VALUE & ETHICS IN BUSINESS MBA 1st Year 1st Semester

WBUT/MBA/ I st Sem (3 Credit : 30 hrs) [MB 110] : VALUES & ETHICS IN BUSINESS Course Contents 1. 2. 3. Values – Importance, Sources of Value Systems, Types, Values, Loyalty and Ethical Behaviour, Values across Cultures. [2 L] Business Ethics – Nature, Characteristics and Needs, Ethical Practices in Management. [2 L] Indian Values and Ethics – Respect for Elders, Hierarchy and Status, Need for Security, Non – Violence, Cooperation, Simple Living high Thinking, Rights and Duties, Ethics in Work life, Holistic relationship between Man and Nature, Attitudes and Beliefs. [6 L] The Ethical Value System – Universalism, Utilitarianism, Distributive Justice, Social Contracts, Individual Freedom of Choice, Professional Codes. [4 L] Culture and Ethics – Ethical Values in different Cultures, Culture and Individual Ethics. [2 L] Law and Ethics – Relationship between Law and Ethics, Other Bodies in enforcing Ethical Business Behavior, Impact of Laws on Business Ethics. [ 2L] Social Responsibilities of Business – Environmental Protection, Fair Trade Practices, Fulfilling all National obligations under various Laws, Safeguarding Health and well being of Customers. [4 L] Ethics and Corporate Excellence – Code of Ethics in Business Houses, Strategies of Organizational Culture Building, Total Quality, Customer Care, Care of the Employees as per Statutes, Objective and Optimistic Approach. [4 L]

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1. S. K. Chakraborty : Values and Ethics in Organisation, OUP 2. R. Raj : A study in Business Ethics, Himalaya Publishing. 3. A. N. Tripathi : Human Values, New Age International 4. L. T. Hosmer : The Ethics of Management, Universal Book. 5. D. Murray : Ethics in Organizational, Kogan Page.

LECTURE PLAN MBA I VALUES & ETHICS IN BUSINESS [MB 110] Ch topic Areas no. 1 Values Importance, Sources of Value Systems, Types, Values, Loyalty and Ethical Behaviour, Values across Cultures. 2 Business Nature, Characteristics and Needs, Ethical Practices in Ethics Management. 3 Indian Respect for Elders, Hierarchy and Status, Need for Security, Values and Non – Violence Ethics Cooperation, Simple Living high Thinking, Rights and Duties, Ethics in Work life Holistic relationship between Man and Nature, Attitudes and Beliefs. Universalism, Utilitarianism, Distributive Justice, Social Contracts Individual Freedom of Choice, Professional Codes. Ethical Values in different Cultures, Culture and Individual Ethics. Relationship between Law and Ethics, Other Bodies in enforcing Ethical Business Behavior, Impact of Laws on Business Ethics Environmental Protection, Fair Trade Practices Fulfilling all National obligations under various Laws, Safeguarding Health and well being of Customers Code of Ethics in Business Houses, Strategies of Organizational Culture Building

No. of lectures 2L 2L 3L 2L 2L 3L 2L 2L 3L 3L 2L 3L



The Ethical Value System Culture and Ethics Law and Ethics Social Responsibilit ies of Business Ethics and Corporate Excellence

5 6 7


Total Quality, Customer Care, Care of the Employees as per 3L Statutes, Objective and Optimistic Approach.

Those who value money. Good companies need to have proper ethics and values in running their business. On the other hand those who value morality. These future managers will introduce and strengthen the code of ethics of any business. value is “an enduring belief that a specific mode of the conduct or end-state of existence in personality or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.Chapter 1 VALUES Introduction:During the last few decades the world has noticed phenomenal industrial growth and development. They need to be well versed in how to sustain in the competition and how to progress. . the good society and the good life. goals and aspirations. and the responses we make to life situations. power etc direct all their efforts for achieving them ignoring the social. preferences. feelings. Due to this growth and development the living standard of general people has changed a lot. the quality of relationship we build. human and ethical implications. The word value expresses the qualitative significance or importance we assign to ideas. This degradation in values and ethics has resulted in corruption in all walks of life.” An individual’s value system is defined as an enduring organization of belief concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-state of existence along a continuum of relative importance. environment and ethics. Management d of today will become managers of tomorrow. and experiences. The value system we acquire and develop affects our attitudes. It is this sense which prompts and guides the unceasing quest of the common thread of goodness in the good human being. kindness etc may decline even lucrative career options if it requires compromising these values. The study of values and ethics provides the following benefits for the management students• Create awareness of social and professional values • Inculcate integrity • Helps to realize social responsibility • Helps to solve ethical dilemmas • Helps to make the organization a better place for work and development VALUES The sense of value is an essential attribute of the human consciousness. status. activities. It sets the standards and guidelines which govern our behaviour. Any good company should have their quality goods and services but these are not the all. Last two decades has been called as the E-Decade where E stands for economy. justice. a leading researcher of values. The fast pace of economic development has also given rise to a dark phase consisting of erosion of values and ethics. Most of the companies have developed their code of ethics for better and smooth running of the business. According to Milton Rokeach.

The quality of being authentic. B.Dependability is the reliability of a person to others because of his integrity.1.a Satisfaction . It differs from conformity. B. Pleasure or contentment derived from such gratification. B.1. Terminal values B.b Peace and harmony .1. happiness. B. ideas.A state of health.f Truthfulness . harmonious relations and the absence of mental stress or anxiety. and prospering . influences.2.b Dependability .2.c Prosperity .2. accord. or opinions. B.1.Ready acceptance of often new suggestions. A. B. it is the group needs of the family which get preference over the individual needs. traits that can encourage someone to depend on him. Importance of Values:It influences the behaviour at individual and group levels.It is linked to self-esteem and considered an important communication skill.Obedience is behavior intended to comply with explicit demands of authority. Instrumental values B.2. Other definitions include freedom from disputes. truthfulness and trustfulness.a Assertiveness .1. or appetite. need.e Open mindedness . In a society like ours. A manager’s values affect the decision making process of the organization A manager’s value system plays an important role in time of employee appraisal It will help managers to resolve ethical dilemmas at work place It is very important in making an organization socially responsible and acceptable to society. B.The fulfillment or gratification of a desire. On the other hand harmony means agreement in feeling or opinion. B.Peace is commonly understood to mean the absence of hostilities. as the meaning of the word changes with context. Types of ValuesB.1. which is behavior intended to match that of others.c Hard work – work with sincerity and devotion.1. A source or means of gratification. B.d Obedience . which value collectivism.At the society level it is the commonly shared values of a social group which determine the quality of life in it.

B. Personal values.2.d Recognition .2. social responsibilities etc. of an event that transpired. Business values.a person is known by the values he believes & practices. revenue. 2. . or of a person who is authorized by another to act in a particular manner. Managerial values-the organizations use to provide training on the values and ethics followed by that organization to make new entrants accustomed with the environment. Again we can classify values as follows1. 3.e Security & safety – security means the quality or state of being safe and safety means protection from harm. B.a company becomes well known by its quality goods. growth.The confirmation or acknowledgment of the existence of an act performed. services.

and any special duties or obligations that apply to persons who are engaged in commerce. earnings management. and are more concerned with practical problems and applications. B. 1. or with justifying the most basic ethical principles. Leadership issues: corporate governance. Issues regarding the moral rights and duties between a company and its shareholders: fiduciary responsibility. . shareholder concept. Executive compensation: concerns excessive payments made to corporate CEO's. business ethicists are usually less concerned with the foundations of ethics (metaethics). industrial espionage. Ethics of finance and accounting • • • Creative accounting. General business ethics • • • • • • • • This part of business ethics overlaps with the philosophy of business.” Generally speaking. one of the aims of which is to determine the fundamental purposes of a company. Corporate social responsibility or CSR: an umbrella term under which the ethical rights and duties existing between companies and society is debated. securities fraud. hostile take-overs. business ethics is a normative discipline. stakeholder concept v. Law reform. C. Professional ethics Professional ethics covers the myriad of practical ethical problems and phenomena which arise out of specific functional areas of companies or in relation to recognized business professions. Ethical issues concerning relations between different companies: e. bucket shop. forex scams: concerns (criminal) manipulation of the financial markets. Insider trading.g. misleading financial analysis. The misuse of corporate ethics policies as marketing instruments. such as the ethical debate over introducing a crime of corporate manslaughter. then it could be seen as unethical for a company to consider the interests and rights of anyone else. Political contributions made by corporations.Chapter 2 BUSINESS ETHICS Business ethics is a form of applied ethics that examines ethical rules and principles within a commercial context. It makes specific judgements about what is right or wrong. which is to say. If a company's main purpose is to maximize the returns to its shareholders. Overview of issues in business ethics A. it makes claims about what ought to be done or what ought not to be done. the various moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business setting. whereby particular ethical standards are assumed and then applied. While there are some exceptions. and any specific duties that might apply to business relationships.

pyramid scheme. grey markets. antitrust law. these practices may be anti-competitive or offend against the values of society. See also: privacy. race. Ethics of human resource management The ethics of human resource management (HRM) covers those ethical issues arising around the employer-employee relationship. indentured servitude. such as the rights and duties owed between employer and employee. drug testing. spam (electronic). D. Issues affecting the privacy of the employee: workplace surveillance. Issues relating to the fairness of the employment contract and the balance of power between employer and employee: slavery[3]. Ethics of production This area of business ethics deals with the duties of a company to ensure that products and production processes do not cause harm. shill. addictive and inherently dangerous products and services. E. viral marketing. price skimming. • • • • • • Discrimination issues include discrimination on the bases of age (ageism). .• Bribery. disabilities. Content of advertisements: attack ads. See: anti-competitive practices. Ethics of sales and marketing Marketing which goes beyond the mere provision of information about (and access to) a product may seek to manipulate our values and behaviour. • Defective. religion. or the degree of permissibility may depend on the changing state of preventative technologies or changing social perceptions of acceptable risk. Some of the more acute dilemmas in this area arise out of the fact that there is usually a degree of danger in any product or production process and it is difficult to define a degree of permissibility. employment law. strike breaking. See also: affirmative action. kickbacks. Issues affecting the privacy of the employer: whistle-blowing. gender. sex in advertising. Black markets. but where is the ethical line to be drawn? • • • • • • Pricing: price fixing. Specific marketing strategies: greenwash. Children and marketing: marketing in schools. bait and switch. F. planned obsolescence. To some extent society regards this as acceptable. Anti-competitive practices: these include but go beyond pricing tactics to cover issues such as manipulation of loyalty and supply chains. Occupational safety and health. price discrimination. facilitation payments: while these may be in the (short-term) interests of the company and its shareholders. weight and attractiveness. Issues surrounding the representation of employees and the democratisation of the workplace: union busting. sexual harassment. subliminal messages.

International business ethics While business ethics emerged as a field in the 1970's. Ethics of intellectual property. Conflicting interests . The practice of employing all the most talented people in a specific field. Many new practical issues arose out the international context of business. Business intelligence and industrial espionage. such as outsourcing production (e. The permissibility of international commerce with pariah states. bioprospecting and biopiracy in the pharmaceutical industry. call centres) to low-wage countries. Ethical issues arising out of international business transactions.e. G. knowledge and skills Knowledge and skills are valuable but not easily "ownable" objects. Issues such as globalisation and cultural imperialism. environmental ethics. or the company which discovered and developed the plant's medicinal potential? As a result. Varying global standards . regardless of need. The way in which multinationals take advantage of international differences. mobile phone radiation and health. H. the fair trade movement. reflecting the international developments of that decade. • • • • • • • Patent infringement. copyright misuse.g. Bioprospecting (ethical) and biopiracy (unethical). patent troll. submarine patent. in order to prevent any competitors employing them. clothes) and services (e. Issues and subfields include: • • • • • • • • The search for universal values as a basis for international commercial behaviour. older issues can be grouped here as well. Product testing ethics: animal rights and animal testing. Comparison of business ethical traditions in different countries. the use of child labour.g. international business ethics did not emerge until the late 1990's. Nor is it obvious who has the greater rights to an idea: the company who trained the employee or the employee themselves? The country in which the plant grew. attempts to assert ownership and ethical disputes over ownership arise. Theoretical issues such as cultural relativity of ethical values receive more emphasis in this field. Other.g. carbon emissions trading Ethical problems arising out of new technologies: genetically modified food. transfer pricing. Misuse of the intellectual property systems to stifle competition: patent misuse. Employee raiding: the practice of attracting key employees away from a competitor to take unfair advantage of the knowledge or skills they may possess.g. e. Comparison of business ethical traditions from various religious perspectives.• • • Ethical relations between the company and the environment: pollution. Even the notion of intellectual property itself has been criticised on ethical grounds: see intellectual property. 2. use of economically disadvantaged groups (such as students) as test objects. copyright infringement. trademark infringement.

g. loss of licensure. 3. for example. society. it would be bad for the company. some suggest that the principal purpose of a business is to maximize returns to its owners. only those activities that increase profitability and shareholder value should be encouraged. and society as a whole. however. Henry Sidgwick) see the principal role of ethics as the harmonization and reconciliation of conflicting interests. This approach has become especially popular subsequent to the revival of contract theory in political philosophy. which they call Integrative Social Contracts Theory. situations arise in which there is conflict between one or more of the parties. or even society as a whole. Some ethicists (e. accepted . bribery is a customary. and. and employees and other stakeholders are given voice over a company's operations. United States law forbids companies from paying bribes either domestically or overseas. which is largely due to John Rawls' A Theory of Justice.Business ethics can be examined from various perspectives. Thus. Critics say the proponents of contract theories miss a central point. an aspect of the "quality movement" that emerged in the 1980s. Very often. a particular outcome might be good for the employee. namely. or should it follow the less stringent laws of the developing country in which it does business? To illustrate. and some would even suggest that this even includes rights of governance. The question arises. using a combination of i) macro-principles that all rational people would agree upon as universal principles. Ethical issues can arise when companies must comply with multiple and sometimes conflicting legal or cultural standards. the commercial enterprise. whereas. including the perspective of the employee. or vice versa. vendors. because the consequences of failing to do so could be very costly in fines. They posit that conflicting interests are best resolved by formulating a "fair agreement" between the parties. and the advent of the consensus-oriented approach to solving business problems. the local community. that a business is someone's property and not a mini-state or a means of distributing social justice. some point out that self interest would still require a business to obey the law and adhere to basic moral rules. whereby companies become quasi-democratic associations. For example. and that these duties consist of more than simply obeying the law. Other theorists contend that a business has moral duties that extend well beyond serving the interests of its owners or stockholders. Professors Thomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee proposed a version of contract theory for business. They believe a business has moral responsibilities to so-called stakeholders. The economist Milton Friedman is a leading proponent of this view. or company reputation. They would say that stakeholders have certain rights with regard to how the business operates. ii) micro-principles formulated by actual agreements among the interested parties. which might include employees. or in the case of a publicly-traded concern. Some theorists have adapted social contract theory to business. people who have an interest in the conduct of the business. in other parts of the world. Ethical issues and approaches Philosophers and others disagree about the purpose of a business in society. ought a company to obey the laws of its home country. such that serving the interest of one party is a detriment to the other(s). For example. customers. its shareholders. as in the case of multinational companies that operate in countries with varying practices. under this view. However. Some believe that the only companies that are likely to survive in a competitive marketplace are those that place profit maximization above everything else..

he suggests exploring if there is a third. with periodic reinforcement. highly-generalized language (typically called a corporate ethics statement). An increasing number of companies also requires employees to attend seminars regarding business conduct. Some claim that ethical problems are better dealt with by depending upon employees to use their own judgment. Others believe that corporate ethics policies are primarily rooted in utilitarian concerns. with routine inspections for compliance and improvement. Thus. at best. It is claimed that in a competitive business environment. On this view. . Corporate ethics policies Many companies have formulated internal policies pertaining to the ethical conduct of employees. by both word and by example. They are generally meant to identify the company's expectations of workers and to offer guidance on handling some of the more common ethical problems that might arise in the course of doing business. He calls it a "trilemma". Should a lawsuit occur. Monitored by top management. the company can claim that the problem would not have arisen if the employee had only followed the code properly. and legal requirements. the competitive system fosters a downward ethical spiral. Sometimes there is disconnection between the company's code of ethics and the company's actual practices. Some companies even require their employees to sign agreements stating that they will abide by the company's rules of conduct. at worst. containing specific behavioral requirements (typically called corporate ethics codes). and that they are mainly to limit the company's legal liability.. 4. Similar problems can occur with regard to child labor. Not everyone supports corporate policies that govern ethical conduct. this makes the policy duplicitous. and environmental protection laws. specific case studies. those companies that survive are the ones that recognize that their only role is to maximize profits. Ideally. or they can be more detailed policies. or to curry public favor by giving the appearance of being a good corporate citizen. It is hoped that having such a policy will lead to greater ethical awareness. most ethicists would suggest that an ethics policy should be: • • • • Given the unequivocal support of top management. and. and the avoidance of ethical disasters. wages. work hours.. it is merely a marketing tool. unexplored option. consistency in application. employee safety. It is sometimes claimed that a Gresham's law of ethics applies in which bad ethical practices drive out good ethical practices. which often include discussion of the company's policies. Doable. Rushworth Kidder developed a fascinating way to address ethical conflicts. To be successful. Instead of feeling stuck in a choice between violating your ethics and doing something painful but ethical.. Explained in writing and orally. These policies can be simple exhortations in broad.something employees can both understand and perform.way of doing business. the company will avoid a lawsuit because its employees will follow the rules. discrimination. whether or not such conduct is explicitly sanctioned by management.

