Handbook of Forensic Services
(revsed 2007) Editor Km Waggoner Editorial Assistant Kathryn H. Suchma Graphic Design Sandra D. Hollday An FBI Laboratory Publcaton Federal Bureau of Investgaton Quantco, Vrgna ISBN 978-0-16-079376-9 

Table of Contents
Introducton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Submttng Evdence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Evdence Examnatons. . . . . . . . . . . 13 Crme Scene Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Crme Scene Search . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 

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and the FBI Laboratory s accredted by the Amercan Socety of Crme Laboratory Drectors/ Laboratory Accredtaton Board. preservaton. 1 . The FBI has one of the largest and most comprehensve forensc laboratores n the world. and forensc analyss of evdence. the collecton. and shppng evdence and descrbes the forensc examnatons performed by the FBI’s Laboratory Dvson and Operatonal Technology Dvson. Forensc analyss of evdence s often crucal to determnatons of gult or nnocence. n most cases. FBI Forensic Services The successful nvestgaton and prosecuton of crmes requre. The forensc servces of the FBI Laboratory Dvson and the Operatonal Technology Dvson are avalable to the followng: ß FBI field offices and legal attachés. packagng. preservng.INTRODUCTION Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Introduction The Handbook of Forensic Services provdes guidance and procedures for safe and efficient methods of collectng.

Exceptons may be granted upon approval of the FBI Laboratory Drector or a desgnee. mltary trbunals. attorneys. and other federal agences for cvl and crmnal matters. the followng lmtatons apply: ß No examnaton wll be conducted on evdence that has been prevously subjected to the same type of examnaton. State. and muncpal law enforcement agences n the Unted States and terrtoral possessons for crmnal matters. are rendered free of cost. county. These reasons should be explaned n separate letters from the drector of the laboratory that conducted the orgnal examnaton. No testmony wll be furnshed f testmony on the same subject and n the same case s 2 ß ß . the prosecutng attorney.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß U. Exceptons may be granted when there are reasons for a reexamnaton. All forensc servces.S. No request for an examnaton wll be accepted from laboratores havng the capablty of conductng the examnaton. ncludng expert wtness testmones. and the nvestgatng agency. however.

it accepts from state and local law enforcement agences only evdence related to volent crme 3 . In addton. An FBI Laboratory Report of Examnaton may contan the opnons and/or nterpretatons of the examner(s) who ssued the report. Dependng on the caseload of the Laboratory and the needs of the contrbutor. when submttng evdence to the FBI Laboratory. evdence examnatons may be subcontracted. ß ß Violent Crime Versus Property Crime The FBI accepts evdence related to all crmes under investigation by FBI field offices. ß No request for an examnaton wll be accepted from a nonfederal law enforcement agency n cvl matters. contrbutors acknowledge the followng: ß FBI examners wll choose approprate techncal processes to address the contrbutor’s request for examnaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 provded for the prosecuton by another expert. however.

All accepted cases wll be afforded the full range of forensc servces provded by the FBI. The followng are examples of property crmes that are not routnely accepted for examnatons: ß ß Arson of unoccuped resdental and commercal buldngs and property.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 nvestgatons. the FBI may accept evdence from property crme cases. Such exceptons wll be consdered on a case-by-case bass and should not be regarded as settng a precedent for future case acceptance. Addtonal restrctons may be mposed on case acceptance to acheve ths goal. These gudelnes help to ensure that the FBI contnues to provde tmely forensc assstance to law enforcement agences nvestgatng crmes of volence or threatened volence. At the dscreton of the FBI Laboratory Drector or a desgnee. 4 . Explosve ncdents and hoaxes targetng unoccuped resdental and commercal buldngs and property. The FBI does not routnely accept evdence from state and local law enforcement agences n cases nvolvng property crmes unless there was personal njury or ntent to cause personal njury.

000). Ht-and-run automoble accdents not nvolvng personal njury.000). Mnor theft (under $100. Back to the top 5 . except automoble theft rngs or carjackngs. Automoble theft. ß ß ß ß ß ß Mnor fraud (under $100. Breakng and enterng. Burglary.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Vandalsm and malcous mschef drected toward resdental or commercal buldngs and property. Nonfatal traffic accidents involving speedometer and headlght examnatons except n cases nvolvng law enforcement and government officials.

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Do not submt multple cases under a sngle communcaton. unless otherwse ndcated n the Examinations secton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Submitting Evidence Requesting Evidence Examinations All requests for evdence examnatons should be n wrtng. and telephone number. Requests for evdence examnatons must contan the followng nformaton: ß The submttng contact person’s name. 703-632-8334. address. prior to submitting any evidence to the Laboratory. Questions concerning international submissions should be directed to 703-632-8360. All international law enforcement agency/ police requests should be coordinated through the appropriate FBI legal attaché (LEGAT). Each case should be submtted wth a separate communcaton and packaged separately. on agency letterhead. LEGATs should fax the request to the Evidence Control Unit. SUBMISSIONS 7 . and addressed to the FBI Laboratory Evdence Control Unt. agency.

evdence submssons. The name(s) of and descrptve data about the ndvdual(s) nvolved (subject.” ß ß ß ß 8 . Descrpton of the nature and the basc facts of the case as they pertan to evdence examnatons. f avalable. The name of the prosecutor assgned. and communcatons relatng to the case. suspect. or a combnaton of those categores) and the agency-assigned case-identification number.” ü Herewith s lmted to small tems of evdence that are not endangered by transmttng n an envelope. vctm. Wrte on the envelope before placng evdence nsde to avod damagng or alterng the evdence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Previous case-identification numbers. The wrtten communcaton should state: “Submitted herewith are the following items of evidence. A lst of the evdence beng submtted “herewth” (enclosed) or “under separate cover.

A statement f the evdence was prevously examned. Take precautons to preserve the evdence.” ß ß What type(s) of examnaton(s) s/are requested. Wrap and seal each tem of evdence separately to avod contamnaton. Where the evdence should be returned and where the Laboratory report should be sent. ß Packaging and Shipping Evidence ß ß ß Pror to packagng and shppng evdence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü Separate cover s used to shp numerous or bulky tems of evdence. The wrtten communcaton should state: “Submitted under separate cover by [list the method of shipment] are the following items of evidence. Include a copy of the communcaton requestng the examnatons. call the pertinent unit for specific instructions. A street address must be ncluded. f there s local controversy. or f other law enforcement agences have an nterest n the case. 9 .

and prevously unused outer contaner wth clean packng materals. Place the sealed nner contaner n a clean. affix a LATENT label on the inner contaner. Seal the nner contaner wth tamper-evdent or filament tape. Completely seal the outer contaner so that tamperng wth the contaner would be evdent.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Place the evdence n a clean. Affix the evidence examination request and all case nformaton between the nner and outer contaners. If any of the evdence needs to be examned for latent prints. if approprate. Affix EVIDENCE and BIOHAZARD labels.S. Department of Transportaton and Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton ß ß ß ß 10 . on the nner contaner. and prevously unused nner contaner. dry. All shipments of suspected or confirmed hazardous materials must comply wth U. Do not use loose Styrofoam. dry.

11 .S.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 regulatons.101 provdes a Hazardous Materials Table that identifies items consdered hazardous for the purpose of transportaton. In addton. and shppng of all hazardous materals. A trained and qualified evidence techncan must assst wth the typng. or sea. and tranng requrements for shippers.101 also addresses specal provsons for certan materals. labelng. ß Ttle 49 CFR 172. land. U. Ttle 49 CFR 172. the Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton annually publshes Dangerous Goods Regulations detalng how to prepare and package shpments for ar transportaton. packagng. Department of Transportaton regulatons and the followng gudelnes must be followed when shppng lve ammunton: ü Package and shp ammunton separately from firearm(s). Ttle 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) lists specific requirements that must be observed when preparng hazardous materals for shpment by ar. emergency response nformaton. hazardous materals communcatons.

SMALL ARMS. CARTRIDGES. Postal Servce Regstered Mal. or FedEx.S.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü The outsde of the contaner must be labeled “ORM-D. UPS. Back to the top 12 . ü ß Unless otherwse ndcated n the Examinations secton. Record the method of shpment and the trackng number(s) on the chan-of-custody form. address the outer contaner as follows: EVIDENCE CONTROL UNIT LABORATORY DIVISION FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 2501 INVESTIGATION PARKWAY QUANTICO VA 22135 ß Shp evdence by U.” The Declaraton of Dangerous Goods must nclude the number of packages and the gross weght n grams of the completed packages.

. . 121 Toolmarks . . 69 Har . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Crme Scene Surveys. . . . . . 31 Demonstratve Evdence. 21 Buldng Materals . . . . . . . . 104 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Reconstructon . 89 Metallurgy . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Safe Insulaton . . 80 Lubrcants . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Shoe Prnts . . . . . 133 Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Explosves . . . . . 22 Bullet Jacket Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Sol. 33 Electronc Devces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Vdeo . . . . . . . 60 Feathers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Explosves Resdue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Frearms . . 107 Racketeerng Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Wood . . . . . 71 Image Analyss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Pant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Controlled Substances . . . . . 68 Glass . . 18 Bank Securty Dyes . . . 62 Fbers . . . . . 100 Pepper Spray or Foam. . . . . . . . 63 Forensc Facal Imagng . 15 Arson . . . . . 79 Latent Prnts . . . . . 14 Adhesves . 131 Specal-Event and Stuatonal Awareness Support . . . . . . 106 Questoned Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Audo . . 104 Product Tamperng. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Computers . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Sealants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 EXAMINATIONS 13 . . . . 141 Weapons of Mass Destructon . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Tre Treads. . 90 Mssng Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Evidence Examinations Abrasves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Dsaster Squad . . . . . . . . 72 Ink . . . 14 Chemcal Unknowns. . 135 Toxcology . . . 23 Caulk . . . . . 31 Cryptanalyss . . . . 14 Seral Numbers . . . . . . . . 61 DNA . . . . Documentaton. 103 Pharmaceutcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Cordage . . . . . . . . .

and sealants can be compared by color and chemcal composton wth suspected 14 . Abrasves embed n bearngs and other parts. Questions concerning abrasives evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. caulks. Do not use paper or glass contaners. Abrasves settle n ol and fuel. Submt the ol and fuel from the engine pump and/or filters. ß Employ personnel famlar wth the operatons and mechancs of engnes and machnery to recover abrasves. ß ß ß Adhesive. Submt abrasves n heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags or pant cans. Caulk. Submt the bearngs and other parts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Abrasives Examinations Examnatons may determne the type of abrasve materal used to sabotage engnes or machnery. and Sealant Examinations Adhesves.

and approxmate age at death often can be determned from human 15 . and sealants cannot be determned by compostonal analyss. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 sources. caulks. Package separately. sharp nstrument and transfer t to a resealable plastc bag or leakproof container such as a film canister or plastc pll bottle. f so. Race. approxmate heght and stature. ß Anthropological Examinations Anthropologcal examnatons can determne whether somethng s a bone and. caulk. The source and manufacturer of adhesves. remove a sample of the materal wth a clean. Submt a suspected source. caulk. sex. submt the tem to whch the adhesve. and sealant evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. whether t s human or anmal n orgn. Questions concerning adhesive. or sealant s adhered. ß When possble. If ths s not possble.

Anthropologcal examnatons usually are conducted on bones sent to the Laboratory for DNA analyss or facal reproductons. Back to the top 16 . Damage to bone such as cuts. bluntforce trauma. Questions concerning anthropological evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. and bullet holes also may be examined. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Personal identifications can be made by comparng X-rays of a known ndvdual wth skeletal remans. ß Submt medcal records and X-rays. and then shp n a Styrofoam cooler. f possble. Collect nsect samples found on the remans in leakproof containers such as film canisters or plastc pll bottles. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8449 for addtonal nstructons. refrgerate untl malng. ß Clean and ar-dry bones. If tssue s present on the skeletal materal.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 remans. Pack n paper bags and wrap n protectve materal such as Bubble Wrap or paper. f possble.

Pack to prevent breakage. fused chemcal masses. or any electronc or mechancal devces an arsonst may have used.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Arson Examinations Arson examnatons can determne the presence of ignitable liquids introduced to a fire scene. Examnatons of debrs recovered from scenes can dentfy gasolne. and specalty solvents. burn trails on carpeted or hardwood floors. and the removal of personal property or commercal nventory. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. 17 . cgarettes. Examnatons generally cannot dentfy specific brands. matchbooks. Search at questoned arson scenes for the followng tems: candles. Molotov cocktals. Do not fill the containers to the top. glass jars. or heatsealed plastic bags approved for fire debris. Igntable lquds are volatle and easly lost through evaporaton. Preserve evdence n artght contaners such as metal cans. Also search for burn trals on cloth or paper. fuel ols. Questions concerning arson evidence should be directed to 703-632-7641. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.

and consstent wth the operaton of the recordng devce used to make the recordng. Dgtal Evdence Laboratory (DEL). as descrbed below. Vdeo. Authenticity Authentcty examnatons are conducted to determne whether audo recordngs are orgnal. contnuous. unaltered.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Audio Examinations Audo examnatons are conducted by the FBI’s Operatonal Technology Dvson (OTD). Forensc Audo. and Image Analyss Unt (FAVIAU). Enhancement Enhancement examnatons are conducted to selectvely reduce nterferng nose on audo recordngs to mprove the ntellgblty. The results 18 . Decsons regardng spectrographc voce comparsons are not conclusve. The OTD DEL has dfferent acceptance crtera and a dfferent physcal address than the FBI Laboratory. Voice Comparisons Spectrographc examnatons compare an unknown recorded voce sample wth a known verbatm voce exemplar produced on a smlar transmsson-and-recordng devce such as the telephone.

State. or nternatonal case has a nexus to an ongong FBI nvestgaton or 2) the FBI dvson head deems that the case s of enough regonal mportance to mert the dedcaton of federal resources to the state. or nternatonal case. local. local. local. or nternatonal agency cases must be submtted by the FBI field office servicing the area and must meet one of the followng two crtera: 1) the state. restored. Audo examnatons may not be submtted drectly from enttes outsde the FBI. These crtera shall be met wth a wrtten 19 . Questions concerning audio examinations should be directed to 703-985-1393. or retreved for playback and examnaton. Questions concerning audio evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388. Damaged Media Audo recordngs can be repared. and nterpret such sgnals as gunshots and telephone touch tones. compare. Signal Analysis Sgnal analyss examnatons are conducted to dentfy. f damage s not too extensve.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 of voce comparsons are provded for nvestgatve gudance only.

FBI enttes may submt cases drectly. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” or “FRAGILE. Submt orgnal audo recordngs.” Address the outer contaner as follows: FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top ß 20 . Identfy known and questoned voce samples. SENSITIVE AUDIO/VIDEO MEDIA” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 statement from the dvson head (Specal Agent n Charge). Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. ß ß ß ß Wrte-protect the orgnal recordng. whch may include finalizing CD and DVD media.

package separately. transfer questoned stans by rubbng wth a clean (dry or wet wth alcohol) cotton swab.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Bank Security Dye Examinations Bank dye packs contan dye to stan money and clothng and tear gas to dsorent a robber. Items such as money and clothng can be analyzed for the presence of bank securty dye and tear gas. and submt t wth the dye-staned evdence. Questions concerning bank security dye evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. 21 . ß ß Only evdence wth vsble red or pnk stans wll be examned. When cuttng s not possble. Use an unstaned swab as a control. When possble. cut a small sample of the staned area and submt n a heatsealed or resealable plastc bag. car seats). Collect an unstaned control sample.g. Do not submt large staned evdence (e. Ar-dry the swab and pack n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag.. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.

ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. 22 ß ß . Submt known and questoned debrs n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. Collect known samples from the penetrated or damaged areas. Pack to keep lumps ntact. clothng. Package each tem of evdence n a separate paper bag. If possble. and concrete. Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. cement. ß When buldng materals are penetrated or damaged. stucco.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Building Materials Examinations Examnatons can compare buldng materals such as brck. mortar. debrs can adhere to people. Do not use paper or glass contaners. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning building materials evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Do not process tools for latent prnts. bags. tools. and stolen tems and can transfer to vehcles. submt the evdence to the Laboratory for examners to remove the debrs. plaster.

case number. Questions concerning bullet jacket alloy examinations should be directed to 703-6328441. Postal Servce.S.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Bullet Jacket Alloy Examinations Elemental analyss of bullet jackets can be done when a bullet has fragmented so that ndvdual peces cannot be used for comparson wth testfired ammunition from a firearm or in the absence of a firearm or the lead component of the bullet. and evdence number wrtten on the contaner. ß Ammunton components such as bullets. Ths analyss may be helpful when there are multple shooters and types of jacketed ammunition. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. locaton. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Evdence must be packaged separately wth the date. collector’s name. tme. 23 . and shotshell casngs can be sent va Regstered Mal through the U. cartrdge cases. Alloy classification can differentiate among bullet jacket alloys of dfferent manufacturers or among the bullet jacket alloys n manufacturers’ producton lnes.

Department of Transportaton regulatons and the followng gudelnes must be followed when shppng lve ammunton: ü ü Package and shp ammunton separately from firearm(s). ü Do not mark bullets. or shotshell casngs. 24 . case number. lquds.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß U. Full identification of an unknown may not always be possble. The outsde of the contaner must be labeled “ORM-D. and stans that are of ndetermnate orgn or cannot be readily classified. The date.S. collector’s name.” The Declaraton of Dangerous Goods must nclude the number of package(s) and the gross weght n grams of the completed package(s). shotshells. cartrdges. cartrdge cases. Back to the top ß Chemical Examinations of General Unknowns General unknowns nclude powders. CARTRIDGES. however. and evdence number must be on the contaner. locaton. tme. SMALL ARMS. general classification of a substance is usually achievable.

Questions concerning examinations of general unknowns should be directed to 703-632-8441.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 When comparson samples are avalable. Do not submt large staned evdence. and submt t wth the staned evdence. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. transfer questoned stans by rubbng wth a clean (dry or wet wth alcohol) cotton swab. t may be possble to comment regardng the consstency of the unknown substance compared wth a known sample. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Use an unstaned 25 . Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting general unknowns to ensure that the evidence will be accepted for examination. ß Submt powder and lqud samples n leakproof contaners. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. When cuttng s not possble. cut a small sample of the staned area and submt n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag. Collect an unstaned control sample. When possble. package separately.

Deleted Data Files Deleted data files can be recovered from the computer or computer storage meda. Transaction Examnatons can determne the tme and sequence that data files were created.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 swab as a control. Comparison Examinations can compare data files with known documents and data files. Extraction Data files can be extracted from the computer or computer storage meda. Format Conversion Data files can be converted from one format to another. Back to the top Computer Examinations Content Examnatons can determne what type of data files are on a computer. Ar-dry the swab and pack n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag. 26 .

Limited Source Code Source code can be analyzed and compared.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Keyword Searching Data files can be searched for a word or phrase and all occurrences recorded. Obtan as much of the followng nformaton as possble pror to submttng a request: ß ß Determne the type(s) of computers and operatng systems. Submit requests at least one week in advance. and the number of computers on the network. ß 27 . determne the type of network software. If applcable. Passwords Passwords can be recovered and used to decrypt encoded files. Determne whether encrypton and/or password protecton s used. Call the Computer Analysis Response Team at 703-985-1302 to request a search or field examination. the locaton of the network servers.

