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Hortatory Exposition

PENGERTIAN HORTATORY EXPOSITION TEXT Disebutkan dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary, Hortatory termasuk kata sifat (adjective) bermakna "tending or aiming to exhort" ("cenderung atau bertujuan mendorong / mendesak orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu"). Sedangkan Exposition bermakna "a comprehensive description and explanation of a theory" ("Penjelasan dan penjabaran sebuah teori secara komprehensif"). Jadi secara bahasa, jika disimpulkan, hortatory exposition adalah teks yang menjelaskan sebuah teori/masalah secara komprehensif dengan tujuan mendorong orang lain melakukan / tidak melakukan sesuatu. GENERIC STRUCTURE OF HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Generic Structure, atau susunan umum hortatory exposition adalah sebagai berikut : 1. Thesis / General Statement Thesis / general statement berisi pernyataan pembuka mengenai topik pembahasan. Sebagai contoh kita akan membahas mengenai bahaya rokok, thesis statement yang bisa kita gunakan misalnya : “Rokok dapat menyebabkan kanker, serangan jantung, dan impotensi”. 2. Arguments Arguments, ”Pendapat” berisi berbagai pembahasan lanjutan dari thesis statement secara detail. Akan lebih baik jika argument ini tidak hanya berisi pendapat pribadi penulis saja tapi juga bisa berisi pendapat para pakar. Mengacu pada contoh thesis statement tentang rokok di atas, kita bisa membuat arguments pendukung dengan lebih detail, misalnya : Argument 1 : Saya mengira serangan jantung yang dialami direktur PT. LaptopButut, Pak “XXX”, disebabkan karena intensitas merokok lebih banyak dari pada minum air putih.(Terus kembangkan paragraf ini lebih dalam) Argument 2 : Telah banyak dibuktikan bahwa rokok hampir menjadi sebab utama penyakit kanker. (Terus kembangkan paragraf ini)

Argument 3 : Impotensi seorang bos “XXX” di kota “XXX” disebutkan karena kebiasaanya merokok sebelum tidur. (terus kembangkan lagi paragraf ini) 3. Recommendation. Recommendation / suggestion berisi saran penulis tentang topik pembahasan. Jika membahas tentang bahaya rokok, sobat pasti tahu dong apa yang harus disarankan? Indonesian People Should Value All the Different Culture to Promote Unity of the Nation Indonesia is a culturally-diverse country. Many different religions and cultures from many provinces are now seen living side by side in many places. One of the biggest questions facing Indonesian today is how to deal with a culturally diverse citizenry and then promote unity.

Therefore, Indonesians should appreciate differences among culture for the following reasons. Firstly, Indonesia is vulnerable to separation for its archipelago and culture diversity. Raising tolerance among people is the best way to maintain the unity among differences. Many ways or cultures of living are equally legal, even if they are not regarded as normal by some people. If a society claims to be tolerant of personal choice, then it must respect the personal choice to retain their heritage. Then, unity of the nation can be preserved. Secondly, Indonesians must recognize that every culture has different customs and beliefs. Thus, people are forbidden to make judgments of comparative value, for it is measuring something unmeasured. A plurality of nations, especially in the modern era, can allow for cultural development and cultural exchange that benefits both parties. The cross-cultural

understanding among cultures makes the world a better place and preserves the unity of the nation. Lastly, raising nationalism is one way to preserve unity of the nation. It is a sense of fellow feeling between group members. This promotes cooperation and social cohesion within the group. The sense of social cooperation makes welfare, social security and medical programs much more likely and stronger. Cultural differences are sometime a sensitive matter for people. Indonesian people must teach younger generation about the importance of the cultural identity and nationalism to promote unity of the nation.