Remain neutral and nonsexist. .• • Backed up by clearly stated consequences in the case of disobedience.

Efficient maintenance of law and order provides secured living. The respect for superior in the organisation or in the family is a general value in India. education and environment of living.what is society? & what is a good society? Society is an organisation for cooperative working to seek human development. They carry with them the authority of the state and its coercive power of penal . Indian culture originates from religion. Indian cultural tradition shows respect to elders in the family. The very survival of family system depended on the observance of values and ethics by all memebers of the family. Safety from different natural and other incidents which may cause harm to human being. Here comes the respect for hierarchy and status. Laws are a set of public rules for regulating the social order. Respect for status 1. Similarly in the Mahabharata we can see the respect of Pandavas towards Yudhisthir without whose permission they would not take any major decision. The Ramayana shows us the obedience of Ram to his father and obedience of Laxmana to his elder brother Ram. Rule of law is a basic value of a good society. According to Maslow’s need hierarchy after considerable fulfilment of the physiological needs the second stage need safety arises.Chapter 3 INDIAN VALUES & ETHICS 1. Before exploring those values let us first clarify our understanding on two basic questions :. The love and affection of the elders for the younger members and respect shown by the younger members to the elders were responsible for keeping the family together. the kings and monarchs have shown their nobleness by the efficient administration which guaranteed security for their citizens. For better safety each country have a set of law. 2. need for non violence 6. through production and distribution of shareable social goods. Indian culture has survived because in every generation the best among us have lived by certain fundamental values. need for security 5. need for cooperation 4. Such togetherness gave the strenght and society as a whole was benefited. 3.Need for security indian culture and value system have made majority people law abiding citizens. The respect of people towards the king has been exhibited in many epics. In organisation as well as in family one should respect the Head of the place respectively. older people in the society and superiors in the working place. One of the fundamental values of Indian culture is the faith in the supremacy. Respect for Elders 2.from where respect is derived. Respect for Hierarchy 3. 4. During the ages .

and scripture recommends a simple life. the powerful weapon against the british ruler. which fosters a mood of dependence on God. free from unnecessary complication. Varnashrama-dharma is closely associated with an agrarian culture. 6. 5. Need For Non Violence Most of the leaders of ferrdom movement derived inspiration from the classical Indian value system. “practice ahimsa or non violence” and “do good”. instead of working separately in competition. In terms of individuals obtaining goods and services. The present age restlessness in the society and unfair social practices are the results of non-observance of this canon of ethics. The first ethical canon is “do not harm”. Cooperation is the antithesis of competition. The restraint of law is necessary to maintain social order and social cooperation. Simple Living High Thinking Hindu spirituality has been largely nurtured in a rural setting. Need for co-operation Co-operation. rights and liberties of citizens.action to ensure that they obeyed. they may cooperate by trading with each other or by altruistic sharing. Law and law enforcing agencies ensure security of life and propery and safeguard the dignity. the need or desire to compete with others is a very common impetus that motivates individuals to organize into a group and cooperate with each other in order to form a stronger competitive force. the greatest need is the more proactive. In the present context. Many people support cooperation as the ideal form of management of human affairs. Mahatma Gandhi has introduced the Ahimsa or nonviolence. The Indian value system appreciate this. rather than resorting to theft or confiscation. According to .e. It is a general injunction to abstain from causing harm and injury. more positive and more forceful ethical canon i. Respect for law. refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods. There are four main conditions that tend to be necessary for co-operative behaviour to develop between two individuals: • • • • An overlap in desires A chance of future encounters with the same individual Memory of past encounters with that individual A value associated with future outcomes A. Rule of law cannot be very effective if it has to rely only on the coercive power. or cooperation. cooperation with the proper authirities by people in the society and legal institution can provide securities to life and properties of the citizen. however.

Monkeys are notorious for their mischief and their stealing (eyeglasses are now a favourite!). the village demonstrates the influence of goodness (sattva). step by step. So simple living without higher thinking is also not recommended. between 4 and 6 am. such as the antiseptic neem. Sustainability and a peaceful. Recent history provides many instances where simple living is maintained solely by the level of available technology. which is considered to have mystical powers. Cows roam freely and are given much leeway. around ten. A light breakfast follows at around eight o'clock. Water is drawn straight from wells or rivers. which has antiseptic properties. river or hand-pump. especially the cobra. The whole system of varnashrama-dharma is designed to bring everyone. and people again throng to the streets and the temples. there are still many physicians who can cure a snake bite by chanting mantras rather than administering a serum. the lower self (mind and senses) erodes the desire and morality needed to develop one's relationship with Krishna. its lacks the higher spiritual connection. coated with a mixture of earth and cow-dung. So without this higher taste. more easily attained in a rural setting. Village homes have an earth floor. or – if relatively well-off – a bathroom.theologians. Today. The early morning hours are also considered sattvic and in India people rise early. such as many modern cities. to the level of goodness. elephants are used in temple rituals.There are many stories about snakes. In essence. it is the only true pleasure. Mysticism and spirituality are woven into the colourful fabric of everyday life. In the south especially. Shops and stalls open quite late. Connection to the Supreme is key. Simple living requires the philosophical basis and inspiration provided by spiritual life. and buffalo are used for pulling carts. Without this higher taste. the mind eventually returns to material pleasures with the attractiveness and relevance of simple living being lost. Wild pigs. regulated lifestyle are principal characteristics of sattva-guna. the town is compelled by passion (rajas) and sinful places. though fulfilling many of our ideals of simple living. often part of the natural scenery are valued for their function of waste disposal. People take a siesta in the sultry afternoons. are bound by ignorance (tamas). with morning hours dedicated to some form of worship. it is this pleasure of the eternal relationship with God that is being sought after even through consumerism. when it is pleasantly cool. Practically everyone bathes upon rising. making use of a pond. Animals are very much a part of life. and shops and stalls either close. However. It is common in the morning to see Hindus outside their simple dwellings. In the end. . Dogs are not domesticated. Cooking is over open fires. Life is relatively slow. slowly cleaning their teeth with a twig from a tree. or the shopkeeper takes a snooze. The main meal is lunch – for the digestion is considered strongest when the sun is at its highest. Life is very much in contact with nature and the elements. Camels. They often open late into the evening. and live quite differently than in the West. ponies.

UNIVERSALISM THEORY Universalism comprises concepts and issues which are said to be "universal" in appeal—i. heavily influenced by the philosophy of the Enlightenment and its conception of a universal human nature. since there is no requirement for non-Jews to convert. and Buddhism are universal religions. Rights may be said universals. Hinduism is also typically an "ethnic" religion. In that sense Christianity. Universalism. like ethnicity itself. The name Universalist refers to certain religious denominations of universalism. language. Judaism may also be considered universal. and some religious practices. it does not necessarily deny that some things done in the name of religion. but by geography. ethnic religions. universal reconciliation. But it distinguishes itself from the view that there is only one true faith. . In contrast. for example natural rights or the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. as a compromise between moral relativism and moral absolutism. only for them to follow the Noahide Laws. but converts will be able to be re-socialized into this system Within Christianity. Contrast with Chosen people. However. It posits that a spiritually aware person will respect religious traditions other than his own and will be open to learning from them. In comparative religion. as opposed to relativism conceptions. one uniquely chosen people. can be determined not just by genealogy. transcending any existing localizing boundaries. whereas Sikhism.Chapter 4 THE ETHICAL VALUE SYSTEM A. A universal religion is one that holds itself true for all people and thus allows anyone to join. which as a core principle adhere to standards and rituals which are convergent rather than divergent. regardless of their ethnicity.e. Universalism is also used as a synonym for moral universalism. and other social boundaries. or universal salvation. While it celebrates the richness and value to be found among humankind's religious traditions. Islam. Druze. are not constructive. universalism is the belief that true and valuable insights are available in many of the religious traditions which have grown up in various human cultures. In particular. often espousing themselves as alternatives to denominations based on dogmatic or factionalized differences. Universalism can also mean the wish for a closer union between all people of the world (the emergence of world citizens) and/or the aim of creating common global institutions (democratic globalization). It does not deny that immersion in one tradition is a useful anchor for an individual's spiritual development. • • • • • • • Truth may be said to be universal. or one final prophet superseding all others. and Judaism are ethnic religions. is the doctrine that all will be saved.

among which the most notable is the petition from the Lord's Prayer . who are otherwise theologically conservative and who hold to Universalism.1 Universalism in Christianity As noted above. Some universalists. would fail to comport with the image of God as all-powerful and all-knowing. That said. These include various Evangelical and Baptist Universalist ("no-heller") groups. The doctrine addresses the problem of Hell and notions of God's mercy and justice. Scriptural support includes Biblical passages such as 1 Corinthians 15:22 and Revelation 5:13. Universalists typically have taught that the boundless love of God by which all sin will (at least eventually) be forgiven animates a similar duty for humankind." Universalists in the 18th century thought. Universalists as a matter of historical definition are those who believe God to be so loving that all will be reconciled to God's own self. Universalists contend that a loving God would not submit anyone. Universalists have bestowed upon Unitarian Universalism a global understanding of what constitutes God's family. or universal salvation. many Universalists have moved away from an explicitly or wholly biblical foundation for their inclusive faith. which in 1961 merged with the American Unitarian Association to form the Unitarian Universalist Association and creating a new form of Universalism called Unitarian Universalism." hold that all creatures. and as a result of its ultimate consolidation of the Universalist Church of America with the Unitarian denomination. It should be noted that there remain Christians outside the fold of the Unitarian Universalist Association. in Christianity. Among theologians the doctrine is often referred to using the Greek word apocatastasis. Some also argue that eternal condemnation in Hell. and a commitment to seeking reconciliation and restorative justice in their personal relationships and in the public realm. and that this was sufficient and "just retribution" for such conduct. It should also be noted that there are "hopeful" universalists in many . including demons and even Satan himself. to everlasting torment. and was taught by both Origen and St. Gregory of Nyssa. as we forgive our [debtors/those who trespass against us/those who sin against us]". They tend to insist on walking the talk and being of service to their communities and see their religion as a means of commitment to peace and justice and being true to a stand on human rights of all people regardless of any category or false division."Forgive us our [debts/sins/trespasses]. is not proportionately just with any number of essentially finite sins. sometimes called "strong universalists. Universalism. some adherents formed the Universalist Church. is the doctrine that all will be saved. regardless of his or her sins or beliefs. The doctrine can be traced to the earliest centuries of Church history. As for human conduct. an undiminished belief in the goodness of the life. In North America. an infinite punishment. [1] [2] Many Universalists believe that Jesus was the first Universalist.A. Universalists in 18th and 19th century North America often believed that the punishment for sin was simply the fate of having to live the life of a sinner. (See Forgiveness.) In its more pluralist expressions. while others said it was beyond the understanding of mortals to know what would ultimately transpire before all dwell in "final harmony" with God. Universal reconciliation. Anything short of "universal salvation. citing the same biblical texts on forgiveness that are used by 'partialists' (a Universalist term for non-Universalist Christians) to illustrate the principles by which Universalists seek to live. Others believed in something closer to purgatory. will eventually be saved.

Be reunited with God now. but rather allows Hell as a permission of man's free will. based on fundamental truth that the universe is a thought projection from the Supreme. This is an expansion of humanism to include everything as family. A. B. Thus. People of all faiths come into heaven if they have followed their beliefs sincerely and loved God and their neighbors. But this we do know. For those people perhaps there will be some kind of punishment after death. or preference satisfaction. pleasure. rather than after you have put yourself (and those you love) through Hell. It is a form of consequentialism. but people freely choose their eternal destiny. Therefore the Lord does not punish people by sending them to Hell.of the larger denominations [3][4] [5]. Universalism in Ananda Marga In Ananda Marga. but we believe that it will be remedial and corrective rather than just punishment for punishment's sake. For others it may very well be that the punishment merited by their sins is greater than what they receive in this life. family and career.. This belief in hell is held by Bishop Carlton Pearson's "Higher Dimensions Family Church. Exactly what that will be and how long it will last we don't know.Universalism in the New Church In the New Church Universalism is the belief that The Lord created every person to go to heaven and be conjoined with Him there as an angel. Those who go to Hell have chosen Hell because they enjoy Hellish delights. Universalism refers to the ideas that energy and matter are evolved from cosmic consciousness. But that still falls far short of the chronic alcoholic being condemned by a just God to literally burn in Hell forever and ever. Will Hell for some people last 10 minutes or 10 million years. Hell will not last for eternity.we don't know.2. marriage." [6] A. This good to be maximized is usually happiness. UTILITARIANISM THEORY Utilitarianism Utilitarianism (from the Latin utilis. And also that He does not make anyone go there. will ruin their health. they will make their lives a living Hell. it will not be endless. which in Hell are only allowed to be enjoyed as fantasy.. these consequences generally have something to do with the welfare of people (or of people . all created beings are of one universal family.3. useful) is a theory of ethics that prescribes the quantitative maximization of good consequences for a population.." and stated on their web site (on the frequently asked questions page) in the following words: "A person who spends every day getting drunk. Though some utilitarian theories might seek to maximize other consequences. and many universalists who believe in hell as a place of remedial punishment.Don't sin..