ß For most examnatons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Specfy whether a sezure of computers and meda or an on-ste examnaton s requred. Label the outsde contaner “THIS END UP. Questions concerning computer evidence should be directed to 703-985-1302. If possble. Use large plastc Bubble Wrap or foam rubber pads as packng. Use a sturdy cardboard contaner when shppng computer components. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Pack and shp central processng unts n the uprght poston. Seal the contaner wth a strong packng tape. Do not use loose Styrofoam because t lodges nsde computers and components and creates statc charges that can cause data loss or damage to crcut boards. use the original packing case with the fitted paddng. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. submt only the central processng unts and the nternal and external storage meda.” ß ß 28 .

cartrdges. Bulk Drugs The Laboratory lmts the quantty of bulk drugs that t wll analyze. methamphetamne. dentty. and heron wll be returned unanalyzed. Quanttes exceedng 100 grams of suspected marjuana or 10 grams of all other suspected drugs ncludng cocane.” Address the outer contaner as follows: ß ß FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Controlled Substance Examinations Controlled substance examnatons can establsh trace-drug presence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Dsks. 29 . and quantty. Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. The Laboratory usually analyzes only drugs sezed n federal nvestgatons. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. tapes. and hard drves must be packed to avod movement durng shppng.

Questions concerning controlled substance evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. Back to the top 30 . Fold clothng to preserve trace evdence. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Drug Residue Requests for drug resdue examnatons on evdence wll be accepted only when the evdence s properly packaged to avod contamnaton. Drug resdue examnatons of currency are performed only on a lmted bass. ß ß ß Submt evdence n separate heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags. Do not submit used drug field-test kits with evdence. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting drugs or currency to ensure that the evidence will be accepted for examination. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence.

Documentation. or objectmovement analyss.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Crime Scene Surveys. 31 . human-. documentation. and reconstruction should be directed to 703-632-8194. street and prson gangs. Questions concerning crime scene surveys. and organzed crme groups. and vehcular-. They then use the data to prepare two. and Reconstruction Vsual nformaton specalsts receve data from the field or travel to the field to collect it. Call 703-632-7356 or 703-632-7334 for contact nformaton. Encrypted documents may be faxed or e-maled for mmedate decrypton. volent crmnals. foregn ntellgence agents.and threedmensonal dgtal or physcal crme scene reconstructons as well as computer anmatons or models that depct bullet trajectory. lne-of-sght analyss. Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Record Examinations Cryptanalysis Cryptanalyss examnatons nvolve the analyss of encoded and encphered documents used by terrorsts.

gross or net weghts or quanttes. gross sales. and nterest rates. and other gamblng busnesses. and other pertnent nformaton. gross and net 32 . how the funds were laundered.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Drug Records Drug records are examned to determne the overall scope of the busnesses. ncludng the number of employees and ther roles. number of loans. numbers or lottery operatons. the amounts laundered. and any other llegal actvtes. Internet gamblng operatons. ncludng the herarchy. Loan-Sharking Loan-sharkng records are examned to determne the amounts of the loans. prce structures. Money Laundering Money-launderng records are examned to determne the scope of the operatons. amounts pad n nterest and prncpal. Prostitution Prosttuton records are examned to determne the scope of the busnesses. Gambling Gamblng examnatons nclude the nterpretaton of records from sports and horse bookmakng busnesses. type of drugs dstrbuted.

These tems nclude charts. and other financial and organizational nformaton. The results of DNA testng on evdence samples are compared wth the results of DNA analyss of reference samples collected from known ndvduals. maps. llustratons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 revenues. Questions concerning demonstrative evidence should be directed to 703-632-8194. DNA Examinations Deoxyrbonuclec acd (DNA) s analyzed n bodyfluid stains and other biological tissues recovered from tems of evdence. and anmated and dgtally nteractve presentatons. Back to the top Demonstrative Evidence Vsual nformaton specalsts prepare a wde array of demonstratve evdence for nvestgatve and prosecutoral purposes. Such analyses 33 . Follow the evdence submsson drectons. dagrams. Questions concerning cryptanalysis and racketeering record evidence should be directed to 703-632-7356 or 703-632-7334. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.

Typcally. and teeth. Nuclear DNA (nDNA) s the more dscrmnatng of the two types and s typcally analyzed n evdence contanng blood. semen. makng them unsutable for nDNA examnatons. Addtonally. the DNA-typng results from evdence tems (ncludng tems related to mssng persons) examned n the DNAUI may be uploaded nto the Combned DNA Index System (CODIS) database. and hars that have tssue at ther root ends. samples from mass dsasters. There are two types of DNA used n forensc analyses. body tssue. or wth a crme scene. Mtochondral DNA (mtDNA) s typcally analyzed n evdence contanng naturally shed hars. har fragments. as well as the definitive power of exclusion. these tems contan low concentratons of degraded DNA. bones. The power of nDNA testng done by the DNA Analyss Unt I (DNAUI) les n ts ablty to potentally dentfy an ndvdual as beng the source of the DNA obtaned from an evdence item to a reasonable degree of scientific certainty. The hgh senstvty of mtDNA analyss allows scentsts to obtan nformaton from old tems of evdence assocated wth cold cases. salva. wth evdence tems. where approprate.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 can assocate vctms and suspects wth each other. and small peces of evdence contanng lttle bologcal 34 .

Follow the evdence submsson drectons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 materal. Addtonally. FBI cases are prortzed 35 . All of these individuals have the same mtDNA profiles because all maternal relatves nhert ther mtDNA from ther mother. Questions concerning nuclear DNA testing should be directed to 703-632-8446. or any other maternally related ndvduals. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. brother(s). Case Acceptance Policy of the DNA Analysis Unit I ß The DNAUI accepts FBI cases for serologcal and nDNA analyss. However. mtDNA performed by the DNA Analyss Unt II s an excellent technque to use for obtanng nformaton when nDNA analyss s not feasble. the maternal nhertance of mtDNA allows scentsts to compare a mtDNA profile to reference samples from that person’s mother. Because multple ndvduals can have the same mtDNA type. unique identificatons are not possble usng mtDNA analyss. Addtonally. the mtDNA-typng results related to mssng-person cases may be uploaded nto the CODIS database. sster(s). Questions concerning mitochondrial DNA testing should be directed to 703-632-7572.

federal. and muncpal law enforcement agences n the Unted States and ts terrtores. military trbunals. Cases are accepted provded that: 1. ß The DNAUI accepts cases from FBI field offices and legal attachés (LEGATs). other federal agences (e. major whte-collar crme. U. state. and duly consttuted state. and nternatonal agences. Bureau of Indan Affairs. cyber-based/hgh-technology crmes. cvl rghts. and support of local. ß 36 . DEA).g. Ths ncludes examnatons that characterze bologcal stans and may dentfy the source of a stan on an evdentary tem. The DNAUI also accepts cases that are submtted to the Laboratory from nternatonal law enforcement agences through the FBI LEGATs.S. The submttng agency s not served by another government forensc DNA laboratory. publc corrupton. attorneys’ offices.. transnatonal/natonal crmnal organzatons/ enterprses. significant violent crime.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 accordng to the FBI’s prortes of counterterrorsm. county.

The submtted case has not been examned prevously by another laboratory.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 2. The DNAUI requres known reference sample(s) for comparson wth evdence materials. DNA profiles located in the National DNA Index System (NDIS) Convcted Offender database cannot be used as references. The DNAUI mantans the Federal Convcted Offender (FCO) Program. Cases must be submtted through an NMPDD Program Manager for entry nto the Bologcal Relatives of Missing Persons or Unidentified Human Remans Indexes. Case Consideration Policy ß The DNAUI supports the Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database (NMPDD) Program. whch supports the collecton and nDNA analyss of samples collected from more than 500 stes across the Unted States. ß ß 37 . The NMPDD provdes nvestgators wth an opportunty to identify missing and unidentified persons on a natonal level.

etc. Questons concernng knshp. etc.e.. ß As necessary: ß DNAUI cases may be prortzed accordng to scheduled trial dates or other case-specific nformaton. a review of the case file will be conducted to determne f addtonal examnatons wll be conducted.. should be drected to the DNAUI at 703-632-8446. pieces of paper. Items such as steerng wheels and firearms may be appropriate for analyss. ß ß 38 . The DNAUI does not examne evdence from property crme cases unless volence that results n bodly harm s used n the commsson of the crme.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß The DNAUI does not conduct low-copynumber (LCN) or “touch DNA” examnatons (i. handled objects. The DNAUI does not perform knshp analyss. paternty/ maternty comparsons.). DNA from fingerprints. For cases n whch the FBI Laboratory has conducted prevous DNA or serologcal testing.

Cases nvolvng terrorsm are gven hghest prorty. State and local law enforcement agences needng mtDNA analyss must contact the DNAUII for more nformaton regardng evdence submsson.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Case Acceptance Policy of the DNA Analysis Unit II All FBI cases that meet the sutablty gudelnes (outlned below) wll be consdered for mtDNA analyss n the DNAUII. FBI enttes may refer to the FBI Laboratory/DNAUII web page on the FBI ntranet for addtonal nformaton on the regonal mtDNA laboratores. followng the sutablty gudelnes outlned below. followed by counterntellgence matters and volent crmes. Questons regardng case and evdence sutablty should be drected to the DNAUII at 703-632-7572. 39 . Agences may call 703-632-7572 to dscuss the needs of the nvestgaton and the evdence. Analyss of the evdence wll be performed by one of the unt’s regonal mtDNA laboratores and s cost-free to state and local law enforcement agences n the Unted States and ts terrtores. Travel expenses for examners testfyng n state and local cases are also pad by the FBI Laboratory.

Experence shows that about 75 percent of cases n whch mtDNA analyss s actually performed nvolve har evdence where only the har shaft s present. It s mportant to remember. and assault. FBI enttes may refer to the FBI Laboratory/DNAUII web page on the FBI ntranet for addtonal nformaton on the NMPDD Program. Most often. that mtDNA analyss s approprate n only a small porton of cases where mtDNA evdence s present. Mtochondral DNA analyss n mssngperson cases s approprate only when bone or 40 . typcally homcde.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Missing-person cases involving unidentified human remans and relatves of mssng persons are managed and entered nto the NDIS n the DNAUII by members of the NMPDD Program. however. sexual assault. Evdence from these nvestgatons also undergoes mtDNA analyss n the DNAUII or n one of the regonal mtDNA laboratores. Contact the NMPDD Program Manager at 703-632-7582 for questons regardng mssng-person evdence submsson. mtDNA analysis is justified for har evdence when no tssue s present on the har root. Suitability of Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Mtochondral DNA analyss has been appled successfully to evdence from volent crmes.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

teeth specimens can be verified as of human orgn. To avod the msapplcaton of mtDNA analyss resources, cases must be revewed carefully for ther scenaros, the possblty of other tests on avalable evdence (e.g., nDNA), and the selecton of specmens havng the greatest probatve value. Regardless of the type of bologcal evdence, mtDNA analyss generally will not be performed when nDNA results exst on tems of smlar orgn. For example, f nDNA results are obtaned from semen identified on a victim’s vaginal swabs and there s no allegaton of multple assalants, mtDNA analyss would not be performed on an assocated pubc har found n the pubc-har combngs of the vctm. Current forensc mtDNA technques cannot effectvely dstngush between sources or relatve quanttes of DNA. Consequently, mtDNA s not approprate for evdence contanng possble mxed sources of DNA such as semen stains from sexual assaults. Mtochondral DNA analyss generally will not be performed on bloodstains unless the vctm’s reference samples are not avalable or other

41

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

approprate reference samples are unavalable for nDNA analyss. For example, a kdnappng vctm s mssng, but a bloodstan s found n the suspect’s vehcle and only a maternal relatve’s (e.g., mother, sblng) reference sample s avalable for the vctm. In that case, mtDNA analyss could be conducted usng a porton of the vehcle bloodstan, the maternal relatve’s reference sample, and the suspect’s known sample. Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Hair Evidence Mtochondral DNA analyss should be performed on probatve har samples only if they are deemed unsuitable for nDNA analysis. Only those hars havng greatest probatve value should be subjected to mtDNA analyss. If several smlar probatve har specmens are submtted from one source of evdence, mtDNA analyss should be performed on only 1–2 hars. For example, f 10 hars collected from a vctm’s body are mcroscopcally assocated wth the suspect, no more than 2 hars wll be analyzed. Submsson gudelnes for mtDNA cases must nclude the followng ponts for har evdence:

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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

ß

Known vctm har samples (of all types) must be submtted to determne whether evdence hars are smlar or dssmlar to the vctm’s har. If evdence ncludes specmens dssmlar to the vctm, known suspect har samples (of all types) should be obtaned.

ß

Mitochondrial DNA analysis generally will be performed on all probative microscopic hair associations. In addton, the followng types of hars are consdered for mtDNA analyss, f probatve: ß Hars that exhbt “mcroscopc smlartes and slght dfferences” (e.g., because of prolonged tme between the crme and collecton of reference samples, environmental or artificial changes to har, or the sutablty of reference samples or questoned har). Hars that are not sutable for mcroscopc comparson purposes (e.g., body-area hars, har fragments, or any other factor that elmnates the possblty of performng a comparson). In such cases, however, the har must be probatve (e.g., apparent foregn har n the pubc-har combng of the vctm).

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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

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Hars that are sutable for mcroscopc comparson purposes but, for vald reasons, are not sutable to compare wth the pertnent reference sample (e.g., har deposted 10 years pror to the collecton of the reference har sample, reference sample s from an individual whose hair is artificially treated after the crme date). Regardless, the har must be probatve.

Unidentified Human Remains Pror to mtDNA analyss, bone or teeth specmens should be examned by a forensc anthropologst or odontologist or a similarly qualified individual. Submssons of such tems should be accompanied by a written report that verifies human origin by a qualified expert. Documenting, Collecting, Packaging, and Preserving DNA Evidence If DNA evdence s not properly documented, collected, packaged, and preserved, t wll not meet the legal and scientific requirements for admssblty n a court of law. ß If DNA evdence s not properly documented, ts orgn can be questoned.

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bologcal actvty can be lost. contamnaton can occur. 45 . The more evdence retans ts orgnal ntegrty untl t reaches the Laboratory. packagng. It may be necessary to use a varety of technques to collect suspected body-fluid evidence. the greater the possblty of conductng useful examnatons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß If t s not properly collected. and preservng DNA evdence depends on the lqud or sold state and the condton of the evdence. If t s not properly preserved. and sold bologcal evdence adheres to surfaces. In general. When DNA evdence s transferred by drect or secondary (ndrect) means. decomposton and deteroraton can occur. t remans on surfaces by absorpton or adherence. If t s not properly packaged. Collectng. Collecting Known Samples Blood ß Only qualified medical personnel should collect blood samples from a person. lqud bologcal evdence s absorbed nto surfaces.

and evdence number. ß ß ß ß ß ß 46 . Label the outer contaner “KEEP IN A COOL. collector’s name. locaton. Pack lqud blood tubes ndvdually n Styrofoam or cylndrcal tubes wth absorbent materal surroundng the tubes.” “REFRIGERATE ON ARRIVAL. Refrgerate. Use cold packs. tme. do not freeze. Package blood samples from dfferent ndvduals separately. which contain NaF (sodium fluoride).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Collect at least two 5-mL tubes of blood n purple-top tubes. DRY PLACE. case number. person’s name. lqud blood samples (tubes may break f frozen). durng shppng. Label each tube wth the date. not dry ce. for DNA analyss.” Submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. Collect drug or alcohol-testng samples n gray-top tubes.” and “BIOHAZARD. whch contan EDTA as a preservatve.

Buccal samples do not need to be refrgerated. Submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. tme. case number. Rub the nsde surfaces of the cheeks thoroughly. pulled teeth. or a toothbrush or tem of clothng known to be used solely by the ndvdual of nterest. Identfy each sample wth the date. an alternate reference sample may be submtted (for nuclear examnatons only). collector’s name. Do not use plastc contaners. person’s name.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Buccal (Oral) Swabs ß Use clean cotton swabs to collect buccal (oral) samples. Ths may nclude such tems as surgcal samples. Pap smear sldes. Ar-dry the swabs and place n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. ß ß ß ß ß ß 47 . locaton. If a reference blood or oral sample cannot be obtaned. Package oral samples from dfferent ndvduals separately. and evdence number.

Freeze the evdence and submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. Do not use plastc contaners. ß Blood on Surfaces or in Snow or Water ß Absorb suspected lqud blood or blood clots onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. Absorb suspected dred blood onto a clean cotton cloth or swab mostened wth dstlled water. Elmnate as much snow as possble. Do not use plastc contaners. Collect suspected blood n snow or water mmedately to avod further dluton. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Blood on a Person ß Absorb suspected lqud blood onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. Place n a clean. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Do not use plastc contaners. ß 48 . artght contaner. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Bloodstains ß Ar-dry suspected wet bloodstaned garments. When possble. cut a large sample of suspected bloodstans from mmovable objects wth a clean. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or ß ß ß 49 . Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Avod creatng addtonal stan patterns durng dryng and packagng. sharp nstrument. Ar-dry small suspected wet bloodstaned objects and submt the objects to the Laboratory. Pack n clean paper. Do not place wet or dred garments n plastc or artght contaners. Pack n clean paper. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Do not use plastc contaners. Place all debrs or resdue from the garments n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Preserve bloodstan patterns. Do not use plastc contaners. Wrap dred bloodstaned garments n clean paper. Absorb suspected dred bloodstans on mmovable objects onto a clean cotton cloth or swab mostened wth dstlled water.

Do not use plastc contaners. Informaton regardng the health of the vctm(s) and suspect(s). 50 . Clams made by the suspect(s) regardng the source of the blood. hepatts. ncludng the presence of such nfectons as AIDS. and tuberculoss. Do not use plastc contaners. Whether anmal blood s present.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 an envelope wth sealed corners. Whether the stans were laundered or dluted with other body fluids. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Blood Examination Request Letter A blood examnaton request letter must contan the followng nformaton: ß ß ß ß ß A bref statement of facts relatng to the case. Semen and Semen Stains ß Absorb suspected lqud semen onto a clean cotton cloth or swab.

Pack n clean paper. Pack n clean paper.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Submt small suspected dry semen-staned objects to the Laboratory. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Note: It s not necessary to collect reference seminal fluid for comparison. Do not use plastc contaners. Absorb suspected dred semen stans on mmovable objects onto a clean cotton cloth or swab mostened wth dstlled water. Do not use plastc contaners. ß ß ß Seminal Evidence from Sexual Assault Victims ß Sexual assault vctms must be medcally examined in a hospital or a physician’s office 51 . Refer to the Collecting Known Samples secton for more nformaton. Ar-dry the swab or cloth and place n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Do not use plastc contaners. sharp nstrument. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. cut a large sample of suspected semen stans from mmovable objects wth a clean. When possble.

or urnestaned objects to the Laboratory. Pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Do not use plastc contaners. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Submt small suspected dry salva. Saliva and Urine. ß Refrgerate and submt the evdence to the Laboratory as soon as possble. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Pack n clean paper. Other Sources of Body-Fluid Evidence ß Absorb suspected lqud salva or urne onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. ß ß 52 . Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. and anal evdence. Do not use plastc contaners.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 usng a standard sexual assault evdence kt to collect vagnal. Do not use plastc contaners. cut a large sample of suspected salva or urne stans from mmovable objects wth a clean. oral. When possble. sharp nstrument.