Hortatory Exposition
Dear student… Pada semester sebelumnya kalian pasti sudah mengenal jenis teks analytical expostion, di semester ini kalian akan mempelajari jenis teks exposition yang lainnya, yaitu hortatory exposition. Teks hortatory exposition berisi tentang teks yang mengemukakan alasan-alasan dengan tujuan untuk membujuk pendengar atau pembaca agar mau mengikuti apa yang dikemukakan penulis. Dalam pelajaran bahasa Indonesia kita tentu sudah mengenal teks persuasi, yang sama isinya dengan teks hortatory. Teks hortatory di awali dengan Thesis, yaitu menuliskan opini penulis tentang suatu masalah. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan argumen, yaitu alasan-alasan yang mendukung pendapat penulis. Terakhir, menuliskan saran atau nasihat. Contoh Teks hortatory dalam bentuk surat: Dear Editor, We are writing to complain about ads on TV. There are so many ads, especially during our favourite programmes. We think they should be stopped for a number of reasons. First, ads are nuisance. They go on for a long time and there are so many. Sometimes there seems to be more ads than programmes. Second, ads are bad influence on people. They try to encourage people to buy unhealthy food like beer, soft drink, candy and chips. And they make people want things they do not really need and can not. Finally, the people who make ads have too much say in what programmes people watch. That is because they want to put all their ads on popular programs that a lot of people watch. Some programmes which are not so popular get stopped because they do not attract enough ads, even though those programmes may be someone’s favourite. For those reasons, we think TV station should stop showing ads. They interrupt programmes.

They are bad influences on people, and they are sometimes put a stop to people’s favourite shows. We are sick of ads, and now we mostly watch other channels. David Coba perhatikan teks di atas. Paragraf pertama berisi thesis, yang dilanjutkan dengan arguments (alasan) di paragraf 2, 3, dan 4. Paragraf ke 5 berisi tentang recommendation (saran). Isi dari paragraf terakhir inilah yang membedakan teks horatatory dan analytical.

Hortatory Exposition A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done. To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation. Hortatory exposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of Hortatory exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Recommendation. A.Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition

1. Thesis : Statement or announcement of issue concern 2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation 3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given arguments B.Generic Features of Hortatory Exposition

1.A Hortatory exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self. 2.It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc. 3.It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc. 4.It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense. 5.Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.

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A Campaign of the Importance of Reading

Thesis: Reading habit is poor among Indonesians because most people haven’t realized the importance of reading Argument 1 Reading is important to transform knowledge and technology. By reading, one knows the world. He or she will understand what he doesn’t see by himself or herself. The lines of the paragraphs in an article contain pieces of knowledge. The knowledge is needed to improve the quality of human’s life. Technology transformation from other country can only be done by reading a lot various sources of literature. Valuable books in libraries and bookstores mean nothing if they are not read. Argument 2 Realizing the importance of reading will make someone motivated to read. When we know that something is very important because it can give us valuable information, we will try to get or do the thing. For example, a businessman who always follows latest information or news, will know what to do in his/ her business. He will make a good decision to make a transaction. Most people in all developed countries have realized the importance or reading and they have good reading habits. In bus and train stations, vehicles, waiting rooms, parks, people like reading. They enjoy reading which gives them valuable knowledge and inspiration.

Argument 3 A good understanding toward the importance of reading can be achieved by well organized and effective campaign. To plant an understanding in a generation’s minds is not an easy job. It needs a hard work from all components of the nation, especially the government. A serious campaign which is organized by the central and local government can help common people wake up and stand to face the real competition. The campaign can be done through various kinds of mass media such as TV, radio, booklets, bulletins, newspapers, magazines. It can also be conducted by teachers, parents and all people who care.

Recommendation Therefore, a nation-wide effective campaign of the importance of reading by all components of the nation should be done, facilitated by the government, to face the tighter competition. The world has forced globalization. Those people with little knowledge will be left behind. To speed up the better change in this country, a good reading habit is really important.

Written by Cahyono KD

HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose : to persuade the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case. Text Organization A thesis Arguments Recommendation Language Features: •The use of emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc) •The use of words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, probably etc) •The use of words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc) •The use of compound and complex sentence •The use of modals and adverbs (e.g. may, must, should, etc) •The use of subjective opinions using pronouns I and we Corruption Thesis (Announcement of issue concern) Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia. Argument 1 The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials. Argument 2 Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption.

Recommendation I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinction. Adapted from: The Jakarta Post, February 2005