL circuit Application of KVL yields vL + vR = 0 or di L ---.= – -.Chapter 9 Natural Response T his chapter discusses the natural response of electric circuits. and we seek the circuit’s natural response. and it is given that at t = 0 . we seek a value of i which satisfies the differential equation of (9. The natural response is also referred to as the transient response. Separation of Variables Method Rearranging (9. integrating both sides and using the initial condition.1) Here. we need to find the natural response which in differential equations terminology is the complementary function. we get R di ---. 9. two common methods are the separation of variables method and the assumed solution method.dt L i Next.The term natural implies that there is no excitation in the circuit.1 where the desired response is the current i. We will consider both.1). As we know. the initial condition is i ( 0 ) = I 0 . that is. the circuit is source-free. 1.+ Ri = 0 dt (9. i = I 0 . that is.1 The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Let us find the natural response of the circuit of Figure 9.1. so that the variables i and t are separated. that is.

we get i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t x (9.di = – R dσ -L 0 I i ∫ where σ is a dummy variable. Thus. we get: RAe + sLAe st st = 0 or ⎛ s + R ⎞ Ae st = 0 -⎝ L ⎠ The left side of the last expression above will be zero if A = 0 . we assume a solution of the form i ( t ) = Ae st (9.2) Substitution of (9. it must satisfy the differential equation (9.2) into (9.= – -. both the differential equation and the initial condition are satisfied.σ 0 L or R ln i – ln I 0 = – -. and by substitution into (9. when added to its first derivative will become zero. s = – R ⁄ L is the only logical solution. 2. or if s = – R ⁄ L . or if s = – ∞ . if A = 0 or s = – ∞ . Now. But.t L or R iln --. Therefore.1) yields 0 = 0 and that at t = 0 .1) indicates that the solution must be a function which.Chapter 9 Natural Response ∫0 i1 t -. by substitution. Then. An exponential function will accomplish that and therefore. Assumed Solution Method Relation (9. if (9. then every response is zero and this represents a trivial solution.3) where A and s are constants to be determined. Integration yields ln i i I0 R t = – -.1).t L I0 Recalling that x = ln y implies y = e . i ( 0 ) = I 0 .3) is a solution.3) we get i ( t ) = Ae –( R ⁄ L ) t 9-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

we rewrite it as i ( t .3 0. and i → 0 as t → ∞ . i ( t ) = I0 e as before. I 0 = Ae or A = I 0 and therefore.e = – -L L t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – R ⁄ L Next. i ⁄ I 0 = 1 .⎞ .dt ⎝ I 0 ⎠ R –( R ⁄ L ) t R = – -. we define the time constant τ as the time required for i ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.2 we observe that at t = 0 .1 0.4 0.2.0 0 1 e−(R/L) t i(t) / I 0 = −(R / L) t +1 36. This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation i( t) = – R t + 1 -------L I0 and at t = τ .6 0.8% 13.5% 5% Time Constants 2 3 4 5 Figure 9.= e –( R ⁄ L ) t ) ------I0 and sketch it as shown in Figure 9.4) Percent i(t) / I 0 0. Thus.⎛ --.2 0.7 0. Then. that is. 1.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit We must now evaluate the constant A .9 0.0 0. Plot for i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 in a series RL circuit From Figure 9. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-3 . This is done with the use of the initial condition i ( 0 ) = I 0 . Next. The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of i ⁄ I 0 evaluated at t = 0 .2.5 0.8 0 –( R ⁄ L ) t (9. d i ---. i ⁄ I 0 = 0 .

If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9.368 I0 or i ( τ ) = 0. 9-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 For the circuit shown in Figure 9. we get – ( R ⁄ L )τ –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) –1 i(τ) -------.368I 0 (9.τ + 1 L or L τ = -R Time Cons tan t for RL Circuit (9. Then.6) Therefore.3.= e = e = e = 0. current i ( t ) has reached ½ of its initial value? b. i − Figure 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response R 0 = – -. energy stored in L has reached ¼ of its initial value? c.1 i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 = i L ( 0 ) . it reaches its final value after five time constants. the response has dropped to approximately 36. in how many seconds after t = 0 has the a.8% of its initial value. Circuit for Example 9. we find that i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5τ .4) at t = τ = L ⁄ R .5) Evaluating (9.2. in one time constant. Example 9. power dissipated in R has reached ¾ of its initial value? − 10 Ω R + L 10 mH + Solution: From (9.2). that is.3.

-.5 or – 1000t = ln ( 0.⎛ -.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4⎝ 2 4 Therefore.693 and therefore.5 ) = – 0.L ( I 0 e . we start with the fact that the instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor is p R = i R R .⎛ -.LI 0 2 and 2 1 1 1 .5I 0 = I 0 e – ( 10 ⁄ 10 × 10 –3 )t = I0 e – 1000t or e – 1000t = 0.W L ( 0 ) = -.W L ( t ) = -.Li ( t ) 2 and at t = 0 . –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 -. 2 1 W L ( 0 ) = -. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-5 .386 and t = 693 µs This is the same answer as in part (a) since the energy is proportional to the square of the current.) = -.25 ) = – 1. Then. c. To find the energy stored in L which reaches ¼ of its initial value. we start with 1 2 W L ( t ) = -. t = 693 µs b.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit a. The current i ( t ) will have reached ½ of its initial value when 0. and since for the given circuit i ( t ) = iR ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 then.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 2 2 4 4⎝ 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t = 1⁄4 = 1⁄4 e – 2000t – 2000t = ln ( 0. I 0 = i L ( 0 ) .Li ( t ) = -. To find the power dissipated in R when it reaches ¾ of its initial value.

1 2 W L ( 0 ) = -.7) where i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just before a switch is opened or closed. when the excitations are constant. from part (b) above. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 . Also. Example 9. iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + − + (9. As we know from Chapter 5.288 and t = 144 µs In some examples and exercises that follow. the initial condition may not be given directly but it can be found from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and therefore. Find i L ( t ) for t > 0 .⎛ -.--) = -.LI 0 2 Also.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4 4 4⎝2 2 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t – 2000t = 3⁄4 = 3⁄4 e – 2000t = ln ( 0. the expression “long time” will mean that sufficient time has elapsed so that the circuit has reached its steady-state conditions.LI 0 2 and thus 2 –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 3 3 1 2 -.W R = 3 W L ( 0 ) = 1 Li ( t ) = 1 L ( I 0 e -.75 ) = – 0. and v R ( 0 ) − + 9-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just after the change has occurred.2 In the circuit of Figure 9. v R ( 0 ) .4.Chapter 9 Natural Response p R = I 0 Re 2 –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t and the energy dissipated (in the form of heat) in the resistor is WR = ∫0 ∞ p R dt = I 0 R 2 ∫0 ∞ e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t 2 L –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t dt = I 0 R ⎛ – ------⎞ e ⎝ 2R⎠ ∞ 0 1 2 = -. in our subsequent discussion. and the capacitor behaves as an open circuit. at steady state conditions the inductor behaves as a short circuit.

6.2 Solution: We are not given an initial condition for this example. at t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 20 Ω resistor. Circuit at t = 0 − − + vR ( t ) 10 Ω + − 32 V − − iL ( t ) Figure 9. we see that i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 32 ⁄ 10 = 3.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit t = 0 + vR ( t ) − iL ( t ) 20 Ω 1 mH S 10 Ω + − 32 V Figure 9.4. the 32 V source and the 10 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.5. Circuit for Example 9. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.2A − + and thus the initial condition has now been established as I 0 = 3.2 at t = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-7 .5.2 A We also observe that vR ( 0 ) = 0 − At t = 0 . Circuit at t = 0 + + + vR ( t ) − 1 mH 20 Ω iL ( t ) + Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.5. however.6. Circuit for Example 9.2 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9.

the switch S has been closed for a long time and opens at t = 0 .2 ) + or v R ( 0 ) = – 64 V + We observe that v R ( 0 ) ≠ v R ( 0 ) Example 9. At t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 24 Ω and 48 Ω resistors.2e – 20000t and v R ( 0 ) = 20 ( – I 0 ) = 20 ( – 3.7.= -------------. Circuit for Example 9.6. iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t = 3. Then. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9. i 48 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 4Ω t = 0 S 30 Ω 24 Ω + − + − 72 V 60 Ω 1 mH i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) 48 Ω i 48 ( t ) Figure 9.= 3 A 4 + 60 || 30 4 + 20 − 9-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = --------------------------.3 Solution: a. Find: a. i L ( t ) for t > 0 b.3 In the circuit shown in Figure 9.7.2e – ( 20 ⁄ 10 –3 )t or i L ( t ) = 3. i 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c.Chapter 9 Natural Response For the circuit of Figure 9.

9.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Circuit at t = 0 4Ω − 30 Ω iT ( 0 ) − + − 72 V 60 Ω iL ( 0 ) − Figure 9.⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -.3 at t = 0 − and by the current division expression.8. Circuit for Example 9.9.3 at t = 0 From (9. Circuit for Example 9. Circuit at t = 0 30 Ω 24 Ω + + 60 Ω 1 mH 48 Ω i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) i 48 ( t ) + Figure 9. the 72 V source and the 4 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.2).× 3 = 2 A 30 + 60 9 and thus the initial condition has been established as I 0 = 2 A At t = 0 . iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R eq ⁄ L ) t where R eq = ( 60 + 30 ) || (24+48) = 40 Ω and thus i L ( t ) = 2e – ( 40 ⁄ 10 )t –3 or i L ( t ) = 2e Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 40000t 9-9 . 60 6 − − i L ( 0 ) = ----------------.

373 mA 9 9. we will find the natural response of the RC circuit shown in Figure 9.[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 200 µs or i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs 15 – 40000t = ----.[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 100 µs or i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs 12 – 40000t = ----.2 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit In this section.Chapter 9 Natural Response Also.e = – 0. iC + iR = 0 (9. we obtain the differential equation 9-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10.e = – 16.( – 2e ) 27 t = 100 µs 8 –4 = – -.3 mA 9 and i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs ( 30 + 60 ) = ---------------------------------------------------. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit By KCL.( – 2e ) 27 t = 200 µs 10 – 8 = – ----.10 where the desired response is the capacitor voltage v C . the initial condition is v ( 0 ) = V 0 .8) and with dv C i C = C -------dt and vC i R = ----R by substitution into (9. v C = V 0 . and it is given that at t = 0 .8). that is. i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs ( 24 + 48 ) = ---------------------------------------------------. iC iR vC ( t ) R + C − Figure 9.

v C ⁄ V 0 = 1 .e = – ------RC RC t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) Next. Therefore.⎛ ----.10) Following the same reasoning as with the RL circuit.= 0 RC st st or 1⎛ s + -------⎞ Ae st = 0 ⎝ RC⎠ (9. (9.dt ⎝ V 0 ⎠ 1 – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = – ------.= e V0 and we sketch it as shown in Figure 9. that is. v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = Ae or A = V 0 . v C ( t ) = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t The constant A is evaluated from the initial condition.e.+ ------. We observe that at t = 0 .9) Ae Ase + --------. we assume a solution of the form v C ( t ) = Ae st and by substitution into (9.11.= 0 dt RC (9.11) We express (9.⎞ .9) As before. d vC ---. we define the time constant τ as the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.10) will be satisfied when s = – 1 ⁄ RC and therefore. i.11) as vC ( t ) – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t ----------.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit dv C v C -------.. This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-11 . the natural response of the RC circuit is vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 0 (9. and i → 0 as t→∞ The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 evaluated at t = 0 .

that is.3 0.τ + 1 RC (9.6 0.14) Therefore.5% 5% 2 3 Time Constants 4 5 Figure 9.0 0 1 Percent vc(t) / V0 e−(1/RC) t vc(t) / V0 = −(1/RC) t +1 36.15) 9-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we find that v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5 τ .368 V0 or v C ( τ ) = 0. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit vC ( t ) 1-----------. If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9.7 0.8 0.= e = e = e = 0.11.4 0.2 0.= – ------.8% of its initial value. v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 = 0 .t + 1 RC V0 and at t = τ . Then. In the examples that follow.368V 0 (9.5 0.12) or τ = RC Time Cons tan t for R C Circuit (9.9 0.8% 13. it reaches its final value after five time constants.1 0.11) at t = τ = RC .11. the response has dropped to approximately 36.Chapter 9 Natural Response 1.13) Evaluating (9.0 0. we get vC ( τ ) – τ ⁄ RC – RC ⁄ RC –1 -----------. in one time constant. we will make use of the fact that vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) − + (9. 10 = – ------.

t = 0 10 µF S 10 KΩ − + i (t) 50 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 60 V Figure 9.= 1 mA 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ + At t = 0 the 60 V source and the 10 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.12. i ( 0 ) .11). and opens at t = 0 .4 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9.13. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.13.12. Circuit at t = 0 − − i (t) 50 KΩ vC ( t ) 10 KΩ + − 60 V − Figure 9.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Example 9. vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-13 . We also observe that − 60 V i ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------. and i ( 0 ) .4 In the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.14. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time. From (9.13 we see that 60 V − + − v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 50 KΩ × i ( 0 ) = 50 × --------------------------------------. Circuit for Example 9.= 50 V 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 50 V .4 Solution: At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open. Find v C ( t ) for t > 0 .

the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 .14. v C ( t ) for t > 0 b.5 – 2t Then.= ---------------.5 )t = 50e and V0 + 50 V i ( 0 ) = ----.µF + 9 v 60 ( t ) − − + vC ( t ) v 10 ( t ) 10 KΩ − Figure 9.15. Find: a. v 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c. hence. Circuit for Example 9.4 at t = 0 + where RC = 50 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0.5 9-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 9 Natural Response Circuit at t = 0 + i (t) 50 KΩ + − 10 µF vC ( t ) Figure 9. Example 9.= 1 mA R 50 KΩ We observe that i ( 0 ) = i ( 0 ) . the voltage across the resistor must be the same at t = 0 and at t = 0 .15. v 10 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 6 KΩ t = 0 S 30 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + − + − 72 V 60 KΩ + 40 ----.5 In the circuit of Figure 9. v C ( t ) = 50e – ( 1 ⁄ 0. Circuit for Example 9. This is true because the voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously.

At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open and the circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.17.17. Circuit for Example 9.5 at t = 0 − From the circuit of Figure 9.16.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Solution: a.16.= -----------------------------------.5 at t = 0 + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-15 . we get 60 KΩ 1 − − i 10 ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------.µF 9 60 KΩ + − + vC ( t ) 10 KΩ v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = ----------------------------------------------------------.= 2 mA 6 KΩ + 60 KΩ || 60 KΩ 6 KΩ + 30 KΩ and using the current division expression. the 72 V source and the 6 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.× 2 = 1 mA 60 KΩ + 60 KΩ 2 Then. Circuit at t = 0 30 KΩ + + 20 KΩ + v 60 ( t ) − 40 ----. v C ( 0 ) = ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) ⋅ i 10 ( 0 ) = 30 V − − and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 30 V At t = 0 .⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -.16. Circuit at t = 0 6 KΩ 30 KΩ − − 20 KΩ iT ( t ) + 60 KΩ + − 72 V v 60 ( t ) v C ( t ) − − + + 10 KΩ i 10 ( t ) v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9.

1 )t = 30e – 10t b. 3 40 –6 R eq C = 22.5 KΩ Then.( 30e ) 3 = 10e t = 200 ms –2 = 1. v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 10 KΩ = --------------------------------------. What would then the energy in the capacitor be after two time constants? C + − 10 µF vC ( t ) R Figure 9.1 9 and v C ( t ) = 30e – ( 1 ⁄ 0. it is known that v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 25 V .⋅ v C ( t ) 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ t = 200 ms or v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 1 – 10t = -.6 For the circuit of Figure 9.18. vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ R eq C ) t where R eq = ( 60 KΩ + 30 KΩ ) || ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) = 22. To what value should the resistor R be adjusted so that the initial rate of change would be – 200 V ⁄ s ? b.18.5 × 10 × ----.Chapter 9 Natural Response From (9. Circuit for Example 9.6 9-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .36 V c. v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms 60 KΩ = --------------------------------------.35 V Example 9.⋅ v C ( t ) 30 KΩ + 60 KΩ t = 100 ms or v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms – 10t 2 = -.× 10 = 0.11).( 30e ) 3 = 20e t = 100 ms –1 = 7. a.

38 = 57. after approximately 5 time constants.38 V Therefore. • The initial condition I 0 can be established from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and thus i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) − + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-17 . that is.5 KΩ b. then dv C -------dt – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t 100000 = ⎛ – ----------------. it decays to zero. The capacitor voltage decays exponentially as vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and with the given values. and its value is τ = L ⁄ R • In one time constant the natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit has dropped to approximately 36.2 µJ 2 9. if the initial rate (slope) is to be – 200 V ⁄ s .5 × 10 = – --------------------.Cv C = 5 × 10 × 3.= – 200 R 6 and solving for R we get R = 12.8% of its initial value.Summary Solution: a. the energy after two time constants will be WC t = 2τ –6 2 1 2 = -. v C ( t ) = 25e – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t Now. After two time constants the capacitor voltage will drop to the value of v C ( 2 τ ) = 25e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )2τ = 25e – ( 2RC ⁄ RC ) = 25e –2 = 3. • The natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit reaches its final value.⎞ 25e ⎝ ⎠ R t=0 t=0 2.3 Summary • The natural response of the inductor current i L ( t ) in a simple RL circuit has the form iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 denotes the value of the current in the inductor at t = 0 • In a simple RL circuit the time constant τ is the time required for i L ( t ) ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.

that is. it decays to zero after approximately 5 time constants. and its value is τ = RC • In one time constant the natural response of the capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit has dropped to approximately 36. • The natural response of capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit reaches its final value.8% of its initial value.Chapter 9 Natural Response • The natural response of the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) in a simple RC circuit has the form vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t where V 0 denotes the value of the voltage across the capacitor at t = 0 • In a simple RC circuit the time constant τ is the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. • The initial condition V 0 can be established from the fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously and thus v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) − + 9-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

the microsecond E. s E. i. In a simple RC circuit the unit of the term 1 ⁄ RC is A.e. In the circuit of Figure 9. s C. 2e – 100t – 50t A A C. the second B. none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9... dimensionless B. the reciprocal of second. the millisecond C. Circuit for Question 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-19 . In a simple RL circuit the unit of the time constant A. 2 A B. the millisecond D. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. The current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is –1 –1 τ is A. the reciprocal of second. none of the above 3. At t = 0 . e – 50t A E. the microsecond D.19.Exercises 9. none of the above 2. 2e D.19 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.4 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. i.e.

10e – 10t –t V C. 10e V D. The power absorbed by the inductor at t = +∞ will be A.2 w E. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes.20. 10e – 0. none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9. 0. 2 w D. At t = 0 .1t V E. Circuit for Question 5 9-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In the circuit of Figure 9. none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9.20 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. Circuit for Question 4 5. 0 w B. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. 10 V B. At t = 0 . In the circuit of Figure 9. The voltage v C ( t ) for all t > 0 is A. 1 w C.Chapter 9 Natural Response 4.21 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.21.

100 s C. none of the above 8. 10 – 12 E.Exercises 6.01 s C. 100 s B. none of the above 9. none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9.01 µs E. At t = 0 . In a simple RC circuit where R = 10 MΩ and C = 10 µF the time constant A. 10 12 τ is s s D. 10 mw E. 100 µs D. Circuit for Question 6 7. In the circuit of Figure 9. 5 w D. 1 s B.22 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. The power absorbed by the capacitor at t = +∞ will be A. In a simple RL circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true τ is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-21 . 0. 10 w C. 0 w B. In a simple RL circuit where R = 10 MΩ and L = 10 µH the time constant A. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. 0.22.

In the circuit of Figure 9. In a simple RC circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true A. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) B. none of the above. Problems 1. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) C.24. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) E. at t = 0 switch S 1 opens while S 2 closes.23. 10. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) D. both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time and both are opened at t = 0 .23. In the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 1 2.Chapter 9 Natural Response A. Then. switch S 1 has been closed for a long time and switch S 2 has been open for a long time.5 mH Figure 9. none of the above. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) B. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) E. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) C. Compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms 9-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Compute the current i S2 ( t ) through switch S 2 for t > 0 3Ω t = 0 S1 − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + 8Ω 5Ω i S2 ( t ) + − 15 V 6Ω 10 Ω t = 0 S2 2. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) D.

Compute the current i L ( t ) for t > 0 . In a series RL circuit.Exercises 12 V 2Ω S2 t = 0 8Ω 16 Ω S1 t = 0 + − 6Ω iL ( t ) 10 ⁄ 3 mH 12 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V 4Ω Figure 9. both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time. switch S 1 has been closed and S 2 has been open for a long time. At t = 0 S 1 and S 2 are opened and S 3 is closed. 10 KΩ 1 KΩ S1 3 mH t = 0 t = 0 S2 2 KΩ − + + − v in1 t = 0 S3 iL ( t ) + 5 KΩ 10 mV + v in2 v out − 10 KΩ − 20 mV Figure 9. Compute the values of R and L for that circuit. In the circuit of Figure 9. 4. In the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-23 .2e – 2000t V and the current i L at t = 0 is i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA .25.26. At t = 0 switch S 1 is opened and S 2 is closed. while switch S 3 has been open for a long time.24. Compute the voltage v C2 ( t ) for t > 0 .25. Circuit for Problem 2 3. the voltage v L across the inductor is v L = 0. Circuit for Problem 4 5.

