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A Written Report
ORDONIO, Mark Angelo A. ChE 41 - B January 8, 2010
or combinations of these milks. stirring and heating the curd. collecting and pressing the curd. Process cheese is made using natural cheese plus other ingredients that are cooked together to change the textural and/or melting properties and increase shelf life. goats. Cheese can be made from whole.7 billion pounds of natural and processed cheeses were produced. not "moldy").DEFINITION Cheese is a solid or semisolid food product prepared from the milk of cows. draining off the whey (the watery part of milk). use rennet (an enzyme) in addition to the starter cultures to coagulate the milk. According to the National Dairy Council. 2%. are made by direct acidification. About one third of all milk produced each year in the United States is used to make cheese. It is from this word that we get the French fromage. or "molded cheese" (as in "formed". Catalan formatge. Acid cheeses are made by adding acid to the milk to cause the proteins to coagulate. Fresh cheeses. and in some cases ripening. Italian formaggio. ETYMOLOGY The word cheese ultimately comes from Latin caseus from which the modern word casein is closely derived. 9. Most types of cheese. In 1998. such as cheddar or Swiss. but different manufacturing and aging processes are used to produce the array of cheese available today. 1 % low fat or fat-free milk. a new word started to be used: formaticum. turning their surplus milk into cheese. which means "to ferment. Cheese itself is occasionally employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". The term ―natural cheese‖ is an industry term referring to cheese that is made directly from milk. When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies. Breton fourmaj and Provençal furmo. and natural or process cheeses. Cheese is made by coagulating or curdling milk. from caseus formatus. "All cheese is made from milk. Most cheese today is made from cows' milk. become sour". The earliest source is from the proto-IndoEuropean root kwat-. or other mammals. low fat. It is an important item in the diet of almost all peoples." Cheese can be broadly categorized as acid or rennet cheese. such as cream cheese or queso fresco. because it is relatively easy to make and can be preserved for fairly long periods of time. people have raised animals for milk. ewes. 1 . Cheese has been made since prehistoric times—it is one of the world’s oldest food products—for thousands of years.
and phosphorus. Today. nearly all the sugar (lactose) and some of the minerals. and milk fat. Romans developed a large cheese industry. lowerpriced milk. A 30gram (1. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk. wild bacteria as milk contaminants and rennet. Nutritionally. casein. and the lactose are all removed in the cheese whey. through gentle agitation and the separation of curds from whey would have resulted in the production of cheese. it is an ideal nutritional replacement for meat in a vegetarian diet. Cheesemaking artifacts dating from 2000 BC have been found. Bacteria in milk and digestive juices from the stomach worked together to form a curd and then crude cheese. phosphorus. the milk would ferment and coagulate. Because their stomach linings contained an ideal mix of lactic acid. A product reminiscent of yogurt would have been produced. the cheese being essentially a concentration of the major milk protein. other minor milk proteins.1 oz) serving of Cheddar cheese contains about 7 grams (0. long life. other minerals and vitamins. It is rich in the essential amino acids. and the latter is partially digested. cheese is essentially concentrated milk: it takes about 200 grams (7. probably through the practice of carrying milk in pouches made from animal stomachs. Because cheese is a high-protein food. and has a high calorific value. The long storage life of some cheese. Many European abbeys developed secret recipes. and lower shipping costs. and particular varieties began to be developed in certain region of Europe. especially cheese that encased in a protective rind. However.3 oz) to equal the calcium. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE Milk conversion to cheese is an excellent method because virtually all the fat and most of the protein are retained.1 oz) of milk to provide that much protein. which. and high content of fat. The whey proteins. protein. Cheese is valued for its portability. and 150 grams (5. 2 . Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher. Cheesemaking may originate from nomadic herdsmen who stored milk in vessels made from the sheep’s' and goats' stomachs.25 oz) of protein and 200 milligrams of calcium. protein. protein. calcium. allows selling when markets are favorable.HISTORY It was believed that the first cheese was produced inadvertently. and vitamins escape into the whey. and later cheesemaking became a specialty of monasteries. cheese whey is condensed or dried and used for animal feeds or special dietary human foods. calcium.
