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Bibliography Primary Sources Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print.

An anonymous letter sent to President Hoover at the height of the depression: Could we not have employment and food to eat? Why should we have foodless days and out children have school-less days and shoeless days, and the land full of plenty and banks bursting with money. Why does everything have exceptional value except the human being? Why not end the Depression? Have you not a heart? (Quoted in McElvaine, Down and Out in the Great Depression) (Page 6) Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print. (Page 17) An image of people in New York fishing for coins with a magnet on a string one of the many ingenious tricks devised by individuals struggling to survive in the Depression. Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print. (Page 23) An image of unemployed men line up for Sunday dinner at the municipal lodging house. Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print. (Page 23) An American woman described a scene she had witnessed in Chicago in 1932: One vivid, gruesome moment of those dark fays we shall never forget. We saw a crowd of some 50 men fighting over a barrel of garbage, which had been set outside the back door of a restaurant. American citizens fighting for scraps of food like animals! (Quoted in Allen, Since Yesterday) Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print. (Page 40) An image of the cover of the music for 1933 song celebrating the National Recovery Administration, a centerpiece of the new Deal. Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print. (Page 50) An image of the United States showing the percent of relief in certain regions, and the immigration route of workers. "Legends & legacies." American Popeye. N.p., 17 Jan. 2012. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.legacy.com/ns/news-story.aspx?t=american-popeye&id=678>. Popeye image Lancaster, Richard. Black Tuesday Ocotober 29th 1929 Revisited? N.p., 29 Oct. 2002. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.gold-eagle.com/editorials_02/lancaster102102.html>. "These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come and gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again."- John D. Rockefeller on the Depression in 1933 (quote)

"Popeye." Popeye. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. http://popeye.com/history/ .An image of Popeye the Sailor Man, his first public appearance on Jan. 17, 1929, in Elzie Segars then nine-year-old comic strip, THIMBLE THEATRE, which originally revolved around Olive Oyls family Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Franklin D. Roosevelt Quotes." About.com 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/a/RooseveltQuotes.htm>. Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort. - Quote by Franklin D. Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address (March 4, 1933) (quote)

Secondary Sources "1930s." What Happened in the Featuring News, Popular Culture, Prices and Technology. N.p., 5 May 2010. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1930s.html>. Talks about the Money and Inflation, Toys, Events, Music, Sporting Changes, and Technology during the 1930s. The 30's were a time when the depression caused by the Wall Street crash in late 1929 caused the world to undergo a fundamental change in lifestyles and as part of the change some new radical politics became popular as seen in the rise of Fascism, Nazism, and Stalinism. The 30's also provided a strange phenomenon never repeated where bank robbers and murderers were thought of as celebrities ( a sort of modern Robin Hood ) which in truthfulness they did not rob from the rich to give to the poor just to rob and murder any who got in their way. "African Americans (people) : African American Life during the Great Depression and the New Deal." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67474/AfricanAmericans/285193/African-American-life-during-the-Great-Depression-and-the-NewDeal>. The Great Depression of the 1930s worsened the already bleak economic situation of African Americans. They were the first to be laid off from their jobs, and they suffered from an unemployment rate two to three times that of whites. In early public assistance programs African Americans often received substantially less aid than whites, and some charitable organizations even excluded blacks from their soup kitchens. "American Experience: TV's Most-watched History Series." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/dustbowlgreat-depression/>. African Americans suffered more than whites, since their jobs were often taken away from them and given to whites. In 1930, 50 percent of blacks were unemployed. However, Eleanor Roosevelt championed black rights, and New Deal programs prohibited discrimination. Discrimination continued in the South, however, as a result a large number of black voters switched from the Republican to the Democrat party during the Depression. ** "Black Tuesday." Black Tuesday. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://www.blacktuesday.org/>. During the late 20s, Americans speculated a lot and invested money that they didnt even have. Brokers were known for lending investors more than 2/3 of the value of stock they were purchasing. This resulted in over $8.5 billion to be out on loan. The issue with this was that the $8.5 billion was more than the total amount of currency circulating in the United States during this period of time.

Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Poliomyelitis." Poliomyelitis. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002375/>. Poliomyelitis is a disease caused by infection with the poliovirus. The virus enters through the mouth and nose, multiplies in the throat and intestinal tract, and then is absorbed and spread through the blood and lymph system. The time from being infected with the virus to developing symptoms of disease (incubation) ranges from 5 - 35 days (average 7 - 14 days). Most people do not develop symptoms. "Causes Of The Great Depression | Great Depression Causes | The Great Depression." Causes Of The Great Depression | Great Depression Causes | The Great Depression. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thegreatdepressioncauses.com/causes.html>. The stock market crash on October 29, 1929 set in motion a series of events that led to the Great Depression, but in fact, the American economy and global economy had been in turmoil six months prior to Black Tuesday, and a variety of factors before and after that fateful date in October caused and exacerbated the Great Depression. Cyrenne, Randall. "Popeye: A Sailors Story." Animated Views RSS. N.p., 9 July 2007. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://animatedviews.com/2007/popeye-a-sailors-story/>.Explains about Popeyes comic strips and how it all began. Spinach consumption in the United States went up by a third during the 1930s and most of the credit was given to the powerhouse sailor "Depression & WWII (1929-1945)." Depression & WWII (1929-1945). N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/wwii/jb_wwii_subj.html>.The end to the Great Depression came about in 1941 with America's entry into World War II. America sided with Britain, France and the Soviet Union against Germany, Italy, and Japan. The loss of lives in this war was staggering. The European part of the war ended with Germany's surrender in May 1945. Japan surrendered in September 1945, after the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. "Dust Bowl During the Great Depression - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress." Dust Bowl During the Great Depression - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentation s/timeline/depwwii/dustbowl/>. With the onset of drought in 1930, the overfarmed and overgrazed land began to blow away. Winds whipped across the plains, raising billowing clouds of dust. The sky could darken for days, and even well-sealed homes could have a thick layer of dust on the furniture. In some places, the dust drifted like snow, covering farm buildings and houses. Nineteen states in the heartland of the United States became a vast dust bowl. With no chance of making a living, farm families abandoned their homes and land, fleeing westward to become migrant laborers.

"Dust Bowl Great Depression | The Dust Bowl | The Great Depression | Dust Bowl." Dust Bowl Great Depression | The Dust Bowl | The Great Depression | Dust Bowl. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thegreatdepressioncauses.com/dust-bowl.html>. For years, American farmers overplanted and poorly managed their crop rotations, and between 1930 and 1936, when severe drought conditions prevailed across much of Americas Plains, Dust Bowls were created. Soil turned to dust and large dark clouds could be seen across the horizon in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, and New Mexico. Topsoil was carried by the ton from barren fields, across hundreds of miles of Plains in the driest regions of the country. ** "Elzie Crisler Segar - Biography." Elzie Crisler Segar - Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://sokomidterm.tripod.com/bio.html>. In 1929 Segar first introduced Popeye to his Thimble Theatre strip. Popeye soon became the star of the strip, which increased demand for the newspaper. It is estimated that Segar was making over $100,000 a year at the height of the great depression. In early 1938 Segar was diagnosed with Leukemia. He spent several months in the hospital while the Thimble Theatre was temporarily given to another artist to draw. He took the strip back for a few months in the summer, but again became ill and never drew another strip. The last Thimble Theatre strip drawn by Segar was printed August 27, 1938. He died on October 13, 1938 at home and is buried in Santa Monica, California. "Elzie Crisler Segar The Person behind Popeye." Popeye The Sailor Man Fan Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://popeye.org/popeye/elzie-crisler-segar-the-person-behind-popeye>. At the age of 18, he professionally started cartooning. In W.L. Evans of Cleveland, he had done a correspondence course for cartooning. Popeye was the greatest work by E.C. Segar. Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials." Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr>.Tells about the life of Elzie C. Segar (creator of Popeye) "Franklin D. Roosevelt in The Great Depression." Shmoop. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.shmoop.com/great-depression/franklin-d-roosevelt.html>. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) was the 32nd President of the United States and the only chief executive to be elected to more than two terms in office. Roosevelt held the presidency from 1934-1945, leading the United States through the Great Depression and World War II. His legislative program, the New Deal, greatly expanded the role of the federal government in American society.

