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1 and LEED Certification
Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
Stephen Haines, EIT, LEED AP JBA Consulting Engineers Mechanical Engineering
What is ASHRAE Standard 62.1?
The Industries Ventilation
Purpose: “… to specify minimum
ventilation rates and other measures intended to provide indoor air quality that is acceptable to human occupants and that minimizes adverse health effects.”
Scope: All commercial, institutional
and high-rise residential buildings (excludes low-rise residential)
History of ASHRAE Standard 62.1
1981 Lower Rates (Office – 5 cfm/person) 1989 Higher Rates (Office – 20 cfm/person) 2001 More Mandatory Language
1999 Little Change 2004 Key Changes: Ventilation Rate Procedure
2010 Most Current
1984 Steve’s birthday 1973 First Issued (Office – 15 cfm/person)
2007 Corrections, Clarifications
Key Changes in 62.1-2004
Area-related and occupancy-related ventilation components Minimum Ventilation Rate Table revised to apply only to non-smoking areas (smoking areas are still not addressed) Appendix G – Existing Buildings Additions, Equipment replacements, Substantial alterations Indoor Air Humidity (65% max) and pressure requirements (positive when dehumidifying) Requirement to deliver outside air directly to occupied spaces
1-2007 is a prerequisite for any LEED-NC credits .Why is ASHRAE 62.1 Important? It is the basis for many ventilation codes More stringent than codes in some cases and helps establish the “standard-of-care” Compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62.
Two Paths to Compliance Ventilation Rate Procedure Most commonly used method Table 6-1 Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone Need to determine the zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez) LEED requires this method for compliance Indoor Air Quality Procedure Designed to maintain specific contaminant levels Mass balance analysis Methods used in similar buildings Validation by contaminant monitoring verification .
Ventilation Rate Procedure .
1-2010 . 2010 Correction made for Standard 62.Ventilation Rate Procedure Note the following rooms do not require area-based ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Electrical equipment rooms Telecommunications/data rooms Elevator machine rooms Other similar non-occupied spaces Clarified under Interpretation IC 62.1-2007-17 approved on January 23.
2010 Corrected in the 2010 version of the Standard .1-2007-17 approved on January 23.Ventilation Rate Procedure Note the following rooms do not require area-based ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007: Electrical equipment rooms Telecommunications/data rooms Elevator machine rooms Other similar non-occupied spaces Clarified under Interpretation IC 62.
0 = 447 cfm or 14.8 in heating mode which yields a higher ventilation rate requirement.1-2007 High School Classroom 35’ x 35’ (30 people) Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow (Vbz) = RpPz + RaAz Occupancy component .0.62.12 cfm/ft2 – 0.9 cfm/person Be careful with Ez values! Most of the time Ez = 0.12 x (35’ x 35’) = 147 cfm Zone Outdoor Airflow (Voz) = Vbz/Ez Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness Voz = (300 + 147)/1.10 cfm/person – 10 x 30 people = 300 cfm Area component .Classroom Example Single Zone . Reference Table 6-2! .
Ventilation Rate Procedure .
use Table 6-3 with the Zone Primary Outdoor Air Fraction Zp Primary Outdoor Air Fraction Zp Zp = Voz/Vpz Voz – Zone outdoor airflow Vpz – Zone primary airflow (for VAV systems Vpz is the minimum expected primary airflow for design purposes) .Multiple Zone Recirculating Systems Vou = ∑(RpPz + RaAz) for all zones – Uncorrected Outdoor Air Intake Vot = Vou/Ev – Outdoor Air Intake To determine the System Ventilation Efficiency (Ev).
Multiple Zone Example Office 15’x10’ 1 Occupant 100 cfm SA Corridor 4’ wide 0 Occupants 150 cfm SA Storage 10’x10’ 0 Occupants 50 cfm SA Office 15’x10’ 1 Occupant 100 cfm SA Break Room 10’x20’ 4 Occupants 200 cfm SA Conference 12’x12’ 6 Occupants 150 cfm SA Office 10’x20’ 2 Occupants 150 cfm SA Note: supply airflows are heating minimum values Office 18’x10’ 2 Occupants 150 cfm SA Office 18’x10’ 2 Occupants 150 cfm SA .