manganese. and K. potassium. As long as the milk remains sweet. protein. starter cultures.RAW MATERIALS USED There are four components that are used in making cheese: milk. raw milk is given a mild heat treatment (below pasteurization) prior to cheese making to destroy some of the spoilage organisms and provide better conditions for the cheese cultures. Cheese is made using cow. the structure changes quite suddenly at the 'iso-electric point' and a fragile curd is formed that collapses with the slightest agitation into tiny fragments. The fat in milk helps to provide flavor even when cheese is made from skim milk which has only one percent of fat. This can then be cut with knives and saved to be collected as grains of curd for subsequent processing. B. Ash in milk is made up of metallic components such as sodium. The protein in milk exists in two forms: as a suspension/colloidal (casein) and in a soluble form (whey proteins). this structure is unaffected and the milk remains totally fluid. By adding rennet. Cheese can be made using pasteurized or raw milk. the structure of the casein is changed radically to form a solid curd called para-casein. iron. at just the right time before the milk would go completely sour. and ash. lactose. Milk. coagulants and rennet. goes sour) without the presence of coagulating enzymes.e. can be broken down into its essential parts that play a role in making cheese. enzymes. vitamins. Milk also contains important vitamins that promote growth such as A. D. 3 . Milk contains fat. the most important of these is calcium which helps with the growth of bones. A typical example is the fine mass we see when milk sours naturally. For some cheese varieties. Cheese made from raw milk imparts different flavors and texture characteristics to the finished cheese. and finally salt and other additives. However. sheep. The lactose in milk is the main sugar and provides the energy for the started cutlers. goat. E. consider the first type of protein as a densely woven mesh rather like a string vest suspended freely in the aqueous phase of milk. MILK The main ingredient in cheese is milk. and copper. Cheese made from raw milk must be aged for at least 60 days to reduce the possibility of exposure to disease causing microorganisms (pathogens) that may be present in the milk. The enzymes in milk come from the cow and have an effect on the quality of raw milk and the ripening of cheese. If the milk acidifies (i. or a blend of these milks. calcium.
COAGULANTS AND RENNET Coagulants and rennet are used to coagulate milk. For acid cheeses. Typical starter bacteria include Lactococcus lactis subsp. due to world shortage of calf rennet. For rennet cheeses. Rennet contains many enzymes. Today. Streptococcus salivarius subsp. To coagulate milk is to change it from a fluid to a thickened mass. lactis or cremoris. and is currently used by many cheesemakers in different countries. an acid source such as acetic acid (the acid in vinegar) or gluconodeltalactone (a mild food acid) is used. There are non-animal sources for rennet that are suitable for vegetarian consumption. Recently. causing it to separate into solids (curds) and liquid (whey). e. reflecting a move towards organic foods.g. and help prevent the growth of spoilage organisms and pathogens. The type of coagulant used depends on the type of cheese desired. rennet produced through microbial bioprocessing is used. and Lactobacillus helveticus. 4 . calf rennet or. and is often used in the production of cheese. Substantial amounts are now used at the farmhouse and creamery level. recombinant or genetically-engineered pure chymosin derived from different microorganisms is available on the market. this type of rennet is very popular. pepsin or lipase. The metabolism of the starter cultures contribute desirable flavor compounds. Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. and the manufacture of 'vegetarian cheese'. The active enzyme in rennet is called chymosin or rennin but there are also other important enzymes in it. thermophilus. bulgaricus. more commonly. Starter cultures are used early in the cheese making process to assist with coagulation by lowering the pH prior to rennet addition.. Rennet is a natural complex of enzymes produced in any mammalian stomach to digest the mother's milk. There is a wide variety of bacterial cultures available that provide distinct flavor and textural characteristics to cheeses.STARTER CULTURES Cultures for cheese making are called lactic acid bacteria (LAB) because their primary source of energy is the lactose in milk and their primary metabolic product is lactic acid. This is why fermented milk products are among the safest foods to take in their natural state. The acid-producing bacteria can directly suppress disease-producing bacteria under normal conditions. including a proteolytic enzyme (protease) that coagulates the milk. One form of rennet is called 'vegetable' rennet which is derived from certain strains of fungi and bacteria.