28. and the energy stored in the capacitor at t = 1 ms . Circuit for Problem 5 6. Circuit for Problem 7 9-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 KΩ A t = 0 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ S B 4 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 24 V 8 KΩ Figure 9.27.26. switch S has been in the A position for a long time and at t = 0 is thrown in the B position. In the circuit of Figure 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ S1 S2 t = 0 + − 12 V v C1 ( t ) + 6 µF t = 0 + − − v C2 ( t ) 3 µF 10 KΩ 50 KΩ Figure 9. Compute the voltage v C ( t ) across the capacitor for t > 0 . Compute i SW ( t ) for t > 0 100 Ω 6 mH S 10 µF t = 0 6Ω + 36 V − 3Ω i SW ( t ) Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 6 7. switch S has been open for a long time and closes at t = 0 .27. In the circuit of Figure 9.28.

The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.5 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.Answers to Exercises 9. 3Ω 8Ω 6Ω 15 V × x 10 Ω y × 5Ω iL ( 0 ) − − + − Replacing the circuit above with its Thevenin equivalent to the left of points x and y we find 6 3×6 that v TH = ----------. C 5. 10 Ω v TH 10 V R TH 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) − + − 5Ω By voltage-source to current-source transformation we get the circuit below. A 7. B 3. E τ = L ⁄ R = [ volt ⁄ ( ampere ⁄ sec ond ) ] ⁄ [ volt ⁄ ampere ] = sec ond ( s ) 2.⋅ 15 = 10 V and R TH = ----------. B 9.+ 8 = 10 Ω and attaching the rest of the circuit 3+6 3+6 to it we get the circuit below. A 6. D 8. D 4. C Problems 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-25 . D 10.

8Ω 6Ω i S2 ( t ) 5Ω Closed Switch i L ( 0 ) = 0. that is.5e = – 0.5 A . i L ( 0 ) = i 3 – i 4 − 9-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5e – 2000t A 2.5 mH + + We observe that the closed shorts out the 6 Ω and 8 Ω resistors and the circuit simplifies to that shown below. i L ( 0 ) = 0. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the mesh equations are 20i 1 – 4i 3 = 24 16i 2 – 6i 3 – 8i 4 = – 12 – 4i 1 – 6i 2 + 20i 3 – 10i 4 = 0 8i 2 – 10i 3 + 30i 4 = 0 Then. the initial condition has been established as i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.5 A 2.5 A − + The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.5 A 2.5 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 5 ⁄ 2. 5Ω i S2 ( t ) i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.5 × 10 )t –3 + Thus for t > 0 .Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 Ω 10 Ω − 1A − 5Ω 5Ω iL ( 0 ) and by inspection. i S2 ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – I 0 e − = – 0.

03 A i3 = -0. 20/3 Ω iL ( 0 ) 12 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω + + − + 6Ω 4Ω iL ( 0 ) 10 Ω + 8Ω 10 ----. iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 0. fprintf('i3 = %4. I(3)). I(4)). −4 −6 20 −10.2f A \t'. fprintf('i1 = %4. 0 −8 −10 30].. V=[24 −12 0 0]'.Answers to Exercises 12 V 16 Ω 2Ω i2 6Ω + − iL ( 0 ) − 8Ω + − 24 V 4Ω i1 i3 10 Ω 12 Ω i4 and with MATLAB R=[20 0 −4 0.. I(1)). fprintf('i4 = %4. 0 16 −6 −8.2f A \t'.4 ms = 0. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.. fprintf(' \n'). I(2)).26 A i4 = -0..mH 3 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) 20/3 Ω + 10 ----.mH 3 10 ----. i1 = 1.1e –2 = 0.. fprintf('i2 = %4...2f A \t'. fprintf(' \n').1e – 5000t A and iL t = 0.15 A i2 = -1.2f A \t'. fprintf('iL0 = %4. iL0=I(3)-I(4). I=R\V.10 A Therefore.1 A Shown below is the circuit at t = 0 and the steps of simplification.36 A iL0 = 0..mH 3 Thus for t > 0 .. fprintf(' \n').0137 A = 13.... I(3)−I(4)).7 mA Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-27 .2f A \t'.

1 0. From the figure below v L = Ri L = 0.1. plot(t.6 0.2e + − – 2000t for t > 0 + L − vL iL R and with i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA ..4 0.7 0..*10. iLt=0.. L = 20 ⁄ 2000 = 0. from R ⁄ L = 2000 .2 ⁄ 10 –2 –3 –0 = 0. t=(0: 0.9 x 10 1 -3 3.2 0 0 0.2e or R = 0. 5 0.01: 1)*10^(−3)...01 = 10 mH − 4.iLt).2 = 20 Ω Also.+ --------.2 0.3 0.*exp(−5000.8 0.^(−3).⎟ ⎝ R in 1 R in 2 ⎠ that was developed in Example 4.8 0. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and using the relation ⎛ v in 1 v in 2 ⎞ v out = – R f ⎜ --------.4 0.6 0.Chapter 9 Natural Response To compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms we use MATLAB as shown below.*t).11 we have 9-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . by substitution R ( 10 × 10 ) = 0.. grid x 10 -4 1 0.

Answers to Exercises 10 KΩ 1 KΩ − + v in1 iL + − 10 mV 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ v in2 v out − + − 20 mV –2 2 × 10 10 v out = – 10 KΩ ⎛ ------------.+ ------------------.2 V ⎝ 1 KΩ 2 KΩ ⎠ –2 –2 and − –6 --------------i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = i 5 KΩ = – 0. As we’ve learned in Chapter 5. − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-29 .⎞ = – 10 × 2 × 10 = – 0. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.2 V = – 40 × 10 A = – 40 µA 5 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 40 µA with the direction shown. after sufficient time has elapsed the capacitor behaves as an open and thus the voltage across the capacitor C 1 is 12 V as shown. when a circuit is excited by a constant (DC) source.2V − 3 mH − 15 KΩ + Then for t > 0 iL ( t ) = I0 e ( R ⁄ L )t + i ( 0+ ) L + = 40 × 10 e – 6 ( 15 × 10 ⁄ 3 × 10 )t 3 –3 = 40e – 5 × 10 t 6 µA with the direction shown. + 3 mH − + + + iL ( 0 ) 10 KΩ 5 KΩ − 0. 5.

Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ + − 12 V 10 KΩ C1 6 µF + − v C1 ( 0 ) = 12V − The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where the 12 V represents the voltage across capacitor C1 .× 24 = 12 V 6 KΩ + 6 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 12 V . 6 KΩ − v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = v 6KΩ = --------------------------------. 2 KΩ 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ 24 V − 4 + − + − vC ( 0 ) − Then. + + 9-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 2 µF C1 + C2 6+3 –6 – 10t Then.= ----------. 1 ⁄ RCeq = 1 ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 2 × 10 ) = 10 and thus v C2 ( t ) = 12e 6. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. 12 V + − + v C1 C1 6 µF – ( 1 ⁄ RC eq ) + − 3 µF 50 KΩ + − v C2 ( t ) C2 Now. v C2 ( t ) = v C1 e C1 ⋅ C2 6×3 where v C1 = 12 V and C eq = -----------------.

i L ( 0 ) = ----------------------. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.5 × 5 × 10 1 ms – 6 – 20t t = 1 ms –6 = 12e – 10t .= 4 A and v C ( 0 ) = 3 × i L ( 0 ) = 3 × 4 = 12 V − − − (6 + 3) Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-31 . 1 ⁄ R eq C = 10 and v C ( t ) = V 0 e = 0. Also.Answers to Exercises 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 8 KΩ 6 KΩ + − vC ( 0 ) + Series and parallel resistances reduction yields 12 × 6 R eq = [ ( 8 KΩ + 4 KΩ ) || 6 KΩ ] + 16 KΩ = -------------.1 . 1 2 = -.35 mJ 7.Cv C ( t ) 2 × 144e – 20t t = 1 ms = 360 × 10 e − = 0.+ 16 = 4 + 16 = 20 KΩ 12 + 6 and the circuit for t > 0 reduces to the one shown below. 5 µF 20 KΩ + − vC ( t ) – 10t Now. R eq C = 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 WC 1 ms 4 –6 = 0. 6Ω − 100 Ω + + 36 V − 3Ω iL ( 0 ) vC ( 0 ) − − 36 V Then.

6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 + 36 V − 3Ω 6 mH i' SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 Since the 100 Ω is shorted out. I 0 = 4 A . the circuit is as shown below. we have i' SW ( t ) = 36 ⁄ 6 = 6 A II. 100 Ω 10 µF + + + 6Ω + 36 V − + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH + − i SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + 3Ω We will apply superposition three times.Chapter 9 Natural Response The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the current i SW ( t ) through the switch is the sum of the currents due to the 36 V voltage source. With the i L ( 0 ) = 4 A current source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω and 100 Ω resistors are shorted out and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) where iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t + . Thus for t > 0 : I. L = 6 mH . With the 36 V voltage source acting alone where i L = 0 (open) and v C = 0 (shorted). R = 3 Ω . and due to v C ( 0 ) = 12 V . R ⁄ L = 3 ⁄ ( 6 × 10 ) = 500 and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – 4e – 500t –3 9-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . due to i L ( 0 ) = 4 A .

12e – 1000t A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-33 .12e Therefore.Answers to Exercises 6Ω 100 Ω + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH i SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 V 3Ω III. With the v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 12 V voltage source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω resistor is shorted out. + 6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 6 mH 3Ω i''' SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + and thus vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t = 12e – [ 1 ⁄ ( 100 × 10 ) ]t –5 = 12e – 1000t – 1000t . the total current through the closed switch for t > 0 is i SW ( t ) = i' SW ( t ) + i'' SW ( t ) + i''' SW ( t ) = 6 – 4e – 500t + 0. Then. i''' SW ( t ) = v C ( t ) ⁄ 100 Ω = 0.

Chapter 9 Natural Response NOTES 9-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

without the subscript 0. the unit step function is denoted as u ( t ) . Waveform for u 0 ( t ) u0 ( t ) In the waveform of Figure 10. the unit step function u 0 ( t ) changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at t = 0 . 10. its waveform and definition are as shown in Figure 10. A well-known discontinuous function is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * that is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 (10.The term “forced” here implies that the circuit is excited by a voltage or current source.2. 1 0 Figure 10.2. In this text we will reserve this designation for any input.1) It is also represented by the waveform of Figure 10. Then.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits T his chapter discusses the forced response of electric circuits.1. But if it changes at t = t 0 instead.1.1 The Unit Step Function u 0 ( t ) A function is said to be discontinuous if it exhibits points of discontinuity. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-1 . if the function jumps from one value to another without taking on any intermediate values. 1 u0 ( t – t0 ) t0 t 0 ⎧0 u0 ( t – t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < t0 t > t0 Figure 10. Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t – t 0 ) * In some books.1. that is.that is. and its response to that excitation is analyzed. the forced response is added to the natural response to form the total response.

This pulse is represented as u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) . A rectangular pulse expressed as the sum of two unit step functions 10-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Other forms of the unit step function Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions such as the rectangular pulse shown in Figure 10.5. Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t + t 0 ) Other forms of the unit step function are shown in Figure 10. 1 u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – 1 ) 1 u0 ( t ) 0 t 0 t 1 0 t –u0 ( t – 1 ) Figure 10.5.3.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Likewise.4.4. if the unit step function changes from 0 to 1 at t = – t 0 as shown in Figure 10. it is denoted as u 0 ( t + t 0 ) 1 −t0 0 u0 ( t + t0 ) t ⎧0 u0 ( t + t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < –t0 t > –t0 Figure 10. t (a) –A u0 ( t ) Au 0 ( – t ) Au 0 ( – t + T ) Τ 0 −A –A u0 ( t – T ) (b) −A 0 −A t −Τ 0 (c) –A u0 ( t + T ) t A A 0 Τ Τ 0 −A (h) (e) Au 0 ( – t – T ) A 0 (d) t t −Τ 0 (f) t 0 −A –A u0 ( –t ) (g) t t −Τ 0 −A (i) t –A u0 ( – t + T ) –A u0 ( – t – T ) Figure 10.3.

6 can be expressed as the summation of (10. This segment can be v 3 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] (10. starts at t = 2T . a constant voltage source of 24 V applied at t = 0 .5) Thus. 3T .5.6 as a sum of unit step functions.1 Express the square waveform of Figure 10.2) through (10. For example.5). starts at t = 0 . and terminates at t = 2T . or sawtooth. on the time axis. Square waveform for Example 10. that is. The vertical dotted lines indicate the discontinuities at T.The Unit Step Function The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltage or current source. 2T. starts at t = 3T . can be described as v ( t ) = ( V m cos ωt )u 0 ( t – t 0 ) V . This segment can be v 4 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10. if the excitation in a circuit is a rectangular. it can be represented as a sum (difference) of unit step functions. and so on. this segment can be expressed as v1 ( t ) = A [ u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – T ) ] (10. Also. the square waveform of Figure 10. as in Figure 10.4) Line segment expressed as has height – A . This segment can be expressed as v 2 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] (10. or any other recurring pulse. Likewise. and terminates at t = 3T . a sinusoidal voltage source v ( t ) = V m cos ωt V that is applied to a circuit at t = t 0 .3 . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.2) The line segment has height – A . starts at t = T .3) Line segment expressed as has height A . Then.6. and terminates at t = 4T .1 Solution: The line segment has height A . can be denoted as 24u 0 ( t ) V . and terminates at t = T on the time axis. Example 10. or triangular. v(t) A T 2T 3T 0 −A t Figure 10.

with reference to Figures 10. and terminates at t = T ⁄ 2 . we derive the equations of the linear segments and shown in Figure 10. Symmetric triangular waveform for Example 10.6) Combining like terms. we get ----i ( t ) = Au 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – Au 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ = A u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ (10.2 Solution: This pulse has height A .8 as a sum of unit step functions.3 and 10.3 Solution: As a first step.9.8) Example 10. i(t) A −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10. Symmetric rectangular pulse for Example 10. 1 v(t) −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10.3 Express the symmetric triangular waveform shown in Figure 10. it starts at t = – T ⁄ 2 . Therefore. 10-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7) Example 10.8.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) + v3 ( t ) + v4 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] +A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10.7. we get v ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – 2u 0 ( t – T ) + 2u 0 ( t – 2T ) – 2u 0 ( t – 3T ) + … ] (10.7 as a sum of unit step functions.4 (b).2 Express the symmetric rectangular pulse of Figure 10.

⎞ ⎝T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10.9.10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – -.5 . we get v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) 2 T 2 T = ⎛ -. 2 -v 1 ( t ) = ⎛ -. we first find the equations of the linear segments Figure 10.11) Example 10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + -.t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10.11.9) and for line segment . v(t) 3 2 1 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10. and shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.9) and (10.t + 1 T −T/2 2 – -.8 For line segment . Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10.10).⎞ – u 0 ( t ) + ⎛ – -.4 Solution: As in the previous example. 2 -v 2 ( t ) = ⎛ – -.10 as a sum of unit step functions.t + 1 T T/2 0 t Figure 10.4 Express the waveform shown in Figure 10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ( t ) ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝T ⎠ (10.10) Combining (10.The Unit Step Function v(t) 1 2 -. Waveform for Example 10.

10 Following the same procedure as in the previous examples. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – 2 ( t – 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) – t u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( t – 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) (10. is defined as u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t (10. 10. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 3u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 3u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) or v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) + [ – ( 2t + 1 ) + 3 ]u 0 ( t – 1 ) + [ – 3 + ( – t + 3 ) ]u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) and combining terms inside the brackets.2 The Unit Ramp Function u 1 ( t ) The unit ramp function.13) where τ is a dummy variable.12) Two other functions of interest are the unit ramp function and the unit impulse or delta function. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10. We will discuss the unit ramp function first.11. 10-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + 3 [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( – t + 3 ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] Multiplying the values in parentheses by the values in the brackets. denoted as u 1 ( t ) .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v(t) 3 2 2t + 1 1 –t+3 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10.

u 1 ( t ) = u 0 ( t ) dt (10.7 . d ---. integrating u 0 ( t ) twice and multiplying by 2 .e. ⎧0 un ( t ) = ⎨ n ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or un ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u n – 1 ( τ ) d τ (10. i. ⎧0 u3 ( t ) = ⎨ 3 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u3 ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u 2 ( τ ) d τ t (10. For example.The Unit Ramp Function We can evaluate the integral of (10.. Area under the unit step function from – ∞ to t Therefore.16) Similarly.18) Also.19) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. 1d .13) by considering the area under the unit step function u 0 ( t ) from – ∞ to t as shown in Figure 10.15) Higher order functions of t can be generated by repeated integration of the unit step function.u n ( t ) n dt (10.---.12.u n – 1 ( t ) = -.17) and in general.12. we define u 2 ( t ) as ⎧0 u2 ( t ) = ⎨ 2 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u2 ( t ) = 2 ∫– ∞ u 1 ( τ ) d τ t t (10. 1 Area = 1τ = τ = t τ t Figure 10. ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t t<0 t≥0 (10.14) and since u 1 ( t ) is the integral of u 0 ( t ) . then u 0 ( t ) must be the derivative of u 1 ( t ) .

13 (b) is the derivative of Figure 10. The Sampling Property of the Delta Function states that f ( t )δ ( t ) = f ( 0 )δ ( t ) (10. Figure 10. denoted as δ ( t ) . but the area of the rectangle remains 1 .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10. in the limit. Representation of the unit step as a limit. The function of Figure 10. Two useful properties of the delta function are the sampling property and the sifting property.13 (a).13. 10-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . 1 ⁄ 2 ε becomes unbounded. The study of discrete-time systems is based on this property.20) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 (10. zero width.13 (a) becomes the unit step as ε → 0 . let us represent the unit step u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10. It is generally defined as ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ where t = u0 ( t ) (10.13 (a).3 The Delta Function δ ( t ) The unit impulse or delta function.21) To better understand the delta function δ ( t ) . with unbounded amplitude. we can think of δ ( t ) as approaching a very large spike or impulse at the origin. and area equal to 1 . multiplication of any function f ( t ) by the delta function δ ( t ) results in sampling the function at the time instants where the delta function is not zero. where we see that as ε → 0 . Therefore.22) or f ( t )δ ( t – a ) = f ( a )δ ( t ) (10. 1 −ε Area =1 −ε 0 ε 0 Figure (a) ε t 1 2ε Figure (b) t Figure 10.23) that is.

The unit step u 0 ( t ) is called Heavyside(t) and the delta function δ ( t ) is called Dirac(t). The proofs of (10. syms k a t u=k*sym('Heaviside(t-a)') % Create unit step function at t=a u = k*Heaviside(t-a) d=diff(u) % Compute the derivative of the unit step function d = k*Dirac(t-a) int(d) % Integrate the delta function ans = Heaviside(t-a)*k Example 10. MATLAB has two built-in functions for the unit step and the delta functions. These are designated by the names of the mathematicians who used them in their work. t = – 0.14.5 s c. t = 5 s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. t = 1. the inputs are applied at different times as indicated. They are provided in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.5 For the circuit shown in Figure 10. Shown below are examples of how they are being used.9 .24) that is.24) and additional properties of the delta function are beyond the scope of this book. ISBN 09709511-3-2 by this author.5 s b. we will obtain the value of f ( t ) evaluated at t – α . if we multiply any function f ( t ) by δ ( t – α ) and integrate from −∞ to +∞. Orchard Publications 2001.22) through (10.The Delta Function The Sifting Property of the Delta Function states that ∫–∞ f ( t )δ ( t – α ) dt ∞ = f(α ) (10. Compute v out at: a.

exchanging the current source and its parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source with a series resistance.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 3 KΩ 50 KΩ − Rf + − + 6 KΩ + v in 1 + v in 2 − 5 KΩ v out − i in Figure 10. the input circuit becomes as shown in Figure 10.5 s only the signal due to i in is active.15.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 0 1 u0 ( t – 1 ) t(s) [ u0 ( t + 1 ) + u0 ( t – 2 ) ] −1 0 1 2 t(s) a.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0. therefore. At t = – 0.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0. 10-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 1 = 0.14.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V v in 2 = 0. Circuit for Example 10.5 Solution: Let us first sketch the step functions for each of the inputs. v in 1 = 0.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V 0 1 2 3 u0 ( t – 3 ) t(s) v in 2 = 0.