B.a Negative utilitarianism Most utilitarian theories deal with producing the greatest amount of good for the greatest number. according to Mill. For this reason. In his essay On Liberty and other works. Proponents argue that this is a .M. Negative utilitarianism requires us to promote the least amount of evil or harm. European Utilitarianism was originally proposed by Jeremy Bentham. John Stuart Mill argued that cultural. because it deals with pleasure/happiness. he dropped the second part and talked simply about "the greatest happiness principle. the correct definitions of utilitarianism and consequentialism and the exact difference between these two principles are not always entirely clear. because the former would be valued more highly by competent judges than the latter. From the principle of utility. Types of utilitarianism B. so that each person may maximize his or her happiness. Bentham found pain and pleasure to be the only absolutes in the world: "nature has put man under the governance of two sovereign masters: pleasure and pain. The classic utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill influenced many other philosophers and the development of the broader concept of consequentialism. according to which each person must be guaranteed the greatest possible liberty that would not interfere with the liberty of others.2. Other past advocates of utilitarianism include William Godwin. utilitarianism is often associated with the term welfarist consequentialism. during the Warring States Period. modern-day advocates include R." From this he derived the rule of utility: that the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. Ludwig von Mises advocated libertarianism using utilitarian arguments. He was the founder of the school of Mohism in ancient China and advocated a utilitarian ethical system some 1. History of utilitarianism Utilitarianism was first proposed by the Chinese philosopher Mozi. but instead advocated political socialism." In his famous (and short) book. after realizing that the formulation recognized two different and potentially conflicting principles. intellectual.C. and spiritual pleasures are of greater value than mere physical pleasure. and Henry Sidgwick. In contrast. As a result. Later. is anyone who has experienced both the lower pleasures and the higher. B. Mill's utilitarianism is hedonistic. some Marxist philosophers have also used these principles. who lived some time between the years of 479-381 B.and nonhuman animals). Like Bentham's formulation.800 years before it was promoted as a viable principle in Europe. or to prevent the greatest amount of harm for the greatest number. Utilitarianism has been used as an argument for many different political views. Hare and Peter Singer. even among philosophers. A competent judge. Utilitarianism. James Mill. John Stuart Mill argued that utilitarianism requires that political arrangements satisfy the "liberty principle".1.2.

he looks at what would happen if it was constantly followed.e." For a rule utilitarian. and from that. However. on the other hand. it is a rule that morally must be followed at all times. Critics would then argue that this reduces rule utilitarianism to act utilitarianism. Rule utilitarianism should not be confused with rules of thumb. Negative utilitarianism would seem to call for the destruction of the world even if only to avoid the pain of a pinprick. If adherence to the rule produces more happiness than otherwise. rule utilitarianism Act utilitarianism states that. he ought to do so. it would be immoral for the surgeon to kill the sixth man. Rule utilitarians respond that the rules in the legal system (i. they contend. as this ultimately would effectively minimize pain. consider the following scenario: A surgeon has five terminal patients: one needs a liver.b Act utilitarianism vs.. a rule utilitarian would say we should implement the opposite rule: "don't harvest healthy people's organs to give them to sick people. Therefore. A sixth.2. Many act utilitarians agree that it makes sense to formulate certain rules of thumb to follow if they find themselves in a situation in which the consequences are difficult. Of course. To illustrate. In this way. To determine whether a rule should be followed. self-defense is legally justified while murder is not. some advocates of the utilitarian principle were quick to suggest that the ultimate aim of negative utilitarianism would be to engender the quickest and least painful method of killing the entirety of humanity. B. it is possible that the act utilitarian would decide not to sacrifice the sixth man. costly. Rule utilitarians would then add that there are general exception rules that allows the breaking of other rules if this increases happiness. For instance. and the rules become meaningless. One potential rule would be: "whenever a surgeon could kill one relatively healthy person in order to transplant his organs to more than one other person who needs them. there are many more ways to do harm than to do good. rule utilitarianism is a more of a proportionalistic ethical theory. but this could make defense against aggressors very difficult. one needs a pancreas. this rule would obviously lead to bad consequences. many risky transplant operations would be performed. Should the surgeon kill the sixth man and pass his organs around to the others? An act utilitarian would consider the probable consequences of sacrificing the sixth patient that one time. etc. we must first consider the likely consequences of potential actions. begins by looking at potential rules of action." If instituted in society. A rule utilitarian.more effective ethical formula. one needs a heart. or time-consuming to calculate . chose to do what we believe will generate the most happiness. and the greatest harms are more consequential than the greatest goods. one example being self-defense. non-terminal patient just came in to have his appendix removed. Relatively healthy people would stop going to the hospital. To never kill a human might seem to be a good rule. but most would agree that rule utiltarianism would provide stronger reasons not to. when faced with a choice. while a rule utilitarian would look at the consequences of performing such a sacrifice every time such a situation arises. Rule utilitarianism has been criticized for advocating general rules that will in some specific circumstances clearly decrease happiness if followed. since. therefore. and two need kidneys. laws) which regulate such situations are not meaningless.

like reputation or rationality. and treat as "ends" as many people as are thus then consistent with those "means".M. If the consequences can be calculated relatively clearly and without much doubt. and my interests are no more important. Even those utilitarians arguing otherwise note that suffering in animals often causes humans to suffer. has argued that the well-being of all sentient beings (conscious beings who feel pain. B. regardless if they increase happiness or not. the demand for a reason is a demand for a justification that can be accepted by the group as a whole.2. Like any utilitarian theory. from the point of view of the . Bentham made a similar argument. Hare. compromise. and make group decisions to survive. Other consequentialists may consider happiness an important consequence.exactly. For example. thus making it often immoral to harm an animal even if the animal itself is not given a moral status. He elaborates: "In a dispute between members of a cohesive group of reasoning beings. Biological explanation for utilitarianism It has been suggested that sociobiology. but in addition argue that consequences such as justice or equality should also be valued. who was influenced by R. the best consequences can include things other than pure hedonism. James Cornman proposes that in any given situation we should treat as "means" as few people as possible. the utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer argues that fundamentally utilitarian ethical reasoning has existed from the time primitive foraging bands had to cooperate. B. For instance. the study of the evolution of human society. consideration of others' interests has long been a necessary part of the human experience. along with animal rights activists. then the rules of thumb can be ignored. when defined in terms of preference satisfaction. several attempts have been made to combine utilitarianism with Kant's categorical imperative. including animals) deserve equal consideration with that given to human beings. Preference utilitarianism is favored by the modern utilitarian philosopher Peter Singer." Thus. Singer believes that reason now compels the equal consideration of all people's interests: If I have seen that from an ethical point of view I am just one person among the many in my society. preference utilitarianism claims that the right thing to do is that which produces the best consequences. B. in The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology.2.c Preference utilitarianism Preference utilitarianism is a particular type of utilitarianism which defines the good to be maximized as the fulfillment of persons' preferences. Combinations with other ethical schools In order to overcome perceived shortcomings of both systems. He refers to this as the "Utilitarian Kantian Principle".3.d Other species Peter Singer.4. B. provides support for the utilitarian point of view.

argue that "common sense" has been used to justify many positions on both sides of controversial issues and varies greatly from individual to individual. first.that everybody's interests should be considered equally when making decisions -. For example. but even in principle. but merely to provide a plausible explanation for how some people come to accept utilitarianism. than the similar interests of members of other societies… Taking the impartial element in ethical reasoning to its logical conclusion means. my society is just one among other societies. Utilitarians. it is equally "common sense" that one must sacrifice some soldiers and civilians in a defensive war. . it might be argued that it is "common sense" that one should never sacrifice some humans for the happiness of other humans (an ethical position famously explored in Le Guin's modern fable "The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas"). the death of a hundred people would be no worse than the death of one. It has been argued that the happiness of different people is incommensurable. I am ready to see that. Singer elaborates that viewing oneself as equal to others in one's society and at the same time viewing one's society as fundamentally superior to other societies may cause an uncomfortable cognitive dissonance. and thus felicific calculus is impossible.whole. Many of the early utilitarians hoped that happiness could somehow be measured quantitatively and compared between people through felicific calculus.a Utilitarianism and "common sense" morality Utilitarianism has been criticized for leading to a number of conclusions contrary to "common sense" morality. from that larger perspective.5. They also note that the "ought" of the quoted paragraph applies only to someone who has already accepted the premise that all societies are equally important. Triage is an example of a real world situation where utilitarianism seems to be applied successfully. Defenders of utilitarianism reply that this problem is faced by anyone who has to choose between two alternative states of affairs where both impose burdens to the people involved. and the interests of members of my society are no more important. This is the sense in which he means that reason may push people to accept a broader utilitarian stance. however. Singer has responded that his argument in Expanding the Circle wasn't intended to provide a complete philosophical justification for a utilitarian categorical imperative. not only in practice. although no one has ever managed to construct a detailed one in practice. B. making it an unsuitable basis for a "common" morality. This conclusion -. Criticism of utilitarianism B.g.b Comparing happiness Another difficulty with utilitarianism is that of comparing happiness among different people. Critics (e.5. Regarding the example. accepting that we ought to have equal concern for all human beings. from a still larger point of view.5. B. If happiness were incommensurable. since people often knowingly ignore the interests of faraway societies quite similar to their a core tenet of utilitarianism. Binmore 2005) point out that this cognitive dissonance is apparently not very strong. than the similar interests of others within my society.

are not required to have perfect knowledge. and may align much more closely with our moral intuitions.That the pleasure of a sadist should have the same importance as the pleasure of an altruist has also been criticized. intentions are the only thing that matter. Furthermore. praise and blame. In other words. therefore. which many people also consider important. and thus it is detrimental to the sadist in the long run. moral theory. however. In practice. Utilitarians note that utilitarianism seems to be the unspoken principle used by both advocates and critics of nuclear power. bad intentions may cause harm (to the actor and to others) even if they do not result in bad acts. In this sense. Once this is recognized. Supporters note that in practice almost no decisions will be made to cater to the sadist. Furthermore. creating pleasure for a sadist simultaneously hurts other people. morality is something to be looked at when deciding what to do. makes their best estimates of the consequences. many utilitarians view morality as a personal guide rather as a means to judge the actions of other people or actions which have already been performed. B. certain knowledge of consequences is impossible because consequences are in the unexperienced future.c Predicting consequences Daniel Dennett uses the example of Three Mile Island as another example of the difficulty in calculating happiness. Was the near-meltdown that occurred at this nuclear power plant a good or a bad thing (according to utilitarianism)? He points out that its long-term effects on nuclear policy would be considered beneficial by many and might outweigh the negative consequences. it might make sense to follow an ethical rule which has promoted the most utility in the past. That something cannot be determined at the moment is common in science and is frequently resolved with further advancements. the pleasure of a sadist almost never has a weight of any significance in a utilitarian calculation. and punishment. If the consequences of a decision are particularly unclear. An action intended to cause harm but that inadvertently causes good results would be judged equal to the result from an action done with good intentions.5. not at the desires or intentions which motivate them. and rich. because the consequences cannot be known with certainty until the decision has already been made. Utilitarians simply try their best to maximize happiness (or another form of utility).d The importance of intentions Utilitarianism has been criticized for only looking at the results of actions. For instance.5. many utilitarians would argue that utilitarianism applies not only to results. His conclusion is that it is still too early (20 years after the event) for utilitarianism to weigh all the evidence and reach a definite conclusion. many utilitarians feel that sadist pleasure is superficial and temporary. This does not mean that they are unable to make a decision. institutions. While creating pleasure for an altruist simultaneously helps other people. . supporters argue that utilitarianism becomes a much more complex. rules. Utilitarians. indeed. However. B. and to do this. but also to desires and dispositions. Utilitarians will also note that people trying to further their own interests run into situations in which the consequences of their decisions are very unclear.

A great loss to one individual might be outweighed by small gains for many. Utilitarianism would also require the indirect impact of social acceptance of inhumane policies to be taken into consideration. for example. As explained above. Act and rule utilitarianisms differ in how they treat human rights themselves. act utilitarians often support human rights in a legal sense. That assumption is retained in the foundations of the theory. most act utilitarians. For example. as a rule it is immoral. The principle of "the greatest good for the greatest number". but rather the quantity of happiness produced. torture or mass murder would require unrealistically large benefits to outweigh the direct and extreme suffering to the victims (although some may support one of these practices as being justifiable by the consequences achieved). A man might achieve such pure ecstasy from killing 100 people so that his positive utility outweighs the negative utility of the 100 people he murdered. but it might not. one of whom notes that according to utilitarianism there is "nothing intrinsically wrong with sacrificing an important individual interest to a greater sum of lesser interests. introduced by Bentham. would agree that acts such as enslavement and genocide always cause great unhappiness and little happiness.B.5. First. because utilitarians support laws that cause more good than harm. Utilitarians may argue that justification of either slavery. however." Thus. human rights could be considered rules of thumb. and it remains a source of moral concern. It might also ignore the rights of the majority. B. it is always moral. although torture might be acceptable under some circumstances. Thus. Act utilitarians. Even if 1 person is . it could theoretically be justified by utilitarianism. as long as enough individuals receive the small benefit. both rule and act. Finally. Bentham dropped the misleading "greatest number" part of the principle. on the basis that it seems to be incompatible with human rights. This is not the case. any harm to one individual can always be justified by a greater gain to other individuals. a human right can easily be considered a moral rule. two other common criticisms of utilitarianism are based on misconceptions." Althought the above criticism is not. general anxiety and fear might increase for all if human rights are commonly ignored. as noted above. utilitarians may support legal rights or rights as rules of thumb.5. but that does not mean they are rejected altogether. as explained above.e Human rights Some critics reject utilitarianism. on the other hand. if slavery or torture is beneficial for the population as a whole. but they are not considered inherent to morality. Under rule utilitarianism.f Sacrifice of an important individual interest for a greater sum of lesser interests Since utilitarians judge all actions by their ability to maximize good consequences. Second. replacing the original formulation with the more direct "greatest happiness principle. utilitarians deny that individuals have inviolable moral rights. This seems problematic to many critics of utilitarianism. This is true even if the loss for the one individual is large and the gain for the others is marginal. do not accept human rights as moral principles in and of themselves. Utilitarian theory thus seems to overlook the rights of minority groups. is often mistaken as meaning that if something hurts one person and helps many. the morality of an action is not determined by the number of people made happier.

although Utilitarianism would clearly dictate the above conclusion.000 to a charity that provided starving children with food when that person could have donated the money to a charity that does the same thing but is more efficient. Therefore even charitable actions could be considered wrong under this theory. one egoist may propose means to maximize self-interest that conflicts with the means proposed by another egoist.g Proof Another criticism of utilitarianism is that it is not proved by science or logic to be the correct ethical system. This is because punishing such a person would likely push them to no longer make any charitable contributions.5. Some degree of utilitarianism might very well be genetically hard-coded into humans. neither of these are ends in themselves. "It is vain to talk of the interest of the community.hurt and 100 people are helped.5. while all other acts are wrong. As Bentham put it. if someone donated $1. all sides claiming that their proposed solution is the one that increases human happiness most. the harm to the one might be so great as to outweigh the small gains for the rest of the people. many mistakenly believe utilitarianism means individuals interests are sacrificed for the sake of the "society" or the nation. It might instead be argued that almost all political arguments about a future society use an unspoken utilitarian principle. According to utilitarianism. utilitarians are some of the first to recognise this problem. without understanding what is the interest of the individual. B.6. however. In response to criticism of this nature the contemporary philosopher and utilitarian William Shaw claimed that. but this incentive is not active in a situation where one can personally gain by breaking it and others cannot punish this. and in doing so created even more good. even if the decision to ignore efficiency was immoral. Second. As a result. one individual's interests can only be sacrificed for the sake of the interests of other individuals. A legal system might punish behavior which hurts others." While it may benefit individuals to have a healthy society or a functional state. that action would be judged as wrong by Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism holds that in any given situation the 'right' act is that which produced the greatest good. B. For example. the decision to donate to charity was still morally good. they are behooved to compromise with one another to avoid conflict.g Right and wrong dichotomy A further criticism is in regard to Utilitarianism's judgement of right and wrong. However. so praising the wrongdoer would better serve the greater good than punishing them. Furthermore. out of . supporters claim that this is common to all ethical schools (and indeed the system of logic itself) and will remain so until the problem of the regress argument or at least the is-ought problem is satisfactorily solved. B. Why be moral? Critics have also asked why one should follow utilitarianism instead of egoism. a good utilitarian would still praise the wrongdoer for their charitable donation even though it is wrong. Indeed. However.

