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1. Simple 1.1. What is a simple sentence? - A simple sentence is an independent clause. 1.2. Kinds of independent clause - Subject-Verb: The dog laughed. - Subject-Verb-Adjunct (định ngữ): A policeman lives in that house. - Subject-Verb-Complement: That sounds a good idea. - Subject-Verb-Object: He loved her dog. - Subject-Verb- Object- Adjunct: The government sent the envoy to Africa. - Subject-Verb- Object-Object: They passed my aunt the salt. - Subject-Verb- Object-Complement: We imagined Uncle Bill much fatter. 2. Compound 2.1. What is a compound sentence? - A compound sentence is constructed as follows: an independent clause + coordinating conjunctions + an independent clause. 2.2. Coordinating conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions and Sentence connectors furthermore, besides, in addition, also, moreover however, nevertheless, still, in contrast Meaning additional idea
but, yet for or
contrast idea reason choice of 2 possibilities result negative choice
otherwise so nor consequently, therefore, thus, accordingly
3.1. What is a complex sentence? - A complex sentence is constructed as follows: an independent clause and one or more dependent clause(s). - Independent clause: see Lesson 12. - Dependent clause: often begin with when, while, where, who, because, as if, even though, so that, ... 3.2. Kinds of dependent clause - Noun clause o Subject: Why he left is a mystery to me. o Direct Object: He asked where I live. o Indirect Object: Give whoever answers the phone Dad’s message. o Object for Preposition: We argued about when we should start. o Complement: This is not what I want. - Adjective clause o Relative pronoun: This is the man whom I saw. o Relative adverb: The day on which she left was unforgettable. - Adverb clause o Place: I will go where you tell me. o Time: I learned a lot of French while I was in Paris. o Manner: He spoke as if he were a millionaire. o Cause: He sold the car because it was too small. o Purpose: He studied hard so that he could pass the examination. o Concession: Though he tried hard, he was not successful. o Comparison: The more we get together, the happier we’ll be. o Result: She is so beautiful that her husband feels miserable. o Condition: I shall go if he asks me. 4. Compound complex 4.1. What is a compound complex? - Two or more independent and one or more dependent clause(s). - E.g.: When the sky darkened, the wind blew and the leaves fell.