Package the ashtray separately.. Do not use plastc contaners. Package each group of har separately n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. ß ß Hair ß ß ß Pck up har carefully wth clean forceps to prevent damagng the root tssue. Pck up envelopes and stamps wth gloved hands or clean forceps and place n a clean envelope. Do not submt ashes. Do not use plastc contaners.g. Ar-dry and place n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Do not submt the ashtray unless a latent prnt examnaton s requested. Do not use plastc contaners. Pck up chewng gum wth gloved hands or clean forceps. Air-dry hair mixed with suspected body fluids. ashtray) n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Ar-dry and place the cgarette butts from the same locaton (e.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Pck up cgarette butts wth gloved hands or clean forceps. 53 . Do not use plastc contaners.

The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. Nonrestored molar. Nonrestored canne. and Teeth Call the Laboratory at 703-632-7572 pror to submttng suspected tssue. 3. ß ß ß ß Pck up suspected tssue. 4. Cuttng bones ncreases the possblty of contamnaton. Nonrestored front tooth. Nonrestored premolar. Collect teeth n the followng order: 1. 2. Tissue. Collect 1–2 cubc nches of red skeletal muscle. bones. 54 . and teeth wth gloved hands or clean forceps.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Refrgerate and submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. Bones. or teeth to ensure that the evdence wll be accepted for examnaton. bones. Submt whole bones.

ß Blood/semen (evdence samples). 7. 55 . ß Place tssue samples n a clean. Restored molar. Place teeth and bone samples n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Restored premolar.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 5. lqud blood samples. Restored canne. and shp overnght on dry ce. artght plastc contaner wthout formaln or formaldehyde. 8. Freeze the evdence. away from light and humidity. 6. Restored front tooth. or at room temperature. frozen (if dried). place n Styrofoam contaners. ü ü Refrgerate. ß Preserving DNA Evidence–—Long-Term Storage ß Blood/salva (reference samples). Store refrigerated. do not freeze.

ü ü Store refrigerated or frozen. Back to the top Electronic Device Examinations Commercial Electronic Devices Examnatons of commercal electronc devces— ncludng personal dgtal assstants (PDAs). cellular telephones. In some cases. if possible. t s necessary to dsassemble the devces durng examnaton. or at room temperature. and global postonng systems (GPSs)—can extract user. pagers. It s recommended that these samples be stored n a refrgerator/freezer and solated from evdence that has not been examned. etc. ß DNA tubes/tssue samples.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü Store refrigerated.or ownerentered data and other nformaton. Interception-of-Communication Devices Intercepton-of-communcaton (IOC) devces are used to unlawfully ntercept oral or wre 56 . away from light and humidity. frozen.

or owner-entered data. Other Electronic Devices and Circuits Examnatons on other electronc devces and crcutry—ncludng facsmle machnes. The examnatons can dentfy operating characteristics and modifications made to the devces. and other nformaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 communcatons. Examnatons are conducted to dentfy operatng characterstcs (frequency of operaton. t s necessary to dsassemble the devces and/or crcuts durng examnaton. and bomb detonators—can extract user. Questions concerning electronic device examinations should be directed to 703-985-2400. Questions concerning shipping electronic device evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388. FBI entities may refer to the Operational Technology Division/Digital Evidence Section web page on the FBI intranet for additional information regarding evidence submission. The devces consst of radofrequency transmtters and recevers. 57 . range of operaton). In some cases. stored data. In some cases. t s necessary to dsassemble the devces durng examnaton. stun guns.

wres. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. and fusng systems.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Follow the evdence submsson drectons. detonators. tapes. although disfigured. ß Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. Examnatons are based on the premse that components and accessores used to construct the devces survve the exploson. 58 . SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. The examinations can accomplsh the followng: ß Identfy the components used to construct the devce. such as swtches. batteres.” Address the outer contaner as follows: ß FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Explosives Examinations Evdence resultng from an apparent exploson and/or recovery of an explosve devce can be examned.

Explosives are hazardous materials and must be handled only by qualified public safety 59 . Questions concerning explosives evidence should be directed to 703-632-7626. Determne the manner n whch the devce functoned or was desgned or ntended to functon. ß ß Call the Laboratory at 703-632-7626 each time an explosive device or a related explosive item needs to be shipped. Preserve the trace evdence potentally present n the devces so that t s not destroyed or damaged durng the examnatons. Determine the specific assembly techniques employed by the bulder(s) of the devce. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. Determne the constructon characterstcs.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Identfy the explosve man charge.

or certified bomb technicians. military explosives ordnance disposal personnel. Special packaging is required. and other surfaces. wood. glass. Explosves resdue can be deposted on metal. Resdue may be deposted after handlng. or ncendary mxtures. whether the composton of the substances s consstent wth known explosves products.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 personnel. cloth. Other 60 . Back to the top Explosives Residue Examinations Instrumental analyses of explosves resdue can determne whether substances are hgh-explosve. paper. Questions concerning explosives residue evidence should be directed to 703-632-7626. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. storng. low-explosve. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. ß Some explosves resdue s water-soluble and must be protected from mosture. plastc. or ntatng an explosve. An FD-861 form (Mail/Package Alert) is required for shipping bomb components to the FBI Laboratory. and the type of explosves. and the amount to be shipped is regulated.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

resdue evaporates quckly and must be collected as soon as possble n artght contaners such as metal cans, glass jars, or heat-sealed or resealable nylon or Mylar bags. Ziplock storage bags are not suitable for shppng or storng explosves resdue evidence. Do not fill the containers to the top. Pack to prevent breakage. ß ß ß Collect and preserve control samples from the blast ste. Extreme care must be taken to avod contamnatng explosves resdue evdence. Never store or shp explosves resdue evdence wth bulk explosve materals.

Never store or shp explosves resdue evdence from a crme scene wth evdence from a search ste.
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FBI Disaster Squad
ß ß Asssts n prntng the deceased at dsaster scenes. Assists in collecting antemortem fingerprints of vctms.
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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

ß ß

Asssts n dentfyng frcton rdge skn of the deceased. Deployment of the FBI’s Dsaster Squad requres consent from the dsaster scene coroner or medcal examner, a rankng law enforcement or government official, a representatve of the Natonal Transportaton Safety Board, or a representatve of the U.S. Department of State. Requests for assstance must be made through the nearest FBI field office or the FBI’s Strategc Informaton and Operatons Center at 202-323-3300.

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Feather Examinations
Feather examnatons can determne brd speces and can compare feathers found on clothng, vehcles, and other objects wth feathers from the crme scene. Questions concerning feather evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Follow the evdence submsson drectons, ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.

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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

ß

Submt feathers n heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags or paper bags.

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Firearm Examinations
Firearms Frearm examnatons can determne the general condition of a firearm and whether the firearm is mechancally functonal or n a condton that could contrbute to an unntentonal dscharge. Trggerpull examnatons can determne the amount of pressure necessary to release the hammer or firing pin of a firearm. Examinations can determine whether a firearm was altered to fire in the fullautomatc mode. Oblterated and/or altered firearm serial numbers sometimes can be restored. Firearms can be test-fired to obtain known specmens for comparson wth evdence ammunton components, such as bullets, cartrdge cases, and shotshell casngs. Comparisons of suspect firearms can be made with firearms depicted in surveillance images, possbly resultng n an “assocaton” concluson. Photogrammetry can determne the length of the weapon(s) used by the subject(s) depcted n the survellance mages. See Image Analysis Examinations.

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Bullets Fred bullets can be examned to determne general rifling characteristics such as caliber, physical features of the rifling impressions, and the manufacturer of the bullets. The mcroscopc characterstcs on evdence bullets can be compared with test-fired bullets from a suspect firearm to determine whether the evidence bullet was fired from that firearm. Cartridge Cases or Shotshell Casings Cartrdge-case or shotshell-casng examnatons can determne the calber or gauge, the manufacturer, and whether there are marks of value for comparson. The mages of questoned cartrdge cases and shotshell casngs can be scanned nto the Natonal Integrated Ballstc Informaton Network (NIBIN) to compare wth evdence from other shootng ncdents. The mcroscopc characterstcs of evdence cartrdge cases and shotshell casngs can be examned to determine whether they were fired from a specific firearm. Shot Pellets, Buckshot, or Slugs Examnatons of shot pellets, buckshot, or slugs can determne the sze of the shot, the gauge of the slug, and the manufacturer.

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Examnatons also can determne whether the ammunton was loaded n and extracted from a specific firearm. Patterns of gunshot resdue can be duplcated usng a questioned firearm-and-ammunition combination fired into test materials at known distances. These patterns serve as a bass for estmatng muzzleto-garment dstances. Gun Parts Examnatons of gun parts can determne the calber and model of the gun from whch the parts orgnated. Unfired Cartridges or Shotshells Examinations of unfired cartridges or shotshells can determne the calber or gauge and whether there are marks of value for comparson. Gunshot Residue on Victim’s Clothing The deposton of gunshot resdue on evdence such as clothng vares wth the dstance from the muzzle of the firearm to the target.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Wadding Examnatons of waddng components can determne the gauge and the manufacturer. Unfired and fired cartridges or shotshells can be assocated through manufacturng marks. 65 .

Do not allow objects to enter or contact the firearm’s barrel. Postal Servce. call 703-632-8442 for nstructons. The firearm must be handled minimally to avod loss or destructon of evdence. If the firearm cannot be submtted. ß ß All firearms must be unloaded. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Frearms and ammunton components such as bullets. and shotshell casngs can be sent va Regstered Mal through the U.S. chamber. Evdence must be packaged separately and identified ß ß 66 . or other operatng surface. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Questions concerning firearm evidence should be directed to 703-632-8442.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Silencers Muzzle attachments can reduce the nose of a firearm by suppressing sound during firing. The firearm should be submitted. cartrdge cases. Testing can determne whether a muzzle attachment can be classified as a silencer based on a measurable sound-reducton capablty.

Department of Transportaton regulatons and the followng gudelnes must be followed when shipping live ammunition: ü ü Package and shp ammunton separately from firearm(s). tme. model. name(s) of the owner(s). Do not mark bullets. case number. case number.” The Declaraton of Dangerous Goods must nclude the number of package(s) and the gross weght n grams of the completed package(s). cartrdges and cartrdge cases. and seral number. tme. Firearms must be identified with a tag containing the caliber. collector’s name. shotshells and shotshell casngs. collector’s name. SMALL ARMS. or ß 67 . ß U. and evdence number. CARTRIDGES.S. locaton. make. ü ß Do not mark the firearm. and evdence number must be on the contaner. The outsde of the contaner must be labeled “ORM-D. locaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 by date. The date.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 other firearm-related evidence. locaton. ardred. 68 . For facal comparsons between known and questoned subjects. locaton. see Image Analysis Examinations. postmortem reconstructons. collector’s name. and evdence number must be on the contaner. tme. Clothng wth blood must be ar-dred and labeled “BIOHAZARD” on the inner and outer contaners. The date. and wrapped separately n paper. facal age progressons. case number. case number. Intervews requred to prepare composte drawngs may be conducted ether by havng a visual information specialist travel to the field or by usng vdeo teleconferencng. tme. and dgtal photographc manpulatons and retouches. and evdence number must be on the contaner. collector’s name. ß Clothng submtted for gunshot resdue examnaton must be carefully handled. The date. Back to the top Forensic Facial Imaging Vsual nformaton specalsts provde composte drawngs.and three-dmensonal facal reconstructons from skeletal remans. two.

. Comparison ß Submt samples of glass from each broken wndow or source n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. wndsheld) from each sde of the glass. Label the samples “INSIDE” and “OUTSIDE” and package separately n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles.g. Questions concerning glass evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Back to the top Glass Examinations Glass comparson examnatons can determne whether partcles of glass orgnated from a broken source of glass. 69 . Glass fracture examnatons can determne the drecton and type of the breakng force and the sequencng of shots. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Do not use paper or glass contaners. ß Submt samples of lamnated glass (e.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning forensic facial imaging should be directed to 703-632-8194. Do not use paper or glass contaners.

skn. Do not use paper or glass contaners.” and “RIGHT”). Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. Submt partcles n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. ß ß ß ß Fracture ß Label the sdes of the glass n the frame (“INSIDE” and “OUTSIDE”). Pack all 70 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Submt the ar-dred clothng of the vctm(s) and suspect(s). Do not process evdence for latent prnts. Submt vacuum sweepngs n leakproof contaners. Do not use tape for recoverng glass partcles. Search for partcles n the har.” “BOTTOM. Search for partcles n vehcles by vacuumng each secton of the vehcle separately.” “LEFT. Package each tem separately n a paper bag. Do not use paper or glass contaners. ß Submt all glass peces so that the peces can be fit together to identify the radial cracks near and at the pont(s) of mpact and to ncrease the probablty of matchng edges. and wounds of the vctm(s) and suspect(s). Label the glass where t was removed n the frame (“TOP.

f possble. and other textles of vctm(s) 71 . Hairs that are associated will be submtted for mtochondral DNA analyss. Questoned fibers can be compared with fibers from the clothng. Race. Back to the top Hair and Fiber Examinations Hair Har examnatons can determne whether hars are anmal or human. damage. and alteraton (e. and synthetc (manufactured). mneral (glass). Examnatons can assocate a har to a person on the bass of mcroscopc characterstcs n the har but cannot provde absolute personal identification. Do not process evdence for latent prnts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 glass separately and securely to avod shftng and breakng durng shppng. ß Submt the entre pece of lamnated glass. vegetable (cotton). such as anmal (wool). Secure the glass between sheets of plywood or sturdy cardboard. body area. Do not place any objects nto the mpact area.g. Fibers Fiber examinations can identify the type of fiber. carpetng.. method of removal. bleachng or dyeng) can be determned from human-har analyss.

72 . Comb and pull out the hars. Forensc Audo. ß For known har samples. and color can be compared. constructon. collect at least 25 hars from dfferent parts of the head and/or pubc regon. submt the entre garment or textile. and mpressons on and from fabrc can be examned. Questions concerning hair and fiber evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Vdeo. Label searches can determne clothng manufacturer nformaton. Submt hars n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. ß Back to the top Image Analysis Examinations Image analyss examnatons are conducted by the FBI’s Operatonal Technology Dvson (OTD). Follow the evdence submsson drectons. When possble. and Image Analyss Unt (FAVIAU). Dgtal Evdence Laboratory (DEL).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 and suspect(s). Submit fibers in clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Fabrc composton. A questoned pece of fabrc can be matched physcally to known fabrc.

digital images. Photographic Comparisons Examinations of film. For on-ste comparsons. such as hands or ears. examners enter the scene and place a heght chart at the locaton of the subject(s) or object(s) of nterest. and vdeo recordngs.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 The OTD DEL has dfferent acceptance crtera and a dfferent physcal address than the FBI Laboratory. photographc prnts. negatives. 73 . Examples of objects that can be compared include clothing. ncludng survellance mages. Subject(s) or object(s) also can be compared between multple questoned mages. Examples of photogrammetry nclude determnng the heght of a bank robbery subject(s) and the length of the weapon(s) used by the subject(s) depcted n survellance mages. as descrbed below. nvolve comparsons of subject(s) or object(s) depcted n questoned mages wth those n known mages. and vehicles. Subject comparsons nclude facal comparsons or can be made between lke body parts. Photogrammetry Physcal dmensons can be derved from mages through the use of geometrc formulas or on-ste comparson. firearms.

tme. and the source can be establshed by examnng manufacturng characterstcs. Video Stll mages can be produced from vdeo clps. can be dated. Smlarly. Cameras Cameras. including film and prints. an alteraton. or a copy. video. and Date Examnatons of photographc evdence can determne the locaton. 74 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Authenticity and Image-Manipulation Detection Photographic evidence—including film. enhanced and enlarged. both film and digital. Ths can establsh the tme frame durng whch a photograph was taken. and date that an mage was taken. dgtal vdeo cameras can be compared wth vdeo clps. Source and Age Photographic products. and used n courtroom presentatons. seized as evidence can be compared wth mages to determne whether a specific camera captured a specific mage. Location. Time. and dgtal mages—can be examned to determne whether the mage s the result of a composte.

Vdeo clps and stll mages also can be examned to determne f they depct recordngs or mages of real people and events or whether they represent computer-generated subjects and events. The mages also can be compared wth mages n the Chld Explotaton and Obscenty Reference Fle to dentfy the source of the mages.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Automobile Make and Model Identification Vehcles depcted n survellance mages can be compared wth the Natonal Automotve Image Fle to determne make and model. Vdeo clps can be examned to determne f any of the people and scenes depcted n the vdeo clps are also recorded as stll mages n the reference file. 75 . Child Pornography Examinations Sezed mages of chld pornography should be searched for known vctms by checkng wth the Natonal Center for Mssng and Exploted Chldren and the Innocent Images Natonal Intatve. Questions concerning image analysis examinations should be directed to 703-9851393. Questions concerning image analysis evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388. Image analyss examnatons may not be submtted drectly from enttes outsde the FBI.

or digital files of the evidence. vdeotape. local. These crtera shall be met wth a wrtten statement from the dvson head (Specal Agent n Charge). ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. FBI enttes may submt cases drectly. or nternatonal case has a nexus to an ongong FBI nvestgaton or 2) the FBI dvson head deems that the case s of enough regonal mportance to mert the dedcaton of federal resources to the state.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 State. Never use the Pause operaton when vewng orgnal vdeo recordngs. ß Wrte-protect the orgnal meda. local.g. If the original media is unavailable. being careful not to ntroduce further compresson. submit firstgeneraton photographc prnts. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. CD) whenever possble because t contans the greatest level of detal. negatves. Submt orgnal evdence (e.. or nternatonal agency cases must be submitted by the FBI field office servicing the area and must meet one of the followng two crtera: 1) the state. ß 76 . or nternatonal case. vdeotapes. local.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Process all film prior to submitting. If a facal comparson s requested. Arrest or known photographs of suspect(s) for comparson wth questoned mages must depct the suspect(s) from many angles smlar to the questoned mages. ensure that the face or head of the suspect(s) fills more than half the frame. Bank surveillance film should be processed by the bank’s securty company accordng to manufacturer specifications. State n a communcaton the date and tme of the pertnent area and use the date-tme stamp on the mages or the counter ndcator (set from the begnnng of the tape at 000). 77 ß ß ß . use 35 mm film or digital equivalent (at highest resoluton settngs to mnmze mage compresson). When takng known photographs for comparson wth questoned mages. If questoned mages show tattoos or marks. When requestng forensc examnatons based on vdeo mages. nclude photographs of the same areas of the body on the known suspect(s). queue the orgnal vdeotape to the approxmate tme of the pertnent area. submt them for reference. If prnts from the relevant frames are avalable.

clothing or firearms) where they are vsble n the questoned mages. label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. or fingerprint analyses before they are submtted for mage comparson.g. Do not touch or move the survellance cameras.” 78 ß ß ß ß . Submssons for comparson wth the Chld Explotaton and Obscenty Reference Fle must be lmted to no more than 30 mages. Include one dagram or prnt for every angle used n the scene. nclude the dmensons of the scene to the nearest eghth of an nch and nclude a dagram or prnt from the relevant mages ndcatng the locaton of the measurements.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Do not mark or cut tems submtted for comparison (e.. SENSITIVE AUDIO/VIDEO MEDIA” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. ballistic. Call 703-985-1393 for specific instructions. If photogrammetry s requested. When submttng such evdence as a vdeotape or data card. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” or “FRAGILE. Physical items such as clothing and firearms must be submtted to the Laboratory for other examnatons such as trace evdence.

ballpont pen. When nk formulatons are the same.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Address the outer contaner as follows: FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Ink Examinations Examnng nked wrtng n conjuncton wth other technques (e. In general.. porous-tp pen) and the date of the nk manufacture. fountan pen. Examnatons cannot determne how long nk has been on a document. watermark identification) can provide details regarding document preparaton.g. handwrtng analyss. Follow the evdence 79 . nks are composed of dyes n solvents and other materals that mpart selected characterstcs. Questions concerning ink evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. t s not possble to determne whether the nk orgnated from the same source to the excluson of others. The composton of wrtng nks vares wth the type of wrtng nstrument (e.g.. Ink analyss usually s lmted to comparsons of the organc dye components.

however. the FBI Laboratory wll no longer accept routne cases from state and local agences n whch latent prnt examnaton servces may be obtaned from wthn the submttng agency’s system. protectng the Unted States from terrorst attacks. the unusual techncal nature of the case. Back to the top Latent Print Examinations Case Acceptance Policy Because of the ncreasng casework demands of the FBI’s prmary msson. e. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. ß Pack nk evdence separately from any document or surface wth nk marks. or the crcumstances surrounding the case. The future acceptance of any state and local cases generally wll be based on the submttng agency’s lack of access to the same technques or servces provded by the FBI Laboratory. cases of a high-profile nature or cases that also involve FBI field offices..Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 submsson drectons.g. t s sometmes necessary to 80 . Developing Latent Prints at Crime Scenes The Laboratory s the best place to develop latent prnts.