where we each have unlimited natural freedoms. For example. John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism. He presents the paradox of hedonism. not all advocates of end-state theories are concerned with equality. or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. The means proposed may incidentally coincide with those prescribed by utilitarianism. we would live in a state of nature.1 Overview D. you will never be happy. D. if implicitly. SOCIAL CONTRACT Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy. which says that if your only goal in life is personal happiness. indeed. According to Hobbes' canonical theory. or between individuals. All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract. the essence is as follows: Without society. Distributive justice looks at the distribution of goods among members of society at a specific time.self-interest. Thomas Hobbes (1651). as a political theory. One goal which Singer feels is likely to bring personal happiness is the desire to improve the lives of others. Another reason for an egoist to become a utilitarian was proposed by Peter Singer in Practical Ethics. The most prominent contemporary theorist of distributive justice is John Rawls. someone who looks at standard of living. This argument is similar to the one for virtue ethics. political science and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens. you need something to be happy about.a State of nature & social contract The social contract. rely on notions of distributive justice. and on that basis decides whether the distribution is just. but Rousseau's social contract is often seen as conflicting with classical liberalism which stresses individualism and rejects subordination of individual liberty to the "general will" of the community. of course. People who hold equality to be important generally.DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE Distributive justice concerns what is just or right with respect to the allocation of goods (or utility) in a society. that social contract theories relied on a specific anthropological conception of man as either "good" or "evil". D. the best distribution of wealth.1. though the foundational ethical imperative would not. It is also one of a few competing theoretical groundworks of liberalism. while procedural justice concentrates on just processes. such violation would signify a problematic attempt to return to the state of nature. What unites them is their concern with achieving the best results. or any such utilitarian standard to judge justice is thinking in terms of distributive justice. However. absolute wealth. It is often contrasted with procedural justice. C. be utilitarian. It has been often noted. Distributive justice concentrates on just outcomes. which is the theoretical groundwork of democracy. The downside of this general autonomy is that it includes the "right to all things" and thus the . differences in wealth. explains the justification and purpose of the state and of human rights.

The figurehead of the society we create. Indeed. However. Most of us are comfortable with laws punishing behavior that harms people because we are concerned about others harming us and don't plan on harming others.b A fictional state of nature? The emergence of the social contract from the state of nature is often explained in terms of just-so stories whose goal is to show the logical basis of rights rather than attempting historical accuracy. declaring that we are all "potential criminals". D. when Hobbes had fled to the continent.freedom to harm all who threaten one's own self-preservation. To avoid this. is only legitimate to the extent that it meets the general interest. Locke theorized the right of rebellion in case of the contract leading to tyranny. as in crimes of passion. Foucault criticized the concept of "criminal" ("délinquant". class struggle and insanity which. philosophers such as Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze have argued that this is a repressive conception. [1] However. your basic property rights entail that everyone else refrain from taking what is yours. risk losing some of their rights. Due to political pressures. we renegotiate to change the terms. the contract itself is the means towards an end — the benefit of all — and (according to some philosophers such as Locke or Rousseau). Although many read Leviathan. only laws of nature and an endless "war of all against all" (Bellum omnium contra omnes. Hobbes' principle work on social contract theory. society works by "mutual coercion. Rousseau's 1754 Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men is more a fictional account of what has passed than a realistic description of what happened. is the sovereign state.1.c Violations of the contract The social contract and the civil rights it gives us are neither "natural" nor permanently fixed. giving up some freedoms to do so. in the context of the English Civil War. along with the threat of punishment for violating them. Hobbes 1651). It should be noted that Hobbes and Rousseau view the social contract as an explicit. when failings are found in the contract.1. and that Hobbes' polemic conception of the state of nature (opposed to Rousseau's irenical conception of it) approach it from the realist description of civil war. actual agreement. meaning professional outlaw). Rather. those who simply choose not to fulfill their contractual obligations. To be a member of society is to accept responsibility for following its rules. can burst out suddenly — thus explaining the motto "we are all virtual criminals". it is also true that the ambiguity persists. such as the right to have stolen property returned to you. such as by committing crimes. and he could be protected. Therefore. In this way. we jointly agree to an implicit social contract by which we each gain civil rights in return for accepting the obligation to honor the rights of others. mutually agreed upon" (Hardin 1968). it was written in its entirety during the antebellum period. Since rights come from agreeing to the contract. using methods such as elections and legislature. and pointed out the relationship between crime. D. Locke sees the contract in more of its traditional fictional sense. representing our joint interests as members and formed by the delegation of our power. Hobbes was unable to publish the tome until war had already broken out. Rights can also involve positive obligations. there are no positive rights. and the rest of society can be expected to protect itself against the actions of such outlaws. which obligates others to give you back what's yours when they find it in the hands of others . Some rights are defined in term of the negative obligation they impose on others. For example.

In this sense. retained by the state. while libertarian thinkers such as Robert Nozick have emphasized negative rights.2. liberal thinkers such as John Rawls have stressed positive rights. Strictly speaking. . and that they could modify or even abolish the government. in modern society. might be considered as an early theorist of the social contract. however. D. in contrast to Hobbes. thus the naming of his book. For this reason. to send the police in to do it). the Greeks had little to do with contractualism as it is formulated by modern philosophy: conventionalism is in fact quite the opposite of contractualism.c John Locke's Two Treatises of Government (1689) John Locke's Two Treatises of Government differs from Hobbes' conception of an absolute monarchy by arguing in favor of a right of rebellion against tyranny. traditionally considered as a landmark of absolutism.b Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan (1651) The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679).2 History D. essential human rationality constituting 'natural law'. Other philosophies conceived by Hobbes is that man was innately born with no morals or understanding of god. theorizing natural law in an attempt to limit the divine right of absolute monarchy. so social contract evolves out of pragmatic self-interest. Recently. and in laws being made for mutual advantage (pleasure. Theorists argue that a combination of positive and negative rights is necessary to create an enforceable contract that protects our interests. the last fourth of his Principal Doctrines state that justice comes from agreement not to harm each other. he is considered to be one of the main thinkers of liberalism. one can find that the name of Satan's serpent is Leviathan. Locke believed. When observing the Bible. D. who contended that people in a state of nature ceded their individual rights to create sovereignty. Locke's social contract theory was intertwined with his understanding of an innate. believing that people contracted with one another for a particular kind of government. Francisco Suárez (1548-1617). in return for their protection and a more functional society. and that laws which are no longer advantageous are no longer just.a Classical thought It might be argued that social contract ideas go back to the Greeks. explained in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. and is not solely driven by greed and evil. while contractualism considers nature to be the grounds of justice. John Locke is often compared to his contemporary.2.2. thus pointing to the artifice involved in the social contract. Before Hobbes. Thomas Hobbes. D. Some have argued that Epicurus explicitly endorsed "social contract" ideas. and their main differences stands as one of the most important of Locke's beliefs. Hobbes named the state Leviathan. in the Leviathan. that man is naturally good. Plato has Socrates make a case for social contract ideas in Crito but criticizes them in The Republic [2]. contractualism refers to the theory of sovereignty first elaborated by Hobbes in the 17th century. His ideas were greatly criticized due to their morbidity and anti-Christian ideals. from the School of Salamanca.(or. happiness). since it considers justice to be the product of social conventions (as in the sophists' acceptation of the term).

one can note that. first brought forward by the primitive fact of exchange. D. which is popular sovereignty itself. defined as indivisible and inalienable . each one maintaining complete sovereignty upon oneself: "What really is the Social Contract? An agreement of the citizen with the government? No. Or Principles of Political Right. Rousseau gave particular attention to subjective and individual questions. which is more than the simple sum of individual wills: it is thus collectivist or holistic.e Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's individualist social contract (1851) While Rousseau's social contract is based on popular sovereignty and not on individual sovereignty. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon advocated a conception of social contract which didn't involve an individual surrendering sovereignty to others. as in Locke or Hobbes' theories. Rousseau's famous sentence: "We shall force them to be free" must be understood as such: since individual subjects resign their free will. as part of a collective body. and the group receives each individual as an indivisible part of the whole. The social contract is an agreement of man with man. there are other theories espoused by individualists. Hence. Popular sovereignty thus decides only what is good for society as a whole: The heart of the idea of the social contract may be stated simply: Each of us places his person and authority under the supreme direction of the general will. he shall be forced to listen to what they decided as a member of the collectivity. since the indivisible and inalienable popular sovereignty decides what is good for the whole. Furthermore.. that would mean but the continuation of [Rousseau’s] idea.. based on the conception of popular sovereignty. outlined a different version of contract theory. Rousseau's theory has many similarities with the individualist Lockean liberal tradition. the individual subject puts aside his egoism to create a "general will". which do not involve agreeing to anything more than negative rights and creates only a limited state. but also departs from it on many significant points. in his influential 1762 treatise The Social Contract. rather than individualist. In this. the subject can be egoist and decide that his personal interest should override the collective interest. his theory of popular sovereignty includes a conception of a "general will". According to him. For example. but rather between individuals themselves refraining from coercing or governing each other. as in Hobbes's theory.2. …is substituted for that of distributive justice … Translating . Rousseau's version of the social contract is the one most often associated with the term "social contract" itself. then if an individual lapses back into his ordinary egoism. However. Rousseau argues. His theories had an influence on both the 1789 French Revolution and the subsequent formation of the socialist movement.2.d Jean-Jacques Rousseau Du Contrat social (1762) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). libertarians and anarchists.this last trait explaining Rousseau's aversion for representative democracy and his advocacy of direct democracy. the social contract was not between individuals and the state. besides. As an individual. an agreement from which must result what we call society. as in his Confessions for example. This is related to the non-aggression principle. to form popular sovereignty.D. if at all. the notion of commutative justice.

D. excludes all aggression. that is to say. the origin of society.g Philip Pettit's conception of republicanism (1997) Philip Pettit has argued." setting aside their individual preferences and capacities under a "veil of ignorance. VII. Philip Pettit argues that the absence of an effective rebellion against the contract is the only legitimacy of it.3 Criticism D. and you have commerce. in A Theory of Justice (1971). commutative justice. in Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government (1997). argues that a supposed social contract (of the Rousseauean sort) cannot be used to justify governmental actions such as taxation. which can always be manufactured. but rather the outcome of a long social experience.a Social contract is a violation of contract theory Normally. which is not." would agree to certain general principles of justice. in order avoid dispute." (Liberty. developed to its perfection. no one has been pressured under the threat of physical force to enter into it.2. the fruit of its follies and disasters. as Rousseau thought. This idea of a social contract that excludes intervention by the state in individual liberty was also followed by other individualist anarchists. should be modified. who exercise sovereignty). and abdicate all pretension to govern each other" Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. that philosophical concept of social contract does not address the same issues as the juridical contract theory. he maintains that such an agreement is not voluntary and therefore cannot be considered a legitimate contract at all. D. a staunch supporter of a right of contract between individuals. should justify the validity of social contract.3. whereby rational people in a hypothetical "original position. this social law. that the theory of social contract. It should be noted. however. . General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century (1851). in much the same way that Karl Popper argues that the criteria of scientific work is its falsifiability.these words. a contract is not presumed valid unless all parties agree to it voluntarily. This idea is also used as a game-theoretical formalization of the notion of fairness. because government will initiate force against anyone who does not wish to enter into such a contract. such as Benjamin Tucker (an enthusiast of Proudhon's writings) who said "Mankind is approaching the real social contract. As a result. that is. the act by which man and man declare themselves essentially producers. Lysander Spooner. classically based on the consent of the governed (as it is assumed that the contract is valid as long as the people consent to being governed by its representatives.f John Rawls's Theory of Justice (1971) John Rawls (1921-2002) proposed a contractarian approach that has a decidedly Kantian flavour. which are the language of the law. Instead of arguing that an explicit consent. in its highest significance.2. into the language of business. all invasion of every kind. making the name "social contract" potentially misleading. It is obvious that this contract. all violation of equality and liberty. contract. 1890) D.

which is a form of individualism: each individual subject is accorded individual .D. If it's not. then the historical fact of agreement would provide at least a good prima facie case for coercion even in ordinary politics: So some political philosophers have been tempted to say that we have in fact agreed to the social contract of that kind tacitly. by just not emigrating when we reach the age of consent. And even if the consent were genuine. Philosopher Roderick Long argues that this is a case of question begging. Dworkin argues that if every citizen were a party to an actual. But I've got my property. the argument would fail as an argument for legitimacy. because the argument has to presuppose its conclusion: I think that the person who makes this argument is already assuming that the government has some legitimate jurisdiction over this territory.3. but here I am in my property and they don't own it – at least they haven't given me any argument that they do – and so. he has no choice to be free from sovereigns altogether. unless it is given more freely. and exactly what their arrangements are I don't know.c Ronald Dworkin's Law's Empire (1986) In his 1986 book Law's Empire. D. But no one can argue that very long with a straight face. And then they say. then the government is just one more group of people living in this broad general geographical territory.d Criticisms of natural right Contractualism is based on a philosophy of rights being agreed to in order to further our interests. Ronald Dworkin touches briefly on social contract theory. well. to establish the character or content of justice (such as John Rawls' A Theory of Justice) and its use in a jurisprudential sense as a basis for legitimate government. Consent cannot be binding on people. as by participating in the political process.b Implicit social contract theory presupposes its conclusion The theory of an implicit social contract holds that by remaining in the territory controlled by some government. expatriation. You can’t assume it as a means to proving it. because a person leaves one sovereign only to join another. firstly distinguishing between the use of social contract theory in an ethical sense. in the way this argument requires. then working to alter the parts that are disagreed with. anyone who is in the territory is therefore agreeing to the prevailing rules. D. than just by declining to build a life from nothing under a foreign flag.3. [4] A typical counterargument is that the choice is not limited to tacit consent to the status quo vs. but also includes accepting the contract. historical agreement to accept and obey political decisions in the way his community's political decisions are in fact taken. This consent is what gives legitimacy to the government. the fact that I am living in "this country" means I am living in a certain geographical region that they have certain pretensions over – but the question is whether those pretensions are legitimate. people give consent to be governed. now.3. But they’re assuming the very thing they're trying to prove – namely that this jurisdiction over the territory is legitimate. and with more genuine alternate choice.