2 V 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ 2 KΩ × 5 KΩ R TH1 = ---------------------------------.11 .7 V Figure 10. At t = 1.15.5 when i in is acting alone Now. 3 KΩ 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ 5 KΩ 2 KΩ −0.= 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 7 KΩ + − + v TH1 − −0.2 V Figure 10.16.17.5 when i in is acting alone Replacing the circuit of Figure 10. we get the network of Figure 10.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.The Delta Function To op amp’s inverting input 5 KΩ 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − + −0. we can compute v out 1 with the circuit of Figure 10.7 ) = – 0.5 s the active inputs are i in = 0.16.2 V v TH1 + + v out 1 − Figure 10. 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf − 50 K Ω + − −0.7 V 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 2 KΩ v TH1 = V 2 KΩ = ---------------------------------. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10. Circuit for computation of v out 1 50 v out 1 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH1 = – 35 × ( – 0.2 mV ) = 7 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ (10. Input to the circuit of Example 10.17.25) b.( – 0.15 with its Thevenin equivalent.

5 ) = ----.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to i in acting alone.V 42 + v out 2 − + Figure 10. To op amp’s inverting input 6 KΩ 3 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0. we can compute v out 2 with the circuit of Figure 10.18 with its Thevenin equivalent.19. with the input v in 2 acting alone. 3 KΩ 5 K Ω = 15 ⁄ 8 K Ω 15 ⁄ 8 5 6 KΩ 15/8 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH2 = v ( 15 ⁄ 8 ) KΩ = --------------------. we get the network of Figure 10.18. Thus.5 V Figure 10. the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10. Circuit for computation of v out 2 10-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH2 − 5----. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.5 when v in 2 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10.18.20.( 0.5 V − ----5 42 V Figure 10.20. we will find the output due to v in 2 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 2 = 0. Input to the circuit of Example 10.19.5 when v in 2 is acting alone Now.V 15 ⁄ 8 + 6 42 R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0.

we can compute v out 3 with the circuit of Figure 10.27) c.5 when v in 1 is acting alone Now. from (10.25) and (10.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V and v in 2 = 0.8 V − 10 ----21 V Figure 10.13 .V 30 ⁄ 11 + 3 21 R TH 3 = R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0. the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10.26) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 1.21 with its Thevenin equivalent.⎞ = – 25 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ ⎝ 42 ⎠ 6 (10.5 s is 17 v out 1 + v out 2 = 7 – 25 = ----.8 V Figure 10. we get the network of Figure 10.8 ) = ----.26) Therefore. Thus. Input to the circuit of Example 10.The Delta Function 50 5----v out 2 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH2 = – 35 × ⎛ ----.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to v in 2 acting alone. To op amp’s inverting input 3 KΩ 6 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0. with the input v in 1 acting alone. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10. 6 KΩ 5 K Ω = 30 ⁄ 11 kΩ 30 ⁄ 11 10 3 KΩ 30 /11 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH3 = v ( 30 ⁄ 11 ) KΩ = -----------------------.21. At t = 5 s the active inputs are v in 1 = 0.22.23.V ----6 6 (10. we will find the output due to v in 1 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.22.5 when v in 1 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.21.( 0.

di L ---.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH3 − 10 ----21 V + v out 3 − + Figure 10.= – -------.+ Ri = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10.28) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 5 s is 25 50 125 v out 2 + v out 3 = – ----. R − t = 0 R + VS − i(t) (a) L + VS u0 ( t ) − i(t) (b) L Figure 10.– ----.V 6 3 6 (10.4 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10.30) 10-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for computation of v out 3 10 50 50 v out 3 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH3 = – 35 × ⎛ ----. V S is constant.24 (b). that is. the inductor current i L ( t ) will be referred to as the total response.V ⎝ 21 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ 3 (10. The switch in Figure 10. We will derive an expression for the inductor current i L ( t ) = i ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is i L ( 0 ) = 0 .24 (a). Here. Circuits for derivation of the total response i L ( t ) = i ( t ) We start by applying KVL. from (10.24 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10.28) Therefore.29) 10.26) and (10.23.⎞ = – ----.24.

we get L – -. we must solve the differential equation di L ---.31) It is shown in differential equations textbooks that a differential equation such as the above.+ Ri = V S dt − (10.15 . separating the variables. i ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 .32).= ∫ dt V S – Ri and referring to a table of integrals.ln ( V S – 0 ) = 0 + k R or L k = – -. we get L L – -.ln ( V S – Ri ) = t + k R Ldi (10. can be solved by the method of separation of the variables. rearranging (10.32). and as we stated in the previous chapter iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + (10.32) represents the constant of integration of both sides and it can be evaluated from the initial condition. and integrating we get: di L ---.ln ( V S – Ri ) = t – -. at t = 0 + L – -. thus for t < 0 . Thus.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The initial condition states that i L ( 0 ) = 0 .32) The constant k in (10.= dt V S – Ri or ∫ ----------------.ln V S R R or L – -.ln V S R and by substitution into (10.33) Therefore.[ ln ( V S – Ri ) – ln V S ] = t R or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.= V S – Ri dt or Ldi ---------------.

This value represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit.t L VS or V S – Ri –( R ⁄ L ) t ----------------.35).= t R VS or V S – Ri R ln ---------------.e R R The general expression for all t is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ i ( t ) = ⎛ ----. 10-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is.= – -.– ----.34) consists of two terms.e u (t) ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10.ln ---------------.35) forced response + i ( t ) natural response Now. i ( t ) total = i ( t ) or i total = i f + i n (10.24 to find the complete (total) response i total by the summation of the forced and the natural responses as indicated in (10. The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response or com- plete response.= e VS or Ri = V S – V S e –( R ⁄ L ) t or VS VS –( R ⁄ L ) t i ( t ) = ----.e – ( R ⁄ L )t that has the same form as that of the previous V R chapter which we call the natural response.– ----. The forced response V S ⁄ R is a result of the application of the excitation (forcing) function V S u 0 ( t ) applied to the RL circuit. V S ⁄ R which is constant called the S forced response. The amplitude of the natural response is – V S ⁄ R and depends on the values of V S and R . and the exponential term – ----. let us return to the RL circuit of Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits V S – Ri L – -.34) We observe that the right side of (10.

38) yields VS 0 i ( 0 ) = 0 = ----. Circuit for derivation of the forced response i f Then.17 . we need to find the natural response.36) Next.25.+ Ae R or VS A = – ----R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. R VS u0 ( t ) = 0 in L Figure 10.26. Circuit for derivation of the natural response i n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response i n has the exponential form i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t (10.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The forced response i f is found from the circuit of Figure 10.+ Ae R (10. from the circuit of Figure 10.38) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) Substitution of the initial condition into (10. This is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in the circuit of Figure 10.25. the total response is VS – ( R ⁄ L )t i total = i f + i n = ----. VS i f = ----R (10.26.37) Therefore.25 where we let t → ∞ R − VS u0 ( t ) Short Circuit as t → ∞ + if L Figure 10.

4 -0.e separately and then add these.= -.27.τ L R or τ = -L R 10-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .27. and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and L as follows: The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ L is found from d---.⋅ ----.27. natural.34).632VS / R i(t) = VS / R −(VS/ R) e−Rt / L Time Constants −(VS / R) e−Rt / L Percent VS / R 0.e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10. Exponential Rise in RL Circuit 1. VS i ( t ) = ----R and thus VS VS ----. at t = τ .0 -0.0 0.38) is rewritten as V S V S – ( R ⁄ L )t ⎞ u (t) . This is V R V R done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10.8 -1.6 -0.4 0.= ----.and – ----. Curves for forced.2 -0.i total = ⎛ ----.– ----.0 τ Figure 10. S S –( R ⁄ L ) t We can sketch i total easily if we sketch ----.39) and this is the same as (10. and total responses in a series RL circuit The time constant τ is defined as before.( i total ) dt R V S –( R ⁄ L ) t .e L R VS = ----L t=0 t=0 Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10.8 0.2 0.6 VS / R i(t) = (VS / L) t 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with this substitution (10.

6 Solution: For t < 0 . − ----i L ( 0 ) = 12 = 2 A 6 and this value establishes our initial condition as iL ( 0 ) = 2 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + (10. Also. 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. from (10. the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.e R R R R or VS i ( τ ) = 0.40) Therefore.6 For the circuit of Figure 10.29.41) 10.2% of its final value. the current in a series RL circuit which has been excited by a constant source.28.19 .The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit as before.6 for t < 0 From the circuit of Figure 10.= ----.632 ----R (10.28. Example 10. Circuit of Example 10. 6Ω + − 12 V iL ( t ) Figure 10.29 where the 3 Ω resistor is shorted out by the inductor.368 ) i ( τ ) = ----. Circuit for Example 10.( 1 – 0. compute the energy stored in the 10 mH inductor at t = 100 ms .39) VS V S V S –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) VS –1 .29.( 1 – e ) = ----.– ----. in one time constant has reached 63.

i f = 2 – 5 or if = –3 A (10.6 under steady-state conditions By inspection. 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5A Figure 10.32. 2A 10 mH 5A if Figure 10.32.32 is i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t = Ae – ( 2 ⁄ 10 × 10 )t –3 10-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .30.30. The resistors have been shorted out by the inductor. the circuit is as shown in Figure 10. Circuit of Example 10. Circuit of Example 10.31 where the voltage source and its series resistance have been exchanged for an equivalent current source with a parallel resistor.42) To find i n we short the voltage source and open the current source. Circuit of Example 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits For t > 0 . 6Ω 10 mH 3 Ω || 6 Ω = 2 Ω in 3Ω in 10 mH 2Ω Figure 10.6 for determining the natural response The natural response of RL circuit of Figure 10. It is shown in Figure 10.6 for t > 0 We will find i L ( t ) from the relation iL ( t ) = if + in The forced component i f is found from the circuit at steady state conditions.31. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 10.

The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or i n = Ae – 200t (10.5 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10.42).44) Using the initial condition of (10. the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) will be referred to as the total response. we get i L ( 0 ) = 2 = – 3 + Ae + –0 or A = 5 Finally.21 . Circuits for derivation of the total response v C ( t ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.43). R − t = 0 C R VS + − + − (t) vC − VS u0 ( t ) (b) + + v (t) − R C + − vC ( t ) (a) Figure 10. We will derive an expression for the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 .33 (a).43) The total response is the summation of (10.42) and (10. by substitution into (10.45) and the energy stored in the inductor at t = 100 ms is –3 – 200 × 100 × 10 ⎞ 1 2 1 WL = -. i total = i f + i n = – 3 + Ae – 200t (10.10 × 10 ⎛ – 3 + 5e ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 t = 100 ms t = 100 ms = 5 × 10 –3 ( – 3 + 5e – 20 2 ) = 45 mJ –3 2 (10.44) we get i total = ( – 3 + 5e – 200t )u 0 ( t ) (10. that is.46) 10.33.Li L = -. Here. V S is constant.

33 (b). vR + vC = VS u0 ( t ) (10.+ v C = V S dt − (10. we must solve the differential equation dv C RC -------. separating variables and integrating.= – ------. vC – VS = e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t + k = e e k – ( 1 ⁄ ( RC ) ) t = k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 10-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .dt vC – VS or dv C 1= – ------.49) Rearranging. we get dv C RC -------. we get: RCdv C = ( V S – v C )dt or dv C 1 ----------------. We start by applying KVL.dt RC vC – VS or ∫ ----------------. thus for t < 0 .dt RC ∫ (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits The switch in Figure 10. that is.33 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10. v C ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 .47) and since dv C i = i C = C -------dt we can express v R as dv C v R = Ri = RC ------dt By substitution into (10.50) 1 ln ( v C – V S ) = – ------.47).+ v C = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10. Then.51).t + k RC where k represents the constant of integration of both sides of (10.48) The initial condition states that v C ( 0 ) = 0 .

53) Now. The forced response v C f is found from the circuit of Figure 10. the solution of (10. we observe that the solution consists of a forced response and a natural response.52) As with the RL circuit of the previous section.34 where we let t → ∞ R + − vCf VS u0 ( t ) Open Circuit as t → ∞ Figure 10.49) is vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t )u 0 ( t ) (10. i.34.33 to find the complete (total) response by summing the forced and the natural responses indicated in (10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or vC = VS – k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t − (10.e. Circuit for derivation of the forced response v C f Then. The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response. The amplitude of the exponential term natural response is – V S . from the circuit of Figure 10. let us return to the RC circuit of Figure 10. v C ( t ) complete response = v C ( t ) forced response + v C ( t ) natural response or v C total = v C f + v C n (10.53). Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10..51) we get vC ( 0 ) = 0 = VS – k1 e + 0 or k1 = VS Therefore. The constant term V S is the voltage attained across the capacitor as t → ∞ and represents the steady-state condition since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit.34.23 .51) + The constant k 1 can be evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 where by substitution into (10.

36.52).54) Next. Circuit for derivation of the natural response v C n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response v C n has the exponential form v C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and thus the total response is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t (10.55) is rewritten as vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t )u 0 ( t ) (10. This is done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10. We can sketch v C total easily if we sketch V S and – V S e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t separately and then add these. we need to find the natural response and this is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in Figure 10.55) yields v C ( 0 ) = 0 = V S – Ae + 0 or A = –VS With this substitution (10.35.56) and this is the same as (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vCf = VS (10. and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and C as follows: 10-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The time constant τ is defined as before. R C VS u0 ( t ) = 0 vCn Figure 10.55) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 Substitution of the initial condition into (10.35.

in one time constant has reached 63.57) Therefore.0 0. from (10.0 -0.2 -0. the voltage across a capacitor in a series RC circuit which has been excited by a constant source.6 -0.2% of its final value. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.4 0.2 0.τ RC or τ = RC as before. natural. and total responses in a series RC circuit The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ RC is found from d ---.0 VC / V S vC(t) = (VS / RC) t 0.25 .⋅ V S e RC t=0 t=0 VS = ------RC Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10.36.56) vC ( τ ) = VS –VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )RC = V S ( 1 – e ) = V S ( 1 – 0.8 -1. Curves for forced. at t = τ .The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Exponential Rise in RC Circuit 1.v C ( t ) dt – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = ------.632VC / V S vC(t) = VS − VS e−t / RC Time Constants −VS e−t / RC τ Figure 10.8 0. Also.4 -0.6 Percent VC / V S 0.36. vC ( t ) = VS and thus VS V S = ------.632V S (10.368 ) –1 or v C ( τ ) = 0.

No initial condition is given so we must assume that sufficient time has elapsed for steady-state conditions to exist for all t < 1 s.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Example 10.7 at t = 1 + 10-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 For the circuit shown in Figure 10. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) c.38. i C ( t ) for t > 1 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA iC ( t ) 10 µF + + − − + C − vC ( t ) 10 KΩ 60 KΩ 20 KΩ Figure 10. since there is no voltage or current source present to cause current to flow. ) d. Circuit for Example 10. 38. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) b. we get vC ( 1 ) = 0 − and iC ( 1 ) = 0 − b. iC ( t ) 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) V + + C 10 µF 10 KΩ 60 KΩ + − 20 KΩ − vC ( t ) Figure 10. the circuit at t = 1 is as shown in Figure 10. Exchanging the current source and the 10 KΩ resistor with a voltage source with a 10 KΩ series resistor.37 find: a.37. v C ( t = 10 min. Then. Circuit for Example 10. ) and i C ( t = 10 min.7 Solution: a. We assume time is in seconds since we are not told otherwise.

+ 90 V i C ( 1 ) = --------------------------------. Therefore. the equivalent resistance is R eq = ( 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ ) || 60 KΩ = 20 KΩ or R eq C = 20 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0. i. and as we know.2 s Therefore. no current flows through the 60 kΩ resistor at t = 1 . this is a physical impossibility.38.59) where i C ( 1 ) = 3 mA = Ae + –5 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. i C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ 0. The time t = 10 min is the essentially the same as t = ∞ .The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Now. the voltage across the capacitor would change instantaneously. and at this time the capacitor voltage v C ( t = 10 min ) is constant and equal to the voltage across the 60 KΩ resistor. if it did.27 . Instead.59) We can evaluate the constant A using (10.⋅ 60 KΩ = 60 V ( 20 + 10 + 60 ) KΩ Also. 90 V v C ( t = 10 min ) = v C ( ∞ ) = v 60 KΩ = ---------------------------------------------.= 3 mA ( 20 + 10 ) KΩ + − + + − + (10.2 ) t = Ae – 5t (10. iC ( t ) dv C = C -------.= 0 t=∞ dt = iC f + iC n d. since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) . the current path is through the capacitor which at exactly t = 1 acts as a short circuit since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) = 0 . For t > 1 iC ( t ) t>1 where from part (c) iC f ( ∞ ) = 0 and i C n = Ae –( 1 ⁄ R eq C) t With the voltage source shorted in the circuit of Figure 10..e.58) c.

8 In the circuit shown in Figure 10. Initially.8 Solution: With the switch in the open position the circuit is as shown in Figure 10. Compute and sketch the voltage across the capacitor for two repetitive cycles.02 × 10 –6 = 25 µs Thus.39.60) Example 10. 10-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v C ( 0 ) = 0 .41.25 KΩ ) × 0.445 ------------------e–5 –3 and by substitution into (10.8 with the switch in the open position For the time period 0 < t open < 15 µs the time constant for the circuit of Figure 10. the switch is actually an electronic switch and it is open for 15 µs and closed for 15 µs . Circuit for Example 10.= 0.61) Next.02 µF Figure 10.445e – 5t u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA (10. Circuit for Example 10. i.39. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω 350 Ω 6V 0. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = vC f + vC n = VS – VS e – t ⁄ RC = 6 – 6e – 4 × 10 t 4 = 6 – 6e – 0. iC ( t ) t>1 = i C f + i C n = i C n = 0.71 V (10.02 µF + C + − (t) vC − Figure 10.40 is τ open = R eq C = ( 1 KΩ + 0. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω C + + − vC ( t ) − 6V Switch open 0. the capacitor is discharged. at the end of the first period when the switch is open.6 = 2.40.59).40. with the switch closed for 15 < t closed < 30 µs the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits A = 3 × 10 .e..

Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure 10.= 259 Ω 1350 − 1.8 with the switch in the closed position Replacing the circuit to the left of points x and y by its Thevenin equivalent.71 V – ( 1 ⁄ 10.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10.02 × 10 –6 = 10.56 V 0.42. the voltage across the capacitor is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. VTH RTH 259 Ω 250 Ω C + + − 350V TH = ----------.2 ) ( 15 – 15 ) Then. is τ closed = R eq C = ( 259 Ω + 250 Ω ) × 0.41 The time constant for the circuit of Figure 10.× 6 = 1.71 = 1.62) is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = 2. we get the circuit shown in Figure 10.56 V 1350 350 × 1000 R TH = -------------------------.56 + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.56 + A 1 e A 1 = 1.02 µF × y Figure 10.42 where the switch is closed.62) vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 1.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit × VS 1 KΩ x 250 Ω + − 6V Switch closed 350 Ω C + − (t) vC 0.56 + 1. vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 2.42 is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 15 ) = 1.2 µs The capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 10.41.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.02 µF v C ( t ) Figure 10. Circuit for Example 10.15 or and by substitution into (10.29 .62) and the constant A 1 is evaluated from initial condition at t = 15 µs which by (10.42.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10.63) At the end of the first period when the switch is closed.

2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10. i.71) 10-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is.2 ) ( 30 – 15 ) = 1. the time constant τ open is the same as before.64) For the next cycle. for 30 < t open < 45 µs when the switch is open.82 = 6 + A 2 e A 2 = – 4. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 45 ) = 1. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = 1.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.71 V (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1. τ open = 25 µs and the capacitor voltage is vC ( t ) = vC f + vCn = 6 + A2 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.65) The constant A 2 is computed with (10.18 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 45 – 30 ) = 3.67) The second period when the switch is closed is 45 < t closed < 60 µs Then.95e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 60 ) (10..82 V (10.66) At the end of the second period when the switch is open. we get vC ( t ) 60 < t < 75 µs = 6 – 3.68) and with (10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.56 + 2.56 + 1.18e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10.2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 45 µs = 6 – 4.70) Repeating the above steps for the third open and closed switch periods.15 Therefore.05 V (10.2 ) ( 60 – 45 ) = 2.e.67) we get A 3 = 2.18 – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 30 – 30 ) or and by substitution into (10.69) and vC ( t ) t = 60 µs = 1.65) as vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1.56 + 2.65) vC ( t ) 30 < t < 45 µs = 6 – 4.56 + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.