the heat treatment from pasteurization causes the equilibrium to shift towards insoluble forms and depletes both soluble calcium phosphates and ionic calcium. Annatto. Sodium or potassium nitrate is added to the milk to control the undesirable effects of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in cheeses such as Edam. and blueveined cheese salting. but cheese makers can't wait that long. The addition of hydrogen peroxide is sometimes used as an alternative treatment for full pasteurization. brine-salted cheese. normally present in raw milk. Because calcium phosphates have reverse solubility with respect to temperature. Betacarotene. Milk coagulation by rennet during cheese making requires an optimum balance among ionic calcium and both soluble insoluble calcium phosphate salts.SALT AND OTHER ADDITIVES The last ingredient of cheese is salt. are inactivated during pasteurization. The following additives may also be added to the cheese milk: Calcium chloride is added to replace calcium redistributed during pasteurization. Lipases. 5 . color may be added to standardize the color of the cheese throughout the year.48 hours of cold storage. The addition of kid goat lipases is common to ensure proper flavor development through fat hydrolysis. and Swiss. so CaCl2 is added to restore ionic calcium and improve rennetability. The calcium assists in coagulation and reduces the amount of rennet required. soft cheese salting. Salt ads flavor and acts as a natural preservative. It improves the coagulation properties of the milk. Near normal equilibrium is restored during 24 . Because milk color varies from season to season. It is used to create different types of cheese including hard-pressed cheese. and paprika are used. Gouda.
Although hundreds of specialized techniques lend different types of cheese their distinct flavors and characteristics. proteins in milk are transformed into solid lumps called curds. limitless variations exist for all stages of the process: milk treatment. addition of artificial ingredients and salt for flavor. First. Finally. 6 . This variation in processing accounts for the wide range of cheeses commercially available. curdling. There is no standard method of cheese making. and shaped or pressed into molds. called whey. and aging.MANUFACTURING PROCESS Figure 1. Second. the shaped curds are ripened using a variety of different aging and curing techniques. Cheese production. three basic steps are common to all cheese making. differing in texture and flavor. the curds are separated from the milky liquid.
the cheese must be stored for 60 days prior to sale. If used. and provides lipases and proteases necessary for flavor development during curing. helps prevent spoilage and pathogenic bacteria from growing. This less severe heat treatment is thought to result in a better final flavor cheese by preserving some of the natural flora. This thermization treatment results in a reduction of high initial bacteria counts before storage. promotes syneresis (extraction or expulsion of a liquid from a gel). but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging. LAB also produce growth factors which encourage the growth of non-starter organisms. and the length of pre-ripening. Thus. LAB produce lactic acid which lowers the pH and in turn assists coagulation. Industrially. the amount of starter culture.TREATMENT OF MILK Like most dairy products. While high temperature – short time pasteurization (72° C for 16 sec) is often used. contributes to cheese texture. the lactic acid level in the milk is increased by adding a starter culture of Streptococci. 7 . giving Swiss cheese its holes. cheesemilk is often standardized before cheese making to optimize the protein to fat ratio to make a good quality cheese with a high yield. The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer. the selection of a suitable strain. an alternative heat treatment of 60° C for 16 sec may also be used. these strains of microorganisms also greatly affect the eventual flavor of the final product. It must be followed by proper pasteurization. Milk is then cooled after pasteurization or heat treatment to 90°F (32°C) to bring it to the temperature needed for the starter bacteria to grow. which lowers the pH and develops the flavor of the cheese. The starter cultures and any non-starter adjunct bacteria are added to the milk and held at 90°F (32°C) for 30 minutes to ripen. The milk may then be subjected to a sub-pasteurization treatment of 63-65° C for 15 to 16 sec. flavor and keeping quality. Raw milk cheeses must be aged for at least 60 days to reduce the possibility of exposure to disease causing microorganisms (pathogens) that may be present in it. Lactococci. Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani. queso fresco). The ripening step allows the bacteria to grow and begin fermentation. or Lactobacilli to the milk and fermenting at 32ºC for 10 to 75 minutes. If raw milk is used the milk must be heated to 90°F (32°C). The basis of cheesemaking relies on the fermentation of lactose by LAB. is of the utmost importance in creating the subtle differences in the final color and aroma that distinguishes an expensive cheese from a cheap one. In addition to biologically converting the lactose present in the milk to lactic acid. which is similar to the regulations for raw milk cheese.