Avod overbrushng latent prnts and losng clarty. gray.. Cauton should be taken to prevent destroyng latent prnts.g. Black.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 develop latent prnts at crme scenes. The followng measures ensure that crme scene latent prnts are protected: ß ß Photograph latent prnts pror to any processng. black for lght surfaces and gray or whte for dark surfaces). or whte powder can be appled to a surface wth a varety of style of brushes. Examne all evdence vsually and wth a laser or an alternate lght source before usng any other latent prnt development process. ß ß ß ß 81 . Use cauton when powderng. Use a short-har brush or cotton to remove excess powder. Photograph latent prnts developed wth fingerprint powders before lifting them. Use transparent tape or black-and-whte rubber lfts to lft latent prnts. The color of the powder should contrast wth the color of the surface (e.

g. Law enforcement personnel may request the Processing Guide for Developing Latent Prints in field-manual format by faxng a request on agency letterhead to 703-632-8374. whte backng card for black powder).. gloves.pdf. The gude s avalable at http://www. The Processing Guide for Developing Latent Prints s a comprehensve gude to latent prnt processes and protocols. refer to the manufacturer’s nstructons and the Materal Safety Data Sheets. Followng ths gude wll maxmze the potental to develop latent prnts and wll preserve evdence f other forensc examnatons are requred. smocks). Refer to ths publcaton to ensure that proper processes are appled n the recommended order.g.gov/hq/lab/fsc/ backissu/jan2001/lpu.fbi.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß When transparent tape s used. the color of the backng card should contrast wth the color of the powders (e. Use personal protectve equpment (e. masks.. safety glasses. When usng latent prnt development processes. 82 . ß ß Photographing Latent Prints ß Use a trpod and cable release when photographng latent prnts.

ß ß ß ß ß Photograph latent prnts ndvdually. use ISO 400 film. Take three exposures of each latent prnt by bracketng: ü ü ü Orgnal exposure. Ths ensures that the target latent prnt s n focus. Photograph latent prnts at each step n the processng sequence before movng to the next process. When possible. 83 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Use a 35 mm or medum-format camera wth a macro lens capable of half-sze to full-sze reproducton. One-stop overexposed mage. Photograph latent prnts developed wth fingerprint powders before lifting them. Set the lens f-stop to the smallest possble aperture whle usng the camera meter to adjust the camera’s shutter speed to obtan proper exposure. One-stop underexposed mage.

reference number. date. photograph latent prnts close to one another n one frame. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Fll the frame completely. reference number. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. collector’s ntals. Mantan a photographc log that records each shot.. date. nonabsorbent. f possble. collector’s ntals. Photograph latent prints with an identification label that ncludes a scale.g. and other pertnent nformaton. and locaton of the latent prints. Place nonporous evdence (e. hard surfaces) n separate protectve coverngs such as thck transparent envelopes 84 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß For reference purposes. ß ß ß Questions concerning latent print evidence should be directed to 703-632-8443. ß ß Stablze the evdence to avod movement or frcton durng shppng. The identification label should be placed on the same plane as the latent prnts. locaton of prnts.

85 ß ß ß . Submit known fingerprints and palm prints of everyone who may have handled the evdence. ß Place porous evdence (e. and nvestgatve personnel. those who had legtmate access. The fingerprint card should bear an arrest offense. Frcton generally wll not destroy latent prnts on ths type of surface. at a mnmum. cardboard) n separate protectve coverngs.g.. and a brief statement of facts relating to the case. the caseidentification number. ncludng suspects. the name of the person prnted. All fingerprint cards must include pertnent bographcal and/or demographc nformaton. Frcton wll destroy latent prnts on ths type of surface. Fngerprnt cards and major-case prnts should nclude.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 (glassne). not on the reverse sde of a fingerprint card or on the reverse side of a card that has a recorded mpresson on the other sde. the name of the person recordng the prnts. vctms. or suspend n a contaner so that there s mnmal surface contact. the date. paper. Palm prnts should be taken on only one sde of a separate card.

. When known prnts are submtted separately from evdence. ncludng dgtal photographs. Dgtal mages.g. If a search of the Integrated Automated Fngerprnt Identification System (IAFIS) is requested. a scale or other measurable tem s mandatory. door frame). flatbed scanner. must meet the followng requrements: ß ß ß Documentaton of the mage source (e. 86 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß The notaton “elmnaton prnts” should be ncluded f the person prnted s not a suspect. of latent and ntentonally recorded prnts should nclude a scale or other measurable tem. ncludng dgtal photographs.. reference prevous communcatons and case-dentfyng numbers and other pertnent nformaton. wndow.g. Documentaton of the capture devce (e. Submitting Latent and Intentionally Recorded Print Images in Digital Format Dgtal mages. Documentaton ndcatng the mage s an orgnal capture. digital camera).

g. RAW. A resoluton that meets or exceeds 500 PPI when calbrated to actual sze (1:1). 87 .. A resoluton that meets or exceeds 1000 pxels per nch (PPI) when calbrated to actual sze (1:1). or wth Wavelet Scalar Quantzaton (WSQ) compresson saved at a maxmum of 15:1. RAW.. with lossless compresson (e. TIFF). A mnmum of 8 bts for grayscale mages and 24 bts for color mages. A mnmum of 8 bts for grayscale mages and 24 bts for color mages.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Fle propertes for latent mages consstng of: ü ü ü A file format without compression or with lossless compresson (e. TIFF). ü ü Latent prnts submtted as facsmles or photocopes wll not be examned n the FBI Laboratory.g. ß Fle propertes for ntentonally recorded prnts consstng of: ü A file format without compression.

Shp the remans n the condton n whch they were found (e. Label the outer contaner “KEEP IN A COOL. Provde a complete physcal descrpton of the deceased.g. dred) by the most expedtous means..g. n water.” “RIGHT INDEX”).” and “BIOHAZARD.” “RIGHT THUMB. DRY PLACE.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Intentonally recorded prnts submtted as facsmles wll not be examned n the FBI Laboratory. ß ß Label each contaner (e. Submitting Hands or Fingers of an Unknown Deceased ß Pack each hand or finger in a separate unbreakable.” All human remans wll be returned to the contrbutor. frozen.” “REFRIGERATE ON ARRIVAL. watertght. f possble. and artght contaner.. except when the known prnts wll be searched aganst IAFIS in order to obtain FBI file prnts. “RIGHT HAND. ß ß ß 88 .

certain cosmetics 89 . ncludng petroleum products. complete ten-print fingerprint cards not related to an ongoing Laboratory investigation should be sent to the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division. brake fluid). Automotive fluids (e.. ß Address the outer contaner as follows: CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SERVICES DIVISION FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 1000 CUSTER HOLLOW ROAD CLARKSBURG WV 26306 ß Questions concerning ten-print fingerprint cards should be directed to 304-625-2360. natural fatty ester oils. engine oil.g.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Address the outer contaner as follows: EVIDENCE CONTROL UNIT LABORATORY DIVISION FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 2501 INVESTIGATION PARKWAY QUANTICO VA 22135 Legible. and polyalkylene glycol oils. Back to the top Lubricant Examinations Lubrcants encompass a range of substances.

ß Submt entre tems (e. vehcular homcde. and some polshes contan lubrcants.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 (e. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.g. Ar-dry the evdence. or heavy-equpment sabotage cases. Leave a porton of the cloth or swab unstaned as a control. ß ß ß Back to the top 90 . Package lubrcants separately n leakproof contaners. Submt suspected sources of lubrcants for comparson examnatons. Questions concerning lubricant evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. Absorb suspected lubrcants onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. Lubrcant examnatons may also be conducted n sexual assault..g. Ar-dry the swab and pack n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag. clothng) when possble. lotons). bath ols. and package separately n paper bags.

Broken or Mechanically Damaged Metal The causes of falure or damage—such as the applcaton of stress exceedng the tensle strength or yeld lmt of the metal. spnnng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Metallurgy Examinations Comparison Comparatve examnatons can determne whether two metals or metallc objects came from the same source or from each other. such as the response of a metal to an appled force or load. blankng. accdental damage. Metal comparsons can dentfy varous surface and mcrostructural characterstcs—ncludng fractured areas. Examnatons can determne mechancal propertes. Moreover. and others. crackng. or excessve servce usage (fatgue)—can be 91 . hot and cold rollng. drawng. forgng. or corroson. ncludng alloyng and trace elements. extruson. grndng. ronng. These manufacturng technques can nclude castng. mllng. swagng. Examnatons also can determne chemcal composton. the manufacturng methods used to produce an object can be determned. deep drawng. a materal or manufacturng defect. and fabrcaton marks—to determne whether the objects share a common orgn.

. The nature of the thermal source (e. an examnaton can determne whether an explosve was detonated and the magntude of the detonaton velocty. or Melted Metal Examnatons can determne the approxmate temperature to whch a metal was exposed. mllng. Metal Fragments Examnatons can determne how metal fragments were formed. If fragments were formed by mpulsve (short-duraton. Burned. turnng. such as sawng. and whether a metal was n an electrcal short-crcut stuaton. hgh stran rate) loadng. The nature of the object that was the source of the fragments often can be determned as well. Heated. Cut or Severed Metal Examnatons can determne the method by whch a metal was severed. the nature of the heat source. or thermal cuttng. how the force or load was transmtted to the metal. shearng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 determned. and the drecton t was transmtted also can be determned. The magntude of the force or load that caused the falure. burner bar. electrc arc welder) used can sometmes be determned.g. 92 .

m. Lamp Bulbs Examnatons can determne whether a lamp bulb was ncandescent when ts glass envelope was broken. Such determnatons can be made even f the glass was broken by the mpact. The composton and mechancal propertes of materals can be examned to determne f the components meet contractual oblgatons or approprate regulatory codes. Precous-metal content also can be determned. Watches.m. Clocks. The on/off condton of applance timers damaged by a fire or explosion often can be determned. 93 . tmer. or other mechansm to stop or malfuncton and whether the tme dsplayed represents a. or p.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Specification Fraud and Noncompliant Materials Metallurgcal testng of materals can determne whether nferor components were substtuted n contractng frauds. and Timers The condtons causng a watch. (calendar-type tmng mechansms only) can be determned. Determnatons also can be made as to whether a lamp bulb was ncandescent when t was subjected to an mpact force such as a vehcular collson. clock.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Objects with Questioned Internal Components X-ray radography can nondestructvely reveal the nteror constructon and the presence or absence of defects. Nuclear DNA examnatons are conducted n the DNAUI and mtochondral DNA examnatons are conducted n the DNAUII to support the NMPDD Program. Questions concerning metallurgy evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. The poston of on/off swtches and other mechancal components can be determned. Local. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. or foregn materals. cavtes. Each unt has an NMPDD Program Manager who s avalable to answer any questons regardng case submsson (contact nformaton s lsted below). state. All agences must contact one 94 . and federal law enforcement mssng-person cases can be submtted drectly to the FBI Laboratory or through the FBI field offices or resdent agences. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Back to the top National Missing Person DNA Database Program Examinations The Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database (NMPDD) Program s supported by both the DNA Analyss Unt I (DNAUI) and DNA Analyss Unt II (DNAUII).

fbi. wrte to Erc Pokorak for the DNAUI or John E. For Internet e-mal. medcal examner and/or coroner. All samples submtted to the FBI Laboratory must have an ncomng letter descrbng the samples submtted. For FBI (nternal) e-mal. The FBI wll perform mtochondral DNA and nuclear DNA (STR) analyses on samples.gov for the DNAUII. wrte to eric.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 of the FBI Laboratory’s NMPDD Program Managers before submttng samples.fbi. odontology (dental). A copy of the anthropology.pokorak@ ic. and law enforcement reports must be ncluded wth unidentified human remains samples submitted.gov for the DNAUI or john. Stewart for the DNAUII. ß 95 . ß ß Call 703-632-7586 for the DNAUI or 703-6327582 for the DNAUII.stewart@ ic. Contact ether of the NMPDD Program Managers pror to submttng samples or for questons concernng samples. The submttng agency must have the necessary nformaton and completed forms for sample submsson.

ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Buccal (oral) swabs. 2.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Dred bloodstans. Dried Bloodstains Use the blood-cell collecton kts that are avalable in FBI field offices or by contacting the NMPDD Program Managers at 703-632-7582 or 703-632-7586. Rub the 96 . A copy of the law enforcement report should accompany the samples submtted. Buccal (Oral) Swabs ß Use sterle. ß Collect samples n the followng order of preference: 1. cotton-tpped applcator swabs to collect four buccal (oral) samples. Samples from Biological Relatives of Missing Persons ß Samples must be sent wth a Consent and Informaton Form for the Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database (FD-935 form).

sex. ß Ar-dry the swabs and place them back nto the orgnal packagng or an envelope wth sealed corners. Buccal samples do not need to be refrgerated. ß ß Samples from Unidentified Human Remains Call the Laboratory prior to submitting bones. Race.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 nsde surfaces of the cheeks thoroughly (use two swabs on each sde). 97 . Do not use plastc contaners. approxmate heght. Identfy each sample wth the date. subject’s name. tme. and stature at death can be determned from human remans. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. ß Pck up samples wth gloved hands or clean forceps. collector’s name. locaton. and case number. teeth. or tissue. Skeletal Samples Anthropologcal examnatons can determne whether skeletal remans are human or anmal.

preferably from an anthropologst certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. Submt skeletal samples n the followng order of preference: 1. Submt whole samples. Humerus. 5. and/or mandble. 6. Tba. Submt skeletal samples wth an anthropologcal report. Lower arm bone. Cuttng skeletal samples ncreases the possblty of contamnaton. 4. or a medcal examner’s/ coroner’s report. Femur. ß ß ß 98 . If possble.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Ar-dry samples and place n paper bags. submt three samples. 2. skull. Hand and foot bones. Teeth. 3.

preferably from an odontologist certified by the Amercan Board of Forensc Odontology. Ar-dry teeth and place n paper bags.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 7. ß ß ß Pck up teeth wth gloved hands or clean forceps. 3. 4. Rbs. Submt teeth n the followng order of preference: 1. or a medcal examner’s/coroner’s report. Submt teeth wth an odontologcal report. Nonrestored canne. Nonrestored premolar. Nonrestored molar. Nonrestored front tooth. Teeth Personal identifications can be made by comparng teeth wth dental records and X-rays. ß 99 . 2. 8. Vertebrae.

ß ß Back to the top 100 .” and “BIOHAZARD. Restored premolar. Tissue Tissue samples usually will provide sufficient quanttes of DNA for testng. Restored canne. Restored molar. Collect 1–2 cubc nches of red skeletal muscle.” Submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble.” “REFRIGERATE ON ARRIVAL. DRY PLACE. 6. 8.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 5. Label the outer contaner “KEEP IN A COOL. artght plastc contaner wthout formaln or formaldehyde and keep refrgerated or frozen. Restored front tooth. 7. Place tssue samples n a clean. ß ß ß Pck up tssue wth gloved hands or clean forceps.

The sequence. The Laboratory wll not examne evdence to authenticate fine art or historical artifacts or to source spray pant or archtectural pants. number. orgnal automotve pant. manufacturer. Sourcng automotve pants s lmted to factory-appled. color. A comparson can be made between the pant from an object and the pant on a tool. and model year of an automoble may be determned from a pant chp. Questions concerning paint evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. vaults.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Paint Examinations The layer structure of a questoned pant sample can be compared wth a known source from a suspect. The color. ß Search the accdent or crme scene and the personal effects of the vctm(s) to locate pant 101 . wndowslls. relatve thckness. model. texture. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Pant on safes. and chemcal composton of each of the layers can be compared. and door frames can be transferred to and from tools.

Submt the clothng. ß Package pant specmens n leakproof contaners such as vals or pllboxes. or from object to car durng an accdent or a crme. from car to object. ß Control pant chps must be collected from the suspected source of the evdentary pant. Pant fragments often are found n the clothng of the ht-and-run vctm(s). but not n. Pants can be transferred from one car to another. If no damage s obvous. Each layer can be a pont of comparson. Lft or pry loosely attached chps or dslodge the pant by gently httng the opposte sde of the panted surface. Ths can be accomplshed by the followng: ü ü ü Secton an area of the panted surface. Controls must have all of the layers of pant to the substrate. Cut a pant sample from the surface usng a clean. any damaged area. Controls must be taken from an area close to.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 fragments. Do not 102 . controls should be taken from several areas of the suspect substrate. sharp nstrument.

and wpe over the suspected sprays or foams. It may be used n self-defense sprays or foams. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Prepare a second mostened cloth or swab as a control. Items can be analyzed for the presence of oleoresn capscum. Ultravolet dye (orange) and/or tear gas also may be n the sprays or foams.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 attach pant partcles to adhesve tape. cotton. ß Submt entre tems (e. Mosten a clean cotton cloth or swab wth sopropanol (rubbng alcohol). or envelopes to package pant specmens. Back to the top Pepper-Spray or Pepper-Foam Examinations Oleoresn capscum s a resn n varous peppers. or tear gas. clothng) when possble. and package separately n paper bags. dye.g. Questions concerning pepper-spray evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. Ar-dry the evdence. ß 103 . Do not use plastc bags. Follow the evdence submsson drectons..

