EXPERIMENT 6 Analysis of bleach and copper (ii) unknown Abstract The objectives for this experiment are to standardize the

sodium thiosulphate solution, to determine the percentage of NaClO in sample and to determine the percentage of copper in an unknown copper sample.firstly, get the standardization molarity of the sodium thiosulphate solution. Then, in part b, 10.0ml of the first bleach sample was pipette into the pre-weighed 100ml volumetric above. The flask was reweighed and recorded. This will give the density of the bleach solution. The sample was diluted to the 100ml mark with distilled water. Then, it was mixed well. The pipette was rinsed with distilled water followed with a little of the diluted bleach solution and a fresh 10.0ml aliquot was pipette into a 250ml conical flask. Next, 1.0 g of potassium iodide was added and it was swirled . then, 5.0ml of 6 M HCl was added to the mixture. The sample was titrated with the standardized sodium thiosulphate solution until the amber iodine colour begins to fade to light yellow. 2 ml of the starch solution was added and the titration was continued until the dark colour of the starch-iodine complex just disappears. The titration was repeated with two more 10.0ml aliquot of the diluted bleach solution. The analysis with the second branch of bleach sample. About 0.3 g of copper (II) unknown was weighed into a 250ml conical flask. The solid was dissolved with 35ml of 0.05 M sulphuric acid. 1.0 g of potassium iodide was added and it was swirled. Then, the mixture was titrated with the standardized sodium thiosulphate solution until the amber color of the triiodide begins to fade. At this point 2 ml of starch solution was added. the titration was continued until the grey starchiodine color disappears to produce a milky white-pinkish color that marks the end point. The titration was repeated with the two more samples. The percentage by mass of copper was calculated. The experiment is very important because it gives the idea of oxidation and reduction at the same time it views a clear about iodometric reaction. From the calculation, the percentage of the NaClO in Depex is 6.8% while in Clorox is 6.5 %. The percentage of copper in an unknown copper sample is 58.7%. this percentage shows that the unknown copper (II) is actually copper (II) chloride dehydrate.

The excess hydroxide keeps the resulting solution strongly basic.+ Cl.. The mechanism of action of both chlorine and oxygen bleaches is a combination of chlorination and oxidation reactions. Clorox 2® is an example of an oxygen bleach. Since the active ingredients are oxidizing agents. The chromophore or “color center” in most organic dyes or stains involves multiple bonds such as C=C or N=N groups. A blue dye absorbs red and thereforeblue is reflected to our eyes. they are reduced in the reactions which means they accept electrons from the compounds undergoing oxidation. OCl.anion. NaOCl (an alternative formula is NaClO). . “Chlorine free” bleaches.NaBO2·H2O2·H2O) which produce hydrogen peroxide.” Chemically. H2O2. and some is reduced to the chloride ion. The purpose of using a bleach is to reduce these chromophores to single bonds through either oxidation or chlorination. then all wavelengths are reflected which gives rise to white as the observed color.• ClO. alternatively. not Cl2(aq). Cl. When this occurs. typicall y marketed as safe for use with colors generally contain other oxidizing agents such as sodium perborate (NaBO3·2 H2O or. These products are commonly referred to as oxygen bleaches.+ H2O The ability of bleach to serve as an oxidizing agent is reported in terms of “available chlorine. this is incorrect because the true oxidizing agent in chlorine bleach is the ClO. when dissolved in water.. If the stain or dye loses its ability to absorb a particular wavelength. An equation describing this process is: Cl2(g) + 2 OH. light will be reflected by the material rather than absorbed and the material will seem to be both whiter and brighter.Introduction Household bleach contains an oxidizing agent known as sodium hypochlorite. Part of the chlorine is oxidized to the hypochlorite ion.react with a similar stoichiometry. the term“available chlorine” allows the hypochlorite concentration to be calculated as if Cl2(aq) wasactually present in the solution. NaOCl is prepared by bubbling chlorine gas into a sodium hydroxide solution. Because both Cl2(aq) and ClO. These dyes or stains absorb light in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum and reflect other visible colors.

