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At the end of the session you should be able to Describe diphtheria and explain it’s transmission and pathogenesis. State the imp. diagnostic criteria. State methods of prevention and control. Corynebacterium diphtheria
Can also colonize the skin. organism colonizes pharynx spreads. may kill phagocytes contributing to pseudomembrane inflammation.oropharynx. Entry – respiratory droplets. Release of exotoxin causes necrosis of epithelium with outpouring of dense fibrinosuppurative exudate. Pathogenesis of Diphtheria Multiplication – iron is a likely factor Evasion of host immune response Toxin inhibits protein synthesis by ADP Ribosylation of elongation factor 2 (EF-2). fomites.Pathogenesis of Diphtheria Transmission – Corynebacterium diphtheriae is transmitted from carriers through aerosolized droplets. circulating toxin MORPHOLOGY OF DIPHTHERIAE Inhaled diphtheriae proliferate at the site of attachment on the mucosa of the nasopharynx. . larynx or trachea. .
‘ Action of Diphtheria Toxin B unit binds to heparin binding receptor H B Entire molecule is endocytosed A unit is released into cytoplasm that acts as enzyme to ADP-ribosylation of Elongation factor 2 (EF2) NAD and EF2 are substrates ADP ribose added to diphthamide residue in EF2 Protein synthesis stops and cells die. .Synthesis of Diphtheria Toxin Structural gene for toxin is part of genome of beta bacteriophage Phage causes lysogenic conversion Toxin synthesized as a single polypeptide chain Low iron concentration induces synthesis.
.Diphtheria Symptoms Sore throat Low grade fever Swollen lymph glands (Bull neck) Trachael obstruction due to pseudomembrane Heart and kidney damage.
Gel diffusion precipitin test. 3-Blood agar. Treatment and Prevention of Diphtheria Treatment Horse anti-toxin Antibiotics Prevention DPT / DTaP vaccine at 2. 2-Tellurite medium. Culture can be done on 1-Loffler’s medium. Dick’s test PCR.4 and 6 months of age and a booster at 10 years. .LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS Immune status of a person can be assessed by Schik’s test. Gram’s and methylen blue stain from smear of throat swab.
nerves and other organ. THANK YOU .COMPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA Life threatening syndrome that includes Tough pharyngeal membrane and toxin mediated damage to the heart.