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LIU Ding-ping；CAI Hong-ming；
College of Electric Power South China University of Technology Guangzhou, 510640, China
Abstractt—High exhaust gas temperature of boiler would seriously affect the boiler efficiency. Due to the large thermal capacity and thermal parameters’ inertia in supercritical boiler, it was important to control accurately the exhaust gas temperature in the process of operation. The paper applied the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) to build the studying model of exhaust gas temperature through analyzing its influencing factors, then made a sensitivity analysis of some factors.Lastly,the study used the method of genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the exhaust gas temperature. The research obtained the optimizing and adjusting tactics, which have guiding significance in boiler’s control. Keywords- LSSVM; exhaust gas temperature; sensitivity analysis;GA optimization
A. Analyzing on In-out Parameters of the LSSVM Model Supercritical boiler applied coal-water ratio to crude regulation.The parameters of feed water flow,main steam temperature and feed coal flow represented the boiler load,and they were the essential parameters of boiler cotroling. The total air flow and the feed coal flow showed the thermal load of boiler,and the adjusting of wind-coal ratio affected the temperatare of furnace chamber. Secondary air flow ,secondary air pressure and primary air flow affected the aerodynamic field and the heat flux in the boiler. Oxygen content and carbon content in fly ash showed the condition of combustion,and it had internal relations to exhaust gas temperature. Air leakage rate of air preheater was calculated through oxygen content of in-out airpreheater.It also exerted a tremendous influence on exhaust gas temperature.The air leakage rate incresing could often bring down the exhaust gas temperature. Attemperation water flow for overheater made indirect influence on exhaust gas temperature. Augmentation of the parameter indicated that heat absorption of working substance increased ,it also indicated that heat exchange amount through flue gas increased. Feed water temperature also had great influence on exhaust gas temperature.The parameter rising would bring down warm pressing and amounts of heat exchanging in coal economizer, then resluted in reducing the exhaust gas temperature. In a word, the above-mentioned 20 parameters were used as the input parameters of the LSSVM model. Additional explanation:the coal quality could be kept stably for a time of operation.And the pulverized coal fineness could be reacted by primary air flow of every mill because the grinding mill adopted the dynamic separator.So the two parameters were not included in the input parameters of the model. As for researching the input parameters’ influence on exhaust gas temperature,the output parameter of the LSSVM model chose the exhaust gas temperature. B. Training and Analyzing of the LSSVM Model The research object was a 1036MW supercritical boiler,which characteristics were the single furnace, opposed
High exhaust gas temperature of boiler could seriously affect the boiler efficiency,and had endangered operation security of electric precipitation at the same time. Usually, the heat loss of exhaust gas (q2) incresed about 1% with its temperature rising every 10~20℃. As for supercritical boiler with high parameter and large capacity , with the unit load augmenting, thermal capacity of combustion increasing , resulted in the inertia of thermal parameters which were related to boiler combustion increasing.That was why quickly controlling and optimizing the exhaust gas temperature of supercritical boiler come to particular important. Based on analyzing the real time datas of the ultra supercritical units, the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) were established. Though sensitivity analysis for some input parameters,and using the method of genetic algorithm, exhaust gas temperature optimization of design conditions was caculated. Based on all of these, it proposed the adjusting strategies of optimization at last. II. THE LSSVM MODEL OF EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE
Boiler’s operation included physical and chymic process, and influencing factors were close coupling nonlinearity.The process was so complicated that it could hardly be described by mechanism model.Least square support vector machine (LSSVM) showed large advantage in resolving the problems of nonlinearity and multiparameter coupling.