27e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.56 + 2.6 Summary • The unit step function u 0 ( t ) is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 and it is represented by the waveform below. Voltage across the capacitor for the circuit of Example 10.Summary and vC ( t ) t = 75 µs = 3. • The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltu0 ( t ) age or current source. 1 0 • Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions.2 ) ( t – 75 ) (10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.43.73) and vC ( t ) t = 90 µs = 2.72) Likewise.83 V (10.8 10.08 V (10.31 .43. vC ( t ) 75 < t < 90 µs = 1.74) and using Excel we get the waveform shown in Figure 10. Capacitor Voltage (V) 4 3 2 1 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Time (µs) Figure 10.

u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t<0 t≥0 t where τ is a dummy variable. denoted as δ ( t ) . is defined as the integral of the unit step function.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • The unit ramp function u 1 ( t ) . v C f = V S . that is. The natural response i n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression. – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t . The natural response v C n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression. Since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit. The constant A 10-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .– ----. that is. is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . It is defined as dδ ( τ ) = ---.u 0 ( t ) dt or ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ and t = u0 ( t ) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 • In a simple RL circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the current is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ u (t) i ( t ) = i f + i n = ⎛ ----. i f = V S ⁄ R . that is.e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 where the forced response i f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ . Since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit. It is also expressed as ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t • The unit impulse or delta function. i n = ( – V S ⁄ R )e is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = ( V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t –( R ⁄ L ) t • In a simple RC circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the voltage across the capacitor )u 0 ( t ) where the forced response v C f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ . v C n = Ae must be evaluated from the total response.

71. 0.44.44 the time constant is A.45. 190 ms D. For the circuit of Figure 10. 100 ms C. 50 ms B. 000 s D. For the circuit of Figure 10.6 ms E.5 ms B. Circuit for Question 1 2. 10 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. 0.33 . 2.Exercises 10.2 ms E.45 the time constant is A.43 µs C.46 is A. Circuit for Question 2 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 µF 3. none of the above 4 KΩ 6 KΩ 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. none of the above 4Ω 2Ω 1 mH + 12u 0 ( t ) V − 12 Ω Figure 10. The forced response component i Lf of the inductor current for the circuit of Figure 10.7 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 78. 16 A B.

10 V B. The forced response component v Cf of the capacitor voltage for the circuit of Figure 10. 8 V E. Circuit for Question 3 12 Ω 1 mH 4. 32 ⁄ 3 V D. 2 A E.48 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A . For t > 0 the total response of i L ( t ) is A.47 is A.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C.47. none of the above 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. 6 A B. 6e –5000t A – 5000t A C. 6 + 6e − D. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10. none of the above 10-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .46. Circuit for Question 4 5. 2 V C. 6 A D. 6 – 4 e –5000t A E.

For t > 0 the total response of v L ( t ) is A. 12 + 7e – 500t – 200t – 200t − V V V E.49. 12 – 7e D. For the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for Question 5 12 Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) 6. – 32e D. Circuit for Question 6 7. 32e – 8000t – 8000t V E.50 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A . 20e – 5000t – 5000t − V V V C. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. 10 – 5e C. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ + − vC ( t ) Figure 10.Exercises 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. For t > 0 the total response of v C ( t ) is A.48. For the circuit of Figure 10. 20e B.35 . 12 V B.49 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V .

50. 1400e B. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF iC ( t ) + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10.5 ) [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A D.5t + 4. For t > 0 the total response i C ( t ) is A. 3 [ u 0 ( t ) ] – 3 [ u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A C. Circuit for Question 7 12 Ω 1 mH + − vL ( t ) 8.51. Circuit for Question 8 9.5 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A E. 3500e D. 3. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + ( – 1. 3tu 0 ( t ) A B. 1.4e – 200t − A – 200t A A C.52 can be expressed as A.51 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . The waveform of Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. none of the above 10-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10.5e – 500t – 500t A E. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] + ( – 1.5t + 4.

( 2 – 2e C. Waveform for Question 10 Problems 1.Exercises 3 2 1 t (s) iL ( t ) A 1 2 3 Figure 10.37 . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.52.53. Compute. 2 ( 1 – e – αt – αt –e – βt )u 0 ( t ) V – βt B. the voltage source v S ( t ) varies with time as shown by the waveform of Figure 10. Waveform for Question 9 10. ( 2 – 2e D. ( 2 – 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] – ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) ] – ( 2e – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V – αt – αt – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V ) [ u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V E. In the circuit of Figure 10. none of the above vC ( t ) V 2 1 – αt 2e – βt 2 – 2e 1 2 3 t (s) Figure 10.54.53 can be expressed as A. and express v LOAD ( t ) as a sum of unit step functions for 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 s. sketch.55. The waveform of Figure 10.

Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) − Figure 10.57 (b).3 ms b. Circuit for Problem 2 3.56.56. v S ( t ) = 15u 0 ( t ) – 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) V . Waveform for Problem 1 2.55. the excitation v S ( t ) is a pulse as shown in Figure 10. Compute i L ( t ) for 0 < t < 0. In the circuit of Figure 10.54. In the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for Problem 1 v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 t(s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 10. a. Compute i L ( t ) for t > 0 .57 (a). R 3 KΩ + L − vS ( t ) iL ( t ) 1 mH Figure 10. Compute and sketch i L ( t ) for all t > 0 10-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

3 (a) (b) t (ms) vS ( t ) V 24 + − vS ( t ) Figure 10. and v in u 0 ( t ) given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − 10.57.Exercises iL ( t ) 3Ω 1 mH 6Ω 6Ω 0.60. For the circuit of Figure 10.58.59. Circuit for Problem 4 5.59. switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . 10u 0 ( t ) A vS 38 Ω + − 24 V 2Ω 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Figure 10. In the circuit of Figure 10. compute v C ( t ) for t > 0 . compute v out ( t ) for t > 0 in terms of R . For the circuit of Figure 10. Compute and sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) for t > 0 . Circuit for Problem 5 6.39 . i SW ( t ) S 4Ω vS 6Ω t = 0 + − 20 V 8Ω 1H iL ( t ) Figure 10.58. Circuit and waveform for Problem 3 4. C .

Circuit for Problem 6 7. Circuit for Problem 8 10-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In the circuit of Figure 10. it is given that v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . R1 v S2 − R2 + 25 KΩ v S1 50 KΩ 50 V + − t = 0 100u 0 ( – t ) V S vC ( t ) − 1 µF v R3 ( t ) R3 C + − + 100 KΩ Figure 10.62. Circuit for Problem 7 8. iC ( t ) C − R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C Figure 10.61.62. Hint: Be careful in deriving the time constant for this circuit. For the circuit of Figure 10. Compute and sketch v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) for t > 0 . Compute i C ( t ) for t > 0 .60.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C R v in u 0 ( t ) v out ( t ) Figure 10.61.

We replace the given circuit shown below with its Thevenin equivalent. C 4. E 6 – 4e 6.8 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.41 . A 9. 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω – 8000t A × x 10 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) − 10 Ω + 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) + y × v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 − v TH ( t ) v LOAD ( t ) − 1 2 3 4 5 6 t(s) For the Thevenin equivalent voltage at different time intervals is as shown below. C 10. E 12 V 5. D 8. C 7. B 3. D 2.Answers to Exercises 10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. B Problems 1.

v s ( t ) 18 2 = -. i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) 10-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 0.× 60 = 40 V 3 2 = -. we will assume that iL ( 0 ) = 0 − − For t > 0 we let i L1 ( t ) be the inductor current when the 15u 0 ( t ) voltage source acts alone and i L2 ( t ) when the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone. Then.× 120 = 80 V 3 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s 2 = -.v TH ( t ) = 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits ⎛ 12 v s ( t ) ----⎜ 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ----⎜ 18 s v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ⎜ ----.5 × ( – 40 ) 20 ⎜ ⎝ 0.5 × 40 ⎜ 0.× ( – 60 ) = – 40 V 3 2 = -.5 × 80 10 v LOAD ( t ) = ----.s 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 ⎝ ----.5 × 40 = 20 V = 40 V = – 20 V = 20 V The waveform of the voltage across the load is as shown below.× 60 = 40 V 3 t>4 s 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s t>4 s and ⎛ 0. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and since we are not told otherwise. v LOAD ( t ) 40 20 0 – 20 1 2 3 4 5 t (s) (V) The waveform above can now be expressed as a sum of unit step functions as follows: v LOAD ( t ) = 20u 0 ( t ) – 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 40u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) – 20u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) = 20u 0 ( t ) + 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 60u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 4 ) 2.

i L1 ( t ) = i L1f + i L1n where i L1f = ------------. i L2 ( t ) = i L2f + i L2n .Answers to Exercises 3 kΩ 1 mH vS ( 0 ) = 0 − iL ( 0 ) = 0 − For 0 < t < 2 s the circuit is as shown below. with the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone the circuit is as shown below.= 5 mA and i L1n = A 1 e 3 KΩ = Ae + Thus. i L2f = ------------.43 . we get − i L1 ( 0 ) = 5 + A 1 e mA or A 1 = – 5 . – 3 × 10 ( 2 – 2 ) 6 = i L1 t=2 s = 5 = – 10 + A 2 e mA or A 2 = 15 and 6 i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) mA (2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. i L1 ( t ) = 5 + A 1 e 0 – 3 × 10 t 6 mA and using the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 0 .= – 10 mA and i L2n = A 2 e = Be 3 KΩ Thus. 3 KΩ + 30 V 1 mH − iL ( t ) 6 –( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 2 ) – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 30 Then. i L1 ( t ) = 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 (1) Next. i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + A 2 e above as i L1 i L2 t=2 s t=2 s – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 6 × 10 t 6 6 mA and the initial condition at t = 2 is found from (1) = 5 – 5e ≈ 5 mA . Therefore. Therefore. 3 KΩ + − 15 V i L1 ( t ) 1 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – 3 × 10 t 6 15 Then.

i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 16 ⁄ 8 + A 1 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 2 + Ae 0 – 8000t and at t = 0 iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = 0 = 2 + A1 e − or A 1 = – 2 and thus for 0 < t < 0. a. For this circuit v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. the total current when both voltage sources are present is the summation of (1) and (2).3 ) ] and since we are not told otherwise.3 ) ] Then. that is. For t > 0.3 ) = A2 e – 8000 ( t – 0.3 ms . that is.3 ms the circuit is as shown below. with (1) above we get 3Ω × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH vS ( t ) = 0 iL ( t ) 8Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) × 10-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For 0 < t < 0. For this circuit iL ( t ) = A2 e – ( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 0.3 ms the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below.3 ) ] vS ( t ) − 1 mH iL ( t ) v TH ( t ) v TH ( t ) = 16 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. we will assume that i L ( 0 ) = 0 .3 ms iL ( t ) = 2 –2 e – 8000t (1) b.3 ) (2) and A 2 is found from the initial condition at t = 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Therefore. 3Ω − × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH 8Ω + − iL ( t ) + × v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) = 5 – 5e = – 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 – 3 × 10 t 6 6 – 10 + 15e mA – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 6 mA + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 3.

iL ( A ) 1.Answers to Exercises iL t = 0.× 20 = 40 ⁄ 3 V 4+8 and 8×4 R TH = ----------.3 4.45 .3 × 10 3 –3 = 2 – 2e 2.3 ms i L ( t ) = 1.82 A and by substitution into (2) above iL t = 0.82 .82 t ( ms ) 0. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 20 ⁄ ( 4 + 6 ) = 2 A and thus the initial condition has been established.3 ms = 2 – 2e – 8 × 10 × 0.3 – 0.82 = A 2 e – 8000 ( 0.82e – ( t – 0. 4Ω 6Ω − − vS + − 20 V iL ( 0 ) − For t > 0 the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below where 8 v TH = ----------.3 ) or A 2 = 1. Therefore for t > 0.4 = 1.3 ms ) The waveform for the inductor current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is shown below.+ 6 = 26 ⁄ 3 Ω 8+4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.3 ms = 1.

67t – 8.e 13 13 Next.46e (1) i L ( t ) = ----.46e – 8.46e = 9.67t 20 6.( 1.+ ----.46e ) dt – 8.67t – 8.54 + 0.67t ) + 1 × ---.76e = 9.e. to find i SW ( t ) we observe that this current flows also through the 8 Ω resistor and this can be found from v 8 Ω shown on the circuit below.24 – 1. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 2 = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 6 ⁄ 13 and thus for t > 0 – 8.67t and 10-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .24 + 2.54 + 0.67t d – 8.23e – 8. di L v 8 Ω = v 6 Ω + v L ( t ) = 6i L ( t ) + L -----dt = 6 ( 1.67 × 0. 4Ω vS i SW ( t ) + − 20 V 8Ω 6Ω + − v8 Ω 1H iL ( t ) Now. – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 26 ⁄ 3 )t -----------i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 40 ⁄ 3 + Ae = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae 26 ⁄ 3 and A is evaluated from the initial condition.54 + 0.–( 26 ⁄ 3 )t = 1.. i.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 4Ω vS Closed Switch 6Ω R TH 26 ⁄ 3 Ω v TH + − 20 V 8Ω + − iL ( t ) 40 ⁄ 3 V 1H iL ( t ) 1H Then.

(1) and (2) above we have iL ( 0 ) = 2 + i L ( ∞ ) = 1.0 0.= ----------------------------------------.54 i SW ( 0 ) = 1.15e (2) 8 8 Therefore.01 1.5 1.01 + i SW ( ∞ ) = 1. − vS 38 Ω 2Ω + + − 24 V 20 V 50 µF + − 40 Ω vC ( t ) + − 4V 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Now.16 – 0.23e i SW ( t ) = i 8 Ω = --------.16 t 5.67t 9.24 – 1.Answers to Exercises – 8.15 = 1.16 – 0.= 1. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 24 V and thus the initial condition has been established.5 t − − i SW ( t ) A 1.47 . iL ( t ) A 2.16 and with these values we sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) as shown below. from the initial condition. vS 38 Ω 2Ω 50 µF + − 24 V + − vC ( t ) The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the current source has been replaced with a voltage source.67t v8 Ω – 8. v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 4 + Ae – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) t = 4 + Ae – 500t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.0 1.

10-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----dt R or v in dv C -------. v in v out ( t ) = – ⎛ ------. Then. Therefore.t + k RC where k is the constant of integration of both sides and it is evaluated from the given initial condition.+ C -------.= ------dt RC Integrating both sides and observing that v out ( t ) = – v C ( t ) we get v in v out ( t ) = – ------. For t > 0 the op amp circuit is as shown below.t ⎞ u 0 ( t ) ⎝ RC ⎠ and v in ⁄ RC is the slope as shown below.= 0 dt R and since v − = 0 v in dv C C -------. + − C + R v in ( t ) − v− v out ( t ) − + Application of KCL at the minus (−) input yields v − – v in dv C -----------------. vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = 0 = 0 + k − + or k = 0 .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 24 V = 4 + Ae from which A = 20 we get v C ( t ) = 4 + 20e – 500t − + 0 6.

125 KΩ + + − 50 V 1 µF − vC ( t ) For the circuit above v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 50 + Ae – t ⁄ ( RC ) = 50 + Ae – 8t and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 150 = 50 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 100 and thus for t > 0 v C ( t ) = 50 + 100e – 8t V To find v R3 ( t ) we will first find i C ( t ) from the circuit below where dv C –6 – 4 – 8t i C ( t ) = C -------.= 10 × ( – 8 × 10 e ) dt Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.49 . 175 KΩ − − + + − 150 V 1 µF − vC ( 0 ) − The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the voltage source v S1 is absent for all positive time and the 50 KΩ is shorted out by the closed switch. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 150 V and thus the initial condition has been established.Answers to Exercises slope = – v in ⁄ RC 7.

For this circuit we cannot short the dependent source and therefore we cannot find R eq by combining the resistances R 1 and R 2 in parallel combination in order to find the time constant τ = RC . that is. vC ( t ) V 150 100 50 t 0 – 80 0 v R3 ( t ) V t 8.9) of the previous chapter. we will derive the time constant from the differential equation of (9.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 25 KΩ 1 µF − 50 V 100 KΩ + vC ( t ) + + − v R3 ( t ) − – 4 – 8t – 8t Then.+ ----R1 R2 or 10-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v R3 ( t ) = ( 100 KΩ )i C = 10 ( – 8 × 10 e 5 ) = – 80e V The sketches below show v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) as they approach their final values. dv C v C -------.+ ------. Instead.= 0 dt RC From the given circuit shown below vC iC ( t ) C R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C v C – 10i C v C i C + ---------------------.

3125t and with the given initial condition v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = A = 5 V we get v C ( t ) = 5e – 0.3125 16 432 4 × 108 8 ⁄ 18 τ R eq C ⎛ 1 – 10 ⎞ ⋅ 1 ----⎝ 18 ⎠ and thus v C ( t ) = Ae − – 0.3125 × 5e – 0.+ ⎛ ----.C -------.3125t and the minus (−) sign indicates that the i C ( t ) direction is opposite to that shown.51 .+ ----.3125t Then.5625e – 0.⎞ v C – ----.= 135 = ----.= 30 ⁄ 216 = ----------------.3125t ) = – 1.= 1 = ---------------------------.⎞ ⋅ C ⎝ R1 ⎠ and from this differential equation we see that the coefficient of v C is 515 × 930 ⁄ 216 1 -----------------------------------.= 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.⎞ v = 0 -------⎝ R ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ R 1 ⋅ R 2 ⎠ C 1 or R1 + R2 ⎛ ----------------.⎞ ⎝ R1 ⋅ R2 ⎠ dv C -------.v C = 0 10 dt ⎛ 1 – ----.⎞ ⎛ C dv C⎞ + ⎛ ----------------.= 0 ⎝R ⎠ dt R 1 dt R2 1 or R1 + R2 10 ⎛ 1 – ----. using dv C i C = C -------dt we find that for t > 0 i C ( t ) = ( 1 ) ( – 0.+ ----------------------------.Answers to Exercises dv C 10 dv C 1 1 C -------.

Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits NOTES 10-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

and making plots. we see the toolbar on top of the command screen and the prompt EDU>>.2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. Simulink is a block diagram tool used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems such as controls. and communications. A. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB and Simulink are products of The MathWorks. To use the Editor/Debugger: 1. signal processing. MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems fast and efficiently. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. and MATLAB functions. A. and environmental applications. save it. we choose New and click on M-File. comment lines. This takes us to the Editor * EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-1 . This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command. Inc. In this appendix we will discuss MATLAB only. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. finding the roots of a polynomial. access to MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. electronics. These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions. From the File menu on the toolbar. aerospace. important terms. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts. telecommunications.

Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Window where we can type our code (list of statements) for a new file. for example.m. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it. The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information. that is. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. to get information on graphics. To get help with other MATLAB topics.m. Whenever we want to return to the command window.and lower-case letters. we should use the command clear. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. myfile01. If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive. We should also use a floppy disk to backup our files. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program. we use the clc command. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language. MATLAB then returns to the command window. 2.m or any other similar name. For example. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path. All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB.q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q. A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line. This command erases everything. it distinguishes between upper. We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter. variables and equations that we have already used. To execute a program. Important! MATLAB is case sensitive. or open a previously saved file. we click on the Close button. It is a good practice to save the code in a file name that is descriptive of our code content. if the code performs some matrix operations. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01. we type the file name without the . we type help matlab\graphics. it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. But if we want to clear all previous values. variables. In other words. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values. conv(p. and equations without exiting. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu. Henceforth. A-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. we type quit or exit. Once the code is written and saved as an m-file. For instance. For instance. Thus. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu. then. if we want to clear all previously entered commands. The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic.m extension at the >> prompt. % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them. 3.

However. that is.0000i In the above example. p1=[1 −10 35 −50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) p1 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) % Find the roots of p1(x) roots_p1 = 4. such as 3-4i or 3-4j. For example. or variable such as cos ( x ) . These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order.3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB. a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. Example A. We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1. or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number. We can use either i . a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form [ a n a n – 1 … a 2 a 1 a 0 ] . and the roots as roots_ p1.0000 3. we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number.0000 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-3 . the statement z=3−4j displays z = 3.0000-4. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order.Roots of Polynomials One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers. We must include terms whose coefficients are zero. A. we must use the multiplication sign. if the imaginary part is a function.

p2=[1 −7 0 16 25 52] p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_ p2 = 6. complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A∗ = a – jb A-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 ( x ) = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 2.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial.7428 -1. and the roots as a column vector. where we have defined the polynomial as p2.3366+ 1.1. The roots are found with the statements below.3366. Example A. with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots. The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots.3202i A. Of course. therefore. we must enter zero as its coefficient. from a given set of roots. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2. * By definition.3202i -0.0000 1.5014 2. and two complex roots.0000 We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector.5711 -0.

with the given roots. we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. say r4 . and 4 .Polynomial Construction from Known Roots Example A.0000. 4 + j5 and 4 – j5 . Compute the coefficients of this polynomial.1. – 3.0000 -3. with the given roots as elements of this vector. 2.5.4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1. Example A.0000+ 5.3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1. say r3 . Solution: We form a row vector. – 2. 3.0000i poly_r4=poly(r4) -2. Solution: We first define a row vector. then. r3=[1 2 3 4] % Specify the roots of the polynomial r3 = 1 poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 2 3 4 poly_r3=poly(r3) % Find the polynomial coefficients We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) of Example A.0000 Column 5 -4. Find the coefficients of this polynomial.0000i poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-5 .0000 -4. and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. r4=[ −1 −2 −3 −4+5j −4−5j ] r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1.

d) −divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and remainder r.x) function evaluates a polynomial p ( x ) at some specified value of the independent variable x. Solution: p5=[1 −3 0 5 −4 3 2].5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 ( x ) = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A.b) − multiplies two polynomials a and b [q.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p. Example A. polyder(p) − produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p. % These are the coefficients % The semicolon (. −3) % Evaluate p5 at x=−3. Example A. the polynomial is p 4 ( x ) = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 A.r]=deconv(c.) after the right bracket suppresses the display of the row vector % that contains the coefficients of p5. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a.6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and A-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . % val_minus3=polyval(p5.1) at x = – 3 .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore.

p2) % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p1p2 = 2 -6 -8 34 18 -24 -74 -88 78 166 174 108 Therefore. p4=[2 −8 0 0 4 10 12]. [q.r]=deconv(c.r]=deconv(p3.Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 ⋅ p 2 using the conv(a. p2=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12].b) function.5000 r = 0 4 -3 0 3 2 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-7 .d) function.p4) q = 0.7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 ⁄ p 4 using the [q. Solution: p1=[1 −3 0 5 7 9]. p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 2x 11 – 6x 5 10 – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 9 8 7 6 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A. p1p2=conv(p1. Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 −3 0 5 7 9].

Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display.7.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore. d dx 6 4 2 Solution: p5=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. A-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . der_p5=polyder(p5) % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5 = 12 Therefore.2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero. d----.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form. as + bn – 2 x + … + b1 x + b0 bn x + bn – 1 x Num ( x ) R ( x ) = ------------------. if we separate them by commas or semicolons. As noted in the comment line of Example A. q = 0. We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before.p 5 using the polyder(p) function.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 Den ( x ) + am – 2 x + … + a1 x + a0 am x + am – 1 x n n–1 n–2 (A.8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 Compute the derivative ----.5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 Example A.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx 0 -32 0 8 10 A. that is. we can write MATLAB statements in one line.

2108 + j0.0.0712i -0. that is.0712 ) ( x – 2.6760+0.9304 ) ( x + 0.2108 – j 0.4186 – j1. we have p den = ( x – 1.9870 ) ( x + 0.3370 + j0.0000 ) We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors.4186 + j1.9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R ( x ) = ----------. For the numerator.1. – ( x 1 + x 2 ) = b .= ------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form. we have the factored form p num = ( x – 2.1633 ) ( x + 0. roots_num=roots(num).9961i -1. Solution: num=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].3370.3370 – j0. We recall that.9961 ) and for the denominator.4922 ) ( x + 1.6760 – j0.9304 -1.9870 ) ( x + 1. while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c .6760 + j0. Accordingly. the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs.9870i 1.Rational Polynomials Example A. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term. x 1 ⋅ x 2 = c .3370+ 0. roots_den=roots(den) % Do not display num and den coefficients % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2. we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots and this is done by inspection. that is.4186+ 1.9961 ) ( x + 0.4922 ) ( x – 1. den=[1 0 −4 0 2 5 6]. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-9 .2108+0.0712i -0.4922i -0.2108-0.0000 2.4922i -0.6760-0.9870i -1.1633 As expected.4186.0712 ) ( x + 1.9961i roots_den = 1. using the roots(p) function. in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 .

we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this.0512 (−0. we use the following code: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2−4.6740x + 1.0186 ) ( x + 1.4186 −1. For the present. This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x. polynomial coefficients.4216x + 1.y) command that plots y versus x.4922i)*(1.6740*x+1. For our example. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs.0000 ) ( x + 1.0712i) ans = 6.6760+ 0. A.9870i)*(−0. Here.8372x + 6.0712i)*(2.0512 ) ( x + 0.3370+ 0.3370−0. Before using a symbolic expression.9304 ) We can check this result with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions. A-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9971)*(x^2+0.2108−0.0186 Thus.3520x + 3.1633 ) R ( x ) = ----------. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator.9961i)*(−0.4922i) ans = 3. our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form.8372*x+6. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual. that is. and so on.1058 ) ( x + 1.9971 ) ( x + 0.6760−0.9870i) ans = 1. We must remember that the conv(p. y.2108+ 0.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often.9971 (−0. 2 2 p num ( x – 4.4186 + 1. x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate).1058)*(x+1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® (2.9961i) ans = 1.q) function is used with numeric expressions only. t. we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form.1058 (1.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 p den ( x – 3.

432 38. so we will use the English letter w instead.182 40.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A.481 58.603 81.10 TABLE A.339 52.286 44. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line. Electric circuit for Example A.111 ω (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90. where the radian frequency ω (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second.056 1014.751 120.428 48. A R V L C Figure A.1. it can be continued to the next line by typCircuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-11 . If a statement.588 67.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A. Solution: We cannot type ω (omega) in the MATLAB command window. while the amplitude was held constant. The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency.717 46.589 71. |Z| versus radian frequency ω .437 222.1.665 140.032 187. that is.611 51.052 145.122 42.1.240 54.088 73. The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V ⁄ A and the data were tabulated on Table A.184 97.1 Table for Example A.353 103.83 266.513 62.10 ω (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39.182 436.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance.938 469.

111.665 140.104 97..513 62.182 40.182 436.240 54.830 266. This plot is shown in Figure A. we use the plot(x.2.2.052 145.z).. 48. we use plot(w.717 46. then pressing <enter> to start a new line.10 A-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .353 103. For this example.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® ing three or more periods. and continue to enter data. When this command is executed.468..056.y) command.. Also.611 51. if we want to see the values of w or z or both..286 44. This is illustrated below for the data of w and z. Plot of impedance z versus frequency ω for Example A. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000].. Of course.432 38.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen.603 81.437 222. MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen.588 67. we use the semicolon (.845]...789 71.938 469. To plot z (y-axis) versus w (x-axis)... % z=[39.. as mentioned before. The data are entered as follows: w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900. we simply type w or z.088 73.481 58.122 42.339 52.. and we press <enter>.032 187.751 120. 1014. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Figure A. 90.

the semilogy(x. The decibel unit is defined in Chapter 4. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot). we click on the Window pull-down menu. grid. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x. We must remember.y) command. We can use the semilogx(x. The command grid toggles them.and y-axis respectively. changes from off to on or vice versa. and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). % Replaces the plot(w. and the x-axis as a linear scale. xlabel('w in rads/sec'). Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w. we press any key.y) command that is similar to the plot(x. the x-axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale. The command box toggles them. or from the Window pull-down menu.y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes. Radian Frequency'). and the y-axis as a linear scale. ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands. To return to the command window. and we select Figure. however. If the y-axis represents power. The default is on. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-13 .z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This plot is referred to as the amplitude frequency response of the circuit. that is. We can make the above. voltage or current. The grid off command removes the grid.3. The amplitude frequency response is usually represented with the x-axis in a logarithmic scale. The default* is off. we select MATLAB Command Window. Likewise. except that the x-axis is represented as a log scale. and box on restores the box.y) command is similar to the plot(x. title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot.z). The loglog(x. To see the graph again.y) command. Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm. and the y-axis in dB (decibels). except that the y-axis is represented as a log scale. and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm. the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm. our plot is as shown in Figure A. whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x). * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot. or any plot.

The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window. and string is the label which we want to place at that location. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A.z) command with semilogx(w. using the mouse. and we replace the semilogx(w. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y-axis. and this will place a cross-hair in the Figure window. we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’). It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. The first line of the code below has the form linspace(first_value. and displays a cross-hair that can be moved around with the mouse. number_of_values) * With MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 we can add text. lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window. The command text(x. we can move the cross-hair to the position where we want our label to begin.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure A.dB). We will illustrate its use with the following example that plots a 3-phase sinusoidal waveform. Then. we add the relation dB=20*log10(v). A-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and we press <enter>.3.y.2. last_value.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’). For instance.

'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A. 0.65. Three-phase waveforms In our previous examples. 60).2 0 -0. 'sin(x)'). plot symbols. v=sin(x+4*pi/3). markers.4. 2*pi. text(2. % we could have used x=0:0.4. % The x-axis must be specified for each function % turn grid and axes box on text(0. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types. The code for the 3-phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0. text(4. 0.x.8 0.6 0. and colors for our plots.4 0.65.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points.4 -0.85. or a combination Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-15 .02: 2)*pi instead.8 -1 sin(x) sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A.y. These. However.65. grid on. 1 0.v). 0. box on.u. plot(x.02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0. we did not specify line styles. y=sin(x). % pi is a built-in function in MATLAB.6 -0.95. and colors. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)'). u=sin(x+2*pi/3). An alternate function is x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points.x.75.2 -0.

z2. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A.s1. where x. yn and zn are vectors or matrices. TABLE A. The default line is the solid line.2 Styles. Also.y. The plots we have discussed thus far are two-dimensional.y.) where xn. −− ∨ ∧ < > p h For example. The general format is plot3(x1.s) command.z) command plots a line in 3-space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x.'rs') plots a red square at each data point. The plot3(x. they are drawn on two axes. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line.z3.. colors.y3. plot(x. o x + * s d − : −.. and plot(x. there is no default marker. A-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .'rs−'). and sn are strings specifying color.2.y. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white Symbol Marker point circle x-mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash-dot line dashed line .y.s2.s3. y and z are three vectors of the same length. MATLAB has also a three-dimensional (three-axes) capability and this is discussed next. no markers are drawn unless they are selected.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® of these. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A.y2. These strings are the same as those of the two-dimensional plots. that is.2 for each additional line in the plot. marker symbol. but does not draw any line because no line was selected. y and z.z1.y..x3.x2. MATLAB has no default color. can be added with the plot(x. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen. we must type plot(x.y1. or line style.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.

3) Solution: We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the code below. y= x.y. we can set the limits of the x.5: 10.11 In a two-dimensional plot.8. 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A.*x.5. x= -10: 0. z= −2.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot. Likewise. in a three-dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes with * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication.^2−1. These operations will be explained in Section A.*y.^3+x+3. dot division. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-17 . grid % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three-dimensional plot is shown in Figure A. Three dimensional plot for Example A. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication.and y-axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.11 Plot the function z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A.5.z). division. plot3(x.

Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h. y ) .6.y.H]=meshgrid(0: 4. as in the previous example.8. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication.12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 V = -.^ 2 . say z = f ( x. This will be explained in Section A.z) commands. volume (cubic meters)'). V = f ( r.z. We can also use the mesh(x. For three-dimensional plots. The three-dimensional text(x. that is.Y]=meshgrid(x. mesh(R. H. This must be done for each plot. [R.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command.z) on the plot. Example A. radius r (meters)')./ 3. grid on and box off are the default states.* H) . It must be placed after the plot(x.4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 ≤ r ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ h ≤ 6 meters. and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y. We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z. dot division. n ] = size ( Z ) . shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased.y. box on The three-dimensional plot of Figure A. zlabel('z-axis. we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y.* R .z) command with two vector arguments.y) or plot3(x. To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables. We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X.’string’) command will place string beginning at the co-ordinate (x.y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x. j ) } . In this case. A-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . h ) The three-dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB code where. and dot exponentiation.y.πr h 3 (A. 0: 6). or on the same line without first executing the plot command. V) xlabel('x-axis. and y corresponds to the rows. % Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h V=(pi . title('Volume of Right Circular Cone'). ylabel('y-axis. the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples { x ( j ).y. altitude h (meters)'). Z ( i. y ( i ). These must be defined as length ( x ) = n and length ( y ) = m where [ m.

n and p.n.n. A. and the plot of Figure A. The MATLAB User’s manual contains more examples. We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m. This.7. 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 Default 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A.Subplots V olume of Right Circular Cone 120 z-axis.6. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-19 .7. The possible combinations are shown in Figure A.p). No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m. volume (cubic meters) 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 y-axis. This command divides the window into an m × n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active. are rudimentary. radius r (meters) Figure A.8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m. altitude h (meters) 0 x-axis.5. Volume of a right circular cone. division and exponentiation that follows.p) command following the discussion on multiplication. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated threedimensional plots.

MATLAB uses the single quotation character (′) to transpose a vector. division. division. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons.2. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials. consisted of one row and multiple columns. and exponentiation. 3. 3. Division and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. 6. a column vector can be written either as b=[−1. MATLAB produces the same display with either format as shown below. and the element-by-element multiplication. and then transpose it into a column vector. and exponentiation. is to write it first as a row vector. In Section A. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = [ a1 a2 a3 … an ] and B = [ b 1 b 2 b 3 … b n ]' A-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces. 6. and thus are called row vectors. 11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[−1 3 6 11]' b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element-by-Element multiplication.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A.9 Multiplication. To distinguish between row and column vectors. Thus. it is called a column vector. 11] or as b=[− 1 3 6 11]'. If an array has one column and multiple rows. and exponentiation. They are explained in the following paragraphs. 1. division. These are the matrix multiplication. the arrays [ a b c … ] . b=[−1. An easier way to construct a column vector.

Element-by-Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = [ c1 c2 c3 … cn ] and D = [ d1 d2 d3 … dn ] Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-21 . and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*). multiplication of the row vector A by the column vector B. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. Division and Exponentiation be two vectors. if A = [1 2 3 4 5] and B = [ – 2 6 – 3 8 7 ]' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. as indicated by the transpose operator (′). It recognizes that B is a row vector. We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. This operator is defined below. Accordingly. A*B When these statements are executed. not a row vector. is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*). Here. MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree. A=[1 2 3 4 5].5) For example. Then. B=[ −2 6 −3 8 7]'. that is. 2. A∗ B = 1 × ( – 2 ) + 2 × 6 + 3 × ( – 3 ) + 4 × 8 + 5 × 7 = 68 and this is verified with MATLAB as A=[1 2 A*B 3 4 5]. B=[−2 6 −3 8 7]. ans = 68 Now. A*B = [ a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + … + a n b n ] = sin gle value (A. and we attempt to perform a row-by-row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector. Here.Multiplication.

multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (. whereas dot division (.6) This product is another row vector with the same number of elements.∗ D = [ c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 … cn dn ] (A. Here. Note: A dot (. division. and exponentiation operators. We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators.*). Example A. D=[−2 6 −3 8 7].) and the multiplication./) and dot exponentiation (.13 Write the MATLAB code that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f ( t ) = 3e –4 t cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 2 (A. C. are used for matrix division and exponentiation. Solution: The MATLAB code for this example is as follows: A-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® be two row vectors.∗ D = 1 × ( – 2 ) 2 × 6 3 × ( – 3 ) 4 × 8 5 × 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5].) is never required with the plus (+) and minus (−) operators. There is no space between the dot and the multiplication symbol. C.7) in the 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 seconds interval.^) are used for element-by-element division and exponentiation. C. as the elements of C and D. As an example. let C = [1 2 3 4 5] and D = [ –2 6 –3 8 7 ] Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result. Thus.*D % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication ans = -2 12 -9 32 35 Similarly.

5 5 Figure A.2 × 10 – 16 .^2 . which is a number approximately equal to 2.Multiplication.01: 5 % Define t-axis in 0.13') Figure A. ymin and ymax. is divided by zero when t = – 1 ./ (t+1).5 t 3 3. the eps number.5 2 2. and exponentiation.* cos(5 .8 shows the plot for this example.* sin(2 .8. This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot. To avoid division by zero. xmax.14 Plot the functions Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-23 .13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0. defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 . the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.5 1 1. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin.y). Plot for Example A.* t) + t . ylabel('y=f(t)').13 Had we.* t) . MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero. say as – 3 ≤ t ≤ 3 . Plot for E xample A.* exp(−4 . Example A.* exp(−3 . The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication. we use the special MATLAB function eps. plot(t. xlabel('t'). title('Plot for Example A. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression.5 4 4. It will be used with the next example. in this example.* t) . division. and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots. grid. There are no commas between these four arguments.* t)−2 .01 increments y=3 . Division and Exponentiation t=0: 0.

z). subplot(222).2 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 400 2 4 6 w=(sinx)2 *(cosx)2 v=(sinx)2/(cosx)2 0.1 0.25 0. Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph.4 0. z=(cos(x).% upper left of four subplots plot(x. subplot(223). 1 y=(sinx)2 1 z=(cosx)2 0. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).9. % add eps to avoid division by zero subplot(221).2 0. w = sin 2x ⋅ cos 2x. axis([0 2*pi 0 0. v=y. % Interval with 100 data points y=(sin(x). title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2'). % upper right of four subplots plot(x.100). axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). % lower right of four subplots plot(x.w).3]).^ 2).8 0.v).6 0. v = sin 2x ⁄ cos 2x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π using 100 data points.y). title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2').2 300 0. z = cos 2x.05 100 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 2 4 6 Figure A./ (z+eps).Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® y = sin 2x.15 200 0. w=y. % lower left of four subplots plot(x. Solution: The MATLAB code to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0. title('z=(cosx)^2').* z.2*pi. title('y=(sinx)^2'). axis([0 2*pi 0 400]).8 0.9. These subplots are shown in Figure A.6 0.4 0. subplot(224).^ 2).14 A-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Subplots for the functions of Example A.

* 10 .^5. Example A./ (10 + j .real_part).^ 6 . the abs(z). and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b).* w −10. denoted as z.1 H 10 µF With the given values of resistance. % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z).1ω – 10 ⁄ ω ) a.10. We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy. ylabel('Real part of Z').* (0.10. 4 6 (A. c. grid.15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A.Multiplication. for simplicity.8) b. Division and Exponentiation The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers./ (w+eps)) . Plot Re { Z } (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω.15 10 Ω 0. Electric circuit for Example A. Plot the impedance Z versus frequency ω in polar coordinates. % Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-25 . inductance.r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates./ (w+eps)))). We will also use the polar(theta. theta is the angle in radians. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer. Plot Im { Z } (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω. Solution: The MATLAB code below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab that is. plot(w.1 . and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r∠θ. and capacitance. w=0: 1: 2000. It also produces a polar plot (part c). where r is the magnitude. xlabel('radian frequency w'). the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency ω can be computed from the following expression: 10 – j ( 10 ⁄ ω ) Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j ( 0. % Define interval with one radian interval z=(10+(10 . a 10 Ω Z ab b Figure A.^ 4 −j .

a script file is one which was generated and saved as an m-file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/ Debugger. grid. % The last six statements (next six lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z).12. A. xlabel('radian frequency w'). % Angle is the first argument grid. accurate. % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z polar(theta.11. Generally. A script file consists of two or more built-in functions such as those we have discussed thus far. % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier theta=angle(z).rndz).15 clearly illustrates how powerful. ylabel('Imaginary part of Z'). and flexible MATLAB is.11. Thus. Example A. The real. make up a script file. and polar plots are shown in Figures A.m extension. imaginary. ylabel('Polar Plot of Z'). Both types are referred to as m-files since both require the . plot(w. A. % Computes |Z| rndz=round(abs(z)). fast.10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files.13 respectively. the code for each of the examples we discussed earlier.imag_part). 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A.15 A-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z). and A.

12. Polar plot of the impedance in Example A.15 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-27 .13.15 90 120 1015 812 60 609 150 406 30 Polar Plot of Z 203 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A.Script and Function Files 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A.

the equal sign ( = ). the function file consisting of the two lines below function y = myfunction(x) y=x. Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only. The first line of a function file must contain the word function. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number.x2) to find both minimum and maximum values of a function. The string fcn must be the name of an m-file function or a string with variable x . such as those in Examples A. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 ⁄ 0 .m. and returns that value. Note: MATLAB does not have a function to maximize a function of one variable.2.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction. we will use the following MATLAB functions.x1. It attempts to return a value of x where f ( x ) is minimum in the interval x 1 < x < x 2 . maxima and minima of the function 1 1 f ( x ) = --------------------------------------.x1.x2) function in MATLAB. and the input argument enclosed in parentheses. The string f contains the name of the function to be minimized. For example. fzero(f.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A function file is a user-defined function using MATLAB. we can use fmin(f.x2) minimizes a function of one variable. fmin(f. Note: NaN (Not-a-Number) is not a function.^ 3 + cos(3. that is. or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph. or returns NaN if the search fails. but the file name must have the extension .– 10 2 2 ( x – 0. The function name and file name must be the same.16 Find the zeros.x) tries to find a zero of a function of one variable. MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign. followed by the output argument. Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y-axis limits.m For the next example. there is no fmax(f.2 ) + 0. that we mentioned earlier. ∞ ⁄ ∞ . A-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . maxima.1 ) + 0. but since a maximum of f ( x ) is equal to a minimum of – f ( x ) .04 Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros. fplot(fcn.1 and A.lims) plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x-axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax].+ --------------------------------------.01 ( x – 1.x1. We use function files for repetitive tasks. Example A. where f is a string containing the name of a real-valued function of a single real variable. and minima using the following code.