Lst the names of the pharmaceutcals and nformaton on ther use. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. submt pharmaceutcals n orgnal contaners. ß Questions concerning pharmaceutical evidence should be directed to 703-6328441. ß ß 104 . ß ß Submt spray cansters when possble. quantty. and weght. actve ngredents. Refer to Hazardous Materials Transportation when submttng pepperspray cansters. Back to the top Pharmaceutical Examinations Pharmaceutcal examnatons can dentfy consttuents.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Ar-dry the cloths or swabs and pack separately n heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags. If possble. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.

Plastcs n wre nsulaton and mscellaneous plastcs such as buttons can be compared wth known sources. These peces can be physcally reconstructed wth the remnants of the fixture left on the car. Motor vehcle trm can be compared wth plastc remanng on property struck n a ht-and-run case. make. plastc lens covers) can be left at the scene. use. fragments (e. Collect and package 105 . The manufacturer.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Polymer Examinations Polymer evdence typcally conssts of peces of plastc or other manufactured materals. Questions concerning polymer evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. ß When a motor vehcle has been n an accdent. and model year of a vehcle can be determned f a manufacturer’s part number s on the trm. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. The source.g. or manufacturer of polymer evdence usually cannot be identified by compositional analyss.. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. model.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 the fragments carefully to keep the edges ntact. Submt fragments n leakproof containers such as film canisters or plastc pll bottles. ß Search the accdent or crme scene and personal effects of the vctm(s) to locate plastc fragments. and package separately n resealable plastc bags or boxes. Package separately n paper bags. If possble. cut wth a clean. sharp nstrument a secton where the transfer s suspected. Pack n clean paper. Do not use cotton or paper contaners.g. Do not use plastc contaners. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. submt entre tems (e. Examples 106 . Remove damaged suspect motor vehcle parts. ß ß Back to the top Product-Tampering Examinations Product tamperng s when a commercal product s ntentonally dstorted to harm someone or to extort money or other thng of value. clothng) wth potental or smeared polymerc transfers. Collect an unstaned control sample. If the entre tem cannot be submtted..

Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning product-tampering evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. Submt samples n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. Use cauton to prevent the destructon of latent prnts. Package and shp control and suspect samples separately to avod contamnaton. food adulteraton n supermarkets. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. ß Back to the top 107 . Do not use paper or glass contaners.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 range from drug tamperng n medcal envronments. The Laboratory wll not assess manufacturng quality control or product specifications in commercal products. ß ß Submt control samples of the unadulterated product. and the combnaton of tamperng and alterng n domestc settngs.

Lack of sufficiently comparable known writing for comparson. and personalty cannot be determned from handwrtng examnatons. although not all handwriting is identifiable with a specific writer. Some reasons for nconclusve results nclude: ß ß ß Lmted questoned and/or known wrtng. Submsson of photocoped evdence nstead of orgnal evdence. Lack of sufficient identifying characteristics. sex. Dstorton or dsguse n the questoned and/or known wrtng. ß ß ß 108 . Lack of contemporaneous wrtng or lapse of tme between executon of questoned and known wrtng. Intent and such trats as age.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questioned Document Examinations Handwriting and Hand Printing The examnaton and comparson of handwrtng characterstcs can determne the orgn or authentcty of questoned wrtng.

The wrter and wtness must ntal and date each page of wrtng. ß ß ß ß ß ß 109 . Do not gve nstructons on spellng. Obtan exemplars from the rght and left hands. wrtng nstrument. Remove each exemplar from the wrter’s sght as soon as t s completed. sze of paper. or arrangement of wrtng. Do not allow the wrter to see the prevous exemplars or the questoned wrtng. Gve verbal or typewrtten nstructons concernng the text to be wrtten. Numerous repettons may be necessary to obtan naturally prepared wrtng. All exemplars must be on separate peces of paper. space avalable for wrtng. and wrtng style (handwrtng or hand prntng) must be as close to the orgnal wrtng as possble. punctuaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Procedures for Obtaining Known Writing Exemplars ß The text.

Obtain a sufficient quantity of exemplars to account for natural varaton n the wrtng. and cancelled checks or other documents prepared durng the normal course of busness actvty. ß ß Smulated sgnatures are prepared by copyng or drawng a genune sgnature. Altered or Obliterated Writing Documents can be examned for the presence of altered or oblterated wrtng. personal correspondence. Obtan undctated wrtng such as busness records. 110 . and the orgnal wrtng may be decphered. Common Types of Nongenuine Signatures ß Traced sgnatures are prepared by drectly usng a genune sgnature as a template or pattern.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Obtan hand-prntng exemplars n upper. Freehand sgnatures are wrtten n the forger’s normal handwrtng wth no attempt to copy another’s wrtng style. Therefore t may be possble to dentfy the wrter(s) who prepared the sgnature(s).and lowercase letters.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Typewriting Questioned typewriting may be identified with the typewrter that produced t. Procedures for Obtaining Known Typewriting Exemplars ß If the typewriter has a carbon-film ribbon or correcton rbbon. Generally.g. However. ball. prntwheel.. Ths s most common when the typewrter s a typebar machne. remove t from the 111 . fabrc rbbons cannot be read or identified. These rbbons can be compared wth questoned typewrtten mpressons. Carbon-film typewriter ribbons and correction rbbons retan readable text. these typing elements may be positively identified with specific texts by examining individual characterstcs of the elements. The identification is based on individual characteristics that develop durng the manufacturng process and through use and abuse of the typewrter. Comparson of questoned typewrtng wth reference standards can determne a possble make and model of the typewrter and/or the typewrter elements. or thmble) are less lkely to be assocated wth questoned typewrtng. Typewrters wth nterchangeable elements (e.

Insert a new rbbon n the typewrter pror to obtanng exemplars.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 typewrter and submt the rbbon to the Laboratory. remove t from the typewrter and put the typewrter n the stencl poston. Obtan two full word-for-word typed exemplars of the questoned text and two typed exemplars of the entre keyboard (all symbols. n some cases. however. Allow the typeface to strke the carbon paper. the examner wll request the 112 ß ß ß ß . Also record the date the exemplars were obtaned and the name of the person who typed the exemplars. Normally t s not necessary to send the typewrter to the Laboratory. and seral number of the typewrter on the exemplars. Obtan the typewrter servce and repar hstory. model. Submt the fabrc rbbon and the exemplars typed on the carbon paper to the Laboratory. and upper. Record the make. Place a sheet of carbon paper over a sheet of blank paper and nsert both nto the typewrter. ß If the typewrter has a fabrc rbbon. numbers.and lowercase letters). f avalable.

Obtan at least 10 exemplars wth a document through the automatc document feeder. prntwheel. It must be packed securely to prevent damage durng shpment.g.. Photocopies or Facsimiles Photocopes or facsmles of documents can be identified with the machine used to produce them f the exemplars and questoned documents are relatvely contemporaneous. or thmble) also must be submtted to the Laboratory.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 typewrter. Procedures for Obtaining Known Photocopy Exemplars ß Obtan at least 10 exemplars wthout a document on the glass plate and wth the cover down. Typewrter elements (e. ball. f applcable. The possble make and model of the photocoper or facsmle machne sometmes can be determned. ß ß 113 . Obtan at least 10 exemplars wth a document on the glass plate and the cover down. ß Obtan at least 10 exemplars wthout a document on the glass plate and wth the cover up.

nformaton about the toner supples and components. The paper manufacturer can be determned f a watermark s present. and optons such as color. Paper Torn edges can be compared.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Record on each exemplar the date the exemplars were obtaned. mask.or roll-fed. 114 . enlargement. Record the make. and plates or office printing devces such as nk-jet or laser prnters. reducton. trm. Do not store or shp photocopes n plastc envelopes. Do not rub the ndentatons wth a pencl. Paper can be examned for ndented wrtng. Do not add ndentatons by wrtng on top of the evdence. the name of the person who prepared the exemplars. negatives. ß ß Graphic Arts (Commercial and Office Printing) Prnted documents can be assocated wth a common source or identified with known commercal prntng paraphernala such as artwork. whether the paper supply s sheet. model. and the condtons under whch the exemplars were made. and seral number of the photocoper. and edtor board. zoom.

and nks. typewrtng. Submt the devce to the Laboratory. ncludng watermarks. Examnng checkwrter mpressons may determne the brand or model of the checkwrter. The document must be shpped n the contaner n which it was burned. Checkwriters A checkwrter mpresson can be compared wth a known source.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Burned or Charred Paper Burned or charred documents (not completely reduced to ash) may be decphered and stablzed. ndented wrtng. Age of a Document The earlest date a document could have been prepared may be determned by examnng varous physcal characterstcs. prntng. Embossings and Seals An embossed or seal mpresson can be compared wth a known source. Carbon Paper or Carbon-Film Ribbon Used carbon paper or a carbon-film ribbon can be examned to dsclose the content of the text. The document must be handled mnmally. in polyester film encapsulaton. 115 . or between layers of cotton n a rgd contaner.

This file can be searched in an attempt to assocate text from a communcaton n one case wth text from communcatons n other cases.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Rubber Stamps A rubber-stamp mpresson can be compared wth a known source. Bank Robbery Note File The Bank Robbery Note Fle contans mages of notes used in bank robberies. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. This file can be searched n an attempt to assocate text from one bank robbery note wth text from bank robbery notes n other cases. Plastic Bags Plastc bags (e. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. 116 .. Questions concerning documentary evidence should be directed to 703-632-8444. Anonymous Letter File The Anonymous Letter Fle contans mages of anonymous and/or threatenng communcatons submtted to the Questoned Documents Unt for examination.g. sandwch and garbage bags) can be compared wth a roll or box of bags. Submt the rubber stamp to the Laboratory uncleaned.

stamped. The lack of detal in photocopies makes examinations difficult and often wll result n nconclusve opnons. ß ß Back to the top Rope and Cordage Examinations A pece of rope or cord can be compared wth a questoned rope or cord. 117 . Protect the evdence from nadvertent ndented wrtng. Mark documents unobtrusvely by wrtng the collector’s ntals. If a tracer s present. Do not store or shp photocopes n plastc envelopes. and dameter can be determned. The composton. the manufacturer can be determned. soled. It must not be unnecessarly folded.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Documentary evdence must be preserved n the condton n whch t was found. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning rope and cordage evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. constructon. date. submt the orgnal evdence to the Laboratory. marked. or wrtten on or handled excessvely. Whenever possble. torn. Copies are sufficient for reference-file searches. color. and other nformaton n pencl.

Submt n heat-sealed or resealable plastc or paper bags. ß Submt the entre rope or cord.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. specfy whch end was cut durng evdence collecton. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. ß Collect safe-nsulaton samples from damaged areas. If the rope or cord must be cut. 118 . Examnatons of safe nsulaton sometmes can determne the manufacturer. Label the known and questoned samples. Handle the sectons of rope or cord carefully to prevent loss of trace materal or contamnaton. ß ß ß Back to the top Safe-Insulation Examinations Safe nsulaton can be compared to a known source. Questions concerning safe-insulation evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449.

Do not use paper or glass contaners. Do not process tools for latent prnts. Questions concerning serial-number evidence should be directed to 703-632-8442. plastc. wood. Comparisons can be made wth suspect des.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Safe nsulaton can adhere to people. Package each tem of evdence n a separate paper bag. and stolen tems and can transfer to vehcles. ß Back to the top Serial-Number Examinations Obliterated serial or identification numbers— ncludng markngs on metal. 119 . Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Pack to keep lumps ntact. If possble. Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. and fiberglass—often are restorable. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. submt the evdence to the Laboratory for examners to remove the debrs. tools. bags. clothng. Submt known and questoned debrs n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles.

and f possble. ß 120 . Ensure there are no vods n the dam. Dfferent formulas are used n dfferent temperatures. make a cast to submt to the Laboratory. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8442 regardng the approprate cast kt. Casts wll duplcate foregn materal n the stamped characters. 2. 1.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß For large objects. move the evdence to a warm area. If possble. or pant remover. Clean the area before proceedng. Use a soft and plable dam materal such as modelng clay. Use a soft brush. 4. If t s not possble to remove the secton contanng the seral number. Do not use a wre brush. gasolne. Use an acrylc-surface replca cast kt. remove the secton contanng the seral number and submt t to the Laboratory. Use Naval Jelly to remove rust. Remove pant and drt wth a solvent such as acetone. Buld a dam around the stamped characters to retan the acrylc lqud whle t hardens. 3.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 5. 7. 8. If pant and rust are on the cast. The acrylc lqud wll take 30 mnutes to harden. 6. Pack the cast to prevent breakage. These mpressons are retaned on surfaces n two. ncludng partal mpressons. mx the lqud and powder for one mnute and pour the mxture nto the dam. have value for forensc comparsons. Remove the cast when t s hard. 121 . make addtonal casts and submt the cleanest one to the Laboratory. Back to the top Shoe Print and Tire Tread Examinations Shoe prnt or tre tread mpressons are routnely left at crme scenes. Almost all mpressons. Indcate from where on the object (often a vehcle) the cast was taken. The examnaton of detaled shoe prnt and tre tread mpressons often results in the positive identification of the shoes of the suspect(s) or tre(s) from the vehcle(s) of the suspect(s). Followng the nstructons n the kt.and threedmensonal forms.

Examination-Quality Photographs Examnaton-qualty photographs must be taken drectly over the mpressons usng a trpod and lghtng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Photographing Shoe Print and Tire Tread Impressions General crme scene photographs must be taken to relate the mpressons to the crme scene. Examnaton-qualty photographs then must be taken to obtan maxmum detal for forensc examnaton and must nclude a scale. Examnaton-qualty photographs must be taken as follows: 1. The photographs must show the relatonshp of the mpressons to the surroundng area. ISO 400 color film should be used. The purpose of these photographs s to produce a detaled negatve that can be enlarged to natural sze. A scale must be n every photograph. Place a lnear scale such as a ruler next to and on the same plane as the 122 . General Crime Scene Photographs General crme scene photographs of shoe prnt or tre tread mpressons must nclude close-range and long-range photographs. All mpressons must be photographed usng both methods. General crme scene photographs are not sutable for footwear or tre examnatons.

. Low-cost digital cameras do not provide sufficient mage detal for examnaton-qualty photographs. 4. use ISO 100 film.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 mpresson. Set the f-stop on f/16 or f/22 for a greater depth of field. 2. If the shoe prnt s made from a colored substance (e. Adjust the heght of the camera. and f possble. color film may be preferable to black and whte. In most ambent-lght stuatons. Attach an electronic flash with a long extenson cord to the camera. Images should be taken usng a 35 mm or medium-format film camera. 5. 123 . Poston the camera so the film plane is parallel to the mpresson. if necessary. 3. use a normal lens (50 mm for a 35 mm camera). Place a label n the pcture to correlate the mpresson wth crme scene notes and general photographs. Use a manual-focus camera. Fll the frame wth the mpresson and scale.g. Use ISO 200 or 400 film. Place the camera on a trpod and poston t drectly over the mpresson. blood).

Frst. To ncrease the contrast. and repeat Steps 7 and 8. bracketng toward overexposure to obtan maxmum mage detail.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 6. Ths wll enhance the detal of the mpresson. not on the scale. lghtly spray snow mpressons wth Snow Prnt Wax. Focus on the bottom of the mpresson. For consistent exposure. adjust the sunscreen. Move the flash two or more angles to the mpresson. Block out brght ambent lght wth a sunscreen to maxmze the lght from the flash. Take the exposures. or wth colored spray pant. a materal used for castng snow mpressons. 8. attempt to photograph the mpressons as f n sol. Impressions in Snow Impressions in snow are difficult to photograph because of lack of contrast. Take an exstng.or reflected-light photograph. 9. Hold the spray can at least 2–3 feet 124 . Shoot several exposures. Position the flash at a very low angle (10–15 degrees) to the mpresson. move the lght to another poston. 7. hold the flash at least 5–7 feet from the mpresson.

or snow s necessary to capture detal for examnaton. 125 . Hghlghted mpressons wll absorb heat from the sun and must be shelded untl photographed and cast to prevent meltng. Casting Three-Dimensional Impressions Castng a three-dmensonal mpresson n sol. Recovering the Original Evidence Whenever possble. modelng plasters. If the evdence cannot be submtted to the Laboratory. Plaster of pars. sand. Dental stone s avalable through local dental supply houses. Dental stone. wth a compressve strength of 8. and dental plasters are not sufficiently hard. submt to the Laboratory the evdence bearng the orgnal mpresson. use the followng technques to recover the evdence. and must not be used.000 ps or greater. must be used for castng all mpressons. do not resist abrason when cleaned. Drect a lght applcaton of spray at an angle of about 30–45 degrees so the colored pant strkes only the hgh ponts of the mpresson. Colored dental stone s preferred.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 from the mpresson so the force of the aerosol does not damage the mpresson. The compressve strength s lsted on the contaner along wth the proper rato of powder to water used for mxng.

Pouring Dental Stone Casting material has sufficient weight and volume to erode and destroy detal f t s poured drectly on top of the mpresson. The bag contanng the dental stone powder can be used to mx and pour the dental stone. the materal should have the consstency of pancake batter or heavy cream. castng mpressons at the crme scene nvolves only addng water. Ensure that the materal n the corners of the bag s also mxed. Mixing Dental Stone in a Bucket or Bowl If the mpressons are numerous or large. After t has been mxed.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Mixing Dental Stone in a Bag Store dental stone n resealable plastc bags.by 12-nch resealable plastc bag can store two pounds of dental stone powder. t may be necessary to mx larger quanttes of dental stone n a bucket or bowl. The castng materal 126 . Mx the castng materal by vgorously massagng t through the bag for 3–5 mnutes. add the approprate amount of water to the bag and close the top. The dental stone should be added slowly to the water and strred contnuously for 3–5 mnutes. the materal should have the consstency of pancake batter or heavy cream. Wth premeasured bags. To make a cast. An 8. After t has been mxed.

Package the cast n paper. use a finger or a small stick on the surface to cause the dental stone to flow into the impression. If the cast s n sand or loose sol. In cold weather. If the mixture does not flow easily into all areas of the impression. not n plastc. The impression should be filled with casting material until it has overflowed. wrte the date.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 should be poured on the ground next to the impression. Lifting Two-Dimensional Impressions Lftng an mpresson allows for the transfer of a 127 . the cast should be left undsturbed for at least 20–30 mnutes. Allow the cast to ar-dry for at least 48 hours. Casts have been destroyed or damaged when lfted too soon. collector’s ntals. t should lft easly. Before the cast hardens completely. In warm weather. Do not put the stick or finger more than 1/4 nch below the surface of the castng materal because t can damage the mpresson. and other dentfyng nformaton on t. the cast should be left undsturbed longer. allowing it to flow into the impression. Casts n mud or clay may requre careful treatment and excavaton when beng removed. An FBI Laboratory examner must clean the cast.