An individual expresses freedom of choice with respect to education. and form the basis of civil rights. being fair in one’s treatment of others. Individual’s choice is influenced by his/her family. integrity. and afterward by structuralism and post-structuralism thinkers. Deleuze or Derrida. However. profession. experience. instead of doing the reverse as the contractualist theory pretends to do [5]. kindness. Althusser. F. Several of those philosophers have attempted. self respect. Foucault.rights. dresses. 2. however. and type of company s/he keeps. creativity. Once an individual has clear cut idea and understanding about his/her mission and values. It must be underlined. Value based behaviour is required for the survival and development of human being as well as individual. society). Nietzsche or Freud. THE ETHICAL VALUE SYSTEM-PROFESSIONAL CODES The ethical values for professional codes as prescribed by the Upanishads and The Gita are given as under: 1. profession. which may or may not be inalienable. . this individualist and liberal approach has been criticized since the 19th century by thinkers such as Marx. Health and character are real power and wealth character is based on divine values and divine values are based on wisdom. 4. bases the natural rights of the human-being on the civil rights of the citizen. By cooperation and mutual help all professional shall achieve the highest human welfare. acting in a legally and socially responsible manner. An individual who respect the quality of life enjoyed by others in the society is likely to have strong ethics with respect to the proper treatment of others.e. food habits. in this agreeing with the social contract theory. s/he develops a basis for evaluating the work practices and bring them into alignment. Ethical values help in doing right things by being honest. The freedom of choice should generate in an individual the positive values such as honesty. and positive attitude. and situational factors. E. leisure time activities. as in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. such as Lacan. Divine values are much more powerful than physical wealth. Work should be regarded as worship and one should do duty without calculation of gain and loss. INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM OF CHOICE As an individual in society any person uses to develop some choice. 3. as Hannah Arendt did on her book on imperialism. that the 1789 Declarations. of thinking some sort of transindividuality which would precede the division between individual subject and collective subject (i. in a spinozist inspiration. But not only the choice of individual but also the sustainable development of society and economic development are important issues for an individual are very important. education.

Practice of self evaluation helps to remove the weakness and enhance positive values. One must develop wisdom. 6. 7.5. A professional with positive values and skills can assure harmony and progress for the society. . vision and insight for building a good personality.

Sir Edward B. the United Nations Economic.. he concluded that they are objects "sui generis. from the Latin colo. and that it encompasses. value systems. belief. However. ways of living together. -ere. they do not exhaust the many uses of the term "culture. primatologists such as Jane Goodall have identified aspects of culture among our closest relatives in the animal kingdom." More recently. custom. While here. traditions and beliefs". intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group.. and many others. a set of cultural objects. This capacity is long been taken as a defining feature of the genus Homo. is that complex whole which includes knowledge. religion. taken in its wide ethnographic sense. art. provide a catalog of the elements of culture. human activity. and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. with its root meaning "to cultivate". then. Anthropologist Leslie White asked: What sort of objects are they? Are they physical objects? Mental objects? Both? Metaphors? Symbols? Reifications? In Science of Culture. is by definition at least. Tylor writing from the prespective of social anthropology in the U. Social and Cultural Organization UNESCO (2002) described culture as follows: ". a marriage) each have an existence and life-line of their own. a stone tool. Defining "culture" Culture has been called "the way of life for an entire society. norms of behaviour and systems of belief. in addition to art and literature. language. Anthropologists most commonly use the term "culture" to refer to the universal human capacity to classify. a law. A." In 1952 Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of more than 200 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions These definitions. they change. They come into space-time at one set of coordinates and go out of it another. in the late nineteenth century described culture in the following way: "Culture or civilization. codify and communicate their experiences symbolically.g. In trying to define that kind. Various definitions of culture reflect differing theories for understanding — or criteria for evaluating — human activity. rituals. The items catalogued (e. so that one may speak of the evolution of the law or the tool.K. A culture.. law.5 CULTURE AND ETHICS The word culture." As such. dress. he hit upon a . it includes codes of manners.[4] While these two definitions cover a range of meaning. lifestyles.. material.CHAPTER. of their own kind. generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. (1949). morals. or criteria for evaluating.e. culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual. Different definitions of "culture" reflect different theoretical bases for understanding." i.

Each culture has methods. This notion of culture reflected inequalities within European societies. in Huxley's view. sociological.e.2. and some people as more cultured than others. archeologists focus on material culture. Values comprise ideas about what in life seems important. and to the social relationships and practices in which such objects and processes become embedded. called sanctions. Moreover. Socialization. norms that a society enforces formally have the status of laws. into inter-related "mentifacts". Some cultural theorists have thus tried to eliminate popular or mass culture from the definition of culture. On this account. Instututions are the structures of a society within which values and norms are transmitted. of enforcing its norms. 3. He thus defined culture as: "symbolates understood in an extra-somatic context. 4. The sociological subsystem governs interaction between people.. Theorists such as Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) or the Leavises regard culture as simply the result of "the best that has been thought and said in the world”[9] Arnold contrasted culture with social chaos or anarchy. culture links closely with social cultivation: the progressive refinement of human behavior. 2." According to this way of thinking. depends on the belief subsystem. Julian Huxley gives a slightly different division. "socifacts" and "artifacts". for ideological. Arnold consistently uses the word . and between European powers and their colonies around the world. A.1 Key components of culture A common way of understanding culture sees it as consisting of four elements: 1." The key to this definition is the discovery of the symbolate.2 Ways of looking at culture A. Artifacts—things.previously unrealized aspect of symbolization. whereas cultural anthropologists focus on symbolic culture. They guide the rest of the culture. values norms institutions artifacts. Sanctions vary with the importance of the norm. As a rule. It identifies "culture" with "civilization" and contrasts it with "nature. or apects of material culture—derive from a culture's values and norms." i.a Culture as civilization Many people today have an idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. an object created by the act of symbolization. A. one can classify some countries as more civilized than others. Norms consist of expectations of how people will behave in various situations. which he called "the symbolate. anthropologists understand "culture" to refer not only to consumption goods. Material objects and their use make up the technological subsystem. and technological subsystems respectively. although ultimately both groups maintain interests in the relationships between these two dimensions. but to the general processes which produce such goods and give them meaning.

" and observers often defended (or criticized) elements of high culture for repressing "human nature".2. such as punk rock or the indigenous music traditions of aboriginal peoples of Australia. Today most social scientists reject the monadic conception of culture. they assumed that all human beings evolved equally. but have stressed the interpretation of refinement and of sophistication as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature. They recognize non-élites as just as cultured as élites (and non-Westerners as just as civilized) -. scholars in Germany. From the 18th century onwards. Attentive to the theory of evolution. uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly-stratified capitalist systems of the West. museum-caliber art and classical music. culture being a pursuit of our total perfection by means of getting to know." People lacking "culture" often seemed more "natural. and took part in. someone who used 'culture' in the sense of 'cultivation' might argue that classical music is more refined than music produced by working-class people. some social critics have accepted this contrast between cultured and uncultured. By the late 19th century. Equally. Thus. and the word cultured described people who knew about. on all the matters which most concern us. Although more inclusive than earlier views. anthropologists had adopted and adapted the term culture to a broader definition that they could apply to a wider variety of societies. They also showed some reluctance to use biological evolution to explain differences between specific cultures — an . For example. and the opposition of culture to nature.this way: ".simply regarding them as just cultured in a different way. On this account. In practice. Thus social observers contrast the "high" culture of élites to "popular" or pop culture. a distinct and incommensurable world view characterizes each ethnic group. especially those concerned with nationalist movements — such as the nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse principalities. meaning goods and activities produced for.) A. and the nationalist struggles by ethnic minorities against the Austro-Hungarian Empire — developed a more inclusive notion of culture as "worldview. according to this worldview. the best which has been thought and said in the world". these activities. (Note that some classifications relegate both high and low cultures to the status of subcultures. They do not believe that distinct cultures exist." but are classed as "uncultured. people with different customs from those who regard themselves as cultured do not usually count as "having a different culture. and classical music seems superficial and decadent. this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures.b Culture as worldview During the Romantic era. culture referred to élite goods and activities such as haute cuisine. but rather that only a single standard of refinement suffices. People who use the term "culture" in this way tend not to use it in the plural as "cultures". and that the fact that all humans have cultures must in some way result from human evolution." In this mode of thought. each with their own internal logic and values. and consumed by the masses. folk music (as produced by working-class people) honestly expresses a natural way of life.. this view often portrays Indigenous peoples as 'noble savages' living authentic unblemished lives. high fashion or haute couture.. against which one can measure all groups.

e Cultures within a society Large societies often have subcultures. occupational. subcultures — groups with distinctive characteristics within a larger culture — began to be the subject of study by sociologists. there are essentially four approaches: • • • Monoculturalism: In most Old World nations.[10] Symbols provide the limits of cultured thought. symbols make culture possible.approach that either exemplified a form of. in the name of the law!" -.d Culture as a stabilizing mechanism Modern cultural theory also considers the possibility that (a) culture itself is a product of stabilization tendencies inherent in evolutionary pressures toward self-similarity and selfcognition of societies as wholes. reproducible and readable. political. A. The subculture may be distinctive because of the age of its members. In short. or groups of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. holds symbols to be both the practices of social actors and the context that gives such practices meaning. Members of a culture rely on these symbols to frame their thoughts and expressions in intelligible terms. The 20th century also saw the popularization of the idea of corporate culture — distinct and malleable within the context of an employing organization or a workplace. A.c Culture as symbols The symbolic view of culture. The qualities that determine a subculture as distinct may be aesthetic. the legacy of Clifford Geertz (1973) and Victor Turner (1967). or by their race. sexual or a combination of these factors.2. culture is very closely linked to nationalism.Stock phrase uttered to the antagonists by the sheriff or marshal in 20th century American Old Western movies Law and order -.2. In dealing with immigrants groups and their cultures. or segment of society vis a vis other segments and the society as a whole."[11] Thus. thus government policy is to assimilate immigrants. They are the "webs of significance" in Weber's sense that. the traditional view has been one of a melting pot where all the immigrant cultures are mixed and amalgamated without state intervention.2. ethnicity. but they should at least support the core concepts of the culture on which the society is based. Leading Culture: A model developed in Germany Bassam Tibi. In the 1950s.stock phrase in the Philippines A. for example: • • • "Stop. "give regularity. The idea is that communities within a country can have an identity of their own. or tribalisms. to quote Pierre Bourdieu (1977). unity and systematicity to the practices of a group. . religious. Cohen (1985) writes of the "symbolic gloss" which allows social actors to use common symbols to communicate and understand each other while still imbuing these symbols with personal significance and meanings.stock phrase in the United States Peace and order -. they often reveal processes of domination and resistance. Melting Pot: In the United States. class or gender. Anthony P.

within Asia there are several transnational cultural influences. such as by colonization. especially Sub-Saharan African culture has been shaped by European colonialism.2. below).f.f Cultures by region Many regional cultures have been influenced by contact with others. attitudes of the mainstream population and communications between various cultural groups play a major role in determining outcomes. However. The way nation states treat immigrant cultures rarely falls neatly into one or another of the above approaches.i Africa Though of many varied origins. There is also a shared social and moral philosophy derived from Confucianism.f.. A. . most of whom are descended from former slaves.2. Buddhism is pervasive in Southeast Asia. their languages have been heavily influenced by Chinese and Chinese writing. Japan.f. the type of government policies that are enacted and the effectiveness of those policies all make it difficult to generalize about the effects. English. Religion. The culture of the Americas is strongly influenced by: • • • peoples that inhabitated the continents before Europeans arrived. the number of immigrants. and is differentiated from North Africa from its lesser influence by Arab and Islamic culture. Similarly with other subcultures within a society.2. Though Korea. especially Spanish. and Vietnam are not Chinese speaking countries. mass media and religion. In East Asia. African culture.e. The study of cultures within a society is complex and research must take into account a myriad of variables. French.). A. and Dutch. Portuguese. attitudes of the resident population. Chinese writing is generally agreed to exert a unifying influence. A.• Multiculturalism: A policy that immigrants and others should preserve their cultures with the different cultures interacting peacefully within one nation. Hinduism and Islam have for hundreds of years exerted cultural influence on various peoples of South Asia. and European immigration.iii Australia Much of Australia's culture is derived from European and American roots. especially Buddhism and Taoism have had an influence on the culture of East Asian countries (see section on Eastern religion and philosophy. migration. but distinctive Australian features have evolved from the environment and Aboriginal culture. Africa (The United States especially has a large African-American population. "foreignness").ii Asia Asia is not the cultural monolith that many in the west once regarded it as. The degree of difference with the host culture (i. Similarly.2. trade. A.

though this region is also home to Israel and Judaism. ahtough this has some flaws. an instutution with a recognized body of communicants who gather together regularly for worship. a few other European languages.A. as in a theocracy. god.f..2. and technological advancement.v Middle East and North Africa Perhaps the defining characteristic of the Middle East and North Africa is Islam and variations of the Arab language. ancient Rome. Islamic art does not include depictions of human beings. recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today.2. and the United States. It is influenced by ancient Greece. such as with the 10 Commandments of Christianity or the five precepts of Buddhism. and nature or the universe more separately than non-Western cultures. Religion and other belief systems are often integral to a culture. although these traits are not exclusive to it.. if not the first. meaning "to bind fast". A. Arabesque. B. Canada. Further. The Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion defines religion in the following way: .iv Europe European culture also has a broad influence beyond the continent of Europe due to the legacy of colonialism. Western culture tends to be more individualistic than non-Western cultures. from the Latin religare. It also influences arts. This is most easily seen in the spread of the English language and to a lesser extent. several groups which are adherents to Islam do not consider themselves Arab. Sometimes it is involved with government. Eurocentric custom to some extent divides the humanity into Western and non-Western cultures. In this broader sense it is sometimes referred to as Western culture. literacy. Dominant influences include ancient Greece. portraying geometric. as Muslims believe this tempts followers of the Prophet to idolatry. Belief systems Islamic art has been mainly abstract and decorative. It is marked by economic wealth. and accept a set of doctrines offering some means of relating the individual to what is taken to be the ultimate nature of reality.f. It also sees man. and significant Christian minorities. Religion often codifies behavior. and calligraphic designs. is a feature of cultures throughout human history. and Christianity. Western culture spread from Europe most strongly to Australia. Religion. ancient Rome and the Christian church. floral. although religion has declined in Europe. C. Abrahamic religions Judaism is one of. The values and history of the Jewish people are a major part of .

Indian philosophy includes Hindu philosophy. as well as statecraft and the arts throughout Asia. as . Myanmar. parts of southwest China. Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. including Sri Lanka. both of which originated in China have had pervasive influence on both religious and philosophical traditions.100 languages in all — than any other book. Their influence can be considerable.the foundation of other Abrahamic religions such as Christianity. in the two most populous countries of Asia. Christianity was the dominant feature in shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years. Both Hebrew Scripture and the Christian Bible have been translated more times and into more languages — more than 2. During the same period. may pervade the culture and even become the state religion. Laos. as well as Samaritanism and the Bahá'í Faith. and redefined the concepts of nonviolence and nonresistance. Many Asian religious and philosophical traditions originated in India and China and spread across Asia through cultural diffusion and the migration of peoples. the Bible has influenced not only religion but language. the Mahāyāna branch of which spread north and eastwards from India into Tibet. European colonization and missionaries have spread it. and Thailand. They contain elements of nonmaterial pursuits. Theravāda Buddhism spread throughout Southeast Asia. Because of Christian domination of Europe from the late Roman era to the Age of Enlightenment. The Gutenberg Bible marked the beginning of the mass production of books in the West. Japan and Korea and south from China into Vietnam. E. law and the natural philosophy of mainstream Western Civilization. Africa and the Americas. a core belief of both Hinduism and Jainism. whereas another school of thought from India. Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St. Folk religions Folk religions practiced by tribal groups are common in Asia. During the 20th century. Mongolia. Carvaka. Hinduism is the wellspring of Buddhism. Confucianism and Taoism. Islam. Gandhi gave a new meaning to Ahimsa. D. Cambodia. The Bible Both Christians and Jews regard the Bible as the revealed word of God. two dramatically different political philosophies took shape. China. Mao Zedong’s communist philosophy became a powerful secular belief system in China. F. Eastern religion and philosophy Philosophy and religion are often closely interwoven in Eastern thought. preached the enjoyment of material world.