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6 D 102.32%.41 Mar % 14 Mad % 8.995 Feed Water Temp.8 2nd 24.9 0. the results of every time training for the LSSVM model were TABLE II. Omalized parameter(λ) was 58. It indicated that the calculated value of verified samples in the model was very close to the actual value.2~Fig.9 130.46 8 132.76 The relative error of verified samples in the model was shown by Table2.44 Qnet. and the error was less than 5%. and the maximum relative error was 1. FCar % 47.9 120. air leakage rate of air preheater and total air flow.67 Car % 60. The results of simulation were shown by Fig.01 Secondary Air Flow (t/h) A 1381 B 1330 A 135.44 Leakage Rate of Air Preheater (%) 1.45 groups of datas were chosen to be researching samples of the LSSVM model building. and the results of coal quality analysis was shown by Table 1.05 5 132. (℃) 295.3 Feed Coal Flow (t/h) 410.8 1st 74. the research chose a full load condition as standard condition.6 C 122.20 STANDAR CONDITION OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Attemperation Water Flow for Overheater (t/h) Oxygen Content of Airpreheater Input (%) 3. Stability: under the same initial condition.6 0. and the generalization capability.0 120. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS (2) (3) Firstly.9 133.2 0. carbon content in fly ash. It indicated that the model had the stable inputoutput mapping relation.5 137.62 Oar % 9.90 0.6 . which was shown in Table 3.The result of LSSVM model training was shown by Fig.From the DCS system.0 Carbon Content in Fly Ash (%) 1. Feed Water Flow (t/h) 3012 Main Steam Temp.1 TABLE I.11 4 130.firing. (℃) 137.95 150 Calculated value (• ) 140 130 120 110 110 standard line Training samples vefified samples 120 130 140 150 Actual value (• ) Figure 1.46%.and RBF_kernel parameter(σ) was 20.69 Sar % 0. III.0 130.33 Har % 3. the average relative error of the model was 0.02 3 121. than model selected the RBF_kernel as the kernel function. Than made a sensitivity analysis on effect of exhaust gas temperature when the the parameters changing.2 E 127.98s. convergence rate and stability of the model were analyzed as follows: (1) Generalization capability: as to the training samples.The LSSVM model totally had 20 input parameters and 1 ouput parameter. Secondly.27 132.6 0.5 ． THE RELATIVE ERROR OF VERIFIED SAMPLES IN THE MODEL 2 123.8 132. Verified Samples Calculated Value (℃) Actual Value (℃) Relative Error (%) 1 137.52 6 127.93 B 1.and the others were used as verified samples of the model. In the period of datas acquisition.ar MJ/kg 22.6 0. (℃) 595.It indicated that the convergence rate of the LSSVM model was very fast.the boiler operation use the same coal. Convergence rate: the calculating time was 0.6 Secondary Air Pressure (kpa) A 0.The former 35 groups of datas were used as training samples.5 Total Air Flow (t/h) 3554.93 123.3 F 0 Exhaust Gas Temp.2 0.32 9 129.49 Aar % 11 Vdaf % 36.29 7 130.1) interval.7 128.The datas were normalized to (0. had done simulation for the exhaust gas temperature in the condition of changing some input parameters which were the feed water temperature.08 10 120.one time reheating and π-typed structure.4 0.8 very close to each other.1 0.2 1. Comparison on calculated value and actual value RESULTS OF COAL QUALITY ANALYSIS Nar % 0.63 Primary Air Flow of Every Mill (t/h) B 133.09 TABLE III.
This was because increasing feed water temperature made the absorbed heat of working fluid lower. too.5 135 134. OPTIMIZED CALCULATION FOR THE MODEL OF EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATION BY GENETIC ALGORITHM A. Air leakage rate of air preheater changing E x h aus t gas tem pe rature (• ) 136.That made the radiation of exhaust gas temperature decrease. B. so exhaust gas temperature also rose.4 illustrated: With the air leakage rate of air preheater increasing. 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 Total air flow (t/h) Exhaust gas temperature (• ) 137 136 135 134 133 132 0. the combustion temperature in furnace gradually rose. oxygen content of combustion in theory was enough. When air flow rose from 2400t/h to 3200t/h. so exhaust gas temperature rose. Feed wate temperature changing Fig.total air flow.So the exhaust gas temperature rose.feed coal flow. exhaust gas temperature will rise.5 136 135.3 illustrated: the increment of carbon content in fly ash also made the temperature of exhaust gas temperature rise. Genetic Algorithm The basic concept of genetic algorithm (GA) rooted in the characteristic of organic evolution. When air flow continued to increase.5 1 1. exhaust gas temperature lowers apparently.2 illustrated: It was apparent that exhaust gas temperature changed with feed water temperature changing. This was because the air leakage rate of air preheater made flue gas incorporate some cold air that would lower the average temperature of flue gas.and it was a favourable tool in solving to many favourable problem.GA had been applied in many scientific and engineering field.The characteristic included reproduction. Fig. competition and selection.find out the value of rest input parameters when the exhaust gas temperature was lowest. Total air flow changing .5 2 2. attemperation water flow for overheater and air leakage rate of air preheater unchanging. On account of the Standard condition which was shown in Tabel 3. When feed water temperature rises. that caused the heat transfer rate of flue gas through coal economizer to decrease. GA was global convergence and strong robustness. IV.the research used genetic algorithm to optimize the LSSVM model. mutation. With air flow increasing. oxygen content of combustion in theory was not enough and the combustion temperature was relatively low.keeping the parameters of feed water flow. The newly increased air flow made furnace’s temperature lower slightly and caused exhaust gas temperature to lower.Exhaust gas temperature (• ) 137 136 135 134 133 132 260 270 280 290 300 Feed wate temperature (• ) Figure 2. Fig.5 Carbon content in fly ash (%) Figure 3.As to be a universal self-adapting and random search tool. exhaust gas temperature rises apparently first and then lower slightly on condition that the coal flow is unchanged.5 134 The mathematical model of finding optimized value of exhaust gas temperature was described as follow: Figure 5.5 illustrated: If the total air flow of furnace increases. Carbon content changing Exhaust gas temperature (• ) 136 134 132 130 0 10 20 30 Air leakage rate of air preheater (%) Figure 4. Moreover. Fig. Optimized calculation of the LSSVM model based on GA In order to find the optimized exhaust gas temperature and corresponding input parameters. This was because the increment of carbon content in fly ash illustrated that incomplete combustion in the furnace increased and the height of furnace flame centre rose.main steam temperature.