 2CuI(s) + I3The triiodide produced in this reaction is titrated with standardized thiosulphate as in the bleach titration : I3+ 2S2O32. 3I3. The iodine-thiosulfate reaction is quite fast and the equilibrium is far to the product side. Copper (II) unknown analysis The percent by mass of copper in copper (II) unknown can be determined using similar procedure as for the bleach sample.+ 2S2O32. Iodide ion is a strong enough a reducing agent that many oxidizing agents can react completely with the iodide ion resulting in many useful iodometric processes.+ S4O62- And the overall reaction is : 2 Cu2+ + 2I. The copper (II) unknown compound is first dissolved in dilute acid followed by reacting with excess potassium iodide. This reaction produces triiodide according to the following equation : 2 Cu2+ + 5I. the following steps occur. The usual procedure involves the addition of an excess of iodide ion to the oxidizing agent analyte which produces iodine.One commonly used method for determining oxidizing agents in solution is termed an “iodometric titration”. 2CuI(s) + S4O62- Mole ratio of copper (II) to thiosulphate is 1:1 . In the hypochlorite titration. which can be titrated with standard sodium thiosulfate solution.

the titration was continued after the addition of starch. The reaction that occurs in the flask is : IO3. Analysis of Bleach A clean and dried 100ml volumetric flask was obtained. Standardisation of the Sodium Thiosulphate Solution The burette was filled with fresh thiosulphate solution. The solution turn blue-black once the starch is added. 5.Procedure A. About 2 g of solid KI was weighed into a 250ml conical flask. 10.0ml aliquot was pipette into a 250ml conical flask. B. (not balanced) . it was mixed well. The reaction that occurs in the flask between thiosulphate and triiodide to produce iodide and tetrathionate is : S2O32-(aq) + I2(aq) (or I3-)  I-(aq) + S2O62-(aq) The above method was repeated to two more samples.0 ml of 0. 1.010 M KIO3 solution was pipette into the same flask and then 10 ml of 1.0ml of 6 M HCl was added to the mixture.0ml aliquot of the diluted bleach solution. 2 ml of starch indicator was added using a cylinder. The titration was repeated with two more 10. then. The flask was reweighed and recorded. The analysis with the second branch of bleach sample. Next. The weight of empty 100ml volumetric flask was recorded. 2 ml of the starch solution was added and the titration was continued until the dark colour of the starch-iodine complex just disappears. The volume of titrant used was recorded. This will give the density of the bleach solution. the flask was placed in the laboratory fume hood while adding sulphuric acid to it. 50. The titration was stopped until its turn to colorless.0M H2SO4 was added. Then. The sample was titrated with the standardized sodium thiosulphate solution until the amber iodine colour begins to fade to light yellow. The sample was diluted to the 100ml mark with distilled water.0ml of the first bleach sample was pipette into the preweighed 100ml volumetric above. The pipette was rinsed with distilled water followed with a little of the diluted bleach solution and a fresh 10.0 g of potassium iodide was added and it was swirled . The colour was changed to deep brown colour. At this point.(aq) + 2 I (aq) + H+ (aq)  I2 (or I3-) + H2O(aq) (not balanced) The solution was immediately titrated in the flask with the thiosulphate solution until the colour of the solution is light yellow.

The percentage by mass of copper was calculated.C. the titration was continued until the grey starch-iodine color disappears to produce a milky white-pinkish color that marks the end point. . Analysis ofcopper (II) unknown About 0.3 g of copper (II) unknown was weighed into a 250ml conical flask.05 M sulphuric acid. The solid was dissolved with 35ml of 0. the mixture was titrated with the standardized sodium thiosulphate solution until the amber color of the triiodide begins to fade. The titration was repeated with the two more samples. 1.0 g of potassium iodide was added and it was swirled. Then. At this point 2 ml of starch solution was added.

Analysis of Bleach Brand of bleach I 1.90 2 7.10 7.14326 g/ml 2 14.00 7.10 7.00 28. 2.6107 g 61. Standardisation of the Sodium thiosulphate solution Titration Final volume of thiosulphate solution (ml) Initial volume of thiosulphate solution (ml) Volume of thiosulphate solution(ml) 1 28. 3. 4.00 7.4326 / 10 = 1.00 28.00 B. 2.1781 g 11.00 0.20 14.00 7.70 0.20 Molarity of Na2S2O3 solution Mass of volumetric flask + 10ml bleach Mass of volumetric flask Mass 10ml bleach Density of bleach Titration Final volume of thiosulphate solution(ml) Initial volumeof thiosulphate solution(ml) Volume of thiosulphate solution(ml) .11 M 75.60 0. = CLOROX = = = = = 1 7.00 28.90 0.Results A.6280 g 10.5642 g 64.4326 g 11.00 3 27. 5. 4.60 Brand of bleach II 1.9362/ 10 = 1.70 3 7. 5.00 0.9362 g 10.10 3 21.60 0.00 0.00 7.00 2 27.11 M 72.09362 g/ml Molarity of Na2S2O3 solution Mass of volumetric flask + 10ml bleach Mass of volumetric flask Mass 10ml bleach Density of bleach Titration Final volume of thiosulphate solution(ml) Initial volumeof thiosulphate solution(ml) Volume of thiosulphate solution(ml) 1 7. 3.90 0. = DEPEX = = = = = 0.00 7.