Storing Electrostatic Lifting Film Lifted impressions are damaged easily if the film is not stored properly. Electrostatic Lifts An electrostatc lftng devce lfts footwear mpressons from porous and nonporous surfaces wthout damagng the mpressons. To preserve and store the lifting film containing an impression. Low-grade cardboard boxes such as pzza boxes must not be used because the resdual charge on the film will pull dust from the box and contamnate the mpresson. Items that contan a dry resdue footwear mpresson must not be wrapped or stored n 128 . tape one edge of the film securely in a clean. The film has a residual charge that attracts dust and debrs and causes the film to cling to other surfaces. Ths devce works on dry dust or resdue mpressons on clean surfaces but wll not work f the mpressons were wet or have become wet. smooth.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 two-dmensonal resdue or dust mpresson to a lifting film. Electrostatc lftng devces come wth nstructons for use. high-quality paper file folder or tape the edges securely n a shallow photographc paper box. It also allows the impression to be shpped to the Laboratory for photographng and examnaton.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 plastc because a partal transfer of the mpresson to the plastc wll occur. Black gelatn lfters work well for lftng lght-colored dry or wet mpressons. 129 . Transparent adhesve lfters can be used to lft impressions developed with black or fluorescent powders. Useful for searchng for latent mpressons. Whte gelatn lfters can be used to lift impressions developed with fingerprint powders or mpressons dark enough to contrast wth a whte background. Gelatin and Adhesive Lifts Gelatn lfters can be used to lft mpressons from porous and nonporous surfaces. Whte adhesve lfters can be used to lft impressions developed with fingerprint powders. Nondestructve. Transparent tapes such as two-nch fingerprint-lifting tape also can be used to lift powdered mpressons f the mpressons are transferred to a whte card. Used to lft dry dust and resdue mpressons. nonporous surfaces. Adhesve lfters can be used only to lft mpressons from smooth. Lifting Materials ß Electrostatic: can be used on porous and nonporous surfaces.

Transparent adhesive: can be used on smooth.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß White adhesive: can be used on smooth. ß ß ß Searching Shoe Print and Tire Tread Files A file of shoe manufacturers’ designs and a file of tre treads and other reference materal can be searched to determne brand names and manufacturers. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons that have been chemcally enhanced or developed with fluorescent fingerprint powder. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons. nonporous surfaces. 130 . Do not use on an orgnal mpresson. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons that have been treated wth black or fluorescent fingerprint powder. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons that have been chemcally enhanced or developed with dark fingerprint powder. Offers good contact wth most resdue. nonporous surfaces. White gelatin: can be used on all porous and nonporous surfaces as long as the gelatn contrasts wth an mpresson. Black gelatin: can be used on all porous and nonporous surfaces.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning shoe print and tire tread evidence should be directed to 703-632-7288. If photographs are not avalable. ß For shoe prnt and tre tread comparsons. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Detaled sketches or photocopes are acceptable. For shoe print and tire tread file searches. lfts). 703-632-7314. Images of mpresson evdence may be submtted electroncally. or 703-632-7315. lfts. Ar-dry and package evdence separately n Bubble Wrap. Unobtrusvely wrte the collector’s ntals. Call 703-632-7288 for specifics on submitting evdence n ths manner. submt casts. and other relevant nformaton on the evdence. clean. tres. submt qualty photographs of the mpressons. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. smooth. dates. casts. or the orgnal evdence. or paper bags. 131 ß ß ß Back to the top . photographc negatves. hgh-qualty paper or lamnated folders. submt orgnal evdence whenever possble (shoes. dependng on the tems beng submtted for examnaton.

Collect sol samples at a depth that s consstent wth the depth from whch the questoned sol may have orgnated. collect sol samples from alb areas such as the yard or work area of the suspect(s). texture. Collect sol samples where there are notceable changes n color. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Soil Examinations Sol examnatons can determne whether sols share a common orgn by comparng color. texture. 132 ß ß ß ß . and composton. because the sol at the crme scene can change dramatcally. ß Collect sol samples as soon as possble. and composton. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. If possble. Questions concerning soil evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Collect sol samples from the mmedate crme scene area and from the logcal access and escape route(s).

360-degree sphercal vdeo capture. Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. These operatons nclude three-dmensonal laser scannng and documentaton of physcal structures and objects. 133 . Ar-dry the sol. and geographc nformaton system (GIS) mappng. and package separately n paper bags. clothng. ß ß Back to the top Special-Event and Situational Awareness Support Visual information specialists travel to the field and conduct dgtal ste/venue surveys. and package separately n paper bags. and tools. Carefully remove sol adherng to vehcles.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Submt a map dentfyng sol-sample locatons. Do not process tools for latent prnts. Do not use paper envelopes or glass contaners. Ar-dry the sol and the clothng. Do not remove sol adherng to shoes. Pack to keep lumps ntact. Submt known and questoned sol n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles.

The Laboratory wll examne duct. 134 . packagng.g.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning special-event and situational awareness support should be directed to 703-632-8194. submt tape stll adhered to the substrate. and color can be compared wth known sources. constructon. the tape may be manually removed and placed adhesve sde down on a clean. transparency film or Kapak tubular rollstock). vnyl electrcal. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.. maskng. If t s not possble to submt the substrate. colorless pece of plastc sheetng (e. Ths mnmzes the loss of trace evidence. Tape Examinations Tape composton. Scotch) tapes. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Questions concerning tape evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. Comparsons can be made wth the torn end of tape and a suspect roll of tape. and cellulose acetate (e. latent fingerprints. ß Whenever possble.g.. or contact mpressons.

In the absence of a questoned tool. Back to the top Toolmark Examinations Toolmarks Tools can bear unque mcroscopc characterstcs because of manufacturng processes and use. These characterstcs can be transferred to surfaces that had contact wth the tools. Toolmark examnatons also nclude lock-and-key examnatons. Evdence toolmarks can be compared wth recovered tools.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 not on cardboard. document and ntal each cut. Do not dstort or tear the tape durng removal. toolmark examnatons can determne the type of tool(s) that produced the toolmark and whether the toolmark s of value for comparson.g. 135 . ß If the tape s cut durng removal. Fractures Fracture examnatons sometmes can be used to determne whether evdence was joned together and subsequently broken apart. Use a method that produces a unque cuttng pattern (e. pnkng shears). or vnyl document protectors. paper..

Buld a dam around the stamped characters to retan the acrylc lqud 136 . Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8442 regardng the approprate cast kt. gasolne. Casts wll duplcate foregn materal n the stamped characters. 4. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Use an acrylc-surface replca cast kt. submt the tool-marked evdence. 2. 3. 1. If possble. make a cast to submt to the Laboratory. Use a soft brush. move the evdence to a warm area.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning toolmark evidence should be directed to 703-632-8442. Clean the area before proceedng. or pant remover. Dfferent formulas are used n dfferent temperatures. Use Naval Jelly to remove rust. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Remove pant and drt wth a solvent such as acetone. ß ß If possble. Do not use a wre brush. If t s not possble to submt the tool-marked evdence.

7. Remove the cast when t s hard. The acrylc lqud wll take 30 mnutes to harden. ß ß Photographs locate toolmarks but are of no value for identification purposes. Submt samples n leakproof containers such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. 5. Obtan samples of any materal deposted on the tools. Ensure there are no vods n the dam. If pant and rust are on the cast. To avod contamnaton. mx the lqud and powder for one mnute and pour the mxture nto the dam.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 whle t hardens. Pack the cast to prevent breakage. make addtonal casts and submt the cleanest one to the Laboratory. do not place the tool aganst the tool-marked evdence. ß 137 . Indcate where on the object (often a vehcle) the cast was taken. 8. Followng the nstructons n the kt. 6. Use a soft and plable dam materal such as modelng clay.

sucdes. pharmaceutcals). Mark the ends of the evdence and specfy whch end was cut durng evdence collecton. 138 . Examples nclude: ß ß ß Volatle compounds (ethanol. Because of the large number of potentally toxc substances. Heavy metals (arsenc). Toxcology examnatons can dsclose the presence of drugs and posons n bologcal specmens and food products. methanol. t may be necessary to screen for classes of posons. The examnatons can determne the crcumstances surroundng drug. sopropanol). Nonvolatle organc compounds (drugs of abuse. and accdents. Back to the top Toxicology Examinations The Toxcology dscplne of the FBI Laboratory s accredted by the Amercan Board of Forensc Toxcologsts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Submt the tool rather than makng test cuts or mpressons.or poson-related homcdes.

The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference ß ß 139 . Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting hair to ensure that the evidence will be accepted for examination. Questions concerning toxicology evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. ß Acceptng evdence n alleged poson nvestgatons wll be based on whether the vctm(s) sought medcal attenton or a suspcous death occurred. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. A doctor’s medcal evaluaton and report must be ncluded wth the evdence. Bologcal evdence n drug-facltated assaults must nclude a urne sample. cyande). Toxcologcal analyss of har specmens wll be performed only for specific drugs or posons. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Mscellaneous (strychnne. The urne must be collected as soon as possble after the assault but must not have been collected more than 96 hours after the alleged druggng.

Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting the specimens to ensure that the correct quantity is submitted. Submt a copy of the autopsy or ncdent report. 140 ß ß ß . ß The quantty of bologcal specmens submtted depends on whether the dentty of a toxc substance s known. leakage. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. the route of admnstraton. or heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags. plastc cups. Affix BIOHAZARD labels to the inside and outsde contaners. labeled.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. and whether subjects(s) or vctm(s) are lvng or deceased. sealed glass tubes. the tme after exposure that bologcal specmens are collected. Refrgerate or freeze bologcal specmens durng storage and shppng to prevent deteroraton. Pack so that no breakage. or contamnaton occurs. Each bologcal specmen must be placed n separate.

as descrbed below. Forensc Audo. Lst any known or questoned drugs consumed by or prescrbed for the suspect(s) or vctm(s). Vdeo. and Image Analyss Unt (FAVIAU). 141 . unaltered. contnuous. and consstent wth the operaton of the recordng devce used to make the recordng. Dgtal Evdence Laboratory (DEL).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Descrbe the symptoms of the suspect(s) or vctm(s) at the tme of the crme or pror to the death. The OTD DEL has dfferent acceptance crtera and a dfferent physcal address than the FBI Laboratory. Authenticity Authentcty examnatons are conducted to determne whether vdeo recordngs are orgnal. ß ß Back to the top Video Examinations Vdeo examnatons are conducted by the FBI’s Operatonal Technology Dvson (OTD). Descrbe any known or questoned envronmental exposure to toxc substances by the suspect(s) or vctm(s).

Synchronization Audo and vdeo sgnals can be combned to produce one composte recordng...Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Enhancement Enhancement examnatons are conducted to maxmze the clarty of the vdeo sgnal. Format Conversion Vdeo can be converted from one format to another (e. Standards Conversion Vdeo can be converted from one standard to another (e. 142 . restored. Special Effects Specal effects. PAL to NTSC or SECAM). f damage s not too extensve. Beta to VHS).g. can be added to vdeo recordngs to protect a person’s dentty. Damaged Media Repair Vdeo recordngs can be repared. or retreved for playback and examnaton. Video Image Processing Enhanced stll mages can be produced from mages on vdeo and made as prnts or dgtal files.g. such as a mosac or blur spot.

FBI enttes may submt cases drectly.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning video examinations should be directed to 703-985-1393. local. If orgnals cannot be obtaned. local. local. Questions concerning video evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388. or nternatonal case has a nexus to an ongong FBI nvestgaton or 2) the FBI dvson head deems that the case s of enough regonal mportance to mert the dedcaton of federal resources to the state. State. ß Wrte-protect the orgnal meda. call for further nstructons. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. These crtera shall be met wth a wrtten statement from the dvson head (Specal Agent n Charge). Never use the Pause operaton when vewng orgnal vdeo recordngs. Submt orgnal vdeo recordngs. 143 ß . or nternatonal case. Vdeo examnatons may not be submtted drectly from enttes outsde the FBI. or nternatonal agency cases must be submtted by the FBI field office servicing the area and must meet one of the followng two crtera: 1) the state.

Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. WMDs are desgned to cause a large amount of destructon or dsrupton to people and nfrastructures.” Address the outer contaner as follows: ß ß FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Weapons of Mass Destruction Examinations A weapon of mass destructon (WMD) s typcally assocated wth nuclear and/or radologcal.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Queue the orgnal vdeotape to the approxmate tme of the pertnent area. or chemcal agents. bologcal. t also may be an explosve. 144 . and use the date-tme stamp on the vdeo or the counter ndcator (set from the begnnng of the tape at 000). SENSITIVE AUDIO/VIDEO MEDIA” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. State n a communcaton the date and tme of the pertnent area. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” or “FRAGILE. however.

academc. s traned to safely conduct tradtonal examnatons of hazardous evdence. chemcal agents. The FBI’s Hazardous Evdence Analyss Team (HEAT). The Laboratory can drect or apply the use of specalzed analytcal technques to dentfy and characterze a wde range of bologcal pathogens. These examnatons are conducted at FBI partner laboratores. toxns. and/or radologcal materal.e. Suspected or confirmed WMD crime scenes should be handled only by qualified personnel. bologcal.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 The FBI Laboratory has formalzed partnershps wth a varety of government. and prvate laboratores to conduct forensc examnatons of evdence that ether contans or s contamnated wth hazardous chemcal. bologcal. toxc chemcals.. and trace radoactve compounds that consttute a suspected or potental WMD. 145 . Dependng on the nature of the threat—. composed of forensc examners and techncans from the varous FBI Laboratory dscplnes. or radologcal—evdence examnatons wll be conducted by the Laboratory or at a desgnated FBI partner laboratory specally equpped to handle hazardous materals. chemcal.

Questions concerning wood evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. suspected or confirmed WMD evidence must be properly field-screened by qualified personnel to determine the absence or presence of hazardous materals. contact the FBI’s Strategic Information and Operations Center at 202-323-3300 and ask for the Weapons of Mass Destruction Operations Unit Duty Officer. and fractures. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. determne wood speces. vehcles. 146 . and compare wood partcles found on clothng. Back to the top Wood Examinations Wood examnatons can match sdes.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Upon notification or suspicion of a possible WMD incident. ß Submt wood n plastc or paper bags. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Before t can be analyzed by the Laboratory or partner laboratories. Questions concerning WMD evidence examinations should be directed to 703-632-7766. and other objects wth wood from the crme scene. ends.

Department of Transportaton and Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton regulatons. and federal envronmental and occupatonal health and safety laws when workng wth forensc evdence. bologcal.1 147 . Ths secton also explans the mportance of complyng wth wastedsposal regulatons.S. Always consult local. SAFETY Ths secton descrbes the hazards. t s the responsblty of each agency respondng to and provdng support at the crme scene to develop polces.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Crime Scene Safety Personnel have the ultmate responsblty to recognze chemcal. Routes of Exposure Personnel operatng n or around contamnated envronments must be aware of the varous ways n whch hazards may enter and harm the body. safe work practces. and physcal hazards when processng a crme scene. However. and personal protectve equpment recommended for personnel processng routne crme scenes. safety precautons. state. All shppng of forensc evdence must comply wth U. programs. and tranng on health and safety practces.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

Inhalation Inhalaton s the ntroducton of a toxc product by the respratory system. Arborne contamnants may be n the form of a dust, aerosol, smoke, vapor, gas, or fume. Materals may be n a sold or lqud form and stll represent an nhalaton hazard because they produce vapors, msts, and fumes. Proper work practces and adequate ventlaton can mnmze the rsk of arborne-contamnant nhalaton. When workng n areas wth arborne contamnants present, personnel must wear respiratory protection. Personnel must be certified to wear respratory protecton and, therefore, to work n areas contanng arborne contamnants. Skin Contact Contamnaton through the skn can result from drect contact or by absorpton. The severty of the njury can depend on the concentraton of the contamnant and the amount of exposure tme. Systemc effects—such as dzzness, tremors, nausea, blurred vson, lver and kdney damage, shock, or collapse—can occur when the substances are absorbed through the skn and crculated throughout the body. Exposure can be prevented by usng personal protectve equpment (e.g., gloves, safety glasses, goggles, face shelds, and protectve clothng).

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Ingestion Ingeston nvolves ntroducng contamnants nto the body through the mouth. Ingeston can cause severe damage to the mouth, throat, and dgestve tract. To prevent entry of contamnants nto the mouth, safe work practces—such as washng hands before eatng, smokng, or applyng cosmetcs—must always be used. Personnel should not brng food, drnks, or cgarettes nto areas where contamnaton can occur, regardless of personal protecton they may be wearng. Injection The drect njecton of contamnants nto the body—ether by needle stcks or mechancal njures from contamnated glass, metal, or other sharp objects—can cause severe complcatons. Contamnants enter drectly nto the bloodstream and can spread rapdly. Extreme cauton should be exercsed when handlng objects wth sharp or jagged edges. Work gloves must be worn at all tmes.

Safety
Bloodborne Pathogen Safety On December 6, 1991, OSHA ssued Ttle 29, Secton 1910.1030, of the Code of Federal Regulatons (CFR), Bloodborne Pathogens.2

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Occupatons at rsk for exposure to bloodborne pathogens nclude law enforcement, emergency response, and forensc laboratory personnel. Fundamental to the bloodborne pathogens standard s the concept of followng unversal precautons. Ths concept s the prmary mechansm for nfecton control. It requres that employees treat all blood, body fluids, or other potentally nfectous materals as f nfected wth bloodborne dseases, such as the hepatts B vrus (HBV), the hepatts C vrus (HCV), and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The following protectve measures should be taken to avod drect contact wth potentally nfectous materals: ß Use barrer protecton—such as dsposable gloves, coveralls, and shoe covers—f contact wth potentally nfectous materals may occur. Change gloves when torn or punctured or when ther ablty to functon as a barrer s compromsed. Wear approprate eye and face protecton to protect aganst splashes, sprays, and spatters of potentally nfectous materals. Wash hands after removng gloves or other personal protectve equpment. Remove gloves and other personal protectve equpment n a manner that wll not result n contamnatng unprotected skn or clothng.
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Prohbt eatng, drnkng, smokng, or applyng cosmetics where human blood, body fluids, or other potentally nfectous materals are present, regardless of personal protecton that may be worn. Place contamnated sharps n approprate closable, leakproof, puncture-resstant contaners when transported or dscarded. Label the containers with a BIOHAZARD warnng label. Do not bend, re-cap, remove, or otherwse handle contamnated needles or other sharps. After use, decontamnate equpment wth a daly prepared soluton of household bleach dluted 1:10 or wth 70 percent sopropyl alcohol or other approprate dsnfectant. Noncorrosve dsnfectants are commercally available. It is important to allow sufficient contact tme for complete dsnfecton. In addton to unversal precautons, engneerng controls and prudent work practces can reduce or elmnate exposure to potentally nfectous materals. Examples of engneerng controls nclude long-handled mrrors used to locate and retreve evdence n

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confined or hidden spaces and punctureresstant contaners used to store and dspose of sharps and pant strrers. Chemical Safety Dependng on the type of materal encountered, a varety of health and safety hazards can exst. Some of these hazards are identified by the followng categores:1, 3 ß Flammable or combustble materals—such as gasolne, acetone, and ether—gnte easly when exposed to ar and an gnton source, such as a spark or flame. Over tme, some explosve materals, such as ntroglycerne and ntroglycerne-based dynamte, deterorate to become chemcally unstable. In partcular, ether wll form peroxdes around the mouth of the vessel n whch t s stored. All explosve materals are senstve to heat, shock, and frcton. Pyrophorc materals—such as phosphorus, sodum, and barum—can be lqud or sold and can gnte wthout an external gnton source n ar temperatures less than 130 degrees Fahrenhet (540 degrees Celsus).