06 cfm/ft2) + 2 people x 5 cfm/person = 21 cfm OA Office total (14 cfm) x 2 + 22 cfm + (21 cfm) x 2 Office total = 92 cfm OA .06 cfm/ft2) + 2 people x 5 cfm/person = 22 cfm OA 18’ x 10’ x (0.Multiple Zone Example Vou = ∑(RpPz + RaAz) for all zones – uncorrected outdoor air intake Offices 15’ x 10’ x (0.06 cfm/ft2) + 1 person x 5 cfm/person = 14 cfm OA 10’ x 20’ x (0.
Multiple Zone Example Vou = ∑(RpPz + RaAz) for all zones – uncorrected outdoor air intake Break Room 10’ x 20’ x (0.06 cfm/ft2) + 4 people x 5 cfm/person = 32 cfm OA Conference 12’ x 12’ x (0.12 cfm/ft2) = 12 cfm OA Corridor 296 ft2 x (0.06 cfm/ft2) + 6 people x 5 cfm/person = 39 cfm OA Storage 10’ x 10’ x (0.06 cfm/ft2) = 18 cfm OA .
Multiple Zone Example Vou = ∑(RpPz + RaAz) for all zones – uncorrected outdoor air intake Office total – 92 cfm Break room – 32 cfm Conference – 39 cfm Storage – 12 cfm Corridor -18 cfm Building total = 92 + 32 + 39 + 12 + 18 = 194 cfm … BUT WAIT! .
Multiple Zone Example Building total = 194 cfm OA But Vou is the “uncorrected” outdoor air intake – we also have to account for the System Ventilation Efficiency (Ev) What exactly is the System Ventilation Efficiency? Here is where it can get a little tricky! .
System Ventilation Efficiency The System Ventilation Efficiency (Ev) increases the outside air at the system to account for the critical zones Example The critical zone is a conference room where the zone requires 50% of the minimum supply air to be outside air Based on the building area and occupant requirements for ventilation. the % outside air at the air handling unit is only 15% The critical zone will always be underventilated under these conditions ASHRAE says we need to increase the outside air at the unit to compensate for this How does this affect our Multiple Zone Example? .
18 Office 2 – 10’ x 20’ Zp = (28 cfm OA)/(150 cfm SA) = 0.Multiple Zone Example Lets calculate the Zone Primary Outdoor Air Fraction for each zone Zp = Voz/Vpz Office 1 – 15’ x 10’ Zp = (18 cfm OA)/(100 cfm SA) = 0.19 Office 3 – 18’ x 10’ Zp = (27 cfm OA)/(150 cfm SA) = 0.18 .
33 Storage Zp = (15 cfm OA)/(50 cfm SA) = 0.30 Corridor Zp = (23 cfm OA)/(150 cfm SA) = 0.20 Conference Zp = (49 cfm OA)/(150 cfm SA) = 0.16 .Multiple Zone Example Zp = Voz/Vpz Break Room Zp = (40 cfm OA)/(200 cfm SA) = 0.
18 Office 2 – Zp = 0.33 .19 Office 3 – Zp = 0.Multiple Zone Example Office 1 – Zp = 0.Zp = 0.Zp = 0.30 Corridor .33 Storage .Zp = 0.20 Conference .18 Break Room .16 Highest Zp – Conference – 0.Zp = 0.
Multiple Zone Example Vot = Vou/Ev – Outdoor Air Intake Using Table 6-3 with Zp = 0.33 and by interpolating.82 Vot = (194 cfm)/0. Ev = 0.82 Vot = 236 cfm OA required Will use 240 cfm OA 0.82 .
Multiple Zone Example Now what happens if we increase the VAV box minimums on the critical zones? Zp = Voz/Vpz Conference (increased minimum SA from 150 cfm to 250 cfm) Zp = (49 cfm OA)/(250 cfm SA) = 0.95 .20 (previously 0.20 and by interpolating.30) Using Table 6-3 with the max Zp = 0.95 Vot = 205 cfm OA required Use 205 cfm OA instead of 240 cfm 0.33) Storage (increased minimum SA from 50 cfm to 100 cfm) Zp = (15 cfm OA)/(100 cfm SA) = 0.95 Vot = (194 cfm)/0. Ev = 0.15 (previously 0.