causing them to aggregate and form a network which partially immobilizes the water and traps the fat globules in the newly formed matrix. as it is when it becomes sour. The increase in temperature causes the protein matrix to shrink due to increased hydrophobic interactions. This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd as well as it shortens the distance and increases the available area for whey to be released. At this point. The whey may be removed from the top or drained by gravity. and packaged. CURDLING A required step in cheesemaking is separating the milk into solid curds (the thick precipitate) and liquid whey (the thin watery residue). Rennet contains the enzyme chymosin which converts k-casein to para-kappa-caseinate (the main component of cheese curd) and glycomacropeptide. For most of the rest. Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained. and also increases the rate of fermentation of lactose to lactic acid. the curd is cut into small cubes. cheesemakers speed up the process by warming the milk and adding specialized bacteria that convert the sugars found in milk to lactic acid. to solidify and clump together. Rennin encourages casein. When the curds have reached the desired moisture and acidity. forming moist. This results in a soft. The increased acidity 8 . The curd-whey mixture may also be placed in moulds for draining. The curd pieces immediately begin to shrink and expel the greenish liquid called whey. Curds are formed when an enzyme called rennin is stirred into milk. or coagulate. nutritious curds. which is lost in the cheese whey. This stage is called ripening the milk and is done prior to renneting. Rennin or chymosin is found in rennet. creating the acidic environment necessary for casein coagulation. weak curd at renneting and increased hydrolytic rancidity. Rather than waiting for milk to sour. the cheese has set into a very moist gel. the milk is held for 45 to 60 min at 25 to 30° C to ensure the bacteria are active. it traps fat globules and some of the milky liquid inside the clumps. growing and have developed acidity.After inoculation with the starter culture. As the casein clumps together. salted. and it aids coagulation only if the milk is slightly acidic. COAGULATION Coagulation is essentially the formation of a gel by destabilizing the casein micelles. one of the proteins in milk. This syneresis process is further driven by a cooking stage. they are separated from the whey. It disrupts the fat globules and increases the fat surface area where casein particles adsorb. Homogenization is not usually done for most cheesemilk.
This forces more whey from the cut curd. These techniques may influence a cheese's texture and flavor. and other curing and flavoring ingredients are added. 9 . Colby) The curd is washed in warm water. Cheddaring: (Cheddar. Washing: (Edam. The curd hardens and forms a cheese block in the shape of the press as the whey is squeezed out. the cheese block is dried for 6 hours. and firms the cheese’s texture in an interaction with its proteins. pushing more moisture away. Most cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds. developing a stringy. Provolone) The curd is stretched and kneaded in hot water. The curd is wrapped in cheese cloth and pressed for 12 to 18 hours to remove the additional whey soaked in the curd. Finally. Flavor addition aids in curing the cheese. salt. draws moisture from the curd. seasoning. Cheeses that are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria which survive this step—either lactobacilli or streptococci. FLAVOR ADDITION After the curd is separated from the whey. The final moisture content is dependant on the time and temperature of the cook stage. Gouda. lowering its acidity and making for a milder-tasting cheese. Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 35–55 °C (95– 131 °F).also contributes to shrinkage of the curd particles. Some examples: Stretching: (Mozzarella. taking the sharp edges off the cut curd pieces and influencing the final product's texture. The curd is also mixed (or milled) for a long time. Some cheeses are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. Salt has roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor. This is important to monitor carefully because the final moisture content of the curd determines the residual amount of fermentable lactose and thus the final pH of the cheese after curing. It also changes the taste of the finished cheese. It preserves cheese from spoiling. other English cheeses) The cut curd is repeatedly piled up. affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. fibrous body.