Cultural change can come about due to the environment. Diffusions of innovations theory presents a research-based model for why and when individuals and cultures adopt new ideas. averting misfortune and providing rituals that address the major passages and transitions in human life. In diffusion. For example. "Stimulus diffusion" refers to an element of one culture leading to an invention in another. Marriage Religion often influences marriage . Cultural change Cultures. For example. through hard work. but not its meaning. and divorcées cannot remarry in a church marriage."[16] which were values held by many early European settlers and maintained by subsequent generations. folk religion answers human needs for reassurance in times of trouble. which in its turn brought about many cultural innovations. Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage. I. mundane in the United States. to inventions (and other internal influences). Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behaviour but which does not exist as a physical object. the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship. that. both embrace and resist change dependence of culture traits. For example. seemed exotic when introduced into China. but in this context refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another. courage. and products. H. and self-determination. a light unto the nations. as happened in the second half of the 20th century in western cultures. by predisposition. The ”American Dream” The American Dream is a faith. "Acculturation" has different meanings. healing. Related processes on an individual level include assimilation (adoption of a different culture by an individual) and transculturation. Christians see a picture of the relationship between Jesus Christ and His Church. men and women have complementary roles in many cultures. One sex might desire changes that affect the other. G. such as happened to certain Native American tribes and to many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of colonization. and to contact with other cultures. Like the other major religions. The Roman Catholic Church believes it is morally wrong to divorce. .with Shintoism.[15] This notion is rooted in the belief that the country is a "city upon a hill. In marriage. regardless of social class. hamburgers. the form of something moves from one culture to another. the end of the last ice age helped lead to the invention of agriculture. held by many in the United States. a person can gain a better life. practices.

This movement aimed to focus on the analysis of subcultures in capitalist societies. with no direct adaptive value.g. in part through the re-introduction of Marxist thought into sociology. but human brains are bigger. Similarly. For example. Instead. they see culture as a complex web of shifting patterns that link people in different locales and that link social formations of different scales. Most. cultural studies generally focus on the study of consumption goods (such as fashion. most cultural change can be viewed as culture adapting to itself. anthropologists began theorizing about culture as an object of scientific analysis. Ethical values in different culture- . culture becomes such an integral part of human existence that it is the human environment. many now reject the notion of culture as bounded. and consequently reject the notion of subculture. bonobos exhibit complex sexual behavior. According to many theories that have gained wide acceptance among anthropologists. K. Cultural studies Cultural studies developed in the late 20th century. some anthropologists have joined the project of cultural studies. According to this point of view.. Although most anthropologists try to define culture in such a way that it separates human beings from other animals. any group can construct its own cultural identity. and literature). "culture" was used by some to refer to a wide array of human activities. anthropologists often debate whether human behavior is different from animal behavior in degree rather than in kind. Culture theory Is the branch of anthropology and other related social science disciplines (e.J. Following the non-anthropological tradition. chimpanzees have big brains. culture exhibits the way that humans interpret their biology and their environment. As such. however. In the 19th century. many human traits are similar to those of other animals. whereas others used it to refer to symbolic representations and expressions of human experience. and by others as a synonym for "civilization". According to this view. Both groups understood culture as being definitive of human nature. Moreover. Because the 18th. but human beings exhibit much more complex sexual behaviors. these scholars refer instead to "popular culture". and in part through the articulation of sociology and other academic disciplines such as literary criticism. L. given that culture is seen as the primary adaptive mechanism of humans and takes place much faster than human biological evolution. sociology) that seeks to define the heuristic concept of culture in operational and/or scientific terms. In the 20th century. reject the identification of culture with consumption goods. Some used it to distinguish human adaptive strategies from the largely instinctive adaptive strategies of animals. they must also find ways to distinguish cultural behavior from sociological behavior and psychological behavior. including the adaptive strategies of other primates and non-human hominids. Today. particularly the traits of other primates. art. and most cultural change can be attributed to human adaptation to historical events. Furthermore.and 19th-century distinction between "high" and "low" culture seems inappropriate to apply to the mass-produced and mass-marketed consumption goods which cultural studies analyses.

integrety. S Radhakrisnan are as followsPrayer are to be offered to the Gods. religious beliefs and social customs from culture. Virtue is conformity to the law of God and vice is disobedience to the law. M. purity. An individual should combine ethics and dharma for observance of customary morality in the modes of interpersonal relation and family obligations. All individual generates variety of ideas. In this modern age the current cultural crisis is the fast change in life styles. This crisis is reflected in an individual’s confusing and abnormal attitude in behaviour. non injury to others.witchcraft. Gamling is loooked down upon. They are reflected in the life summed up by Dr. restraint. The vedic philosophy of moral life . particularly amongst the urban middle class. It is the study of human behaviour which propounds the supreme good of human life. The life of man has to be led under the very eye of God.Rites are to be performed. Hospitality is regarded as a great virtue. The cultural values are expressed through aesthatic sensibilities and their external expressions.Ethics is concerned with the norms of human social behaviour. N. Respect for elders as one of the cardinal virtues as regarded by Manu. patience. Theft. Social Culture & Individual Ethics . self control. philosophies. in music and art and literature. modes of entertainment etc are changing fast. The upanisad sums up a whole ethical philosophy in self control charity and compassion. Such individual attitude must be developed into a social and cultural force to meet the challenges of contemporary life. truithfulness and absence of anger are the ten marks of dharma. dress. nanak and Chaitanya. common courtesies. food habits. According to Manu. The contemporary value crisis in the indian society is understood as a cultural crisis.seduction and adultery are condemmed us vicious. Kindness to all is enjoined. intelligence. The ethical values of Indian cultures during the middle ages were exhibited by Ramananda and Kabir. self possession. It is specifically concerned with the principles of rules which make our conduct right. Cultural and Individual ethics All values pursued by a person are comprehensive under the term culture.

we would live in a state of nature. N. political science and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens. explains the justification and purpose of the state and of human rights. as a political theory. It has been often noted. 1. Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy. but Rousseau's social contract is often seen as conflicting with classical liberalism which stresses individualism and rejects subordination of individual liberty to the "general will" of the community. To avoid this. Thomas Hobbes (1651).1. representing our joint interests as members and formed by the delegation of our power. . All members within a society are assumed to agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society without violating the contract. Hobbes 1651).a Overview State of nature & social contract The social contract.1. 3. such violation would signify a problematic attempt to return to the state of nature. John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism. giving up some freedoms to do so. Social Contract Theory Collectivism or Socialism Theory Organic Theory Idealistic or Group – Mind Theory N. or between individuals. we jointly agree to an implicit social contract by which we each gain civil rights in return for accepting the obligation to honor the rights of others. N. there are no positive rights. It is also one of a few competing theoretical groundworks of liberalism. indeed. only laws of nature and an endless "war of all against all" (Bellum omnium contra omnes. or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members.The relationship between social culture and individual ethics can be considered from four different perspectives. 2. Collectivism or Socialism Theory Plato and Aristotle propounded this theory which is the exact opposite of the social contract theory. 4. According to Hobbes' canonical theory.2. which is the theoretical groundwork of democracy. The downside of this general autonomy is that it includes the "right to all things" and thus the freedom to harm all who threaten one's own self-preservation. Social Contract Theory An agreement among the members of an organized society or between the governed and the government defining and limiting the rights and duties of each. the essence is as follows: Without society. that social contract theories relied on a specific anthropological conception of man as either "good" or "evil". The figurehead of the society we create. is the sovereign state. where we each have unlimited natural freedoms.

Thus according to this theory.3. unlike an organism which decays a society may just change and transform itself rather than decaying. But value-wise even the ideology of socialism has little to offer. The ethics is not a matter of individual or collective contract. Though difficult a man can live without the society like a cell which cannot hire apart from living organism. His menal faculties can never be controlled or guided by society. The basic philosophy of socialism is that the control over the resources. N. growth. maturity and decay. rather ethics of a culture develops slowly and overtime to make up the ethics of that society. Moreover. Idealistic or Group-Mind Theory . which he cannot afford to ignore. A man living without a society can still be ethical and practise high moral conduct. social cultures also pass through stages of birth. It advocates social ownership which in practice means governement ownership of the means of production and tight control overall aspects of socio-economic life. regulations. An individual has his independent existence and his actions are guided by his free will. The individuals belonging to the society are interdependent among themselves and in turn to the society.According to them. individuals can not exist without a society and the society cannot exist without individuals. an individual is not controlled by the society in many areas. This theory states that it is impossibe for a man to develop either intelectually or ethically without participating in social life. This theory also appears to take an extreme view. Just like living organisms. norms and ethics. Society makes it obligatory for the man who follow its rules. compell a man to think and evaluate them. They should not be left in the hands of private economic powers. But it may lead to corruption. his own free will guide him in choosing his moral standarda and ethical behaviour. N. forever changing and forever evolving. man had always lived in societies and it is impossible to imagine man existing without a society. deley etc. This view would seem to suggest that cultural norms of the society makes it imperative for the individual to follow its norms and standards of behaviour. Though society resembles a living organism in many respects. This theory also states that man cannot exist without society. Social process and social rules and regulations. Though social values and ethics may. without the individuals the society too would cease to exist. Hence. means of production and distribution must be exercised by the society. society or social norms and values control a man. but the man has no control over the norms and values. A society is a collection of individuals. though society can exist without the man. Organic theory Leslie Stephen and Herbert Spencer states that the relation between individual and society is organic and not mechanical.4. norms and values are organic in nature.

The culture of a perticular society is intimately linked to the individual ethical value of the people in society. This group mind theory can be accepted only as metaphore. Without society a man cannot develop his moral character or ethical value system. this theory states the relation between society and individual as spiritual. . Perhaps it is important to keep in mind the saying of Gilbert who stated that ‘social values are in the last resort to personal values’. A man living outside society can not strive for and attain excellence. However. these are certain immoral acts which are universally condemned as unethical irrespective of the culture involved. he can not be termed as a complete man. Some cultures consider certain acts to be highly unethical while some cultures may accept these acts to be highly ethical. since it is difficult to practically apply this theory in relation to social culture and individual ethics.Propounded by many philosophers including Plato. Without society. and remains only as a fragment of humanity. It is understood and accepted that the value system and the moral standards of the society affects the value system and moral standards of the individuals of the society and the value system of the individuals make up the moral standards of the society.

These laws should be understood to include not only statutory law. In general. B. The law exists to protect drivers from each other. namely that law and ethics are separable. Significance The existence of laws without ethical content may be used to support the central claim of legal positivism. It would not usually be considered unethical to drive on the wrong side of the road when one knows there are no other vehicles on that road. whilst in others they are required to drive in the right-hand lanes. but ethical obligations typically exceed legal duties. neither driving on the left nor driving on the right are inherently ethically superior. those have already taken place in the organisation.Chapter 6 LAW AND ETHICS Business ethics is essentially obeying the law.1. or conversely that one may wrongfully obey certain other laws. Ethical values and legal principles are usually closely related. Relationship between law & ethics The following statements are intended to clarify the relationship between law and ethics. The business reports very often do not highlight the alleged corrupt practices. In some cases. they should work to change the law. a law may be said to have no ethical content if it represents a choice between two or more ethically equivalent options. but it is also usually considered good that there is a consensus as to which side of the road one . Traffic law In many countries. It is generally understood that whilst having such a rule provides significant obvious benefits. C. In general. although it may well be considered foolish. ethical responsibilities should supersede legal obligations. but for some other reason. rather than to prohibit drivers from driving on an unethical side of the road. when physicians believe a law is unjust. In exceptional circumstances of unjust laws. but also case law and common law. Legal positivism states that one may disobey certain laws without doing wrong. The fact that a physician charged with allegedly illegal conduct is acquitted or exonerated in civil or criminal proceedings does not necessarily mean that the physician acted ethically. A law without ethical content is one that does not proscribe or mandate an act because of the act's moral or ethical value. the law mandates unethical conduct. motor vehicles are required by law to drive in the left-hand lanes of roads with more than one lane. A. Examples C.

but that does not necessarily mean that the law itself has no ethical value. Many. environment etc 2. the government recommends the metric system but does not proscribe customary units. the law exists to form a consensus for the benefit of society. indian factories act and indian boilers regulation regarding observance of safe measure for installation and working plant and mechineries including steam boilers. or allowing each county. The chief . measuring lengths in cubits. 1. customary units. but not easily understood by most shoppers. the laws. and that such an arrangement is better than having no consensus. and may be understood to gain ethical value from that purpose.S. argue that since laws curtail individual freedoms. But.listing weights as newtons per g is technically correct. all laws are ethically relevant. In fact the rules are more complex than this since you can't use units which are likely to confuse -. 3. Criticism Not everyone accepts that there are laws without ethical content. In the United Kingdom. Legal positivism would counter that this ethical value is derived from context and not from within the law itself.2.there are different law to protect human rights. or times in metres per c. Neither system has any inherent ethical value. industrial safety regulation regarding observance of all necessary safety codes in industries. D. imperial units and U.regarding observance of safe health measure for the working personnel. C. occupational health codes. and it would not usually be considered unethical for me to do so. and so either may be used. then it cannot be the law itself which has ethical value. Few would dispute that there is no ethical reason to prefer one side of a road or one system of units over another. Other bodies in enforcing ethical business behaviour The following agencies enforce etical behaviour in business. If it isn't unethical to drive on the wrong side when there are no other cars on the road. C. for example. Common systems are SI (also known as the metric system). and in some countries they are used side-byside. town or road to impose its own rule. albeit for the benefit of society as a whole.should travel on. Although the subject matter of a law may not be an ethical issue. In the United States. Systems of measurement Many countries have laws mandating a particular system of measurement for use by government bodies and commercial entities. such as Robert Alexy. 4.3. the law doesn't prohibit me from measuring weights with such units. law mandates the use of the metric system by most government bodies and commercial entities.

Indian legal system is seen as legislation on fiscal measures of taxation and foreign exchange. the chartered accountant’s act regarding maintaining proper books of account. 6. 7. democratic values and distributive justice.inspector of factories of the concerned state is empowered to enforce ethical business practice. the ethical business manager pays proper wages to workers. pollution control boards under govt. . pays income tax. Indian penal code is designed to incorporate ethical values of rights. take pollution control measures. of india and state govt. E. regarding relevent ethical behaviours in the concerned activities. The ethical business organisation never wish to break any law. The relationship between law and business ethics is best illustrated in the working of the bureau of Indian standards which have developed specification various goods and services. they may suffer but not break it. Impact of law in business ethics Business and business ethics concern for both civil law and criminal law.charge proper price from the customers. Due to existence of laws. They would rather wait for it to be corrected or amended for its ethicality. 5. maintain proper books of account. industrial dispute act regarding settlement of industrial disputes between management & labour force. makes reasonable profit etc.