"Franklin D. Roosevelt." The White House. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt>. He was elected president in November 1932, to the first of four terms. By March there were 13,000,000 unemployed, and almost every bank was closed. In his first "hundred days," he proposed, and Congress enacted, a sweeping program to bring recovery to business and agriculture, relief to the unemployed and to those in danger of losing farms and homes, and reform, especially through the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority. "Fleischer Popeye Tribute." Fleischer Popeye Tribute. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.calmapro.com/popeye/history.php?section=segar>.As America began to slide into the Great Depression, the character's distinguishable self-confidence, takecharge personality and explosive temperament, combined with his strict adherence to his own set of moral principles and ethic codes, made him stand out as a true hero of his era. Geewax, Marilyn. "Did The Great Recession Bring Back The 1930s?" NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print. (Page 45) Roosevelt was hated by the rich as he was loved by the poor. Grant, R. G. The Great Depression. Great Britain: Barron's Educational Series, 2002. Print. (Page 26) Hoover is blamed paragraph. First tried to increase demand by putting more money in peoples pocket, both cutting taxes by persuading industrialists to stop cutting wages. He made matters worse when he eventually gave in to the orthodox view that government income and expenditure had to balance, leading to a massive rise in taxes in 1932. "Great Depression and The New Deal." Great Depression and The New Deal. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/lessons/depress/depress1.htm>. In 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt became President of the United States. His presidency became known as the "New Deal" because of the promises that he made to Americans. This deal consisted of ideas to get the country and people back on their feet. Soon, millions of Americans were working again. One of the programs was called the Civilian Conservation Corps, or CCC. Young men from all over the country lived in work camps. About 40,000 Floridians participated in the CCC. They received food and clothing and their paychecks were sent home to their families. Some of the work in Florida consisted of cutting down millions of trees to build fire lines. The CCC also planted 13 million trees in Florida and created many of the state parks and wildlife preserves. Other New Deal workers built federal buildings and schools/

Harvey, Robert. Chapter 9 What This Country Needed Was A Good Segar Popeye and the Great Depression. The Art of Funnies An Aesthetic History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 159-60. Google Books. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://books.google.com/books?id=vaSHrtEKchoC>. Talks about how Popeye gave the people who were in the Depression a good laugh.** "Herbert Hoover's Tragic Presidency " "Herbert Hoover's Tragic Presidency " N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.austincc.edu/lpatrick/his2341/tragic.html>.President Hoover has gone down in history as a totally uncaring chief executive who, while he presided over economic disaster, cared little about his fellow citizens, accepted the Great Depression as inevitable and something to simply be endured regardless of the level of suffering it caused, and who refused to do absolutely anything to alleviate the incredible suffering all around him for three and one-half long years. While this image was particularly widespread during the 1930s and persists even to this day, it is totally fallacious, misleading, and unjustified. "Herbert Hoover on the Great Depression and New Deal, 1933." Herbert Hoover on the Great Depression and New Deal, 1931 1933. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/new-deal/resources/herbert-hoover-greatdepression-and-new-deal-19311933>.The stock market crashed on Thursday, October 24, 1929, less than eight months into Herbert Hoovers presidency. Most experts, including Hoover thought that the crash was part of a passing recession. As the Depression became worse, calls grew for increased federal intervention and spending, but Hoover refused to involve the federal government in forcing fixed prices, controlling businesses, or manipulating the value of the currency, all of which he felt were steps towards socialism. He was soundly defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. "HHMI's BioInteractive - FDR and Polio: Public Life, Private Pain." HHMI's BioInteractive FDR and Polio: Public Life, Private Pain. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/polio/polio2.html>.President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had a complex relationship with the infectious disease that crippled him which was polio. He concealed his disability so well that millions of Americans never knew he was a paraplegic in a wheelchair. ** "Hyperinflation." What Is ? Definition and Meaning. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/hyperinflation.html>. Hyperinflation - Ruinously high increase (50 percent or more per month) in prices due to the near total collapse of a country's monetary system, rendering its currency almost worthless as a medium of exchange.