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Oxdzers—such as ntrates, hydrogen peroxde, and concentrated sulfurc acd—are chemcal compounds that readly yeld oxygen to promote combuston. Avod storage wth flammable and combustible materials or substances that could rapdly accelerate ther decomposton. Corrosve materals can cause destructon to lvng tssue or objects such as wood and steel. The amount of damage depends on the concentraton and duraton of contact. When workng wth chemcals, be aware of hazardous propertes, dsposal technques, personal protecton, packagng and shppng procedures, and emergency preparedness. Ths awareness comes from approprate tranng and the nformaton n a Materal Safety Data Sheet. The Materal Safety Data Sheet provdes nformaton on the hazards of a partcular materal so that personnel can work safely and responsbly wth hazardous materals.

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Light-Source Safety When usng ultravolet lghts, lasers, and other lght sources, personnel must protect ther eyes from drect and ndrect exposure.4 Not all laser

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beams are vsble, and rreversble eye damage can result from exposure to drect or ndrect lght from reflected beams. Prolonged exposure to the skn also should be avoded. All personnel n the vcnty of the lght source should wear protectve eyewear approprate for the light source. Goggles must have sufficient protective material and fit snugly to prevent light from enterng at any angle. The goggles must dsplay the Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute’s (ANSI’s) mark denotng eye-protecton complance. Laser-protectve eyewear must be of the approprate optcal densty to protect aganst the maxmum operatng wavelength of the laser source. Confined-Space Safety A confined space is an enclosed area large enough for personnel to enter and work, but t has lmted or restrcted means for entry and ext. Confined spaces (e.g., sewers, open pits, tank cars, and vats) are not desgned for contnuous occupancy. Confined spaces can expose personnel to hazards ncludng toxc gases, explosive or oxygen-deficient atmospheres, electrcal dangers, or materals that can engulf personnel enterng the space.5

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Conditions in a confined space must be consdered dangerous, and personnel may not enter the space until a confined-space permit has been ssued. The atmosphere must be montored contnuously wth a calbrated, drect-readng nstrument for oxygen, carbon monoxde, flammable gases and vapors, and toxic air contamnants. Perodc readngs from these monitors should be documented. Only certified confined-space personnel may operate in confined spaces. Rescue services must be mmedately avalable to the ste. The followng practces must be followed when working in a confined space: ß Never enter before all atmospherc, engulfment, mechancal, and electrcal hazards have been identified and documented. Isolatng hazards must be performed n accordance wth OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147, The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout).6 Provde ventlaton. Ensure that ventlaton equpment does not nterfere wth entry, ext, or rescue procedures.

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such as self-contaned breathng apparatus (SCBA). 29 CFR 1910. For addtonal nformaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Provde barrers to warn unauthorzed personnel and to keep entrants safe from external hazards. Ensure that back-up communcaton s n place pror to entry.146. Wear approprate personal protectve equpment. and other necessary equpment. refer to the OSHA standard for Permit-Required Confined Spaces. Provde constant communcaton between personnel entering the confined space and attendants.7 ß ß ß ß ß ß 156 . Never attempt a rescue unless part of a desgnated rescue team. Ensure that personnel certified in first aid and CPR (cardopulmonary resusctaton) are on-ste. head protecton. a full-body harness.

10 Each employee n an excavaton shall be protected from cave-ns by an adequate protectve system desgned n accordance wth 29 CFR 1926.651. or dangerous to employees and who has the authorzaton to take prompt correctve acton to elmnate those hazards. handheld X-ray machnes. X-Ray Safety Portable. pose a rsk for exposure to X-ray radaton at crme scenes.9 and 1926.650. confined spaces. often used to dentfy the contents of unknown packages. 29 CFR 1926. and oxygen-deficient atmospheres. personnel should be aware of bured utltes and control standng water.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Excavation Safety All excavatons must meet the requrements set forth n OSHA’s standards for excavatons.652.652(c).10 unless excavations are less than five feet in depth and examnaton of the ground s made by a competent person to prevent cave-ns. 157 . hazardous. hazardous environments.8 1926. As wth all excavatons. A competent person s someone capable of dentfyng exstng and predctable hazards n the surroundngs or workng condtons that are unsantary.652(b) or 29 CFR 1926.

Dependng on the 158 . The hazard rsk assessment should dentfy the possble contamnants as well as the hazards assocated wth each product. the selecton of personal protectve equpment must be done n coordnaton wth a hazard rsk assessment completed by trained and qualified personnel. the questonable object. Lmt the tme that personnel must be n the area of operaton. Back to the top Personal Protective Equipment At all crme scenes. Always wear assgned montorng devces approprate for X-ray radaton. Ensure that standard X-ray operatng procedures are n place and followed and that adequate tranng has been provded n accordance wth federal and state regulatons. Remove all nonessental personnel from the X-ray field.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Keep X-ray exposure as low as reasonably achevable by adherng to the followng: ß ß ß ß ß Sheld the X-ray devce. and the operator.

acds. solvents. aromatcs. Neoprene offers resstance to ol. grease. photographic solutons. petroleum. Hand Protection Hand protecton should be selected on the bass of the type of materal beng handled and the hazard(s) assocated wth the materal. lubrcants. OSHA’s standard for Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. ß 159 . hydraulic fluid. 29 CFR 1910. 13 Detaled nformaton can be obtaned from the manufacturer. The followng lst provdes nformaton about glove materal types and functons: ß Ntrle provdes protecton from acds.12. fuels. and qualified personnel. bases. and most refrgerants. Entry nto these types of scenes wll depend on each law enforcement organzaton’s avalable equpment. and chlornated solvents.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 outcome of the assessment or uncertanty of the hazards assocated wth the gven scene. It also offers some resstance to cuts and snags. alkales.11 may need to be appled. stuatonal training. alkalne solutions.120.

excessve heat or drect sunlght. Remove rngs or other sharp objects that can cause punctures. Personnel allergc to latex usually can wear ntrle or neoprene. Usng powder-free gloves wth reduced proten content reduces the rsk of developng latex allerges. ols. Latex (natural rubber) ressts mld acds. caustcs. and lmted concentratons of ntrc and chromc acds. When workng wth heavly contamnated materals. Latex wll swell and degrade f exposed to gasolne or kerosene. germcdes. causng the glove materal to lose ts ntegrty. ß ß Gudelnes for glove use nclude the followng: ß Pror to donnng gloves. latex gloves can degrade.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Polyvnyl chlorde (PVC) s resstant to alkales. nspect them for holes. Change gloves when they become torn or punctured or when ther ablty to functon as a barrer s compromsed. wear a double layer of gloves. ß ß 160 . detergents. and tears. When exposed to prolonged. and ketonc solutons. punctures.

bologcal. and contamnants can be trapped behnd the contact lens. Alternately. Dscard dsposable gloves n desgnated contaners. Contact lens users must wear safety glasses or goggles to protect the eyes. and radoactve materals should wear approprate eye protecton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß To avod contamnatng unprotected skn or clothng. Do not reuse. remove dsposable gloves by graspng the cuffs and pullng them off nsde out. 14 Face shelds offer better protecton when there is a potential for splashing or flying debrs. Eye Protection Personnel handlng chemcal.1. Protectve eyewear also should be worn over prescrpton glasses. it can be difficult to remove the contact lens to rrgate the eye. Face shelds must be worn n combnaton wth safety glasses or goggles because face shelds alone are not consdered approprate eye protecton. In the event of a chemical splash into the eye. 161 . safety glasses may be made to the wearer’s eyeglass prescrpton. such as safety glasses and goggles.

medical evaluation. such as bombngs and clandestne laboratores.16 In some stuatons. 12. and a respirator mantenance program. 15 Protectve footwear should be worn at crme scenes when there s a danger of foot njures from fallng or rollng objects.1. ANSI Z41-1991. from objects percng the sole.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Foot Protection Shoes that completely cover and protect the foot are essental. the wearer s not guaranteed protecton. The standard recognzed by OSHA for protectve footwear s the American National Standard for Personal Protection— Protective Footwear.18 s mandatory whenever resprators are used. Crtcal elements for the safe use of resprators nclude a wrtten program. can produce noxous fumes and other arborne contamnants n whch responders must use respratory protecton. or from exposure to electrcal hazards. 162 . Respiratory Protection Certan crme scenes. fit testing. 17 Complance wth 29 CFR 1910.12.134. nonpermeable shoe covers can provde barrer protecton to shoes and prevent the transfer of contamnaton outsde the crme scene. Respiratory Protection. Wthout these elements. tranng.

emergency response nformaton. or sea.S.21 whch detals how to prepare and package shpments for ar transportaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Head Protection At certan crme scenes where structural damage has occurred or may occur. The standard recognzed by OSHA for protectve helmets s ANSI’s requrements for ndustral head protecton.20 In addton.1-2003. Ttle 49 CFR 172. Ttle 49 of the CFR lists specific requirements that must be observed when preparng hazardous materals for shpment by ar. protectve helmets should be worn. Z89. hazardous materals communcatons. land. and tranng requrements for 163 .101 provdes a Hazardous Materals Table22 that identifies items considered hazardous for the purpose of transportaton. Department of Transportaton and Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton regulatons. Ttle 49 CFR 172. the Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton annually publshes Dangerous Goods Regulations.101 also addresses specal provsons for certan materals.19 Back to the top Hazardous Materials Transportation All shipments of suspected or confirmed hazardous materals must comply wth U.

The process for determnng whether a materal s a hazardous waste should be completed by qualified personnel. Envronmental Protecton Agency’s Resource Conservaton and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA specifies that once a material is determined to be hazardous. was establshed to track chemcals from “cradle. to “grave. and dsposal facltes.” or dsposal. Hazardous materals that are removed from crme scenes are consdered evdence and would not fall under RCRA waste provsons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 shppers.” or generaton. Personnel who serve any functon n the shpment of hazardous materals must receve the specified training prior to shipping any materials by commercal transportaton. However.23 commonly referred to as the “cradle-tograve” regulaton. Even new material in its orgnal contaner may be consdered waste f there s no use for t. t becomes the generator’s complete responsblty. Back to the top Hazardous Waste Regulations The U. when a case 164 . Ths system mposes requrements on both generators and transporters. as well as on transport.S. The servces of a hazardous waste contractor and transporter can be used to help remove materals from scenes. storage.

Commttee on Hazardous Substances n the Laboratory. the materal s not needed. D. the mmedate assstance of a qualified contractor knowledgeable about local regulatons must be sought.C. Avalable: http://www. Upfal. Clandestne drug laboratores and envronmental crme scenes are examples of stuatons that may requre the removal of waste.S. 165 .gov/pls/oshaweb/ owadsp. Department of Labor. 2.osha.C. New York. 3. Natonal Academy Press.show_document?p_table=standards &p_d=10051. U. for other reasons. D. 1981. Genum. Back to the top References 1.1030. Bloodborne Pathogens. Washngton. J. Pocket Guide to First Aid for Chemical Injuries. Schenectady. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. Washngton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 has been adjudcated or. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Natonal Research Councl. M.. 29 CFR 1910. 1993.

The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/ Tagout). Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/ owadsp. Avalable: http://www. U. 29 CFR 1910. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. 166 . Washngton. U. Department of Labor.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=9797.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 4. Washngton. Permit-Required Confined Spaces. Schenectady.C. D. American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.osha. Avalable: http://www. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. D. and Definitions Applicable to This Subpart. Washngton. 1996.S.show_document?p_table=standards&p _d=10774.C.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. New York. 2000. Scope. Department of Labor.show _document?p_table=standards&p_d=9804. Genum. Avalable: http://www. 29 CFR 1910.650. New York.C. Application.S.147. V.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadsp. Department of Labor. 8. 29 CFR 1926. Confort. 7. U. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. Confined Space Pocket Guide. 5.146.1-2000). D. 6.osha. J.S. American National Standards Insttute.

1998. U. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. 13.C. M. New Jersey. Avalable: http://www. Best. Department of Labor. Requirements for Protective Systems. Specific Excavation Requirements.C.S.S. D. Unversty of Vrgna.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=10775. Avalable: http://ehs. Avalable: http://www. Department of Labor. Department of Labor. 167 . D.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadsp.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=10776. 11.vrgna. Office of Environmental Health and Safety.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. Washngton. Washngton.edu/chem/home.120. U. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. 29 CFR 1910. U. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. 29 CFR 1926.C.651.osha. Vrgna. Avalable: http://www. In: Best’s Safety Directory.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. D.S.show _document?p_table=standards&p_d=9765.html.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 9. Charlottesvlle. Choose the proper gloves for chemcal handlng.osha. 10. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. Laboratory Survival Manual. 29 CFR 1926.osha.652. A. Washngton. 12. Oldwck. 1998.

Occupational Foot Protection. 16.1-2003). 15. 18. D.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 14. D.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. 29 CFR 1910. New York. 29 CFR 1910.osha.S. U. 17. Avalable: http://www. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=9786. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton.show_document?p_table=standards&p _d=12716.C. Washngton. American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear (ANSI Z411991). Gorman. 1991. C. 1997. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute. Schenectady.S. Department of Labor. Washngton.C. Avalable: http://www.136. 168 . Genum.134. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.gov/pls/oshaweb/ owadsp. New York. American National Standards Insttute. 2003. Respiratory Protection. U. Department of Labor. American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection (ANSI Z87. Hazardous Waste Handling Pocket Guide. New York.osha.

Avalable: http://www. 44th ed. U. American National Standard for Personnel Protection—Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers—Requirements (ANSI Z89.gov/nara/ cfr/wasdx_05/49cfr172_05.1-2003). Envronmental Protecton Agency. D. D. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 19. Hazardous Materals Table.101. Avalable: http://www.epa. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 49 CFR 100–185. U. D. Department of Transportaton. Back to the top 169 . Canada. New York. Washngton.access.C.S. 49 CFR 172. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Department of Transportaton. Montreal.html. U. 23. Washngton. Avalable: http://www. 22. 20. 21.access.. Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton.C.S. 40 CFR 3001–3020.html.htm.gov/regon5/defs/html/rcra. 2003.S.gpo. Washngton. Transportation.gov/nara/ cfr/wasdx_05/49cfr172_05.gpo. 2003. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.C.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Ths page ntentonally left blank 170 .

A crme scene search s planned. Upon notification or suspicion of a possible WMD incident.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Crime Scene Search Crime scenes involving suspected or confirmed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (nuclear and/or radiological. Physcal evdence cannot be overdocumented. The FBI is the lead federal agency of a suspected or confirmed WMD crime scene. and executed by law enforcement officials to locate physcal evdence. coordnated. biological. Specific information on how to process a hazardous materials crime scene is not covered in this section. 171 . contact the FBI’s Strategic Information and Operations Center at 202-323-3300 and ask for the Weapons of Mass Destruction Operations Unit Duty Officer. Basic Principles SEARCH ß ß The best search optons are usually the most difficult and time-consuming. chemical. or explosive agents) should be handled only by qualified personnel.

Dscuss the search wth nvolved personnel before arrvng at the scene. f possble. and prosecutve attorneys so that questons that arse durng the crme scene search can be resolved. A vgorous search of concealed areas. Preparation ß ß ß Obtan a search warrant. Ensure that personnel are aware of the types of evdence usually encountered and the proper handlng of the evdence. Establsh communcaton between the medcal examner. Make prelmnary personnel assgnments before arrvng at the scene. f necessary. f possble. Establsh a command headquarters for communcaton and decson makng n major or complcated crme scene searches. 172 ß ß ß . laboratory personnel. 2.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß There are two search approaches: 1. avodng evdence loss or contamnaton. A cautous search of vsble areas.

communcaton. lghtng. Personnel may be assgned two or more responsbltes: Team Leader ü Ensure scene securty. Ensure that assgnments are n keepng wth the atttude. apttude. transportaton. medcal assstance. and experence of search personnel. tranng. ü Prepare admnstratve log. Provde protectve clothng. ß ß 173 . water. equpment. shelter. In prolonged searches. Prepare the paperwork to document the search. Transfer paperwork and responsblty n a preplanned manner from one team to the next. food.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß ß Coordnate agreements wth all agences n multjursdctonal crme scene searches. Accumulate evdence collecton and packagng materals and equpment. restroom facltes. use shfts of two or more teams. and securty for search personnel.

Make final decisions. prvate ndustry.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü ü ü ü Conduct prelmnary survey (ntal walk-through). Evidence Recorder ü Serve as evdence custodan and log evdence. Specialists ü Brought n from the FBI Laboratory. Sketch Preparer ü Sketch and log scene. ü Intal and date all evdence collected. academa. Resolve problems. Prepare narratve descrpton. Evidence Recovery Personnel ü Ensure that evdence s located and documented (photo and sketch). other 174 . Photographer ü Photograph and log evdence and scene.

Take extensve notes. ü Should be identified prior to the time they are actually needed. Approach ß ß ß Be alert for evdence. Obtan nformaton from personnel who have knowledge of the orgnal condton..Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 laboratores. etc. Keep out unauthorzed personnel. on a case-by-case bass to assst n ther area of expertse. ß ß ß 175 . Record who enters and leaves. Determne the extent to whch the scene has been protected. Secure and Protect ß ß Take control of the scene mmedately. Contnue to take extensve notes. especally transent evdence. Consder the safety of all personnel.

176 . Expand the ntal permeter as needed. Determne the need for any specalsts. Determne personnel and equpment needs. Organze methods and procedures. audo. Identfy and protect transent physcal evdence. Recognze specal problem areas. ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß Cautously walk through the scene. or vdeo). Mantan admnstratve and emotonal control. Take prelmnary photographs. Delneate the extent of the search area. Make specific assignments. Select a narratve technque (wrtten.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Preliminary Survey The prelmnary survey s an organzatonal stage to plan for the search.

Consder all categores of evdence possbltes. Focus first on evidence that could be lost. ß ß ß ß Ensure that collecton and packagng materials and equipment are sufficient. Look for hdden tems. physcal and envronmental condtons. Evaluate Physical Evidence Possibilities Ths evaluaton begns upon arrvng at the scene and becomes detaled n the prelmnary survey stage. Leave the least transent evdence for last. Evaluate whether the scene appears contrved. and personnel movements.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Develop a general theory of the crme. Search the easly accessble areas and progress to out-of-vew locatons. Take extensve notes to document the scene. 177 ß ß . Evaluate whether evdence appears to have been moved nadvertently.

Weather and lghtng condtons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Narrative The narratve s a runnng descrpton of the crme scene. ß ß ß ß ß Use a systematc approach n the narratve. Identty and assgnments of personnel. tme. Use photographs and sketches to supplement. and locaton. The narratve should nclude the followng: ü ü ü ü ü Case identifier. do not collect evdence durng the narratve. 178 . the narratve. Condton and poston of evdence when an evdence recovery log s not used. Under most crcumstances. Date. Nothing is insignificant to record if it catches one’s attenton. not substtute for.

