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Meaning of Confusion or Merger Confusion is the meeting in one person of the qualities of creditor and debtor with respect to the same obligation. (4Sanchez Roman 421)

225. Requisites of A Valid Confusion 1. the merger of the qualities of creditor and debtor must be in the same person; 2. it must take place in the person of either the principal debtor and principal creditor; and 3. it must be complete, clear and definite; and 4. the very obligation must be the same. Example, Gaya issued a promissory note for P10, 000 in favor of Tito payable 30 days after sight. Before the maturity of the note, Tito indorsed it to Arvin; Arvin indorsed it to Mary; Mary indorsed it to Gaya. The obligation of Gaya to Tito is extinguished because there is here a merger of the qualities of the debtor and creditor in one and the same person with respect to one and the same obligation cannot demand and collect payment from himself.