100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1. approximately.01)−1/((x−1.^ 2 + 0. plot(x./ ((x−0.5 Figure A.y). grid The plot is shown in Figure A.01) −1. Next.5.14. Plot for Example A.1).Script and Function Files x=−1.5: 0. approximately. and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1. grid This plot is shown in Figure A. y min = – 34 .^ 2 + 0.y) command. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A.14 that was obtained with the plot(x.01: 1.04) −10.5 -1 -0.2).m function m-file with the following code: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x−0. Now. we define and save f(x) as the funczero01. y max = 90 . y=1. fplot('funczero01'.5 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-29 . [−1.1 where. As expected.2 where.2 and x = 0.lims) command to plot f ( x ) as follows.5 0 0./ ((x−1.1)^2+0.14.3 .5]).2)^2+0. The maximum occurs at approximately x = 0. we can use the fplot(fcn.15.16 using the plot command The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0.04)-10.5 1 1.

2012 * Local maxima or local minima. the maxima and minima are considered be to the maximum and minimum values in the entire range in which the function is defined.5 1 1. -0. therefore. x1= fzero('funczero01'. The minimum of f(x) is found with the fmin(f.5 .5 ≤ x ≤ 1.15. we must remember that this function searches for a minimum and it may display the values of local minima* .4f \n'. When the entire range is considered.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1. fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3.5 Figure A. we specify the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Plot for Example A. A-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .y) or the fplot(fcn.x2) function as follows. 0.1919 and r2= 0. x2= fzero('funczero01'. The code below must be saved with a file name. For this example. 0.4f'.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f.5 rather than the interval – 1.5 0 0. x2) MATLAB displays the following: The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0. It is. if any. 1. are the maximum or minimum values of a function within a restricted range of values in the independent variable. before displaying the function minimum.x2) function.3788 Whenever we use the fmin(f.2).5 -1 -0.20) more precisely.x1.x1. and then invoked with that file name.lims) command to find the smallest possible interval within which the function minimum lies.3). fprintf(' and r2= %3. x1). min_val=fmin('funczero01'. advisable to plot the function with either the plot(x.x) function to compute the roots of f ( x ) in (A.5) min_val = 1.

Of course.04) −10 y = 89.11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number. max_val=fmin('minusfunczero01'.2) ^ 2 + 0.2000 A.01)−1/((x−1.0999.0999 x=0. Now. The output format can changed with the format command.04) −10 y = -34. MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places.1) ^ 2 + 0. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT Default.1) ^ 2 + 0. we must first define a new function m-file that will produce – f ( x ) . The available formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format.1)^2+0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-31 . or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number.1) max_val = 0.1812 To find the maximum value. x=1. that is.01) −1 / ((x−1.01) −1 / ((x−1.2) ^ 2 + 0.% Using this value find the corresponding value of y y=1 / ((x−0. Same as SHORT. this is equivalent to the negative of the funczero01 function. we substitute it into f ( x ) .2012. We define it as follows: function y=minusfunczero01(x) % It is used to find maximum value from -f(x) y=−(1/((x−0. To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision.04)−10). We have placed the minus (−) sign in front of the right side of the last expression above. we execute the following code to get the value of x where the maximum y = f ( x ) occurs. so that the maximum value will be displayed. y=1 / ((x−0.2)^2+0.Display Formats This is the value of x at which y = f ( x ) is minimum. The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations. 0.

33333333333334 16 digits format short e 3.and blank are printed for positive. FORMAT LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits. FORMAT SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits. The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name. . With this command only the real part of each parameter is processed. FORMAT RAT Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. Imaginary parts are ignored. the text is displayed. Thus. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed. format short 33. negative and zero elements. FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents.333 Better of format short or format short e format bank 33.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® FORMAT SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits. FORMAT HEX Hexadecimal format. and if %e is used. FORMAT SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits. FORMAT + The symbols +. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format.3335 Four decimal digits (default) format long 33. FORMAT LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits. if %f is used.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent format short g 33. FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in.33 two decimal digits format + only + or − or zero are printed format rat 100/3 rational approximation Approximation by ratio of small integers. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format. A-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .array) command displays and prints both text and arrays. The fprintf(format. FORMAT LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. If X is a string. Some examples with different format displays age given below.

that is. The j operator Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-1 . and j = 1 . its value becomes j ( – A ) = – j A . if it is given that a vector A has the direction along the right side of the x-axis as shown in Figure B. j is an operator that produces a 90-degree counterclockwise rotation to any vector to which it is applied as a multiplying factor. In this case. Applications using Euler’s identities are presented. i = – 1 . A fourth 90 ° rotation returns the vector to its original position. Essentially. the vector A has rotated 180 ° and its new value now is – A . the square root of minus one is denoted as i . but it has been rotated counterclockwise by 90 ° . multiplication of this vector by the operator j will result in a new vector jA whose magnitude remains the same. jA j ( j A ) = j2 A = –A y 2 3 4 A x 2 j ( –j A ) = –j A = A j ( –A ) = j 3 A = –j A Figure B.1. In the electrical engineering field. The basic operations are defined and illustrated by several examples.1. and the exponential and polar forms are discussed and illustrated with examples. we conclude that j = – 1 . B. Therefore.1 Definition of a Complex Number In the language of mathematics.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers T his appendix is a review of the algebra of complex numbers. When this vector is rotated by another 90 ° for a total of 270 ° . Thus. we denote i as j to avoid confusion with current i . and thus its value is again A . another multiplication of the new vector jA by j will produce another 90 ° counterclockwise direction. Also. j = – j .

Find A + B and A – B Solution: A + B = (3 + j4) + (4 – j2) = (3 + 4) + j(4 – 2) = 7 + j2 and A – B = (3 + j4) – (4 – j2) = (3 – 4) + j(4 + 2) = – 1 + j6 * We may think the real axis as the cosine axis and the imaginary axis as the sine axis. a = Re { A } and b = Im { A } where Re { A } denotes real part of A. Thus. Thus. and an imaginary component equal to the sum of the imaginary components. For subtraction. For example. r is a real number and jr is an imaginary number. B-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we will designate the x-axis (abscissa) as the real axis.* An imaginary number is the product of a real number. two complex numbers A and B where A = a + jb and B = c + jd .1 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Note: In our subsequent discussion. B. and also their imaginary parts are equal. are equal if and only if their real parts are equal. A complex number is the sum (or difference) of a real number and an imaginary number. In other words. Then. the number A = a + jb where a and b are both real numbers. By definition. and B = 4 – j 2 . Thus. we change the signs of the components of the subtrahend and we perform addition. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A + B = (a + c) + j(b + d) and A – B = (a – c) + j(b – d) Example B.2 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers The sum of two complex numbers has a real component equal to the sum of the real components. is a complex number. and the yaxis (ordinate) as the imaginary axis with the understanding that the “imaginary” axis is just as “real” as the real axis. by the operator j . say r . A = B if and only if a = c and b = d . and b = Im { A } the imaginary part of A. the imaginary axis is just as important as the real axis.

1) The conjugate of a complex number. Find A ⋅ A∗ Solution: A ⋅ A∗ = ( 3 + j 5 ) ( 3 – j 5 ) = 3 + 5 = 9 + 25 = 34 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-3 .4 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . A∗ = 3 – j 5 If a complex number A is multiplied by its conjugate. it follows that A ⋅ B = ac + jad + jbc – b d = ( ac – bd ) + j ( ad + bc ) Example B. Then. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A ⋅ B = ( a + jb ) ⋅ ( c + jd ) = ac + jad + jbc + j 2 bd and since j 2 = – 1 .3 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . Thus. denoted as A∗ .2 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 and B = 4 – j 2 . then A ⋅ A∗ = ( a + jb ) ( a – jb ) = a 2 – jab + jab – j 2 b 2 = a + b 2 2 Example B. then A∗ = a – j b . and with an imaginary component of opposite sign. and making use of the fact that j 2 = – 1 . Example B.3 Multiplication of Complex Numbers Complex numbers are multiplied using the rules of elementary algebra. but the imaginary component has opposite sign. if A = a + jb . is another complex number with the same real component. Find A ⋅ B Solution: A ⋅ B = ( 3 + j 4 ) ⋅ ( 4 – j 2 ) = 12 – j 6 + j 16 – j 2 8 = 20 + j 10 (B. the result is a real number. Find A∗ Solution: The conjugate of the complex number A has the same real component. Thus. Thus.Multiplication of Complex Numbers B. if A = a + jb .

( bc – ad ) ) = ---------------------.= -----------------------------------------------------2 2 B B∗ B c + jd ( c + jd ) ( c – jd ) c +d ( ac + bd . Using this procedure. Example B. This procedure is called rationalization of the quotient.= -------------------------------------.2).4) = C cos θ + j C sin θ (B. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd .2) In (B.4 Division of Complex Numbers When performing division of complex numbers. we see that the quotient is easily separated into a real and an imaginary part.5) B-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2). we get 73 + j4 (3 + j4)(4 – j3) 24 + j 7 A = ------------. A B∗ a + jb ( a + jb ) ( c – jd ) ( ac + bd ) + j ( bc – ad ) A -. and it is done by multiplying the denominator by its conjugate. Find A ⁄ B Solution: Using the procedure of (B. and B = 4 + j 3 . it is desirable to obtain the quotient separated into a real part and an imaginary part. Thus. then.-----------------------------------------------2 2 25 B 25 25 4 + j3 (4 + j3)(4 – j3) 4 +3 B.5 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers The relations e and e are known as the Euler’s identities.96 + j 0.28 .⋅ ----.= 0.3) by the real positive constant C we get: Ce jθ – jθ jθ = cos θ + j sin θ (B.5 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers B.= -.= 24 + j ----. Multiplying (B. we multiplied both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator to eliminate the j operator from the denominator of the quotient.= 12 – j 9 + j 16 + 12 = ---------------.3) = cos θ – j sin θ (B.= ------------------------------------.+ j ---------------------2 2 2 2 c +d c +d (B.= ------------.

from (B. that is. Ce jθ = C ∠θ (B. we use the expressions Ce Ce jθ – jθ = C cos θ + j C sin θ = C cos θ – j C sin θ (B.12) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-5 .5) and (B.11) The polar form is essentially the same as the exponential form but the notation is different. we get a = C cos θ and b = C sin θ Squaring and adding the expressions in (B.6).8) Also.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers This expression represents a complex number.= --------------.7) = a +b 2 2 or C = a +b 2 2 (B. C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (B.⎞ ⎝a⎠ (B. we use the expression 2 2 a + jb = a +b e j ⎛ tan ⎝ –1 b⎞ -a⎠ (B. we get a + b = ( C cos θ ) + ( C sin θ ) = C ( cos θ + sin θ ) = C Then.7) b C sin θ -. and the right side is the rectangular form.6) is the exponential form.= tan θ C cos θ a or –1 b θ = tan ⎛ -.9) To convert a complex number from rectangular to exponential form.7). say a + jb .6) where the left side of (B. Equating real and imaginary parts in (B. and thus Ce jθ = a + jb (B.10) To convert a complex number from exponential to rectangular form.

1° 3 Re Figure B. disp(thetax) 5 53.6 Convert the following complex numbers to exponential and polar forms: a. and rotates in the counterclockwise direction. thetax=angle(x)*180/pi. The components of 3 + j 4 Then. 3 + j 4 b. Example B. 4 Im 5 53. – 2 – j d. 3 + j4 = –1 j ⎛ tan 4 ⎞ -.1 ° = 5 ∠53. Then. disp(magx).2. – 1 + j2 = 2 j ⎛ tan ----.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers where the left side of (B. – 1 + j 2 c.⎠ ⎝ 3 = 5e j53. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. magx=abs(x). The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.1301 b.12) is the exponential form.⎞ ⎝ –1 ⎠ = 1 +2 e 2 2 –1 5e j116.6 ° = 5 ∠116.3.1° 3 +4 e 2 2 Check with MATLAB: x=3+j*4. and the right side is the polar form. We must remember that the phase angle θ is always measured with respect to the positive real axis.6° B-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2. 4 – j 3 Solution: a.

Then. thetav=angle(v)*180/pi. disp(thetav) 2.6° 5 Re −153. disp(magy).4 )° = 5 ∠– 153.4°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B. The components of – 1 + j 2 Check with MATLAB: y=−1+j*2. disp(magv).4 ° Check with MATLAB: v=−2−j*1. The components of – 2 – j Then.2361 -153.5.6° = 5 ∠206.1° = 5e –j36.3. disp(thetay) 2. magy=abs(y).4.6° −2 26. thetay=angle(y)*180/pi.4° −1 116. magv=abs(v).2361 116.9 ° = 5 ∠– 36. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.5651 c.9 ° 4 +3 e ⎝ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-7 . 4 –j 3 = –1 j ⎛tan – 3⎞ ----.4. Im 206.6° = 5e j ( – 153.⎠ 2 2 4 = 5e j323. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.1 ° = 5 ∠323.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers Im 5 63.4349 d.6° Re 2 Figure B. –2 –j 1 = –1 j ⎛ tan – 1 ⎞ ----⎝ –2 ⎠ 2 2 2 +1 e = 5e j206.

thetaw=angle(w)*180/pi. 2 ∠– 150 ° = 2e – j 150 ° = 2 ( cos 150° – j sin 150° ) = 2 ( – 0. magw=abs(w). however. Since each j rotates a vector by 90 ° counterclockwise. Therefore.9° −3 5 4 Re Figure B. we multiply the magnitudes and we add the phase angles. disp(magw).6. that is.1° −36. disp(thetaw) 5 -36.73 – j Note: The rectangular form is most useful when we add or subtract complex numbers. Solution: We recall that – 1 = j 2 .7 Express the complex number – 2 ∠30° in exponential and in rectangular forms. The components of 2 ∠– 150° Then.5.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Im 323. To multiply two complex numbers in exponential (or polar) form. the exponential and polar forms are most convenient when we multiply or divide complex numbers.73 30° 2 Re −150°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B. then – 2 ∠30° is the same as 2 ∠30° rotated counterclockwise by 180 ° .866 – j0. The components of 4 – j 3 Check with MATLAB: w=4−j*3. – 2 ∠30° = 2 ∠( 30° + 180° ) = 2 ∠210° = 2 ∠– 150° The components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.8699 Example B. if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ B-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Im 210° −1.6.5 ) = – 1.

= ----------------------.1° j36.9° B 5e j53.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.= ---. if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ then.e N N jφ B Ne jθ (B.14) Example B.9° j90° 10 e A -.∠( θ – φ ) = -----------.= 2e e = 2e – j36.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers then.= --.9° Division in exponential form yields j53. and we subtract the phase angle of the divisor from the phase angle of the dividend.8 Multiply A = 10 ∠53.= 2 ∠[ 53.9 Divide A = 10 ∠53.1° Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-9 .1° – ( – 36. we divide the magnitude of the dividend by the magnitude of the divisor.9° Solution: Division in polar form yields A 10 ∠53.= -------------------.2° and multiplication in exponential form yields AB = ( 10 e j53.1° -. that is.13) Example B.2° To divide one complex number by another when both are expressed in exponential or polar form.9° ) ] = 2 ∠90° B 5 ∠– 36.1° ) ( 5e – j 36.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.9° ) ] = 50 ∠16.9° Solution: Multiplication in polar form yields AB = ( 10 × 5 ) ∠[ 53.9° ) = 50 e j ( 53. AB = MN ∠( θ + φ ) = M e jθ Ne jφ = MN e j(θ + φ) (B.1° – 36. M j(θ – φ ) M Me A -.1° + ( – 36.9° ) = 50 e j16.

Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers NOTES B-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

a 43 indicates the element positioned in the fourth row and third column. Some definitions and examples are not applicable to subsequent material presented in this text. …. and reference to more advance topics in matrix theory. Cramer’s rule. 2 3 7 1 –1 5 1 3 1 –2 1 –5 4 –7 6 or In general form. Thus. a matrix A is denoted as a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a 31 a 32 a 33 … a 3 n … … … … … a m 1 a m 2 a m 3 … a mn (C. a 22. Determinants. A matrix of m rows and n columns is said to be of m × n order matrix. C. we say that the matrix elements a 11. and Gauss’s elimination method are reviewed. the matrix is said to be a square matrix of order m (or n).1 Matrix Definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers such as those shown below.1) The numbers a ij are the elements of the matrix where the index i indicates the row. the elements a 11. …. if a matrix has five rows and five columns. Alternately. In a square matrix. it is said to be a square matrix of order 5. are located on the main diagonal. These are denoted with a dagger (†) and may be skipped. Thus. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-1 . If m = n . a 22.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants T his chapter is an introduction to matrices and matrix operations. and j indicates the column in which each element is positioned. but are included for subject continuity. a nn are called the main diagonal elements. a nn . a 33. a 33.

…. A = B . is called a zero matrix. −1 2 5]. that is. …. all paragraphs and topics preceded by a dagger ( † ) may be skipped. 3 . † A matrix in which every element is zero. C. m j = 1. A+B * Henceforth. C-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 3. 2 . 0 1 4]. where each element of C is the sum (difference) of the corresponding elements of A and B .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants † The sum of the diagonal elements of a square matrix A is called the trace* of A . These are discussed in matrix theory textbooks.2 Matrix Operations Two matrices A = a ij and B = b ij are equal. that is. their sum (difference) will be another matrix C with the same order as A and B . B=[2 3 0.1 Compute A + B and A – B given that A = 1 2 3 and B = 2 3 0 0 1 4 –1 2 5 Solution: A+B = 1+2 0–1 2+3 1+2 3+0 = 3 5 4+5 –1 3 3 9 and A–B = 1–2 0+1 2 – 3 3 – 0 = –1 –1 3 1–2 4–5 1 –1 –1 % Define matrices A and B % Add A and B Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. if and only if a ij = b ij i = 1 . n (C. 2. C = A ± B = [ a ij ± b ij ] (C.2) Two matrices are said to be conformable for addition (subtraction). If A = a ij and B = b ij are conformable for addition (subtraction). if they are of the same order m × n.3) Example C.

A=[1 −2. k2=(−3 + 2*j). k1*A % Define scalars k1 and k2 % Define matrix A % Multiply matrix A by constant k1 ans = 5 -10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-3 . then multiplication of a matrix A by the scalar k is the multiplication of every element of A by k . k 2 = – 3 + j2 Solution: a. and not [k] which is a 1 × 1 matrix. k 2 ⋅ A = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 – 2 = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 ( – 3 + j2 ) × ( – 2 ) = – 3 + j2 2 3 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 2 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 3 – 6 + j4 6 – j4 – 9 + j6 Check with MATLAB: k1=5. k 1 = 5 b.2 Multiply the matrix A = 1 –2 2 3 by a. 2 3]. Example C.Matrix Operations ans = 3 -1 A−B 5 3 3 9 % Subtract B from A ans = -1 1 -1 -1 3 -1 If k is any scalar (a positive or negative number). k 1 ⋅ A = 5 × 1 – 2 = 5 × 1 5 × ( – 2 ) = 5 – 10 2 3 5×2 5×3 10 15 b.