Photograph the nteror crme scene n an overlappng seres usng a normal lens. Establsh a progresson of overall. All tems of evdence should be photographed by close-ups. first without a scale and then with a scale. Prepare a photographc log that records all photographs and a descrpton and locaton of evdence. and close-up vews of the crme scene. f possble. medum.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Photography ß ß Photograph the crme scene as soon as possble. Photograph the most fragle areas of the crime scene first. Photograph from eye level to represent the normal vew. ß ß ß ß ß ß 179 . filling the frame. Photograph all evdence n place pror to recovery. Overall photographs may be taken usng a wde-angle lens.

ß ß Sketches should supplement photographs. Sketches normally are not drawn to scale. the sketch should have measurements and detals for a drawn-to-scale dagram. condtons. or maps of the scene. and dstance and sze relatonshps. Consder usng aeral photography. However. f necessary. Photographs should have 360 degrees of coverage. 180 ß . establshng the locaton of the scene wth a seres of overall photographs ncludng a landmark. when possble. Pror to enterng the scene. ß ß Sketch The sketch establshes a permanent record of tems. blueprnts. Photograph entrances and exts from the nsde and the outsde. acqure—f possble—pror photographs.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Photograph the exteror crme scene. Sketch number desgnatons should coordnate wth the evdence log number desgnatons.

compass orentaton. tme. Weather and lghtng condtons. ü 181 . transectng baselne. e. bodes. entrances. trangulaton. Each object should be located by at least two measurements usng an establshed measurement system. and exts. and locaton.g. scale. and wndows.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß The sketch should nclude the followng: ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Case identifier. Key. furnture. Date. Identty and assgnments of personnel. or azmuth. persons. Dstances between objects. scale dsclamer. doors. Measurements showng the locaton of evdence. or a combnaton of these features.. Dmensons of rooms. legend.

Search entrances and exts. Record and Collect Physical Evidence ß ß ß Ensure that all tems are photographed pror to collecton. Evdence tems are marked drectly only when postve the marks wll not nterfere wth subsequent forensc examnaton. If possble. or spral). Two people should observe the evdence n place. ntaled. have one person serve as evdence custodan. Be alert for all evdence. Complete an evdence log notng all tems of evdence collected. then as t s collected. and dated. strp or lane. ß 182 . Search for evdence from the general to the specific. Mark evdence locatons on the sketch.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Conduct Detailed Search ß ß ß ß Use a search pattern (grd.

183 . Photograph the scene showing the final condton. Do not excessvely handle the evdence after recovery. fiber samples from a known carpet). Final Survey ß ß ß ß ß The final survey is a review of all aspects of the search. Obtain known standards (e. Ensure that all documentaton s correct and complete. packagng. Seal all evdence packages at the crme scene. Dscuss the search wth all personnel. and other nformaton for errors. Ensure that all evdence s accounted for before departng the scene.g. Constantly check paperwork.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß ß ß Wear latex or cotton gloves to avod leavng fingerprints..

Only the person n charge should release the scene. consstent wth legal requrements. to whom released. and by whom released.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Ensure that all supples and equpment are removed from the scene. reentry may requre a warrant. Reconsder the need for addtonal specalsts. The scene should be released only when all personnel are satisfied that the scene was searched correctly and completely. Release ß ß Release the crime scene after the final survey. to the person to whom the scene s released. Ensure that the approprate nventory has been provded. 184 ß ß ß ß Back to the top . Ensure that no areas have been overlooked n the detaled search. Crme scene release documentaton should nclude the tme and date of release. Once the scene has been released.

73. 11–12. 18–20 Authentcty/manpulaton detecton. 21 Bohazardous materals bloodborne pathogen safety. 139–141 routes of exposure n contamnated envronments. 119–121. 17 lmtatons. 116 Bank securty dyes. 65 Anonymous Letter Fle. mssng persons and samples from. labelng. shppng. 141 See also Image analyss Automobles accdents. See also Tapes for lftng mpressons. 5 glass samples from. 68. 64 waddng. See also Bullets. 147–149 Bologcal relatves. or slugs. 9–12. 75–78 Bank Robbery Note Fle. 14 Acrylc-surface replca cast kt. 77 Arson. shppng. and labelng. 66–68 shot pellets. 46. 121–131 B Bank robbery. 148–149 Ammunton. 5. 116 Anthropologcal examnatons. 75 pant samples from. 95–97 Bologcal tssue sample examnaton. Frearms cartrdge cases or shotshell casngs. 100.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Index A Abrasves. 101–102 tre tread examnatons. 149–152 packagng. 74. 14–15. 88–89. 64 packagng. 127–130 Arborne contamnants. 15–16 Arrest photos. buckshot. 136–137 Adhesves. 101–102 automoble theft. See DNA examnatons INDEX 185 . survellance films. 69–71 make and model identification. 18. 4 Audo.

. 23–24 fired. Salva Unversal precautons. See also Skeletal samples Buccal (oral) swab samples.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Blood blood examnaton request letter. 64. bones. 75. shppng. 78. 48 wet bloodstaned garments and objects. cartrdge cases. 48 on a person. n snow or water. 14–15 Cellular phones. 66–68 Castng. 65. See also DNA examnatons. 45–46 collectng known samples. 78 186 . 115 Carjackng. 24–26 Chld Explotaton and Obscenty Reference Fle.g. 96–97 Buckshot. 149–152 Body fluids. 50 on clothng submtted for gunshot resdue examnaton. 95–96 dred. 64 packagng. 5 Cartrdges. 66–68 Burglary. 56–58 Checkwrters. Tssue. 152–153 Chemcal unknowns. 64 Buldng materals. 48–50. 5 C Cameras. 48–50 collecton. 150–152 Bones. and labelng. 68 collectng from a person. 22 Bullets. See also Ammunton. Blood. and teeth. specific fluids. See Anthropologcal examnatons. 47. 48 stans. Survellance mages Carbon paper or carbon-film rbbon. 49–50 Bloodborne pathogen safety. See also Photographs/photography. 96 lqud. mssng persons and. See Impressons and casts Caulk. 74. Frearms bullet jacket alloys. e. mage analyss and. 115 Chemcal safety. 49–50 on surfaces. 45–46. 23–24.

26 keyword searchng. 149–152 chemcal safety. 26 computer-anmated modelng. 28–29 lmted source code. 103 protectve. 93 Clothng. 147 bloodborne pathogen safety. 117–118 Crme scene safety. 26 extracton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Chld pornography examnatons. and textles bank securty dye on. 29–30 Cordage. 29–30 explosves resdue on. 27 procedures for examnaton. 57–58 Computer Analyss Response Team. 27 labelng and shppng. 70 gunshot resdue on. 146 Coded messages. 101–102 pepper spray or pepper foam on. 27 Computers comparson. 154–156 Contamnated envronments routes of exposure n. 31 content. 147–149 Controlled substances. 73 controlled substances on. 21 blood on. 68 hair/fibers on. 49 buldng materals debrs on. 71–72 pant on. 26 deleted data files. 75–79 Clocks. 56–58 Communcaton devces ntercepton-of-. 22 for comparsons. 26 format converson. 152–153 187 . 60–61 glass samples on. See also Bohazardous materals about. 27–28 transacton. See Personal protectve equpment safe nsulaton on. 65. 118–119 wood partcles on. mage analyss. fabrc. 27 passwords. See Cryptanalyss Commercal electronc devces. 26 Confined-space safety. 27–29 search or field examnaton.

183–184 latent prnts. 172–175 record and collect. 31–33 D Damaged meda restoraton audo recordngs. 100–102 safe nsulaton and. 69–70 pant. 177 prelmnary survey. 182 search personnel. 180–181 weapons of mass destructon and. 153–154 personal protectve equpment. 171–172 final survey. 147–149 X-ray safety. 182–183 release. 33 Dental stone. 184 search. 173–175 secure and protect. 125–127 188 . 142–144 Debrs arson and. 179–180 physcal evdence possbltes evaluaton. 22 glass samples. 118–119 sol examnatons and. 151 Demonstratve evdence. 164–165 lght-source safety. 31 Crmnal Justce Informaton Servces Dvson.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 confined-space safety. 131–133 Decontamnaton/dsnfecton of equpment. 175 sketches. 176–177 preparaton. 82–84. 17 buldng materals. 89 Cryptanalyss. 154–156 hazardous materals transportaton. mxng and pourng. 178 photography. 175 basc prncples. 171 Crme scene surveys. 158–163 routes of exposure n contamnated envronments. 163–164 hazardous waste regulatons. 19–20 vdeo. 86–87. 121–124. and reconstructon. 80–89 narratve. 157–158 Crme scene search procedures approach. documentaton.

32 Drug resdue. 85 Embossngs. collectng. 18–20 vdeo. 55–56 salva.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Digital cameras and film. 15–16 buccal (oral) swabs.g. 4 Explosves. See also specific items.. 40–43 nuclear DNA. 50–52 semnal evdence from sexual assault vctms. 53–54. bones. e. 7–9. 115 Enhancement examnatons audo recordngs. 47. requestng. See Clothng. 44–45 har. 34–35 preservng DNA evdence. 52 sources for analyss. 58–60. 34–35. See also Chemcal safety Explosves resdue. 96–97 case acceptance polcy. Abrasves. 9–12 submsson. 54–55. 52–53 Document age. and textles 189 . 56–58 Electrostatc lfts. 127–128 Elmnaton prnts. 115 Drug records. packagng. DNA. 71–72 mtochondral DNA. 33–35 tssue. teeth. 7–12 Evdence examnatons. bank securty. 60–61 Eye protecton. 35–40 documentng. 142–144 Evdence packagng and shppng. See Cameras. 42–44. fabrc. 52–53 semen and semen stan examnatons. 97–100 urne. Explosves Expert wtness testmony. 33–35 anthropologcal examnatons of bone. Flm DNA examnatons about. 30 Dyes. 2–3 Explosve ncdents and hoaxes. 21 E Electronc devces. and preservng. 161 F Fabrc and textles. 154.

139 Hand protecton. 7. 3–5 G Gamblng. Questoned document examnatons Facsmles. See Electronc devces. 141 Feathers. 61–62 FBI Laboratory. 64 slencers. 1–3 lmtatons. 57. 78 shot pellets. 68 mage analyss. 43–44. 62–63 Fbers. 159–161 Handwrtng and hand prntng. 57.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Facsmle machnes. 56–58 Graphc arts (prntng). See Frearms Gunshot resdue on clothng. See also Ammunton. 73. lquds. 71–72 toxcology screenng. 87. 63–68. 65 waddng. 1–3 FBI Laboratory Evdence Control Unt. or slugs. 158–159 190 . 72–79 Fngerprntng human remans. 12 FBI Operatonal Technology Dvson. 69–71 Global postonng systems (GPSs). 114 Guns. 162 Footprnts. 112–113 FBI Dsaster Squad. 107–110 Hazard rsk assessment. 65. personal protectve equpment and. 65 Foot protecton. See Latent prnts Fre. buckshot. See also Latent prnts Fngerprnts. 65 gunshot resdue on vctm’s clothng. 64 gun parts. 68 H Har. 71–72 Flm. mage analyss. 24–26 Glass. 88–89. 1–3. 66 unfired cartridges or shotshells. 16. 53–54. 65. Bullets cartrdge cases or shotshell casngs. 128–130 General unknowns (powders. 68–69 Forensc servces about. stans). 32 Gelatn lfts. 79–80. See Arson Frearms. See Shoe prnts Forensc facal magng/ reproducton. 18. 72. 27.

127–130 Infectous materals.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Hazardous materals handlng and transportaton. 10–12. 73. 15–16 hands/fingers for latent prnts. 74 chld pornography examnatons. 74 vdeo. and date of photographc evdence. 76 source and age. Explosves Hazardous waste regulatons. 150 Ht-and-run (automoble) cases. 73–78 Impressons and casts of serial/identification numbers.. 101–102. 78 photographc comparsons. 73–74. 74 automoble make and model identification. 78 film. 74 packagng. 119–121 three-dmensonal mpresson casts. Ammunton. tme. 73 photographs. 163–164. 78 clothng. 78 locaton. 97–100 I Igntable materals. 163 Hepatts B and C vruses. 44.150 Human remans anthropologcal examnatons. specific hazardous materials. 75 cameras. 76–79 firearms. 76–79 provdng orgnals. 5. 73. and labelng of. 76–79 photogrammetry. See Arson Image analyss authentcty and magemanpulaton detecton. See also Bohazardous materals. 105–106 Human immunodeficiency vrus (HIV). 136–137 two-dmensonal mpressons. e.g. Chemcal safety. 88–89 samples from unidentified. shppng. 164–165 Head protecton. 149–152 191 . 75. 73–78 procedures for submsson. 125–127 for toolmark examnatons.

and labelng. and tmers. 127–130 Lght-source safety. 96–97 dred bloodstans. 5 Mssng persons about samples. 5 Metallurgy broken or mechancally damaged metal. See also specific items Lamp bulbs. 92 lamp bulbs. 82–84 submitting hands/fingers of deceased for. 75 Insect samples. 9–12. 32 Lubrcants. 79–80 Innocent Images. clocks. shppng. 16 Intercepton-ofcommuncaton (IOC) devces. heated. 92–93 watches. 88–89 192 . 84–86 photographng. 91 burned. 92 objects wth questoned nternal components. 97–98 buccal (oral) swabs. 10 Latent prnts. 89–90 M Malcous mschef. 93 metal fragments. 90–91 cut or severed metal. 93 specification fraud and noncomplant materals. 153–154 Loan-sharkng. 148 Injecton of contamnants. 149 Inhalaton exposure.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Ingeston of contamnants. 57–58 Lftng materals. case acceptance polcy. 96 bone submssons. 71 lftng. 80 developng at crme scenes. 94–97 blood collecton and. shppng. 86–87 glass samples and. 80–82 dgtal mages of. anthropologcal examnatons of bone and. 93 Latent labels. 149 Ink. 81. 81 packagng. 92 comparatve examnatons. or melted metal. 93 Mnor theft and fraud. 96 L Labels and labelng.

See DNA examnatons O Oleoresn capscum. 94 Nonfatal traffic accidents. 56–58 Personal protectve equpment (PPE). 154. 114–117 Pepper spray or foam. eye protecton. 73 193 . 77 mpressons n snow. 163 respratory protecton. 98–99 tssue samples. 104. 9–12 Pagers. 122–124 mage analyss. 87. 40. 103–104 Personal dgtal assstants. 124 latent prnts. 100–102 Paper. 117. 100 Mtochondral DNA (mtDNA) See DNA examnatons Money launderng. 161 foot protecton. 131 Photogrammetry. 73. See Pepper spray or foam Oral swab samples. and date determnatons and.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 samples from bologcal relatves. 112–114. 56–58 Pant. 179–180 examnaton-qualty. 64 Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database. tme. 73–75. 162 hand protecton. 96–97 P Packagng and shppng evdence. 82–84 locaton. 75 Natonal Center for Mssng and Exploted Chldren. 159–161 hazard rsk assessment and. 47. 74 photographc comparsons. 78 Photographs/photography crme scene search procedures. 95–96 skeletal samples. (PDAs). 162 Pharmaceutcals. 97–98 teeth and. 75 Natonal Integrated Ballstc Informaton Network (NIBIN). 32 N Natonal Automotve Image Fle. 37. See also Toxcology Photocopes. 158–159 head protecton. 5 Nuclear DNA (nDNA).

115 rubber stamps. 117–118 Routes of exposure n contamnated envronments. 162 Rope. 116–117 paper. mage analyss. 14–15 194 . 75–79 Prntng and prnted matter. 114 Product tamperng. 34. 107–110 nk and. 148. 110 packagng. 104–106 Pornography examnatons. 112–114. 115 typewrtng. 110–112 Q Questoned documents. 115 Posons. 115 checkwrters. 79 nongenune sgnatures. 118–119 Safety. shppng. 55–56 Sealants. 31–33 Respratory protecton. Toxcology Polymers. 32–33 Protectve clothng and equpment. 115 S Safe nsulaton. 137 Plastc bags.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 shoe prnts and tre treads. 106–107 Property crme. 116 burned or charred paper. altered or oblterated wrtng. See Crme scene safety Salva. 114 handwrtng and hand prntng. 114 carbon paper and carbon-film ribbon. 112–114 graphc arts (prntng). 121–124 of suspects. 115 document age. 114 photocopes. 52–53. 117 plastc bags. and labelng. 110 Anonymous Letter Fle. 147–149 Rubber stamps. 116 Bank Robbery Note Fle. 115 facsmles. 115 R Racketeerng records. 158–163 embossngs and seals. See Crme scene safety. 77 toolmarks. 3–5 Prosttuton.

specific items Shoe prnts. See Packagng and shppng evdence. 64 Shotshells and shotshell casngs. 77 T Tape. 134–135 for lftng mpressons. 54–55 97–100 unidentified human remans. 97–100 Toolmarks. 73–79 Suspects. See DNA examnatons Sexual assault. bones. 115 Search patterns. semnal evdence from. 148 Slugs. 128–130 for lftng latent prnts. 124 Sol. 52 Seral numbers. and teeth Tmers. 44. 121–131 Tssue. and teeth anthropologcal examnatons of bone. 138–141 Traffic accidents. 97–98 Skn contamnaton/contact. See Human remans Skeletal samples. 52 Shppng of evdence. 65 Sgnal analyss. arrest or known photographs of. stans). bones. 110–112 195 . 19 Sgnatures. 5 Typewrtng. 7–12 Substances. 15–16 DNA examnatons. 64 Snow blood n. 48 mpressons n. 66 Skeletal remans. 131–133 Specal-event and stuatonal awareness support. 81 Ten-print fingerprint cards. audo recordngs. 121–131 Shot pellets. 182 Semen and semen stan examnatons. 93 Tre treads. 110 Slencers. 119–121 Serology. 89 Teeth. unknown (powders. 133 Submttng evdence. 50–52 Semnal evdence from sexual assault vctms. See Tssue. 64. 24–26 Survellance mages. lquds.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Seals. 135–138 Toxcology.

79. 150–152 Urne. 52–53. 146 Wrtng examnatons. Questoned documents 196 . 115 Weapons of mass destructon. 16 V Vandalsm. 5 Vdeo. ammunton. 31. 65 Watches. 157–158 X-rays. See Handwrtng and hand prntng. known ndvdual comparson to skeletal remans. 93 Watermark identification. 144–146 crme scene search procedures and.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 U Unversal precautons. 139 X X-ray safety. 68. 133 Voce comparsons. 33. 3–4 Vsual nformaton specalsts. 72–79 Volent crme. 171 Wood. 141–144 mage analyss. 18–19 W Waddng.

gov/ hq/lab/handbook/forensics. Law enforcement officers and forensic laboratory personnel may obtan the handbook n field-manual format by faxing a request on agency letterhead to the FBI Laboratory Lbrary at 703-632-8374. 197 .fbi.The Handbook of Forensic Services s also avalable onlne at http://www.pdf.

198 .