83 = 234 cfm – very similar result All zone Zp values do not necessarily need to be calculated.33 = 0.Alternative Procedures Appendix A Another way to calculate System Ventilation Efficiency (Ev) other than using Table 6-3 Ev = minimum (Evz) Evz = 1 + Xs – Zd Xs is the Average Outdoor Air Fraction at the air handling unit Zd is the Discharge Outdoor Air Fraction at the zone In our Multiple Zone Example.33 = 1 + 0. Ev = 1 + (194 cfm)/(1200 cfm) – 0.16 – 0.83 Vot = (194 cfm)/0. just the “critical zones” .
Title 24 Requirements But what about Title 24? Based on Section 121 – Requirements for Ventilation Mechanical Ventilation The conditioned floor area of the space times the applicable ventilation rate from Table 121-A or 15 cfm/person times the expected number of occupants Cannot be less than the larger of the two! .
15 cfm/sf = 240 cfm People-based ventilation rate: 15 cfm/person Required OA = 18 people x 15 cfm/person = 270 cfm Title 24 Ventilation – 270 cfm ASHRAE Standard 62.15 cfm/sf Required OA = 1.Multiple Zone Example Area-based ventilation rate: Table 121-A for office space (other) is 0.1 Ventilation – 240 cfm This result is not always the case! .600 sf x 0.
or The design zone outdoor airflow rate per Section 121 May not be possible to increase minimum zone airflows to reduce Zp in the critical zones . re-cooled. or mixed air supply shall not exceed the larger of: 50 percent of the peak primary airflow.Title 24 Requirements Section 144 (d) – Space-conditioning Zone Controls Minimizes reheating to reduce energy use The volume of primary air that is reheated.
000 sf) May reduce OA for these spaces based on CO2 levels Dynamic Reset not a requirement in ASHRAE Standard 62.Title 24 Requirements Section 121 (c) – Operation and Control Requirements Required Demand Control Ventilation CO2 sensors required in densely occupied spaces (occupant density greater than or equal to 25 people per 1.1 CO2 sensors are required for LEED OA Delivery Monitoring credit .
e.ASHRAE 62.1 Design Tips Identify the “critical zones” High occupant density and low airflow requirement (i. little to no envelope load) Interior conference/meeting rooms Interior waiting/lobby areas Interior break rooms Not necessarily limited to interior zones (north-facing and no glass) Increase VAV box minimum airflows in critical zones to reduce outside air where possible [ watch out for Title 24 Section 144 (d) ] May use transfer fans to increase supply air to a critical space .
a pressurization calc should be done to ensure that the building is positively pressurized which could result in higher air quantities than ASHRAE 62.1 User’s Manual Allows you to input only the critical zones Spreadsheet uses Appendix A approach Caution! Don’t forget about building pressurization .1 Design Tips May account for Occupant Diversity – the ratio of the system population to the sum of the zone populations Utilize calculation spreadsheet Spreadsheet provided with ASHRAE 62.1 requires Make sure heating minimum supply air values can handle the zone heat losses with the selected reheat coil .ASHRAE 62.
LEED Compliance LEED Version 3.1-2007 IEQ Prerequisite 1 – Minimum IAQ Performance (mandatory) IEQ Credit 2 – Increased Ventilation (optional) The Ventilation Rate Procedure must be correctly documented and uploaded to LEED Online for review Best method – “62MZCalc” spreadsheet Pre-programmed spreadsheet template Accepted by USGBC Available with purchase of ASHRAE 62.1 User’s Manual Free through LEED Online under “Credit Resources” .0 requires that the design meet the minimum requirements of Sections 4 through 7 of ASHRAE Standard 62.