3 Matrices C and D are defined as 1 C = 2 3 4 and D = – 1 2 Compute the products C ⋅ D and D ⋅ C C-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The product A ⋅ B will then be an m × n matrix. That is. B and A are not conformable for multiplication B p×n A m×p For matrix multiplication.0000+ 2.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 10 k2*A 15 %Multiply matrix A by constant k2 ans = -3. the product A ⋅ B (but not B ⋅ A ) is conformable for multiplication only if A is an m × p matrix and matrix B is an p × n matrix. only when the number of columns of matrix A is equal to the number of rows of matrix B .0000i -6.0000. A convenient way to determine if two matrices are conformable for multiplication is to write the dimensions of the two matrices sideby-side as shown below. the operation is row by column.0000+ 4.4. Example C. Thus.0000+ 6. then. to obtain the product A ⋅ B .0000i 6. we add these products.0000i Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for multiplication A ⋅ B in that order.0000i -9. Shows that A and B are conformable for multiplication A m×p B p×n Indicates the dimension of the product A ⋅ B For the product B ⋅ A we have: Here. we multiply each element of a row of A by the corresponding element of a column of B .

when we discuss the inverse of a matrix. an equivalent operation exists. However. is not defined. not all elements above the diagonal need to be non-zero. the product D ⋅ C is also feasible. 2]. D=[1. −1.Special Forms of Matrices Solution: The dimensions of matrices C and D are respectively 1 × 3 3 × 1 . that is. and will result in a 1 × 1 . C. Multiplication of these will produce a 3 × 3 matrix as follows: 1 (1) ⋅ (2) (1) ⋅ (3) (1) ⋅ (4) 2 3 4 D ⋅ C = –1 2 3 4 = ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 3 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 4 ) = –2 –3 –4 2 (2) ⋅ (2) (2) ⋅ (3) (2) ⋅ (4) 4 6 8 Check with MATLAB: C=[2 3 4].3 Special Forms of Matrices † A square matrix is said to be upper triangular when all the elements below the diagonal are zero. and it will become apparent later in this chapter. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-5 . In an upper triangular matrix. therefore the product C ⋅ D is feasible. The matrix A of (C. C*D % Define matrices C and D % Multiply C by D ans = 7 D*C % Multiply D by C ans = 2 -2 4 3 -3 6 4 -4 8 Division of one matrix by another. 1 C ⋅ D = 2 3 4 –1 = ( 2 ) ⋅ ( 1 ) + ( 3 ) ⋅ ( –1 ) + ( 4 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) = 7 2 The dimensions for D and C are respectively 3 × 1 1 × 3 and therefore.4) is an upper triangular matrix.

a 11 B = … … am1 0 … … am 2 0 … 0 0 … 0 … 0 0 … … 0 a m 3 … a mn a 21 a 22 (C. when all the elements above the diagonal are zero. The matrix D of (C. The matrix C of (C.5) is a lower triangular matrix. not all elements below the diagonal need to be non-zero.6) is a diagonal matrix. and 4 × 4 identity matrices. except those in the diagonal.7) is a scalar matrix with k = 4. C-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . † A square matrix is said to be diagonal. a 11 0 C = 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 a 22 0 … 0 0 … 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 0 … a mn (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n 0 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n 0 0 … … … … … 0 … … 0 0 0 … a mn A = (C. if a 11 = a 22 = a 33 = … = a nn = k where k is a scalar. 3 × 3 .4) † A square matrix is said to be lower triangular. Shown below are 2 × 2 . The matrix B of (C. is called an identity matrix I . 4 D = 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 (C.7) A scalar matrix with k = 1 . if all elements are zero.5) In a lower triangular matrix.6) † A diagonal matrix is called a scalar matrix.

produces an identity matrix whose size is the same as matrix A . the eye(size(A)) function. eye(4) % Display a 4 by 4 identity matrix ans = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Likewise.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-7 . −2 1 −5.8) The MATLAB eye(n) function displays an n × n identity matrix. eye(size(A)) 3 1 -7 1 -5 6 displays ans = 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 † The transpose of a matrix A . let matrix A be defined as A=[1 3 1. is the matrix that is obtained when the rows and columns of matrix A are interchanged. For example.Special Forms of Matrices 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 (C. if 1 1 2 3 then A T = 2 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 A= (C. 4 −7 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 -2 4 then. For example. For example. denoted as A T .

and it is denoted as A∗ An example is shown below. A=[1 2 3. is called the conjugate of A . An example of a symmetric matrix is shown below.0000i % Compute and display the conjugate of A conj_A = C-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the transpose of a matrix A is the same as A .0000+ 2. conj(A). Using MATLAB with the matrix A defined as above. conj(x). The first. 4 5 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 4 A' 2 5 3 6 % Display the transpose of A ans = 1 2 3 4 5 6 † A symmetric matrix A is a matrix such that A T = A . and the second. computes the conjugate of a matrix A . we get A = [1+2j j.0000i 3.0000 conj_A=conj(A) 0+ 1. 3 2−3j] % Define and display matrix A A = 1.10) † If a matrix A has complex numbers as elements. A = 1 + j2 3 j 2 – j3 A∗ = 1 – j 2 3 –j 2 + j3 MATLAB has two built-in functions which compute the complex conjugate of a number.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants In MATLAB we use the apostrophe (′) symbol to denote and obtain the transpose of a matrix.0000. the matrix obtained from A by replacing each element by its conjugate. for the above example. 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 3 –5 6 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 = A 3 –5 6 T (C.3. computes the complex conjugate of any complex number.0000i 2. that is. Thus.

0000. 1 A = 1+j 2 1–j 3 –j 2 1 T A = 1–j j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 1 T* A = 1–j –j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 –j = A 0 Therefore. C. matrix A above is Hermitian.0000 0. 0 2 –3 A = –2 0 –4 3 4 0 0 –2 A = 2 0 –3 –4 T 3 4 = –A 0 Therefore.11) then.0000i 3.2. j A = –1–j –2 1–j 3j j 2 j T A = 1–j j 0 2 –1–j 3j j –2 –j T* A = 1+j j 0 2 –1+j – 3j –j –2 –j = –A 0 Therefore.4 Determinants Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C.Determinants 1.1. For example.0000i † A square matrix A such that A T = – A is called skew-symmetric. matrix A above is skew-Hermitian. matrix A above is skew symmetric. For example. † A square matrix A such that A T∗ = – A is called skew−Hermitian. the determinant of A .0000i 2. denoted as detA . For example.0000+ 3. † A square matrix A such that A T∗ = A is called Hermitian. is defined as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-9 .

2 0].Appendix C Matrices and Determinants detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 …a nn + a 12 a 23 a 34 …a n 1 + a 13 a 24 a 35 …a n 2 + … – a n 1 …a 22 a 13 … – a n 2 …a 23 a 14 – a n 3 …a 24 a 15 – … The determinant of a square matrix of order n is referred to as determinant of order n.15) C-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 (C. that is. Solution: detA = 1 ⋅ 4 – 3 ⋅ 2 = 4 – 6 = – 2 detB = 2 ⋅ 0 – 2 ⋅ ( – 1 ) = 0 – ( – 2 ) = 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2. Let A be a determinant of order 2.12) (C.4 Matrices A and B are defined as A = 1 2 and B = 2 – 1 2 0 3 4 Compute detA and detB . B=[2 −1. detA = a 11 a 22 – a 21 a 12 (C. 3 4]. that is.13) Then. det(A) % Define matrices A and B % Compute the determinant of A ans = -2 det(B) % Compute the determinant of B ans = 2 Let A be a matrix of order 3. A = a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 (C.14) Example C.

a 11 a 12 a 13 a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32 − + This method works only with second and third order determinants. Example C. To evaluate higher order determinants.16) above. is to write the first two columns to the right of the 3 × 3 matrix. we obtain (C.16) A convenient method to evaluate the determinant of order 3. we must first compute the cofactors. 2 –3 –4 2 –3 detB = 1 0 – 2 1 – 2 0 –5 –6 2 –6 or detB = [ 2 × 0 × ( – 6 ) ] + [ ( – 3 ) × ( – 2 ) × 0 ] + [ ( – 4 ) × 1 × ( – 5 ) ] – [ 0 × 0 × ( – 4 ) ] – [ ( – 5 ) × ( – 2 ) × 2 ] – [ ( – 6 ) × 1 × ( – 3 ) ] = 20 – 38 = – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-11 .5 Compute detA and detB if matrices A and B are defined as 2 A = 1 2 3 5 0 1 1 0 2 –3 –4 0 –2 0 –5 –6 and B = 1 Solution: 2 detA = 1 2 3 5 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 or detA = ( 2 × 0 × 0 ) + ( 3 × 1 × 1 ) + ( 5 × 1 × 1 ) – ( 2 × 0 × 5 ) – ( 1 × 1 × 2 ) – ( 0 × 1 × 3 ) = 11 – 2 = 9 Likewise. and add the products formed by the diagonals from upper left to lower right.Determinants then. these will be defined shortly. detA is found from detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 + a 12 a 23 a 31 + a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 (C. then subtract the products formed by the diagonals from lower left to upper right as shown on the diagram of the next page. When this is done properly.

6 Matrix A is defined as a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 i+j M ij is called the cofactor of a ij and it is denoted as α ij . M 12 . C-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 0 −5 −6]. a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C. The signed minor ( – 1 ) Example C. 1 0 −2.det(B) % Define matrix B and compute detB ans = -18 C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Check with MATLAB: A=[2 3 5.5 Minors and Cofactors Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix of order n as shown below. 1 0 1. det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 9 B=[2 −3 −4.17) If we remove the elements of its ith row. (C. 2 1 0]. the remaining n – 1 square matrix is called the minor of A . M 13 and the cofactors α 11 . and it is denoted as M ij . α 12 and α 13 . and jth column.18) Compute the minors M 11 .

α 22. and α 33 are defined similarly. M 22 . Example C. M 31 .22) α 31 = ( – 1 ) 3+1 α 32 = ( – 1 ) 3+2 (C.24) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-13 .Minors and Cofactors Solution: M 11 = a 22 a 23 a 32 a 33 M 12 = a 21 a 23 a 31 a 33 M 11 = a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 and α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 M 11 = M 11 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 M 12 = – M 12 α 13 = M 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 M 13 The remaining minors M 21 . M 33 and cofactors α 21.21) α 22 = ( – 1 ) 2+2 α 23 = ( – 1 ) 2+3 (C. α 32. α 23. M 32 . M 23 .7 Compute the cofactors of matrix A defined as 1 2 –3 A = 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C.23) α 33 = ( – 1 ) 3+3 (C. –4 2 1 2 = –8 2 –4 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 2 2 = 10 –1 –6 2 –3 = 6 2 –6 1 2 = –4 –1 2 1 –3 = –8 2 2 (C.19) Solution: α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 – 4 2 = 20 2 –6 2 –4 = 0 –1 2 1 –3 = –9 –1 –6 2 – 3 = – 8. α 31.20) α 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 α 21 = ( – 1 ) 2+1 (C.

8 Matrix A is defined as A = 1 2 –3 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. Solution: detA = 1 – 4 2 – 2 2 2 – 3 2 – 4 = 1 × 20 – 2 × ( – 10 ) – 3 × 0 = 40 2 –6 –1 –6 –1 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 −3.25) Compute the determinant of A using the elements of the first row. −1 2 −6]. Let A be a square matrix of any size. the cofactors on the diagonals have the same sign as their minors.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants It is useful to remember that the signs of the cofactors follow the pattern + − − + + − − + + − + − − + + − − + + − + − + − + that is. a fourth-order determinant can first be expressed as the sum of the products of the elements of its first row by its cofactor as shown below. Example C. 2 −4 2.det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 40 We must use the above procedure to find the determinant of a matrix A of order 4 or higher. Thus. C-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the value of the determinant of A is the sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of any row or any column by its cofactor.

−1 1 0 −1. Then. Example C. we will multiply each element of the first column by its cofactor.Minors and Cofactors a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 41 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 = a 11 a 32 a 33 a 34 – a 21 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 32 a 33 a 34 (C.27) Solution: Using the above procedure.26) +a 31 a 22 a 23 a 24 – a 41 a 22 a 23 a 24 Determinants of order five or higher can be evaluated similarly. 1 0 –1 A=2 0 3 – 2 0 0 1 [a] –1 0 –3 –( –1 ) 0 3 –2 0 0 1 [b] –1 0 –3 +4 1 0 – 1 0 0 1 [c] –1 0 –3 –( –3 ) 1 0 –1 0 3 –2 [d] ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Next. [ b ] = – 3 . delta = det(A) delta = -33 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ C-15 .9 Compute the value of the determinant of the matrix A defined as 2 –1 0 A = –1 1 0 4 0 3 –3 0 0 –3 –1 –2 1 (C. using the procedure of Example C. [ c ] = 0 . 4 0 3 −2.8.5 or Example C. [ d ] = – 36 and thus detA = [ a ] + [ b ] + [ c ] + [ d ] = 6 – 3 + 0 – 36 = – 33 We can verify our answer with MATLAB as follows: A=[ 2 −1 0 −3. we find [ a ] = 6 . −3 0 0 1].

if 2 A = 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 (C. This follows from Property 2 with m = 1 . Property 2: If all the elements of one row or column are m times the corresponding elements of another row or column. 1 2 1]. 3 6 1. For example.28) then. Check with MATLAB: A=[2 4 1. the determinant is zero.30) and let ∆ a 11 a 12 a 13 = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 D1 = A a 11 a 13 B a 21 a 23 C a 31 a 33 D2 = a 11 A a 13 a 21 B a 23 a 31 C a 33 D3 = a 11 a 12 A a 21 a 22 B a 31 a 32 C C-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the determinant is zero.6 Cramer’s Rule Let us consider the systems of the three equations below a 11 x + a 12 y + a 13 z = A a 21 x + a 22 y + a 23 z = B a 31 x + a 32 y + a 33 z = C (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Some useful properties of determinants are given below.det(A) ans = 0 Property 3: If two rows or two columns of a matrix are identical. Property 1: If all elements of one row or one column are zero. detA is zero because the second column in A is 2 times the first column. An example of this is the determinant of the cofactor [ c ] above. the determinant is zero. C. detA = 2 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 6 = 12 + 4 + 6 – 6 – 4 – 12 = 0 2 (C.29) Here.

Cramer’s Rule Cramer’s rule states that the unknowns x. We observe that the numerators of (C. by Cramer’s rule. If (C. and v 3 if 2v 1 – 5 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 0 – 2v 3 – 3v 2 – 4v 1 = 8 v 2 + 3v 1 – 4 – v 3 = 0 (C. we get 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. if A = B = C = 0 . B . then. y. that is. D 2. and D 3 are all zero as we found in Property 1 above. and z can be found from the relations D1 x = ----- ∆ D2 y = ----- ∆ D3 z = ----- ∆ (C. x = y = z = 0 also. ∆ = 2 –1 3 –4 –3 –2 3 1 –1 5 –1 3 8 –3 –2 4 1 –1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = 6 + 6 – 12 + 27 + 4 + 4 = 35 3 1 5 –1 8 – 3 = 15 + 8 + 24 + 36 + 10 – 8 = 85 4 1 D1 = Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-17 .10 Use Cramer’s rule to find v 1 .32) and verify your answers with MATLAB. Example C. and C . Cramer’s rule applies to systems of two or more equations. D 1.30) is a homogeneous set of equations. for the coefficients of the desired unknown.31) provided that the determinant ∆ (delta) is not zero. Then. v 2 . Solution: Rearranging the unknowns v.31) are determinants that are formed from ∆ by the substitution of the known values A .33) Now. and transferring known values to the right side.

31) we get D1 --------x 1 = ----. % Compute the value of v2 v3=detd3/delta. format rat % Express answers in ratio form B=[2 −1 3. % Compute the value of v1 v2=detd2/delta. % The following code will compute and display the values of v1.34) C-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .34) We will verify with MATLAB as follows. % Compute the determinant of D1 d2=[2 5 3. % Display the value of v1 disp('v2='). 3 1 −1]. -4 -3 8. 8 -3 -2. % Compute the determinant D of matrix B d1=[5 -1 3. % Compute the value of v3 % disp('v1=').disp(v2). % Display the value of v2 disp('v3='). v2 and v3. % The elements of D1 detd1=det(d1). % The elements of D2 detd2=det(d2).= – 170 = – 34 -----------7 35 ∆ D3 x 3 = ----. % The elements of D3 detd3=det(d3). 4 1 -1].= 85 = 17 ∆ 35 7 D2 x 2 = ----. 3 4 -1].disp(v3). -4 8 -2. % Compute he determinant of D3 v1=detd1/delta. 3 1 4]. % Compute the determinant of D2 d3=[2 -1 5.= – 55 = – 11 --------7 35 ∆ (C.disp(v1). −4 −3 −2. % The elements of the determinant D of matrix B delta=det(B).Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 –4 3 5 3 8 –2 4 –1 5 8 4 2 –4 3 5 8 = – 16 – 30 – 48 – 72 + 16 – 20 = – 170 4 D2 = D3 = 2 –1 –4 –3 3 1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = – 24 – 24 – 20 + 45 – 16 – 16 = – 55 3 1 Then. using (C. % Display the value of v3 v1= 17/7 v2= -34/7 v3= -11/7 These are the same values as in (C.

35) with the third to eliminate the unknown v2 and we obtain the following equation. Example C. With this method. the objective is to eliminate one unknown at a time. Subsequently.38) Now. 5v 1 + 2v 3 = 9 (C.35). we multiply the third equation of (C.39) Finally.37) from (C. we can find the last unknown v 2 from any of the three equations of (C. and v 3 of the system of equations 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C.37) Subtraction of (C.37). Then. and we add it with the second to eliminate v 2 . This can be done by multiplying the terms of any of the equations of the system by a number such that we can add (or subtract) this equation to another equation in the system so that one of the unknowns will be eliminated. Then.36) we get 17 11 5v 1 + 2 ⋅ ⎛ – -----⎞ = 9 or v 1 = ----⎝ 7⎠ 7 (C. substitution of the two values found can be made into an equation with three unknowns from which we can find the value of the third unknown.11 Use the Gaussian elimination method to find v 1 . This method is best illustrated with the following example which consists of the same equations as the previous example. By substitution of (C.7 Gaussian Elimination Method We can find the unknowns in a system of two or more equations also by the Gaussian elimination method.36) or (C. we add the first equation of (C. we can find the unknown v 1 from either (C. we obtain the following equation.36) Next. This procedure is repeated until all unknowns are found.Gaussian Elimination Method C.38) into (C. we can find the second unknown. by substitution to another equation with two unknowns. 5v 1 – 5v 3 = 20 (C. v 2 . By substitution into the first equation we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-19 .35) Solution: As a first step.35) by 3.36) yields ----7v 3 = – 11 or v 3 = – 11 7 (C.

The Gaussian elimination method works well if the coefficients of the unknowns are small integers. Then the adjoint of A . α 11 α 21 α 31 … α n 1 α 12 α 22 α 32 … α n 2 adjA = α α α … α 13 23 33 n3 … … … … … α 1 n α 2 n α 3 n … α nn (C.41) We observe that the cofactors of the elements of the ith row (column) of A are the elements of the ith column (row) of adjA .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 34 33 35 34 v 2 = 2v 1 + 3v 3 – 5 = ----.10. denoted as adjA .= – ----7 7 7 7 (C.8 The Adjoint of a Matrix Let us assume that A is an n square matrix and α ij is the cofactor of a ij .11. Example C. it becomes impractical if the coefficients are large or fractional numbers.12 Compute adjA if Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C.40) These are the same values as those we found in Example C. C.– ----. However. as in Example C.– ----.42) Solution: 3 4 adjA = – 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 3 4 – 2 4 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 – 2 3 3 4 = –7 6 –1 1 0 –1 1 –2 1 – 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 C-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . is defined as the n square matrix below.

find A –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-21 .9 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices An n square matrix A is called singular if detA = 0 . A is called the inverse of B . A is called non-singular. and likewise. B is called the inverse of A .43) Determine whether this matrix is singular or non-singular.14 Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C. we can compute its inverse A –1 from the relation A –1 1 = ----------. Solution: detA = 1 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 1 2 2 3 = 21 + 24 + 30 – 27 – 20 – 28 = 0 3 5 Therefore.10 The Inverse of a Matrix If A and B are n square matrices such that AB = BA = I . that is.Singular and Non-Singular Matrices C. if detA ≠ 0 . where I is the identity matrix. denoted as B = A –1 .13 Matrix A is defined as 1 A = 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 (C. Example C. A = B –1 If a matrix A is non-singular. matrix A is singular. C. that is.44) Example C.adjA detA (C.45) Compute its inverse.

detA = 9 + 8 + 12 – 9 – 16 – 6 = – 2 . From Example C.12.5000 -0. that is.15 Prove the validity of (C. 1 3 4.adjA = ----.5000 Multiplication of a matrix A by its inverse A –1 produces the identity matrix I .0000 0. –7 6 –1 adjA = 1 0 – 1 1 –2 1 Then. it is possible to compute the inverse of A using (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Solution: Here.5 (C.44).47) for the Matrix A defined as A = 4 2 3 2 2 –3 –2 4 Proof: detA = 8 – 6 = 2 and adjA = C-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0000 0 1.5000 -0.5 1 – 0. A –1 –7 6 –1 3.1 0 – 1 = – 0.5 – 3 0. and since this is a non-zero value.5 –2 detA 1 –2 1 – 0.47) Example C.5000 0. 1 4 3].46) Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3.5000 -0. invA=inv(A) % Define matrix A and compute its inverse A = 1 1 1 invA = 3.5000 2 3 4 3 4 3 -3.5 0 0.5 1 1 = ----------. AA –1 = I or A A = I –1 (C.

and X is a matrix (a column vector) whose elements are the unknowns.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Then.adjA = -. the given set of equations is AX = B where Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-23 .49) or X=A B –1 (C.16 For the system of the equations ⎧ 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 = 6 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 3x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3 = 8 ⎭ (C.48) where A and B are matrices whose elements are known. Solution: In matrix form.11 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Consider the relation AX = B (C.50) to solve any set of simultaneous equations that have solutions. Multiplication of both sides of (C. Example C.48) by A –1 yields: A AX = A B = IX = A B –1 –1 –1 (C. A –1 1 1 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = ----------. We will refer to this method as the inverse matrix method of solution of simultaneous equations. and x 3 using the inverse matrix method. x 2. We assume that A and X are conformable for multiplication.51) compute the unknowns x 1.2 – 3 = 2 –2 4 detA –1 2 3 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = 4 – 3 2 –1 2 2–2 –6+6 = 1 –3+4 0 0 = I 1 and AA –1 = 4 2 C. we can use (C.50) Therefore.

