English Grammar

Nouns
Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns Compound Nouns | Concrete Nouns | Countable / Uncountable Nouns Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns A noun is the word that refers to a person, thing or abstract idea. A noun can tell you who or what. There are several different types of noun:y

There are common nouns such as dog, car, chair etc. Nouns that refer to things which can be counted (can be singular or plural) are countable nouns. Nouns that refer to some groups of countable nouns, substances, feelings and types of activity (can only be singular) are uncountable nouns. Nouns that refer to a group of people or things are collective nouns. Nouns that refer to people, organisations or places are pr oper nouns, only proper nouns are capitalised. Nouns that are made up of two or more words are called compound nouns. Nouns that are formed from a verb by adding -ing are called ger unds

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English Grammar
Abstract Nouns
Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns | Compound Nouns | Concrete Nouns Countable / Uncountable Nouns | Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns

touch. The opposite of an abstract noun is a concrete noun. it is the name we give to an emotion. ideal or idea. an idea. you can't see. smell or taste them. Here is an a-z list of some common abstract nouns:- adoration belief calm dexterity ego failure happiness idea joy law maturity omen peace redemption sadness talent wit artistry bravery charity childhood comfort compassion faith hate impression feelings honesty infatuation friendship hope liberty memory love loyalty pride romance sensitivity thrill principle power skill truth sleep success sympathy See also Concrete Nouns .An abstract noun is a noun that you cannot sense. hear. For example:Justice. bravery and happiness are all abstract nouns. They have no physical existence.

hearing.English Grammar Concrete Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns | Compound Nouns Countable / Uncountable Nouns | Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns A concrete noun is the name of something or someone that we experience through our senses. three books . two apples. and teachers are all concrete nouns. chairs. sight. two books. smell. This means you cannot make them plural by adding -s.. three apples . English Grammar Countable / Uncountable Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns Compound Nouns | Concrete Nouns Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns A noun can be countable or uncountable.. Uncountable nouns (also called mass nouns or noncount nouns) cannot be counted.. buses. The opposite of a concrete noun is an abstract noun. dogs.. It also means that they do not take a/an or a number in front of them. they are not seperate objects. they have a singular and plural form . Countable nouns can be "counted". tables. An apple. because they only have a singular form.. For example:Cats. For example: y y A book... Most nouns are concrete nouns. For example: . touch or taste.

. You only use much and little with uncountable nouns... We use the form "a ... You only use many and few with plural countable nouns. I usually drink some wine with my meal. Little wine is undrinkable though.. I don't usually drink much coffee..) There is no plural form for an uncountable noun rice I eat rice every day. (not I eat a rice every day. I don't usually drink any water with my wine. such as a unit of measurement.. Apples are good for you. I don't use any computers at work." An elephant=Elephants are large.. To make uncountable nouns countable add Countable (use a/an or a number in front of countable nouns) An Apple / 1 Apple I eat an apple every day. Some dogs can be dangerous. or the general word piece... . a counting word. Rice=a grain of rice Water=a glass of water Rain=a drop of rain Music=a piece of music You can use some and any with countable nouns.y y y y y Water Work Information Coffee Sand Uncountable (there is no a/an or number with uncountable nouns) Rice I eat rice every day. Rice is good for you.. Add (s) to make a countable noun plural apples I eat an apple every day. of . A computer= Computers are fun. So many elephants have been hunted that they are an endangered species. You can use some and any with uncountable nouns.

For example:y y y y y You can use a lot of and no with uncountable nouns. A lot of wine is drunk in France. Usually a noun is uncountable when used in a general. This is because 'containers' and 'types' can be counted. No computers were bought last week. week before. You can use a lot of and no with plural countable nouns. Three grains of sand. . 2 glasses of water. 10 litres of coffee. Sources of confusion with countable and uncountable nouns The notion of countable and uncountable can be confusing. A piece of information. Some nouns can be countable or uncountable depending on their meaning. abstract meaning (when you don't think of it as a separate object) and countable when used in a particular meaning (when you can think of it as a separate object). A lot of computers were reported broken the No wine is drunk in Iran. For example:glass . Making uncountable nouns countable You can make most uncountable noun countable by putting a countable expression in front of the noun. A pane of glass.A glass of water. (Uncountable) Some supposedly uncountable nouns can behave like countable nouns if we think of them as being in containers. or one of several types.There are few elephants in England. (Countable) | A window made of glass.