00 11.3007 13. Analysis of copper(II) unknown Molarity of Na2S2O3 solution Titration Mass of copper (II) compound taken(g) Final volume of Na2S2O3 solution (ml) Initial volume of Na2S2O3 solution (ml) Volume of Na2S2O3 solution (ml) used = 0.40 3 0.00 11.20 26.40 14.3005 25.00 11.3011 37.40 2.20 .40 2 0.1816 M 1 0.C.

Discussion In this experiment the amount of hypochlorite ion present in a solution of bleach is determined by an oxidation-reduction titration. Addition of starch to a solution that contains iodine or triiodide ion forms a reversible blue complex. hypochlorite ions oxidize iodide ions to form iodine. I2. and dark red-brown when concentrated. The triiodide ion is yellow in dilute solution.667 M. It dissolves very well in an aqueous solution of iodide ion. The quantity of thiosulfate used in step (3) is directly related to the amount of hypochlorite initially present. The iodine that forms is then titrated with a standard solution of sodium thiosulfate. From the mass we will divide with the mass used for this experiment and multiply by 100 to get the percentage.+ 2OHWe can get the number of moles of ClO. To know the unknown copper (II). S4O62. we calculate first the average molarity of thiosulphate which is 5. The disappearance of this blue colored complex is a much more sensitive method of determining the end point. 2 H+(aq) + ClO-(aq) + 2 I-(aq) Cl-(aq) + I2(aq) + H2O(l) (2) Iodine is only slightly soluble in water.7 % copper salts. In acid solution. we can calculate the mass of hypochlorite in an unknown copper(II). but this is not a very sensitive procedure.+ 2S2O32. we compare with the percentage of copper (II) given. The analysis takes place in a series of steps: (1) Acidified iodide ion is added to hypochlorite ion solution. From .+ Cl. The percentage get is 58. which reduces the iodine back to iodide ions: I3-(aq) + 2 S2O32-(aq) 3 I-(aq) + S4O62-(aq) During this last reaction the red-brown color of the triiodide ion fades to yellow and then to the clear color of the iodide ion.. I2(aq) + I-(aq) I3-(aq) (3) The triiodide is titrated with a standard solution of thiosulfate ions. the iodine-thiosulfate titration procedure. After this. from this equation : H2O + ClO. in which it forms a complex ion called the triiodide ion. To know the copper (II) unknown is. and the iodide is oxidized to iodine. It is possible to use the disappearance of the color of the I3ion as the method of determining the end point.

the percentage of the NaClO in Depex is 6. Actually.jesuitnola. http://kinardf.org/upload/clark/aplabs.lapeer. Waste all the chemicals used in the safe place provided in the lab.org/Chem2Docs/APChem2Manual.pdf 3. this percentage shows that the unknown copper (II) is actually copper (II) chloride dehydrate. Beside.this calculation. From the calculation. Conclusion The experiment is very important because it gives the idea of oxidation and reduction at the same time it views a clear about iodometric reaction.cofc.edu/153L_HONS_HonorsChemistryLaboratory/Exp4_Chlorine BleachTitration. References 1. Read and understand well the needed of the experiment’s procedure first before handle this. we must beware of the weight getting to avoid too much differences from the theoretical value. The percentage of copper in an unknown copper sample is 58. we not get the accurate volume needed because of reading of the meniscus for pipette. Make sure used the correct weight/volume of sample needed to avoid wasting of chemicals. for the repeated sample we do not remember to add starch to know the end point but we just let the color of iodine changes to colorless. the percentage we get have biggest difference with the given because all the sources of errors happen while handle this experiment. All the error we done effect the value/ data we get is not accurate. For the next experiment. http://chem.5 %.8% while in Clorox is 6. http://www.people. the nearest percentage in this experiment is suit with copper (II) chloride dehydrate.7%. The first error is while we pipette the bleach to 10mL.htm#Analysis_of_a_Commercial_Bleach_ 2. The 3 replicate sample of copper (II) unknown is not precise with each other because it left in the weighing boat. The mass of sample weight also not accurate because we do not follow the method to clean and dry the volumetric flask before weight it.html#bleach .

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