B = 6 2 3 8 1 2 x3 (C.28 –5 7 1 8 (C. where matrix X is the same size as matrix B. X=A \ B C-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .54) Next. and the adjoint adjA detA = 18 and adjA = 1 –5 7 7 1 –5 –5 7 1 Therefore.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 A= 1 3 x1 9 3 1 . X = A B –1 (C. this is MATLAB’s solution of A B for the matrix equation A ⋅ X = B . However. A=[2 3 1.55) To verify our results.29 = 29 ⁄ 18 = 1.94 1 –5 7 9 11----. we could use the MATLAB’s inv(A) function.adjA = ----. 3 1 2]. X = x2 .53) we obtain the solution as follows. 1 2 3.7 1 – 5 detA 18 –5 7 1 and by (C. we find the determinant detA . For this exam–1 ple. x1 X = x2 x3 35 35 ⁄ 18 1. A –1 1 –5 7 1 1 = ----------.52) Then.53) or x1 x2 x3 2 = 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 –1 9 6 8 (C.61 = 18 18 5 5 ⁄ 18 0. it is easier to use the matrix left division operation X = A \ B . B=[9 6 8]'. and then multiply A –1 by B.7 1 – 5 6 = ----.

1. where 10 – 9 0 100 R = – 9 20 – 9 . we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-25 .17 For the electric circuit of Figure C.9444 1.1.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices X = 1.57) Therefore. we find the determinant and the adjoint of R . the matrix equation is RI = V or I = R –1 V . and I 3 Solution: For this example.56) Use the inverse matrix method to compute the values of the currents I 1 .6111 0. Circuit for Example C.17 the loop equations are 10I 1 – 9I 2 = 100 0 0 – 9I 1 + 20I 2 – 9I 3 = – 9I 2 + 15I 3 = (C. For this example. This is found from the relation R –1 1 = ----------. V = 0 0 – 9 15 0 I1 and I = I 2 I3 The next step is to find R – 1 . 1Ω V = 100 v 2Ω 2Ω − + I1 9Ω 9Ω 4Ω I2 I3 Figure C.adjR detR (C. I 2 .2778 Example C.

adjR = -------. R(3. Accordingly.58) Then.135 150 90 975 detR 81 90 119 and 219 135 81 100 219 22. C-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2)=-9.17. R(2.135 150 90 = -------. V=[100 0 0]'.85 0 975 975 81 90 119 0 81 8. R –1 219 135 81 1 1 = ----------. the above code could also have been written as: R(1.3) since it is zero. R(1. V=[100 0 0]'. We start with a blank spreadsheet and in a block of cells. we enter the elements of matrix V in G3:G5.3077 We can also use subscripts to address the individual elements of the matrix.8462 8. R(3.2)=20. say B3:D5. −9 20 −9.2)=-9. R(2.4615 13. I=R\V I = 22.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 219 135 81 detR = 975. R(2.1)=10. For instance.3)=15. The procedure is as follows: 1. Then.31 I3 I1 Check with MATLAB: R=[10 −9 0. % No need to make entry for A(1. we enter the elements of matrix R as shown in Figure C.1)=-9. adjR = 135 150 90 81 90 119 (C. 0 −9 15]. to obtain the values of the three currents in Example C.3077 Spreadsheets also have the capability of solving simultaneous equations using the inverse matrix method.8462 8.3)=-9.2. we can use Microsoft Excel’s MINVERSE (Matrix Inversion) and MMULT (Matrix Multiplication) functions.46 1 100 I = I 2 = -------.4615 13. I=R\V I = 22.135 = 13.

2. Solution of Example C.3. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 10 -9 0 100 3 R= -9 20 -9 V= 0 4 0 -9 15 0 5 6 0.083 22.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-27 .17 with a spreadsheet Example C.3077 10 Figure C.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices 2.092 0.138 0.225 0.846 9 0. we highlight them. The values of I then appear in G7:G9. We format this block for number display with three decimal places. we type the formula =MININVERSE(B3:D5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously.462 7 -1 R = 0. We observe that R – 1 appears in these cells. R – 1 . With this range highlighted and making sure that the cell marker is in B7. We choose B7:D9 for the elements of this inverted matrix.18 85 Ω 170∠0° + V1 R1 C IX −j100 Ω V2 50 Ω VS − j200 Ω R3 = 100 Ω L R2 Figure C.083 0. we choose the block of cells G7:G9 for the values of the current I. Circuit for Example C. we compute and display the inverse of R. Next. 3. As before.G3:G5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously.122 8. and with the cell marker positioned in G7.138 0.092 8 I= 13.154 0. that is. Now. we type the formula =MMULT(B7:D9.18 For the phasor circuit of Figure C.

60) and V 2 – 170 ∠0° V 2 – V 1 V 2 – 0 ------------------------------. and find V fprintf('\n').0218−0. Simplifying and rearranging the nodal equations of (C.005j −0. I=[2. we get ( 0.= 0 85 100 j200 (C. −0.62) Next.= 0 – j100 100 50 (C. disp(V(1)).03 + j0.005 )V 1 – 0.+ ----------------. and then writing the above relations in matrix form as YV = I .+ -------------. collecting.01 0.01 Y V1 V2 V = 2 j1.03 + j0.01 0. disp('V2 = '). disp(V(2)).62) in matrix form as 0.59) and the voltages V1 and V2 can be computed from the nodal equations V 1 – 170 ∠0° V 1 – V 2 V 1 – 0 ------------------------------.03+0.0218 – j0. V=Y\I.01j].61). and I = Current Solution: The Y matrix elements are the coefficients of V 1 and V 2 . and I are as indicated. % Display values of V1 and V2 C-28 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We will use MATLAB to compute the voltages V 1 and V 2 .01 – 0. I.01 V 1 + ( 0. V = Voltage .+ -------------.% Define Y. Y=[0. where Y = Admit tan ce .01.01V 2 = 2 – 0. we write (C.005 – 0.0218 – j0. The code is shown below.60) and (C. and express the current I x in both rectangular and polar forms by first simplifying like terms. 1.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants the current I X can be found from the relation V1 – V2 I X = ----------------R3 (C.7 (C. and to do all other computations.7 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (C.01 )V 2 = j1. V .7j].63) where the matrices Y . % Insert a line disp('V1 = ').61) Compute.+ ----------------.

0490e+002 + 4.518 ∠– 6.5183 thetaIX=angle(IX)*180/pi % Compute angle theta in degrees thetaIX = -6. IX=(V(1)−V(2))/R3 % Compute the value of IX IX = 0.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-29 . and thus we cannot use them to compute matrices that include complex numbers in their elements as in Example C.9448e+001i V2 = 53.53° Spreadsheets have limited capabilities with complex numbers. For the polar form we use magIX=abs(IX) % Compute the magnitude of IX magIX = 0.4162 + 55. we find I X from R3=100.3439i Next.5326 Therefore.0590i This is the rectangular form of I X . in polar form I X = 0.5149.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices V1 = 1.0.

detB f. b.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants C. A – C c. C ⋅ A c. A – B a. if possible. detA e. A + C f. Perform the following computations. B . B – D d. Perform the following computations. C ⋅ D · h. A ⋅ C f. detD 4. det ( A ⋅ B ) b. D ⋅ A 3. 5. Verify your answers with MATLAB. a. B ⋅ A b. 6. the matrices A . det ( A ⋅ C ) c. C + D h. x1 –3 1 3 4 a. Verify your answers with MATLAB. 3 1 – 2 ⋅ x 2 = – 2 0 2 3 5 x3 2 4 3 b. Verify your answers with MATLAB. Solve the following systems of equations using Cramer’s rule. 2 – 4 1 –1 3 –4 2 –2 2 x1 –2 1 3 ⋅ x 2 = 10 x3 2 – 14 1 7 x4 C-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . – 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 3x 1 + 4x 2 – 5x 3 = 0 b. B ⋅ D g. A + B e. A ⋅ B e. Solve the following systems of equations using the inverse matrix method. Verify your answers with MATLAB. if possible. if possible. Verify your answers with MATLAB. x 1 – 2x 2 + x 3 = – 4 – x 1 + 2x 2 – 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 14 x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 – x 4 = 9 3x 1 – 3 x 2 + 2x 3 + 4x 4 = 19 4x 1 + 2x 2 + 5x 3 + x 4 = 27 a. C – D d. Repeat Exercise 4 using the Gaussian elimination method. a. D ⋅ C 2. C . detC d. B + D g.12 Exercises For Problems 1 through 3 below. Perform the following computations. and D are defined as: 1 –1 –4 A = 5 7 –2 3 –5 6 5 9 –3 B = –2 8 2 7 –4 6 4 6 C= – 3 8 5 –2 D = 1 –2 3 –3 6 –4 1.

d) in MATLAB A-6. 1-18 Cramer’s rule 3-2. 4-32 buffer 4-20 unity gain 4-12. 1-19 ampere capacity of wires 2-30 amplifier 4-1. B-3 defined A-3. 5-30 electric filters . B-3 complex excitation function 6-3. C-17 critical frequency 4-13. 3-41 determinant C-9 device(s) active 1-12.Index Symbols and Numerics % (percent) symbol in MATLAB A-2 3-dB down 4-4 A abs(z) in MATLAB A-25 admittance 6-17 ampere 1-1.see filters energy dissipated in a resistor 2-4 energy stored in a capacitor 5-22 energy stored in an inductor 5-12 eps in MATLAB A-23. 5-17 in parallel 5-27 in series 5-26 chemical processes 1-17. 1-20 analysis with loop equations 3-8 analysis with mesh equations 3-8 analysis with nodal equations 3-1 with non-linear devices 3-45 clc in MATLAB A-2 clear in MATLAB A-2 combined mesh 3-18 combined node 3-6 command screen in MATLAB A-1 command window in MATLAB A-1 commas in MATLAB A-8 comment line in MATLAB A-2 comparators 8-28 complementary function 9-1 complete response 10-16 complex conjugate A-4. 1-20.b) in MATLAB A-6 conversion factors 1-16 conductor sizes for interior wiring 2-33 coulomb 1-1. A-32 display formats in MATLAB A-31 division in MATLAB A-22 dot multiplication operator in MATLAB A-22 driving functions 6-1 duality 6-19. 8-17 conductance 2-2 conj(A). 6-24 E editor window in MATLAB A-1 editor/debugger in MATLAB A-1. A-28 Euler’s identities B-4 excitations 6-1 exit in MATLAB A-2 exponential form of complex numbers B-5 exponentiation in MATLAB A-22 eye(n) in MATLAB C-7 eye(size(A)) in MATLAB C-7 F Farad 5-18. 2-18 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-21 cutoff frequency band-elimination filter 4-15 band-pass filter 4-15 high-pass filter 4-14 low-pass filter 4-13 lower 4-4 upper 4-4 D data points in MATLAB A-15 DC (Direct Current) 1-4 decibel 4-2. 4-20 analog-to-digital converter 8-28. 4-33 current 1-1 current division expressions 2-25 current flow conventional 1-2 electron 1-2 current gain 4-2 current limiting devices 2-2 current ratings for electronic equipment 2-30 current source combinations 2-17. A-23 B bandwidth 4-4 box in MATLAB A-13 branch 2-5 C capacitance 5-17 capacitance combinations 5-25 capacitor(s) 1-12. A-7 default color in MATLAB A-16 default in MATLAB A-13 default line in MATLAB A-16 default marker in MATLAB A-16 delta function defined 10-8 sampling property 10-8 sifting property 10-9 demos in MATLAB A-2 dependent source(s) current 1-10. 5-30 differential input amplifier 4-5 digital filter 7-21 diode(s) 1-10 Dirac function 10-9 direct current 1-4 discontinuous function 10-1 disp(A) in MATLAB 7-19. A-2 effective (RMS) value of sinusoids 8-5 effective values 8-3 efficiency 3-47 eight-to-three line encoder 8-28 electric field 5-17. 8-30 axis in MATLAB A-17. 5-18. 1-20 dielectric 5-17. 4-33 attenuator 4-1 average value 8-2. 1-20 passive 1-12. B-2 division B-4 exponential form B-5 multiplication B-3 polar form B-5 rectangular form B-5 subtraction B-2 complex power 8-16. 1-20 circuit(s) defined 1-12. 8-32 angle(z) in MATLAB A-25 attenuation 4-13. C-16. conj(x) in MATLAB C-8 conjugate of a complex number B-3 conv(a. A-13 deconv(c. A-18. 6-21 complex number(s) addition B-2 conjugate A-4. 3-41 voltage 1-10. 5-30 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction 5-2 .

y) in MATLAB A-18 metric system 1-13. 10-23 . 9-10. 3-1. 7-35 mechanical forms of energy 1-17. 7-21 passive 4-13. 1-20. 5-29 matrix. 10-16. 6-22 full-wave rectification function file in MATLAB A-26. 4-33.x1.y) in MATLAB A-13 loop defined 2-5 equations 3-1.a. 7-20 high-pass 4-14. 4-33. 4-33. 10-16. 7-20 band-rejection 4-15. 4-33. 5-29 fmax(f. 7-5 generalized 3-18 mesh(x. 2-15 virtual 4-17 gtext(‘string’) in MATLAB A-14 H half-power points 4-4 half-wave rectification 8-3 Heavyside function 10-9 Henry 5-3. 7-23 low-pass 4-13. A-32 frequency response A-13 frequency-domain to time-domain transformation 6-6. 5-17. 6-23 inductor(s) defined 1-12. C-27 multiplication of complex numbers B-3 multiplication in MATLAB A-20. 7-21 phase shift 7-21 RC high-pass 7-23 RC low-pass 7-21 stop-band 4-15.y. A-28 fzero(f. A-30 forced response 6-4. 7-20 band-pass 4-14. 7-20. 5-29 magnetic flux 5-2.b) in MATLAB 1-7 International System of Units 1-13 J j operator B-1 K KCL 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 2-7 KVL 2-7 L left-hand rule 5-1 lims = in MATLAB A-28 linear circuit 3-40 devices 1-10 factor A-9 inductor 5-2 passive element 3-39 linearity 3-39 lines of magnetic flux 5-1.x) in MATLAB A-28.x2) in MATLAB A-28 fmin(f.lims) in MATLAB A-28. A-21 multirange ammeter/milliammeter 8-24 N NaN in MATLAB A-28 National Electric Code (NEC) 2-30 natural response 9-1. 3-13 circuits with single 2-10 M magnetic field 5-1. A-29 fprintf(format. 7-20. C-6 Hermitian C-9 identity C-6 inverse of C-21 left division in MATLAB C-24 lower triangular C-6 minor of C-12 multiplication using MATLAB A-20 non-singular C-21 singular C-21 scalar C-6 skew-Hermitian C-9 skew-symmetric C-9 square C-1 symmetric C-8 theory 3-2 trace of C-2 transpose C-7 upper triangular C-5 zero C-2 maximum power transfer theorem 3-38. 5-29 linspace(values) in MATLAB A-14 ln (natural log) A-13 load capacitive 8-15. matrices adjoint C-20 cofactor of C-12 conformable for addition C-2 conformable for multiplication C-4 congugate of C-8 defined C-1 diagonal of C-1.z) in MATLAB A-18 meshgrid(x.feedback 4-4 negative 4-5 positive 4-5 figure window in MATLAB A-14 filter active 4-13 all-pass 7-20 analog 7-21 band-elimination 4-15. 4-33. 6-23 susceptance 6-18. 5-2 in parallel 5-16 in series 5-15 initial condition 5-3 initial rate of decay 9-3. 1-20 m-file in MATLAB A-1.x2) in MATLAB A-28. 1-20 mesh combined 3-18 defined 2-6 equations 2-10. 4-33. A-26 mho 2-2 Military Standards 2-27 MINVERSE in Excel C-26 MMULT in Excel C-26. 7-20 band-stop 4-15. 7-20 flash converter 8-28 flux linkage 5-2.x1. 5-28. 8-31 inductive 8-15. 9-11 instantaneous values 2-1 int(f. A-30 G Gaussian elimination method C-19 grid in MATLAB A-13 ground defined 2-1. 4-33.array) in MATLAB 7-19. 8-31 lighting 2-34 resistive 8-10 log (common log) A-13 log(x) in MATLAB A-13 log10(x) in MATLAB A-13 log2(x) in MATLAB A-13 loglog(x. 5-29 I imag(z) in MATLAB A-25 imaginary axis B-2 number B-2 impedance 6-14 inductance 5-2 inductive reactance 6-15. 10-23 format command in MATLAB A-31 format in MATLAB A-31 fplot in MATLAB A-28 fplot(fcn.

A-9 known roots in MATLAB A-4 polyval(p. 2-17. 6-21 time-window converter 8-28 title(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 total response 10-16 tracking converter 8-28 transient response 9-1 transistors 1-10 trivial solution 9-2 two-terminal device 1-4. 6-23 inductive 6-18. 8-14 script file in MATLAB A-26 in capacitive loads 8-11 semicolons in MATLAB A-8 semilogx(x. 6-23 capacitive 6-18. 1-19 resistive network 8-28 periodic functions of time 8-1 resistors 1-12. 6-23 real axis B-2 number B-2 real(z) in MATLAB A-25 regulation 3-49 P resistance defined 2-1 parallel connection 2-8. A-8.p) in MATLAB A-19 substitution method of solving a system of simultaneous equations 3-2 supermesh 3-18 supernode 3-6 superposition principle 3-41.y. 2-17 short circuit 2-2 SI Derived Units 1-17 siemens 2-2 signal 4-1.z) in MATLAB A-16 tolerance 2-27 polar plot in MATLAB A-25 response 6-1.a. 7-1 node combined 3-6 defined 2-5 generalized 3-6 equations 2-14. 3-1.y) in MATLAB A-10.y.r) in MATLAB A-25 right-hand rule 5-1 poly(r) in MATLAB A-4. 5-28. 3-1. 1-20 standard prefixes 1-14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices 2-26 steady-state conditions 5-12 string in MATLAB A-18 subplot(m. 4-32 single ended output amplifier 4-5 single node-pair parallel circuit 2-14 slope converter 8-28 solar energy 1-17.see op amp complex 8-16. 1-20 passive 1-12. A-5 RMS value of sinusoids 8-5 polyder(p) in MATLAB A-6.y) in MATLAB A-13 in inductive loads 8-11 semilogy(x. 2-16. A-12. 1-19 voltage defined 1-4 dividers 2-2 division expressions 2-23 drop 1-5 rational polynomials A-8 reactance capacitive 6-15. 1-20 topology 3-1 newton 1-1. 7-8 time constant 9-3.NEC 2-30 negative charge 5-18 network active 1-12. A-8 RMS values of sinusoids with polynomial construction from different frequencies 8-7 roots(p) in MATLAB A-3. A-16 shunt 8-21 plot3(x. 6-21 polar(theta.n. 10-32 unit ramp function 10-6.y) in MATLAB A-13 in a resistive loads 8-10 .y. 2-2 phasor analysis in amplifier circuits 7-12 color code 2-27 phasor diagram 7-15 failure rate 2-27 plot(x.b. 10-32 unit step function 10-1.’string’) in MATLAB A-14 text(x. 2-18 input 4-28 particular solution 6-4 output 4-28 passive sign convention 1-8.tol) in MATLAB 1-7 quad8 in MATLAB 1-7 quadratic factors A-9 quit in MATLAB A-2 R series connection 2-8. 6-23 inductive 6-15. 1-15 principle of superposition 3-41 Q quad in MATLAB 1-6. 1-19 average 8-9. 2-28 instantaneous 8-3 power factor 8-10 defined 8-10 lagging 8-15 leading 8-15 power factor correction 8-18 power triangle 8-16 prefixes 1-14.z. 2-4. 9-11. 1-20 sources of energy 1-17.x) in MATLAB A-6 round(n) in MATLAB A-25 potential difference 1-4 S power absorbed 1-8. 1-20 O Ohm 2-1 Ohm’s law 2-1 Ohm’s law for AC circuits 6-15 Ohmmeter 8-26 parallel type 8-26 series type 8-26 shunt type 8-26 op amp 4-5 inverting mode 4-6 non-inverting mode 4-9 open circuit 2-2 operational amplifier . 7-7 susceptance 6-18. 1-19 U unit impulse function 10-8. 10-24 time-domain to frequency-domain transformation 6-6. 7-8 nuclear energy 1-17. 1-18 nodal analysis 2-14. 10-31 V virtual ground 4-17 volt 1-5. 10-18. 1-7 quad(‘f’.’string’) in MATLAB A-18 Thevenin’s theorem 3-24. 8-17 gain 4-2 in a capacitor 5-22 in an inductor 5-11 in a resistor 2-3. 7-1 non-reference 3-1 reference 3-1 non-linear devices 1-10 Norton’s theorem 3-35. 6-23 T temperature scales equivalents 1-16 text(x.

2-17 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-20 voltmeter 8-24 W watt 1-8 watt-hour meter 8-28 wattmeter 8-28 weber 5-1. 5-29 Wheatstone bridge 8-27.follower 4-20 gain 4-2 instantaneous 1-5 rise 1-5 voltage source combinations 2-16. 8-32 X xlabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Y ylabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Z zero potential 2-15 .