6326–6331. IEEE Trans.pp. Kuh. (℃) 125 . Learning. and the total air flow of furnace’s sensitivity to exhaust gas temperature. J.35 (4) In the above equation: T was exhaust gas temperature.6’C to 125.. Ke-Fa Cen. May 2009. Ye Xiag-rong. " .3.. Baesens.2 A 141. Li-Gang Zheng. pp.5–32，2003 i = 1. CONCLUSION  (1)The study analyzed the factors that affected exhaust gas temperature of the supercritical boiler. Xi Xl was input variable of LSSVM model. pp. We include and analyze feed water temperature. It optimized the exhaust gas temperature from 137.20 (3) j = 1.vol 36. (2)Then adopted not only simulation compute but also the way of single factor’s change.8 B 1134.8 2nd 24.vol 18 (2). Yu-bin Miao ， “ Support vector machine with genetic algorithm for forecasting of key-gas ratios in oilimmersed transformer” Expert Systems with Applications，vol 36. air leakage rate of air preheater. i was limited range. vol 37. J.3. In the end. the speed of convergence and the TABLE IV. B.. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2009 Van Gestel. " .6. A. used genetic algorithm (GA) to carry out optimization calculation of the designed condition.“Effect of burner offset angles on outlet metal temperature of vertical water wall tube in supercritical boiler ” ， 2009 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference. 2007. the LSSVM-GA model find a optimized value of the exhaust gas temperature which was 125 ℃. Vanthienen.3 Feed Coal Flow (t/h) 410. 2009 Young-Sik Choi，“Least squares one-class support vector machine”. The results of optimized calculation was shown by Fig.. Viaene. at the same time the adjusting tactics after optimized calculation was given out.pp.T. ， “ Benchmarking least squares support vector machine classifiers ” ， Mach. carbon content in fly ash. De Moor.53 Primary Air Flow of Every Mill (t/h) B 105.92 Feed Water Temp. (℃) 595. we analyzed the model’s ability of generalization. oxygen content in the furnace. X i ∈ E i ⎪0 < X < 1 i ⎩ T = f ( X i .“Optimization control of preparation of coal water mixture based on LSSVM-MODE”， Journal of South China University of Technology (Natural Science). Den Hua-yu. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank to two engineers of Yang Fei-long and Wu Shaojie. Hao Zhou. pp.K.⎧min T ⎪ ⎨st. 2009 Sheng-wei Fei. Then established the LSSVM model of exhaust gas temperature by using the datas of DCS system. February 2009 Liu Ding-ping. Feed Water Flow (t/h) 3012 Main Steam Temp. S. REFERENCES  Liu Ding-ping.0 Carbon Content in Fly Ash (%) 0.Bin-yuan. (3)Lasly.7 F 104 Exhaust Gas Temp.0’C. “Comments on pruning error minimization in least squares support vector machines”. Ye Xiang-rong. was training E samples of LSSVM model. Suykens. it illustrated the reasearch model of the boiler which is based on the LSSVM was practical.18 C 0 D 127.. than the corresponding adjusting tactics under the condition was given in Table 4. Cheng-liang Liu.2. B.2 E 109. Dedene.2. G.6 3554. J.. δ ) (1) (2) stability. δ was kernel parameter. b.53 Leakage Rate of Air Preheater (%) 1.. Vandewalle.2780-2793.. 130 Optimized value (• ) Exhaust gas temperature  128 Average fitness 126   124 0 1000 2000 Genetic generation (times) 3000  Figure 6. Chun-Lin Wang ， “ A comparative study of optimization algorithms for low NOx combustion modification at a coal-fired utility boiler ” ， Expert Systems with Applications. X l .8 Secondary Air Pressure (kpa) A 0. In the meantime. Self-adapting of GA V.A. a was lagrange multiplier and b was deviation.5  ADJUSTING TACTICS AFTER OPTIMIZED CACULATION Total Air Flow (t/h) Attemperation Water Flow for Overheater (t/h) Oxygen Content of Airpreheater Input (%) 3. 158-162.Via 3000 calculated steps.vol 30.vol 54. Neural Networks. De Wilde.98 B 0. who supply the datas of the research.1236-1240.. (℃) 261 1st 74. P. a .90 Secondary Air Flow (t/h) A 1382. Chen.
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