called brine. The moisture-laden air prevents the cheese from drying out as it ripens. creating its characteristic holes. not only to encourage the activity of the ripening bacteria but to 10 . or eyes. In Swiss cheese. they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses. for example. Conditions are often designed to mimic the natural environments of the ripening microbes. edible white rind on the outside. and aromas. the bacteria added to create the acidic environment necessary for curd formation continue to ripen the cheese as well. Curds of nearly all cheeses are salted by stirring the salt directly into the curds or by rubbing salt or a saltwater solution. Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced before or during aging. a blue-green mold called Penicillium roqueforti is used to ripen cheeses such as Roquefort and Gorgonzola. pungent interior and leaving a powdery. In traditional cheesemaking. textures. The pressure drives out moisture—the molds are designed to allow water to escape—and unifies the curds into a single solid body. Other cheeses. microbes such as bacteria slowly change the composition of the curds. the temperature and humidity conditions of the ripening environment. and the duration of the ripening process. all contribute to the final characteristics of the cheese. Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form. but more importantly. The harder the cheese. these microbes might be already present in the aging room. creating a soft. Temperatures are kept cool. For example. microbes are added to the shaped curd. these bacteria produce gas bubbles during ripening. such as Brie and Camembert. The kinds of microbes used. This special mold creates bluish-green veins in the cheese and a characteristic sharp flavor and creamy texture. Salt pulls moisture from the cheese.COMPRESSION OF CURD Compressing the curd shapes the cheese and eliminates more whey. the more pressure is applied. The bacteria slowly work their way into the interior of the cheese. it acts as a preservative and slows down the final step of cheese making—the ripening. are ripened by bacteria rubbed on the outer surface of the cheese. AGING During the ripening process. giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages. onto the curd surface. In some cheeses. More often today. creating cheeses with distinct flavors. Ripening usually takes place in carefully controlled environments. prepared cultures are used. In other cases.
color. Generally. Depending on the technique employed. This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milk fat into a complex mix of amino acids. microbes and enzymes transform texture and intensify flavor. These qualities are sometimes enjoyed—cheese curds are eaten on their own—but normally cheeses are left to rest under controlled conditions. This aging period lasts from a few days to several years. As a cheese ages. One way to accomplish this is to dip the cheese block in a pot of melted wax. there is also a higher chance of spoilage due to undesirable microbial activities at elevated temperatures. These reactions are not well characterized. rubbery in texture. During the aging process. and fatty acids. many complicated microbial and chemical actions continue to take place in the cheese block. longer curing or aging process gives more pronounced flavor. Prior to aging. also contributes to their final character. for harder varieties. Cheese maybe cut and packaged into blocks or it may be waxed. cheese making is still an art rather than a science. 11 . amines.inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria that could spoil the cheese. FINISHED CHEESE A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and. The amount of time that cheeses are allowed to ripen. the cheese block is usually wrapped tightly to exclude air and microbial contaminants from entering and spoiling the cheese. or age. Although a higher temperature promotes faster curing. Thousands of techniques exist to develop various distinctive flavors. and texture of the finished product. thus. this final aging process takes anywhere from 2 weeks to 6 months.
do?articleId=205380 Cheese.britannica. S. 2010 from http://www.R.htm Cheese Production Process. Microsoft® Student 2008 [DVD].org/wiki/Cheese Cheese Production. Experiment No. Consider a cholesterol-reducing cheese alternative. Retrieved January 4. (2007).umd.info/Milk%20Processing/Cheese%20Production.BIBLIOGRAPHY Cheese. 2010 from http://www. 2009 from http://www. (2004). Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia (Deluxe Home Edition). Ryan. (2006). K. J.edu/~nsw/ench485/lab1.history. Retrieved December 21. Retrieved January 4. Cheese. N. (1994). Wikipedia. WA: Microsoft Corporation.entrepreneur.com/EBchecked/topic-art/108310/110232/Thecheese-making-process Davis. Cheese. Redmond. 2009 from http://www. N.milkfacts.com/tradejournals/article/97346906. the free encyclopedia.html Wang. Retrieved December 21.G. History made every day. Entrepreneur. 1 – Cheese production from milk.edu/web/krwanke/cheese. 2010 from http://www. 2009 from http://en. Retrieved December 21. Volume 4. (2003). 2009 from http://www.com/encyclopedia. Slater. N.htm 12 . New York: Lexicon Publications Incorporated. Manufacturing of Cheese. Retrieved January 4. Cheese.eng.bsu.htm Wanke.wikipedia. Retrieved December 21.
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