Nicole. "Popeye the Sailor." Retro Planet. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.retroplanet.com/blog/retro-archives/character-of-the-week/character-of-theweek-popeye/>. It is believed this contributed to increased spinach consumption in the 1930s. A more recent study reported that kids increased vegetable consumption after watching Popeye cartoons. "NMAH | Polio: Franklin D. Roosevelt." NMAH | Polio: Franklin D. Roosevelt. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. <http://amhistory.si.edu/polio/howpolio/fdr.htm>. After Roosevelt became president in 1933, OConnor co-coordinated Birthday Balls that took place on Roosevelts birthday each January and raised money for the care of polio patients. These were so successful that in 1938 they were merged into a nationwide organization, the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later renamed the March of Dimes. ** "Olive Oyl: Popeye Was an Afterthought." America Comes Alive Olive Oyl Popeye Was an Afterthought Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://americacomesalive.com/2011/10/13/olive-oyl-popeye-was-anafterthought/>.Talks about Olive Oyl (one of the characters in Popeye). She was a young lady and a well-suited to wear flappers in the 1920s. Bluto frequently kidnaps her and Popeye eventually ingests enough spinach to overcome Bluto and get her back. Bonnie Poe was the first voice of Olive Oyl but soon Mae Questel, who was also the voice of Betty Boop took over. "Part II: War, Depression and War, 1914-1945." The Great Depression and New Deal, 19291940s. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://iws.collin.edu/kwilkison/Online1302home/20th%20Century/DepressionNewDeal. html>.During the worst years of the Depression, 1933-34, the overall jobless rate was twenty-five percent with another twenty-five percent of breadwinners having their wages and hours cut. Scholars tend to view the Depression and New Deal differently depending on their own ideological perspective. (This website mainly talks about a new deal in the great depression. "Popeye." Popeye. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://popeye.com/history/>. Timeline of Popeye's life events. "Popeye Helps Fight Iron Deficiencies. - The Informed Vegan." Popeye Helps Fight Iron Deficiencies. - The Informed Vegan. N.p., 26 June 2011. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://theinformedvegan.com/post/6940160739/popeye-boosts-spinach-sales-fightsiron-deficiencies-hea>. Popeye was created in the 1930s as a symbol of American resilience and strength during the Great Depression. Popeye had strength indeed; much of it came from his obsession with spinach. In the 30s, many Americans were not getting a vitamin-rich diet so the US Government recruited Popeye as their spokesman to push nutrient packed spinach as a new American staple. The campaign was a smash hit.