84 Required Vot = 229 cfm .LEED Compliance – 62MZCalc Entered Values Critical Zone System Ev = 0.
LEED Compliance – 62MZCalc “62MZCalc” spreadsheet tips Required only to input “potentially critical zones” Analyze all operating conditions Cooling mode Heating mode Check with Architect for a building program or design occupancy May be based on full-time equivalent (FTE) occupants Apply occupant diversity (D) where possible Spreadsheet instructions Cell unlock code .
2) ASHRAE Standard 62.LEED Compliance LEED Documentation Materials IEQp1 Submittal Template (LEED Online form v3.1 Documentation of the VRP “62MZCalc” Spreadsheet Trane Trace 700 Calculation Report Carrier’s HAP Calculation Report Other suitable analysis program Equipment schedules identifying design OA for all systems Equipment submittals (if applicable) .0 or Template PDF v2.
LEED Compliance LEED Design Review Process Design Application Submission Design Application Review GBCI (25 business days) Final Design Review Appeals ($500 per credit) Design Application Review Pending Issues “It is unclear…” Technical Advice “Please provide revised VRP calculations demonstrating…” .
.Design Application Review Comments The LEED Submittal Template has been provided stating that the project complies with the minimum requirements of ASHRAE Standards 62. However.1-2004. A narrative has been provided describing the project's ventilation system design. specific information regarding the fresh air intake volumes has not been provided. TECHNICAL ADVICE: Please provide a more detailed narrative or resubmit the LEED Submittal Template to include a more detailed narrative that includes specific information regarding the fresh air intake volumes.
1-2004. and it is unclear whether the operating conditions represented in the calculations reflect the worst-case scenario. Alternatively.1-2004. two issues are pending: 1. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. for each unit serving multiple zones. it is unclear whether the critical zone has been used to determine the Primary Outdoor Air Fraction (Zp) and System Ventilation Efficiency (Ev) values. using the Ventilation Rate Procedure… However. It is unclear how the System Ventilation Efficiency (Ev) value has been determined. Table 6. .Design Application Review Comments The LEED Submittal Template has been provided stating that the project complies with the minimum requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62. The documentation and Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) calculations indicate an Ez value of 1. 2. include information explaining the selection of an Ez value of 1. Provide a detailed narrative including specific information regarding the selection of the worst-case design conditions for the VRP calculations. Indicate in the narrative how the Ev value has been determined.0 for all systems. as well as the critical zone for each unit serving multiple zones. it is unclear which zone.0 for all VRP calculations. In addition. Please provide revised VRP calculations demonstrating that the values have been adjusted such that they are in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62. provide revised calculations demonstrating that the critical zone has been used to determine the Primary Outdoor Air Fraction (Zp) and System Ventilation Efficiency (Ev) values. If necessary. is the critical zone.2. 2. Therefore. TECHNICAL ADVICE: 1.
g. The project has utilized the VRP Compliance Calculator. lease. . sales agreement).g. TECHNICAL ADVICE: 1.12007 and ensure that a copy of the legally binding document (e. specifying minimum performance criteria for IEQp1 for the tenant work. Provide revised tenant guidelines to include a reference to meeting the minimum requirements of ASHRAE 62. has not been provided. However.Design Application Review Comments The LEED Prerequisite Form has been provided stating that the project is mechanically ventilated and mechanically conditioned. the tenant guidelines do not indicate the requirements of ASHRAE 62. sales agreement). explicitly stating the performance requirements for the tenant work is included. therefore the project applies Case 1.1-2007 must be met and a copy of the legally binding document (e. lease.
1) .1 Minimum MERV ratings for filters (minimum MERV 6 upstream of cooling coils) Exhaust rates (Table 6.Other Important Sections in ASHRAE 62.4) Restrooms Copy/printing rooms Kitchenettes (break rooms) Chemical storage rooms (housekeeping) Natural ventilation – specifies location and size of openings in lieu of or in addition to mechanical ventilation Outside air intake minimum separation distances (Table 5.
References ASHRAE Standard 62.1 PDFs available of older versions of the Standard ASHRAE 62.1 User’s Manual More detailed explanation of the Ventilation Rate Procedure Example problems ASHRAE website .
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