Chapter 7
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF BUSINESS Though it may be an expression of private enterprise, business is not an activity of isolated individuals. Business owes its existence to society. Whether we are talking about the corner store or a gigantic transnational corporation, business is a social practice with implications for the public good. The social responsibility of business is therefore a fundamental element in business ethics; at least this is what this discussion will attempt to demonstrate. The view that business has no social responsibility beyond that of making profits for its stockholders has been vigorously proposed by Chicago economist Milton Friedman. For him, "there is one and only one social responsibility of business – to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud". Friedman is even opposed to businesses contributing to charity or other social causes (unless those actions contribute to the business and its profitability). The basis of his view is that company directors have a fiduriary responsibility to stockholders to maximise profits and to act otherwise is, in effect, stealing which moves away from the free market approach toward socialism. He endorses William Vanderbilt: " The public be dammed. I’m working for my stockholders". In effect, he is also summoning a narrow role morality to buttress his position: the role of the business person is to develop a profitable business, not to be a legislator or a social reformer, or even a good corporate citizen. The argument against this view is that, even within the parameters of a capitalist economy, a much wider understanding of the nature of business is required. The proposal is that business sometimes has social responsibilities that conflict with, and override, the responsibility to maximise profits. Arguably, companies that withdrew from the South African economy as an action against apartheid were exercising social responsibility in spite of its effect on profits. On the other hand, an international satellite television service withdrew news on human rights abuses because it offended a government on which the company depended for television rights to about a billion people. In that case it would seem that consideration of profits overrode social responsibility. While Friedman’s view rests on several half-truths, it overstates the capacity of the free market to correct itself and to work for the wider public good. It is a nonsense to suggest, as he implies, that all steps which maximise profits are socially beneficial. In fact to focus narrowly on profits as the aim of business is misleading. Though a business aims to be profitable, it does so only by supplying quality goods and services, while providing employment and relating to its community. Business lives off, and impacts upon, the society in which it operates (and for some corporations that society is global). Because business interacts with society, questions of job creation and fair pricing, for example, are matters of integrity for business. Of course, no issue exemplifies the need for social responsibility by business better than the environment, because, as we know, some business activities have an enormous capacity to damage the life support systems of Earth. There is no acceptable justification for business, as moral agents, to respond to the environmental crisis in a minimal way and only under the duress of legal sanction. Business, like the rest of the community, is not exempt from the injunction to value

life. Proactively sustaining the environment, as an ethical imperative regardless of law, is a new bottom line for commerce. Solomon invokes the term "stakeholder" to dismiss Friedman’s argument that the ethical responsibilities of business stop with stockholders: "The stakeholders in a company are all of those who are affected and have legitimate expectations and rights regarding the actions of the company, and these include the employees, the consumers and the suppliers as well as the surrounding community and the society at large. The virtue of the concept is that it greatly expands the focus of corporate concern, without losing sight of the corporation itself. Social responsibility, so considered, is not an additional burden on the corporation but part and parcel of its essential concerns Fitting, ethical business decisions based on the comprehensive range of concerns indicated by Solomon require an approach consistent with the ethic of response; that approach endorses the need to respect life, act fairly and be true to obligations with the wider community. While an ethic of response applied to business includes the so-called micro-concerns, it will also introduce a critical perspective which incorporates a broad social responsibility. Social responsibility is arguably a constituent of business best practice. Business ethics which fail to serve the common good and the public interest is unethical, chiefly because it fails to understand that business, like all human activity, is dependent on life’s interconnectedness. A. Environmental protection Eventually, in discussions on consumption and production patterns, environmental protection, the sustainability of local communities, and even the integrity of government policy-making, the subject of transnational corporations and their increasingly dominant influence comes up. NGOs are understandably concerned as governments -- particularly from "developed countries"-- claim they have "no new resources" to devote to sustainable development, and that we instead need to look to the leadership of business and industry. While there may be many businesses and even transnational Corporations (TNCs) sincerely attempting to be socially and environmentally responsible, the bottom line of business is to make a profit -- everything else is secondary. Furthermore, the world is shamefully scarred by the conduct of corporations giving little priority to social responsibility, abusing local communities and ecosystems in their quest for market share and higher returns. A large number of NGOs have been acting from the premise that corporate accountability is an essential element of sustainable development, that ultimately corporations can only be responsible if they can be held accountable to the society which they should serve. The world has witnessed rapid, unprecedented technological advances that have had a profound bearing on all aspects of the production of goods and services. The increased scale and reach of human activity have led to mounting pressure on not just the global commons (water, air, soil, etc), but also on local and global sinks (the ability of the biosphere to absorb waste and regulate climate).

It is feared that greenhouse gas emissions cannot be reined in unless a concerted effort is made to increase energy efficiency, reduce our current dependence on fossil fuels, and develop viable ‘clean-energy’ options. Added to this, we have seen that poverty has been a concomitant of economic development.. A.1. India: Environmental Issues Introduction India's ongoing population explosion has placed great strain on the country's environment. This rapidly growing population, along with a move toward urbanization and industrialization, has placed significant pressure on India's infrastructure and its natural resources. Deforestation, soil erosion, water pollution and land degradation continue to worsen and are hindering economic development in rural India, while the rapid industrialization and urbanization in India's booming metropolises are straining the limits of municipal services and causing serious air pollution problems. Following the 1984 Bhopal disaster - in which a toxic leak from the city's Union Carbide chemical plant resulted in the deaths of more than 3,000 people - environmental awareness and activism in India increased significantly. The Environment Protection Act was passed in 1986, creating the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) and strengthening India's commitment to the environment, which was enshrined in the 42nd amendment to country's constitution in 1976. Under the 1986 Environmental Protection Act, the MoEF is tasked with the overall responsibility for administering and enforcing environmental laws and policies. The MoEF established the importance of integrating environmental strategies into any development plan for the country. Nevertheless, despite a greater commitment by the Indian government to protect public health, forests, and wildlife, policies geared to develop the country's economy have taken precedence in the last 20 years. While industrial development has contributed significantly to economic growth in India, it has done so at a price to the environment. Not only is industrial pollution increasing public health risks, but abatement efforts also are consuming a significant portion of India's gross domestic product (GDP). As such, one of MoEF's main responsibilities continues to be the reduction of industrial pollution. Air Pollution Industrialization and urbanization have resulted in a profound deterioration of India's air quality. India has more than 20 cities with populations of at least 1 million, and some of them-including New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata--are among the world's most polluted. Urban air quality ranks among the world's worst. Of the 3 million premature deaths in the world that occur each year due to outdoor and indoor air pollution, the highest number are assessed to occur in India. Sources of air pollution, India's most severe environmental problem, come in several forms, including vehicular emissions and untreated industrial smoke.

emissions limits for gasoline.16 quadrillion Btu (quads) in 1980 to 12. In addition. transportation. India's reliance on coal-fired power plants for its electricity generation has undermined some of the vehicular-oriented air quality improvement initiatives. Vehicles are the major source of this pollution. India's high concentration of pollution is not due to the absence of a sound environmental legal regime. Energy Consumption India's energy consumption is increasing rapidly. as more and more people are adversely affected and cities are unable to implement adequate pollution control mechanisms. although thermal plants fueled by other fossil fuels are subject to particulate matter emission standards. and residential sectors continues to drive India's energy usage upwards at a faster rate even than China. while the even-more-stringent Euro-2 standards have been in place for the metropolitan areas of Delhi. In 1998.Continued urbanization has exacerbated the problem of rapid industrialization. from 4.and diesel-powered vehicles came into effect in 1991 and 1992. where airborne particulate matter (PM) has been registered at levels more than 10 times India's legal limit. India's efforts to improve urban air quality have focused in this area. riots. Despite the fact that India is a large coal consumer. however. In New Delhi. However. Emissions standards for passenger cars and commercial vehicles were tightened in 2000 at levels equivalent to the Euro-1 standards of the European Union. but to a lack of environmental enforcement at the local level.000 buses in the city were banned from use. the sulfur content of motor fuels sold in the four cities has been restricted to 500 parts per million (PPM) since 2001 in order to be compatible with tighter vehicle emissions standards.000 taxis and 10. . Chennai. Regulatory reforms aimed at improving the air pollution problem in cities such as New Delhi have been difficult to implement. This 208% increase is largely the result of India's increasing population and the rapid urbanization of the country. With vehicle ownership rising along with population and income. Motor fuel sulfur content in all other regions of India has been limited to 2. however. and widespread "commuter chaos" ensued as some appearance of some 15. To ease the transition. mainly because most of the coal mined in India is low in sulfur content. with more than three million cars. and Kolkata since 2001. respectively. its Central Pollution Control Board has been slow to set sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions limits for coal-fired power plants. trucks.8 quads in 2001. only 200 (out of a total fleet of 12. which experienced a 130% increase in energy consumption from 1980 to 2001. and the city has prohibited the use of vehicle more than 15 years old. the local government changed course and allowed for a gradual phaseout of the existing diesel bus fleet. India’s Supreme Court issued a ruling requiring all the city’s buses to be run on compressed natural gas (CNG) by March 31. Furthermore. Again.000) CNG-fueled buses were available by the initial deadline and public protests. Coal-fired power plants do not face any nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions limits either. buses. taxis. and rickshaws already on the roads. Compliance was to be achieved either by converting existing diesel engines or by replacing the buses themselves. 2001. the government's support for air quality standards has been undermined by the lack of enforcement of these standards. One of the most affected cities in New Delhi.500 PPM since January 2000. Mumbai. Higher energy consumption in the industrial.

India accepted (ratification was unnecessary) the Kyoto Protocol on August 26. India's carbon emissions are expected to continue to increase throughout the decade.3%) account for much of the remainder. Coal accounts for just over 50% (6.67 quads). Russia and Japan. meaning it is not obligated to reduce its emissions of carbon and greenhouse gases (GHG).which made up 11. while hydroelectricity . which stood at 12. when per capita energy usage was just 6. In 2001. with 251 million metric tons of carbon equivalent emitted. Nevertheless.4% of India's energy consumption. The power generation sector uses the majority of this coal.4 quads) makes up 34. offsetting the planned reduction in GHGs from the European Union and other countries that plan to implement the Protocol's emissions cut requirements.has declined in relative importance. As such. India's non-participation in the Kyoto Protocol has been cited as a major reason behind the opposition to implementing the Protocol by several signatories.7%) and geothermal.5% of the country's energy usage in 1980 .6 million Btu in 2001.92 quads).is the main point of controversy.565 million metric tons) carbon emissions that same year. a rate surpassed only by China's 111% increase during the same time period. while natural gas (6.4% in 1980. ranked fifth in the world in carbon emissions. the Indian government also places a high priority on economic development. India signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a nonAnnex I country. including the United States. behind the United States. Although India's carbon emissions stood at only 80% of Japan's (316 million metric tons of carbon equivalent) total and less than one-sixth of the United States' (1. Petroleum (4. and biomass (0. and the United States (97. India's energy consumption is still below that of Germany (14. the rapid growth of India's carbon emissions .in combination with its exclusion from the Protocol . as its share of India's energy consumption has risen from just 1. however.2%) made up a very small share of the country's energy consumption in 2001.2% below 1990 levels by the agreed 2008-2012 time frame.5%) and hydroelectricity (6. India's carbon emissions increased by an astonishing 61%. India is not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol that mandates specific commitments by countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.Despite teh rapid growth between 1980 and 2001. While India recognizes the importance of reducing these harmful emissions. The rise in India's carbon emissions has been exacerbated by the .35 quads).05 quads). solar. is well below most of the rest of Asia and is one of the lowest in the world (although this may be more the result of India's large population rather than a low level of energy consumption).2 million Btu. China. Nuclear (1. Carbon Emissions In 1992. is more problematic in the long-term. Japan (21. India's per capita energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2001. Natural gas is growing in importance.5 quads) of India's energy consumption. and 2001. India. China (39. India ratified the agreement in 1993. 2002. wind. The 103% rise in India's per capita consumption between 1980. In addition. with heavy industry a distant second.

increased vehicular usage and the continued use of older and more inefficient coal-fired plants. per capita emissions are expected to triple by 2020. coupled with the virtual absence of energy efficiency and conservation measures in most industrial sectors. a scarcity of capital.861 Btu per $1995). If coal consumption is substituted by oil and natural gas consumption. In Asia.5% in the United States). with an estimated average annual growth rate between 2001 and 2025 of 3. Although this figure is one of the highest in Asia.229 Btu per $1995) and China (35. India's carbon intensity has remained relatively flat over the past 20 years. India's energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of GDP) stood at 25. However. India's carbon intensity measured 0. due to fast-paced industrialization. India's overall carbon emissions would be reduced. Energy and Carbon Intensity In 2001.75 metric tons of carbon per thousand $1995) was higher than that of India. only China's carbon intensity (0.0% in the EIA International Energy Outlook 2003 reference case (compared to 3. By contrast.25 metric tons of carbon per person in 2001. India's contribution to world carbon emissions is expected to increase in coming years. but whereas China has become less carbon intensive over the past 20 years. India's still elevated energy intensity level is due in large part to the growth of energy-intensive industries that has taken place in the country during the course of its economic expansion.619 Btu per $1995). With the high capital costs associated with replacing existing coal-fired plants. much of it low-quality. In fact. The absolute increase in emissions will partially be a function of the degree to which coal is relied upon as a major energy source. even falling from a high in 1995 (30.low energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants in the country. and the long lead time required to introduce advanced coal technologies. India's per capita carbon emissions were less than one-quarter of the world average and 22 times less than the United States. China's energy intensity level in 2001 was just one-third of its 1980 level of 105. a conversion away from noncommercial towards commercial fuels. surpassed only by Pakistan (26. although initiatives to encourage the use of higher-quality . In 2001. Carbon intensity (carbon emissions per dollar of GDP) in India also is relatively high compared to its neighbors.307 Btu per $1995. goes a long way towards explaining the country's relatively high carbon intensity 0. As such.4% in China and 1. the country's per capita carbon emissions are expected to increase in the coming years due to the rapid pace of urbanization. it stands to reason that many of India's highly-polluting coal-fired power plants will have to remain in operation for the next couple of decades. India's heavy reliance on coal.5 metric tons of carbon per thousand $1995. India's carbon intensity has remained at virtually the same level as in 1980.459 Btu per $1995) back below 1980 level (25.632 Btu per $1995. Indian economic policies such as high import tariffs on high-quality coal and subsidies on low-quality domestic coal also have contributed to increased use of low-quality coal. India's per capita carbon emissions are relatively low .

almost tripling the country. India is rich in wind energy the form of solar-. Indeed. Renewable Energy Despite a trend towards urbanization. solar photovoltaic systems are far more cost-effective than conventional energy. but hydropower's share of India's energy consumption and production has declined in the past 20 years. Renewable energy projects .500 MW of wind power in the 2002-2007 period. India has an estimated hydropower potential of 150. which have previously slowed the development of wind power in India. which was over 40% about 20 years back.and other fossil fuel-generated electricity supplied to India's cities with energy from renewable energy sources could aid in reducing air pollution and help to meet the growing energy needs of the country's large metropolises as well. the use of solar power in India is being advocated as a way to provide energy to regions where there is a shortage of electricity. as well as an effort to provide incentives to wind-power producers. such as reducing the tariff on imported coal.coal. Nevertheless.are the key to providing rural areas with energy where power is in short supply. and hydropower-generated electricity .and micro-level wind and solar energy projects are taking shape. Rather than build new. India is turning to the use of solar energy. the Indian government is looking to large-scale hydroelectric plants to meet its future energy needs. Wind-generated energy is also an important component of India's strategy to boost the use of renewable energies. Whereas the majority of developed countries have turned to solar energy mainly out of concern about the environment and energy security. wind-. ending a protracted period of lackluster growth.560 MW. The introduction and adoption of technologies to reduce coal consumption and/or improve the efficiency of the coal that is combusted is an important government priority. more than 70% of India's population still lives in rural areas.000 MW. given that the majority of India's power generation is coal-fired. and the country has been adding installed wind power capacity at an impressive rate. The improvement in grid connections. at the same time that small. Power Minister Anant Geete has said that only about 23% of India's hydropower potential has been exploited. (NHPC) is planning to commission 1. and India has one of the largest national programs to promote the use of solar energy. According to the Ministry of NonConventional Energy Sources. the share of hydropower in the country's total installed generating capacity. and the government hopes that subsidies to support hydropower plant development will help it attain a goal of building 50. India's state-owned National Hydroelectric Power Corp. India is the only country that has a separate government ministry exclusively for nonconventional energy sources. As the Indian economy develops. may help in reducing the country's carbon intensity. replacing coal. expensive generating capacity or connect rural areas to the existing power transmission infrastructure. according to Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. In addition. India now expects to exceed its target of installing 1.'s current installed hydropower capacity.090 MW of capacity by mid-2004. . has spurred the growth of the wind energy industry in India. In many small villages and remote areas. one of the greatest challenges that India's local and regional governments face is providing people in rural areas with access to energy. has fallen to 25%.