Rezba, Tricia. "The Great Depression - FDR." The Great Depression - FDR. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.museum.siu.edu/old/museum_classroom_grant/Museum_Explorers/school_ pages/bourbonnais/page3.htm>.http://www.museum.siu.edu/old/museum_classroom_gra nt/Museum_Explorers/school_pages/bourbonnais/page3.htm Talks about the Franklin during the hundred days of his presidency and all the laws and groups he created. ** Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Franklin D. Roosevelt." About.com 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/a/fdr.htm>. Roosevelt refused to be limited by his disability. To overcome his lack of mobility, Roosevelt had steel leg braces created that could be locked into an upright position to keep his legs straight. With the leg braces on under his clothes, Roosevelt could stand and slowly walk with the aid of crutches and a friend's arm. Without the use of his legs, Roosevelt needed extra strength in his upper torso and arms. By swimming nearly every day, Roosevelt could move himself in and out of his wheelchair as well as upstairs. Sally, Zack. "Obituaries | Death Notices | Newspaper Obituaries | Online Obituaries | Newspaper Death Notices | Online Death Notices." Obituaries | Death Notices | Newspaper Obituaries | Online Obituaries | Newspaper Death Notices | Online Death Notices. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.legacy.com/ns/FullStory.aspx?StoryType=1>. As Popeye made his first appearance in 1929 and was very much a product of those Depression-era times, a person might think the material would feel dated (though considering today's economic turmoil, 1929 doesn't seem that far away). That person would be wrong. The work still crackles with energy great characters, great story lines and flat-out LAUGHS. It's raw cartooning at its very best. "The 1930s." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/1930s>.At the beginning of the 1930s, more than 15 million Americans were unemployed. Over the next nine years (after Hover Herbert), Roosevelts New Deal created a new role for government in American life. Though the New Deal alone did not end the Depression, it did provide an unprecedented safety net to millions of suffering Americans. It also talks about the "A New Deal for the American People," The First Hundred Days, American Culture during the 1930s, The Second New Deal, and The End of the Depression. "The Cast of Thimble Theatre." The Cast of Thimble Theatre. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://home.earthlink.net/~thimbletheatre/theatrecast.html>.Talks about a short history of the Thimble Theatre and the cast. Olive Oyl and Ham Gravy debuted in Thimble Theatre in December 1919. The next month her brother Castor Oyl was added to the strip and their parents Nana and Cole Oyl showed up on the scene in 1920 as well. Castor began to dominate the strip in the mid-1920s with tales of get rich quick schemes.

"The Great Depression of the 1930s and Its Origins." The Great Depression of the 1930s and Its Origins. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/dep1929.htm>. Facts about economic and political influences during the great depression. "The Great Depression." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 5 June 1996. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/great-depression>.The Great Depression (1929-39) was the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world. In the United States, the Great Depression began soon after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors. Despite assurances from President Herbert Hoover and other leaders that the crisis would run its course, matters continued to get worse over the next three years. By 1930, 4 million Americans looking for work could not find it; that number had risen to 6 million in 1931. "The New Deal." The New Deal. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1851.html>. Opening the way for the New Deal, President Herbert Hoover was defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the Election of 1932. Hoover, who had been blamed for the stock market crash and the Depression, strongly opposed Roosevelt`s New Deal legislation, in which the federal government assumed responsibility for the welfare of the nation by maintaining a high level of economic activity. According to Hoover, Roosevelt had been slow to reveal his New Deal programs during the presidential campaign and worried that the new president would sink the nation into deficit spending to pay for the New Deal. Roosevelt never consulted Hoover, nor did he involve him in government in any way during his presidential term.** Tooze, Gary. "Popeye the Sailor: 1938-1940." Popeye the Sailor: 1938-1940. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012. <http://www.dvdbeaver.com/film2/DVDReviews37/popeye_the_sailor_3840.htm>.Describe the characteristics of Popeye and explains a little bit about how he surpasses Mickey Mouse. Also, talks about how he stood out during the Great Depression with some of his quote and show images at the bottom and screenshots of videos. Trip Reservations, Plan A Field. "Herbert Hoover." National Parks Service. National Parks Service, 29 Nov. 2012. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/heho/historyculture/herbert-hoover.htm>. On October 29, 1929 the stock market collapsed, triggering a depression that forced Hoover's ideals into conflict. Individualism demanded that private institutions provide relief, but humanitarianism called for federal aid. As a result, Hoover did more than any previous President to relieve the widespread distress, paving the way for the antidepression New Deal measures. He introduced banking reform legislation, created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, developed an agricultural credit system, and convened an economic conference to promote trade and stabilize currencies. It was not enough. Hoover's popularity evaporated and he lost to Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 election.