" !Note . Countable / Uncountable Lesson English Grammar Gerund Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns Compound Nouns | Concrete Nouns Countable / Uncountable Nouns Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns A gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun formed from a verb by adding -ing. For example: y I enjoy walking.Believe it or not each of these sentences is correct:Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a day. (Here coffees refers to different types of coffee) You could write. "The types of coffee I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian.In good monolingual dictionaries." The coffees I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian. "Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two cups of coffee a day. (Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee) You could write. uncountable nouns are identified by [U] and countable nouns by [C]. See also Ger unds/Infinitives English Grammar . adjective and most often another verb. It can follow a preposition.

Elizabeth Helen Ruth Jones .) A predicate noun renames the subject of a sentence.. For example:Each part of a person's name is a proper noun:Lynne Hand .. a form of the verb "be". organisations or trade marks:Microsoft . (Here idiot is a predicate noun because it follows is. He is an idiot.the Round Table .WWW Given or pet names of animals:Lassie Trigger Sam .Rolls Royce . The names of companies. organisations or places. Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister. They always start with a capital letter. (Margar et Thatcher is the subject and Prime Minister is the predicate noun .) English Grammar Proper Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns | Compound Nouns Concrete Nouns | Countable / Uncountable Nouns | Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns Proper nouns ( also called proper names) are the words which name specific people.Predicate Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns | Compound Nouns Concrete Nouns | Countable / Uncountable Nouns | Gerund Nouns | Proper Nouns A predicate noun follows a form of the verb "to be".notice it follows 'was' the past tense of 'to be'.

England .Room 222 Historical events. holidays:Monday . documents.London . scriptures:God .World War I Months. days of the week. meeting rooms:The Taj Mahal .Christianity .The Eiffel Tower .New York .the Industrial Revolution . vehicles. laws. and periods:the Civil War .Christmas .the Bible .English Geographical and Celestial Names:the Red Sea .Mars Monuments. buildings.Judaism . vehicle models and names.the Koran . brand names:the Nobel Peace Prize .the Torah Awards. deities.The names of cities and countries and words derived from those proper nouns:Paris .December Religions.Kleenex .the Bismarck .Islam .Ford Focus .Jehovah .Hoover English Grammar Collective Nouns / Group Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Common Nouns | Compound Nouns | Concrete Nouns Countable / Uncountable Nouns | Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns A collective noun is a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things.Christ . Sometimes they refer to a group of specific things:- .Alpha Centauri .the Scout Movement .

police. the collective noun is used with a singular verb and singular pronouns. English Grammar Common Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Compound Nouns | Concrete Nouns Countable / Uncountable Nouns | Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns .For example:Tables. chairs. band. herd.army. orchestra. stack When such a group is considered as a single unit..colony. These collective nouns are often uncountable. committee. bundle. never these committee (but of course when the collective noun is pluralized.The committee has reached its decision. school. audience. it takes a plural determiner: these committees ). gang. British English uses a plural verb and plural pronouns. family."The committee have been arguing all morning. clump." A deter miner in front of a singular collective noun is always singular: this committee . Sometimes they are more general:For example:Groups of people .bunch. trio Groups of animals . For example . crew. saucers. pair.. Plates. pack. set. jury. choir. swarm Groups of things . are grouped under the collective noun furniture. team. cups and bowls are grouped under the collective noun crockery." This is the same as saying "The people in the committe have been . pod.. cupboards etc. class. But when the focus is on the individual members of the group. For example . staff. flock.

building. ant. things. mother. phone Places:school.A common noun is a word that names people. places. boy. city. fish. chair. Most compound nouns in English are formed by nouns modified by other nouns or adjectives. For example:People:man. hate. . father. idea. A common noun begins with a lowercase letter unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. They are not the names of a single person. snake Things:book. or ideas. child. table. place or thing. person. pride English Grammar Compound Nouns Nouns | Abstract Nouns | Collective Nouns | Common Nouns | Concrete Nouns Countable / Uncountable Nouns | Gerund Nouns | Predicate Nouns | Proper Nouns A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. student Animals:cat. girl. dog. shop Ideas:love. teacher.

toothpaste. In both these example the first word modifies or describes the second word. And the second part identifies the object or person in question. Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom 2. Sometimes the two words are joined together. Sometimes they appear as two separate words. telling us what kind of object or person it is. Example: check-in 3. Example: full moon There's a list of lots of compound wor ds here.blackboard. or what its purpose is. but if you join them together they form a new word . The word black is an adjective and board is a noun. Compound nouns can also be formed using the following combinations of words:Noun Adjective Verb Preposition Noun Noun Adjective Preposition + + + + + + + + Noun Noun Noun Noun Verb Preposition Verb Verb toothpaste monthly ticket swimming pool underground haircut hanger on dry-cleaning output The two parts may be written in a number of ways:1. but if you join them together they form a new word . Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen.For example: The words tooth and paste are each nouns in their own right. .

.A good dictionary will tell you how you should write each compound noun.

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