India's Supreme Court laid down the principle of ''polluter pays. Informative lebelling is always welcome. full disclosure in customer credit contract. India's strong support of air quality and alternative fuel initiatives has brought progress as well as growing pains to the country. shortages of electricity have hampered India's industrial growth. taxing the already straining power generation. deposit refund systems. requiring environmental impact statements in certain areas. Fair trade practices. In August 2003. developing environmental standards for both products and processes. as increased vehicular ownership will contribute to existing air pollution problems and urbanization raises the health risks from that pollution. Busness must access the profitability of its action as well as the overall effect those actions have on the society. Profitability must be one of the objectives of the business but for better running and society acceptance one must be socially responsible. in the form of customs waivers and soft loans. As such. It has to demonstrate not only its economic efficiency but also consumer sensitivity and social awareness. social power enjoyed must be duly balanced with social duties. However.'' India has made significant efforts in the field of environmental protection. Self regulation along can avoid government interference. air pollution is likely to continue to worsen in the coming years as urbanization picks up pace and vehicle ownership increases. The Indian government's ability to safeguard the country's environment will depend on its success in promoting policies that keep the economy growing while providing adequate energy needs to satisfy the populace's growing energy consumption requirements in a sustainable manner. If business wants survival. A rapidly increasing population also will lead to an increase in electricity demand. and it has reduced subsidies on low-quality coal. inefficient coal-fired plants. transmission and distribution infrastructure and putting pressure on the power sector to add new capacity to the system. The government has used fiscal incentives. B. Social responsibility are not the talk of the town but the talk of the world. including stricter enforcement. electricity is one of the keys to both India's economic development and its environmental protection efforts.Environmental Outlook India faces significant challenges in balancing its increased demand for energy with the need to protect its environment from further damage. in the absence of coordinated government efforts. in warranties necessary. and market mechanisms such as user charges. responsibilities and accountability. The Indian government has introduced initiatives aimed to discourage firms from generating electricity using older. marketable permits and taxes for implementing pollution measures also are being contemplated. and on the ecology or environment. Sheer population growth and urbanization make the task all the more difficult for the Indian government. and introducing environmental audits. Fair trade practices Modern business operates in a socio economic environment. . Already. to encourage the installation of pollution abatement equipment.

culture and living conditions. The corporations must take social welfare in area of their competence. harmful effects of smoking. which means that workers are paid at least that country's minimum wage. and profits are distributed more equitably and often reinvested in community projects such as health clinics. B. Workers earn a greater return on their labor. Business houses have responsibilities beyond social costs.b COOPERATIVE WORKPLACES Cooperatives and producer associations provide a healthy alternative to large-scale manufacturing and sweatshops conditions. where unprotected workers earn below minimum wage and most of the profits flow to foreign investors and local elites who have little interest in ensuring the long term health of the communities in which they work. adoption of villages and beautification of towns and cities. workers are paid a living wage. shelter. B. child care. They should be involved in providing subsidised meals." By providing information about producers' history. Fair Trade Organizations work primarily with small businesses. the fair trade movement strives to educate consumers about the often hidden human costs of their "bargains. nutrition.1.1. donations to relief funds. Since the minimum wage is often not enough for basic survival. including food. they are able to cut costs and return a greater percentage of the retail price to the producers. FTF Principles and Practices FTF members are committed to the following principles and practices in their trading relationships: B. drinking should be minimised. B. Safe and healthy working conditions are maintained and producers gain greater control and decision making power over the use of their local resources. low-cost housing for poor and backward people. By defining fair trade and conducting business in a manner that respects workers' rights and the environment.Environmental degradation. workers are able to access credit. reduce raw material costs and establish higher and more just prices for their products. Fair Trade Organizations enhance cross-cultural understanding and respect between consumers . education and health care for their families.1. By banding together.c CONSUMER EDUCATION Fair Trade Organizations educate consumers about the importance of purchasing fairly traded products which support living wages and healthy working conditions. side effects of new drugs. Since Fair Trade Organizations bypass exploitative middlemen and work directly with producers. education. education and literacy training.a FAIR WAGES Producers are paid fairly for their products. enabling self-reliant grassroots-driven development. Workers learn important leadership and organizing skills. whenever feasible. Paying fair wages does not necessarily mean that products cost the consumer more.1. which enables them to cover basic needs. worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and associations which bring significant benefits to workers and their communities.

There are several brances of law like international law. B. product feedback and training in financial management. With increasing complexity of modern business world.1. Many FTOs ensure prepayment so that producers have sufficient funds to cover raw materials and basic needs during production time.carriage of goods etc.and communities in the developing world. constitutional law. They seek to promote producers' artistic talents in a way that preserves cultural identity. criminal law.e FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT Small-scale farmers and artisans in the developing world lack access to affordable financing. Unlike commercial importers. business law etc.f RESPECT FOR CULTURAL IDENTITY Fair Trade Organizations encourage the production and development of products based on producers' cultural traditions adapted for Western markets. Whan a bill is passed by the parliament and signed by the president it becomes an Act. civil law. It is generally understood to include the laws relating to contracts sale of goods partnership companies. impeding their profitability. B. joy.g PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY FTF members' finances. In case of certail decision if thee is no any present law then there . and business practices are open to the public and monitoring by the Fair Trade Federation. B. the scope of laws has enormously widened. Fair trade practices is bringing hope. Many FTF members work directly with producers in regions of high biodiversity to develop products based on sustainable use of their natural resources. B.d ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Fair Trade Organizations encourage producers to engage in environmentally friendly practices which manage and use local resources sustainably. FTOs establish long term relationships with their producers and help them adapt production for changing trends. They also educate consumers and policy makers about inequities in the global trading system.1. management policies.1. giving communities an incentive to preserve their natural environments for future generations. prepayment or by linking producers with sources of financing. The violation of law is punishable. Fulfilling all national obligations under various laws Law means rules made by authority for proper regulation of a society. C. They also often provide other critical technical assistance and support such as market information. dignity and respect for the people. FTF members that buy products directly from producers often provide financial assistance either through direct loans.1. negotiable instruments insurance . Unlike many commercial importers who often wait 60-90 days before paying producers.

physical protection of the customers against products that are unsafe for health and welfare. protection from missleading advertisements. protection against monopoly or restrictive trade practices. .as customers have lots of choices so any company’s prime job not only to satisfy but make a customer delight about the product and services of that company. democatic rights. 3. For making a company goodwill and better acceptance by the society company should safe guard the health and well being of the customers. 2.healthy and peaceful environment.a beautiful . Safeguarding health and well being if customers Now a days market is customer oriented. 4. In this case one has to decide accordingly what is the right judgement. fertilizers which cause bad effects on human body as well as to the environment. protection against all types of pollution. 5. protection of customer against adulteration. 6. The customer protection aims at following1. protection from ecological and environmental effects of chamical. Indian laws are designed to incorporate ethical values of distributive justice.will be dialemma. D.

2. electric appliances etc. Be a dependable organization citizen Demonstrate honesty and fairness in relationships with customers. suppliers and employees. Good customer relationship is encouraged Render quality services to the customers in spite of taking care of the profitability of the firm .Chapter 8 ETHICS AND CORPORATE EXCELELNCE The issues relating to business ethics will be discussed under the following headsIssues relating to business objectives Issues relating to consumers Issues relating to employees Issues relating to government. Issues relating to national interests Issues relating to competition Issues relating to fair trade practices Issues relating to environmental protection Apart from this other corporate code of ethics such as:1. 3. Do not do anything against the law which will harm the organization Offering or taking bribe is an unethical issue Personal relationship is against the corporate rules Protect the corporate goods-furniture.

Adopt the environmental changes taking place in any organization. Care of Employees as per Statues The corporate management’s role in developing business leaders is concerned with 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) people process systems management Total quality consists of above four parameters. ethics takes center stage in influencing organizational behavior. Customer Care Customer is the king in this market. Choice of future business leaders. C. Corporate management’s initiatives. 3.A. Favorable environment. responsibility and accountability of any employee. Total Quality Organizational culture should aim to develop four fundamental elements of total quality. authority. It is the responsibility of top-management to decide about the development of the important employees of their organization and place them in their proper position. Some important strategies for organizational culture building are as follows:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Development core values based on ethics. In any companies where organizational culture is strong in terms of good business practices. . Focus on dominant beliefs. B. So customer care is the most important factor for achieving success in this competitive market. 2. Succession planning. shared values. transparency. There must be proper organizational structure through which one can understand the status. D. Strategies for organizational culture building Organizational culture is the tool for promoting ethical corporate behavior. beliefs and norms for the good of all. Career planning and development. Any organization should develop and maintain this system in order to build an absolute advantage and competitive advantage from the market.

.e.E. given the chance of development will be satisfied and loyal to the organization. Satisfied employees will provide better services to the customers. it is seen that most of our culture values are gradually degenerating and our character has been devaluated faster. Management should take care of their employees. Management should develop human values by setting examples so that they are perceived as role models. If any customers are getting better services then the others they will be delighted and loyal towards the organization. Shareholders since they also belong to the society will definitely influence the society. Any employee who is well remunerated. so as to perform corporate excellence. a happy shareholder will make the society happy. Objective and Optimistic Approach If we like to analyze the current value system that Indians hold. The corporate management should be optimistic in approach and try to assess spirituality quotient. Now if the customers and employees have a win-win long term relationship then the company will progress and the shareholders better to say stakeholders will be happy. In the same way this decline can be observed in business houses. . privatization and globalization. intelligence quotient and emotional quotient for proper balancing approach. After the process of liberalization. there appears to be a cut-throat competition and rat race among different business houses either indigenous or MNCs to win over each other. i.moral responsibilities by corporate houses to survive and excel in this era of intense competition and ever slippery market. The most important is that at the present time not only fulfilling short-term objectives but also fulfillment of long term objectives incorporated with ethical and .

connections supporting the ceiling rods that held up the second and fourth-floor walkways across the atrium failed. the Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkways collapse left 114 dead and in excess of 200 injured. the fish in the lakes and rivers in the area might soon have to be declared unsafe for human consumption. Missouri. With many party-goers standing and dancing on the suspended walkways. the design of the hanger rod connections was changed in a series of events and disputed communications between the fabricator . 1981. if companies in the region don’t engage in some self regulation on this issue. Asking for this new technology to be installed would put her department overbudget. The fourth-floor walkway collapsed onto the second-floor walkway. and both walkways collapsed onto the crowded first-floor atrium below. there is reason to fear that the government — backed by public opinion — may force companies to begin using the new technology. The Polluter’s Dilemma R. Ghosh is the environmental compliance manager for a small plastics manufacturing company. she knows that environmental regulations for this particular toxin are lagging behind scientific evidence. millions of dollars in costs resulted from the collapse. in terms of loss of life and injuries. a scientist from the university had been quoted in the newspaper recently.CASE STUDIES 1. and thousands of lives were adversely affected. However. held a videotaped teadance party in their atrium lobby. while the offset third-floor walkway remained intact. and may also begin requiring monthly emission level reports (which would be both expensive and time consuming). In addition. and could jeopardize the company’s ability to show a profit this year. As the United States' most devastating structural failure. In fact. She is currently faced with the decision whether or not to spend money on new technology that will reduce the level of a particular toxin in the wastewater that flows out the back of the factory and into a lake. But the company’s environmental compliance budget is tight. and the ensuing investigation of the accident revealed some unsettling facts: • During January and February. 1979. Negligence And The Professional "Debate" Over Responsibility For Design Introduction To The Case On July 17. the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City. The factory’s emission levels are already within legal limits. saying that if emission levels stayed at this level. Further. The hotel had only been in operation for approximately one year at the time of the walkways collapse. Questions for Discussion What motives would the company have to install the new technology? What motives would the company have to delay installing the new technology? Why might the companies in this region prefer for the government to impose new regulations? 2.

what are the responsibilities of the engineer? The fabricator? The owner? What measures can professional societies take to ensure that catastrophes such as the Hyatt Regency Walkways Collapse do not occur? Do you agree with the findings that the principal engineers involved should have been subject to discipline for gross negligence in the practice of engineering? Should they have lost their licenses. temporarily or permanently? Was it fair that G. G. in sworn testimony before the administrative judicial hearings after the accident.• • • (Havens Steel Company) and the engineering design team (G.C.E. Due to evidence supplied at the Hearings. In testimony. • • • • • • • Who is ultimately responsible for the fatal design flaw? Why? Does the disputed telephone call matter to the outcome of the case? Why or why not? What is the responsibility of a licensed professional engineer who affixes his/her seal to fabrication drawings? In terms of meeting building codes. and many expensive legal suits were settled out of court.E. statics and materials classes.. while the hotel was still under construction. due to additional costs of providing on-site inspection. which ultimately resulted in the walkways collapse. On October 14. 1979 (more than one year before the walkways collapsed). stated that on three separate occasions they requested on-site project representation during the construction phase. The fabricator changed the design from a one-rod to a two-rod system to simplify the assembly task. International. Even as originally designed. and what the consequences are for professionals who fail to meet those responsibilities. a number of principals involved lost their engineering licenses. This case is particularly serviceable for use in structural design. The Hyatt Regency Walkways Collapse provides a vivid example of the importance of accuracy and detail in engineering design and shop drawings (particularly regarding revisions). these requests were not acted on by the owner (Crown Center Redevelopment Corporation). a professional engineering firm).E. a number of firms went bankrupt.E.) for change approval.. denied ever receiving such a call from Havens. although it is also useful as a general overview of consequences for professional actions. and would have failed to meet the requirements of the Kansas City Building Code. Inc. and the costly consequences of negligence in this realm.C. The fabricator.C.C. The case serves as an excellent example of the importance of meeting professional responsibilities.C. as a company. more than 2700 square feet of the atrium roof collapsed because one of the roof connections at the north end of the atrium failed. however.E. G. the walkways were barely capable of holding up the expected load. doubling the load on the connector. was held liable for gross negligence and engineering incompetence? Why or why not? . claimed that his company (Havens) telephoned the engineering firm (G.

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